Article

The Effectiveness of Digital Badges on Student Online Contributions

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Abstract

Digital badges have been increasingly used to encourage users to achieve specific goals in learning. Recent studies have shown that badges can be effective to incentivize learners to complete specific tasks or increase learning participation in online learning environments. This study utilized a mixed research method to examine the impact of a badge system on class participation and interaction for both online and face-to-face classes in a graduate program for teacher education. Badges were issued for students who contributed to quality class discussion and peer project comments in courses with two different pedagogical orientations: read-write-reflect-comment and activity-based design. Quantitative data collected from students enrolled in courses with and without a badge system implemented and qualitative data collected from students enrolled only in courses with a badge system implemented were analyzed. The findings indicate that badges are effective in enhancing student interaction but not student participation. Compared with activity-based courses, badges could better enhance student interaction in traditional online courses that utilized read-write-reflect-comment model. Badges showed no significant effect on learner interaction in activity-based courses that were already highly interactive.

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... Additionally, it also comprises online-specific participation like page views, click-through rate, log data, trace data, online text messages, online posts, winning digital badges and applying student response system, to name just a few. (Cheng & Lei, 2020;Chou & He, 2016;Heaslip et al, 2013). ...
... Researchers have found that online discussion might not be sufficient to increase student success in online learning and student online participation could also be significantly influenced by content areas (Chou & He, 2016). Hence, one possible reason for the active online participation indicated by the high percentages of students' response might be attributed to students' interests in the learning contents that could improve their contribution to class. ...
... They also made comment on peers in triadic interactions or share personal experience and information in classroom participation (Sedova, 2017;Theriault, 2019). On the one hand, researchers think that well-designed online activities contribute to enhanced online interaction and students' participation is closely related to course design and course activities (Chou & He, 2016;Tsai et al., 2021). This is well manifested by the case of 716-message in the present study where the video clip of unusual food had greatly triggered students' interests and motivated them to interact lively online. ...
Article
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Student participation, as a significant indicator of class learning, has been investigated from various perspectives. The present research seeks to explore student participation by drawing on text data from the chat box of an online learning platform. The two main research questions concern the main types of student participation indicated by the online chat data as well as how extensively and frequently students had participated online in class. The written text messages of 84 university students in the chat box were recorded in an online English course for three months in consecutives. The findings revealed that students’ online chat data generally fell into five major types: students’ responses of factual information (62.77%) social interaction (15.74%), phatic communication (9.95%), tech-related messages (7.5%) and class schedule (4.5%). With 89% of participation concerning meaningful interactions and 11% of participation dealing with simple clarification of tech problems and class schedules, the findings suggest a highly active and meaningful online in-class participation. In addition, further descriptive statistics depicted the level of participation in terms of its frequency and breadth. Results showed that the active and meaningful online participation had been persistent over three months with an average of 74.52% regular participating students and average 410 chat messages sent one day. Implications were discussed in relation to the features of student participation.
... Although scholars in the field of psychology and education have extensively discussed the effects of goal-setting on learning performance, they have found few practical solutions and strategies for college students to facilitate goal-setting (Hakulinen and Auvinen 2014;Locke andLatham 1990, 2002). Recently, researchers predicted that digital badges (DBs), an innovative credentialing and pedagogical technology, may be an effective tool to facilitate the goal-setting process (Cheng et al. 2018;Chou and He 2017;Frederiksen 2013;Gamrat et al. 2014;McDaniel and Fanfarelli 2016;Randall et al. 2013). Despite the promise of DBs, little research has provided enough empirical evidence to support their integration and application into courses in higher education. ...
... There have been many in-depth discussions on the relation of digital badges and goal-setting in education (Antin and Churchill 2011;Chou and He 2017;Gamrat et al. 2014;Randall et al. 2013). For example, some researchers have proposed that DBs usually serve as external goals that are related to pursing external rewards, such as wealth and fame (Deci and Ryan 1982;Vansteenkiste et al. 2004), which may serve to inhibit students' intrinsic motivation. ...
... In contrast, others have argued that DBs can be used as hooks or reasons to engage in a learning activity (Rughiniș 2013). Scholars have also proposed that DBs may support goal-setting by providing alternative ways to set personalized learning paths and provide feedback (Antin and Churchill 2011;Chou and He 2017;McDaniel and Fanfarelli 2016;Randall et al. 2013). In the meantime, a number of organizations have started to practice using DBs as sub-goals or stepping stones in the learning and goal-setting process to help students foresee and reflect on their learning. ...
Article
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Students’ goal-setting skills are highly related to their academic learning performance and level of motivation. A review of the literature demonstrated limited research on both applicable goal-setting strategies in higher education and the support of technology in facilitating goal-setting processes. Addressing these two gaps, this study explored the use of digital badges as an innovative approach to facilitate student goal-setting. The digital badge is a digital technology that serves as both a micro-credential and a micro-learning platform. A digital badge is a clickable badge image that represents an accomplished skill or knowledge and includes a variety of metadata such as learning requirements, instructional materials, endorsement information, issue data and institution, which allows the badges to be created, acquired and shared in an online space. In higher education, digital badges have the potential for assisting students by promoting strategic management of the learning process, encouraging persistence and devoted behavior to learning tasks, and improving learning performance. A qualitative multiple case study design (n = 4) was used to answer the research question: how did the undergraduate student participants in this study use digital badges to facilitate their goal-setting process throughout a 16-week hybrid course? Results from this study contribute to understanding how to effectively integrate digital badges to meaningfully improve self-regulated learning in higher education.
... In online learning, interactions are carried out alternately with online participants. According to (Chou & He, 2017) there are three types of online interactions, namely: learner-content, student-teacher and student-student. ...
... Digital badges are perfect for helping foster a sense of drive and need to learn. Learning is a complex process resulting from the interaction between learning content, student characteristics, instructional staff, and the learning environment (Chou & He, 2017), (West & Lockley, 2016). ...
Conference Paper
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, student learning outcomes have decreased. An effort is needed to increase student learning motivation so that student learning outcomes increase. Based on research, giving reward is one way to increase students' learning motivation. Giving digital badges is an economical and fun way to give rewards to students. This research is collaborative research between lecturers and teachers which aims to develop the ability of lecturers and teachers in conducting collaborative research and to support the technology-based Merdeka Learning program. This research is expected to find out the effect of digital badges in online thematic learning on learning outcomes, and can be a solution to the problem of decreasing student learning outcomes which is the main goal of this research. Data collection using the Experimental method with a Quasi-experimental model. The results showed that there was a significant effect of digital badges on students' online thematic learning outcomes. Based on the results of this study, digital badges can be used as a solution to improve student learning outcomes, especially elementary schools.
... It has been found that goal setting could significantly impact learning performance (Locke and Latham 1990;Locke and Latham 2002). Researchers foresee the potentials of using ODBs to facilitate student goal setting but have not provided much empirical evidence (Chou and He 2017;Frederiksen 2013;McDaniel and Fanfarelli 2016;Randall et al. 2013). An approach to integrate ODBs with goal setting will be elaborated in the following sections. ...
... Many researchers have argued that ODB are useful for goal setting in the field of education (Antin and Churchill 2011;Chou and He 2017;Frederiksen 2013;Gamrat et al. 2014;McDaniel and Fanfarelli 2016;Randall et al. 2013). ODB could both support extrinsic goal setting and help realize intrinsic goals. ...
Article
While Open Digital Badges (ODBs) has gained an increasing recognition as micro-credentials, many researchers foresee the role of ODBs as an innovative learning tool to enhance learning experiences beyond that of an alternative credential. However, little research has explored this topic. The purposes of this paper are to 1) argue that one way to expand the impact of ODBs on learning is to integrate them with goal setting, 2) establish how ODBs could offer as an important tool in optimizing goal setting effects on learning, and 3) provide design recommendations for future educational practices that incorporate ODBs as a pedagogical tool.
... However, this research on the potential impact on motivation from using microcredentials has been mixed (Roy & Clark, 2018), with some studies finding they can decrease motivation (Chou & He, 2017;Reid, Paster, & Abramovich, 2015;Tomić et al., 2019). Contradictory results can even be found in different methodological sections within the same study. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we discuss open recognition as a key part of the digital learning/open education revolution, and open microcredentials a method for open recognition to disrupt traditional educational practices surrounding how we recognize and certify learning. We begin with definitions of open microcredentials, badges, verifiable credentials, and similar concepts. Then, we discuss the potential of open microcredentials to impact teaching and learning at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels. We then conclude with recommendations for practice and the suggestion of a framework to guide research.
... Two other graduate-level badging studies reported mixed or negative findings. In a study involving graduate-level teacher education courses (Chou & He, 2017), badges were awarded for student "participation" (student posts responding to instructorassigned questions); other badges were awarded for student-to-student "interaction" (students' quality assessments of other students' posted answers). Those participation badges had no significant effect on students' subsequent participation. ...
... However, this research on the potential impact on motivation from using microcredentials has been mixed (Roy & Clark, 2018), with some studies finding they can decrease motivation (Chou & He, 2017;Reid, Paster, & Abramovich, 2015;Tomić et al., 2019). Contradictory results can even be found in different methodological sections within the same study. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we discuss open recognition as a key part of the digital learning/ open education revolution, and open microcredentials a method for open recognition to disrupt traditional educational practices surrounding how we recognize and certify learning. We begin with definitions ofopen microcredentials, badges, verifiable credentials, and similar concepts. Then, we discuss the potential of open microcredentials to impact teaching and learning at the micro-, meso-, and macrolevels. We then conclude with recommendations for practice and the suggestion of a framework to guide research.
... When it comes to serious games, designing and implementing reward mechanisms that can foster meaningful social interaction between the players is a challenging task, as the players could only play to get the badges, without getting the message of the game. Badges in education have been considered efficient, as they seem to significantly increase motivation in learning (Denny, 2013;Gibson et al. 2013, Chou & He 2016, however, there are studies that outline the negative impacts or perceptions of such gamified mechanics, mentioning that students could desire only the virtual rewards, therefore not being proactive in learning (Abramovich et al. 2013;Haaranen et al. 2014). Achievement can refer not only to badges/trophies but also to in-game progress, such as levelling up, completing quests or competing against other players to get higher ranks. ...
Preprint
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Master's Game Technology Thesis. Supervisors: Thomas Buijtenweg MSc, Kevin Hutchinson MSc
... Digital badges are virtual images that indicate skill or accomplishment of the earner [1]. They are effective tools for supporting a number of purposes, such as improving student interaction [2], user activity [3], and others. Badges, like gamification as a whole can be effective [4], but sometimes fail to produce positive results (e.g., [5]). ...
Conference Paper
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Digital badges, or virtual images that indicate skill or accomplishment of the earner, have been shown to be effective tools for supporting learning, credentialing, and other purposes. However, they are sometimes ineffective, demonstrating incompatibility between badging applications and purposes. To this end, recent research has become increasingly detailed in its examination of the specific design attributes of badges. This paper continues this trend by examining the topic of digital badging lifespan in order to create a common terminology for use in research and practice, and to lay a foundation for future discussion and research on badging lifespan , an area that has received little attention. This paper's primary contribution is the proposal of three types of badging lifespans: momentary badges, permanent badges, and semi-permanent badges. These types are not meant to be exhaustive, but can be used to more precisely describe badging system design and experimental manipulations in badging.
... Furthermore, the findings presented here provide further empirical support for research and literature that highlights the potential of badges to impact learner motivation (Abramovich et al., 2013), evidence (formal and informal) learning (Ahn et al. 2014), support learning (Marshall, 2018), encourage participation (Chou & He, 2016) and share achievement over social networks (Casilli & Hickey, 2016). The finding that digital badges can be used to help learners regulate their own learning is important as the ability to self-regulate learning is recognised as a critical skillset (Duffy & Azevedo, 2015), and research related to digital badge use to support self-regulatory competencies is limited (Cucchiara et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Digital technologies, as mediators and facilitators of learning, are altering tertiary education; how and when it occurs, what it entails, who has access, and how capabilities and skills are acknowledged. Digital badges are one such technological tool. Created to acknowledge competency, skill or achievement they have been adopted for a variety of purposes including to motivate learners, recognise achievement and accredit learning. Internationally, the use of digital badges is growing; however, much of the existing literature addresses the potential of digital badges while there is a relative paucity of empirical research, particularly in the Australasian region. This research explored the use of digital badges within New Zealand’s public higher education sector. Using a mixed methods approach (national survey of staff followed by interviews), results revealed over half of the institutions were using badges or planned to in the future. Identified benefits included displaying achievement, motivating learners and evidencing learning. Challenges were also noted, including faculty members’ lack of knowledge about badges, inconsistent use and lack of formal regulation of badges. The findings suggest that badge use is at the early adoption stage and provide valuable insights from which to develop future practice.
... For instance, game-like features such as points and leaderboards have been applied to increase peoples' daily step counts (Patel et al. 2017;Patel et al. 2019;Zuckerman and Gal-Oz 2014), as well as their academic and professional productivity and engagement (Ashraf, Bandiera and Lee 2013;Bandiera, Barankay and Rasul 2011;Chou and He 2016;Gallus 2016;Witt, Scheiner and Robra-Bissantz 2011). However, it is notable that many gamified interventions have fallen short, or in fact produced deleterious outcomes for some participants (Ashraf, Bandiera and Lee 2013) (Hanus and Fox 2015) (Borjas and Doran 2015). ...
Article
Temptation bundling, an intervention involving the coupling of instantly gratifying activities with activities that provide long-term benefits but require some exertion of willpower, is a novel behavior change strategy. To date, despite the short and long-term benefits of such an approach, only one study has evaluated its efficacy in the field. This work found that restricting participants’ listening of tempting audiobooks to the gym improved participants’ gym visitation rates. In a subsequent forthcoming mega-study, receipt of a free audiobook, even when participants received no explicit instruction on temptation bundling as a behavior change strategy, again drove improvements in participants’ gym visits. These mega-study results raise an important question regarding whether temptation bundle can be intuited and applied as a motivational strategy even without explicit instruction. Two online surveys were conducted in which participants reviewed content identical to that of the mega-study sign-up and assessed the audiobook’s motivational value (Study 1) and intended use (Study 2). Findings indicate the strategy of temptation bundling can both be deduced from the mere receipt of a free audiobook (Study 2), and viewed as a valuable motivator of gym attendance (Study 1). Both studies support the value of temptation bundling as a behavior change technique, and offer suggestive evidence of its use as a potentially scalable, low-cost intervention to promote behavior change for good.
... Our study also provides opportunities for further work in the design of an intrinsically motivated learning environment for introductory programming which incorporates gamification as a means for motivating and engaging learners. This could include examining how badges work with small groups (Chou & He, 2017) as well as examining elements of the badge design to examine the effectiveness of particular features. Promoting motivational learning through badge design (Goodyear & Nathan-Roberts, 2017) is also recommended. ...
Article
Background. Programming is a challenging and highly important topic for introducing learners to our digital world. Research has shown that motivation plays a key role in programming performance. Gamification using digital badges has the potential to influence motivation, provide social recognition and encourage learner participation. More research is recommended to evaluate its motivational impact in different contexts. Intervention. This research explores the effects of badges on the intrinsic motivation levels of introductory programming students within a higher education institution. The course is offered during the first year of the programme. We report the results of a baseline study without badges and four subsequent badge experiments of different designs over a four-year period. Methods. This quasi-experimental study followed a pre-test/post-test design to measure the effects of badges on the intrinsic motivation levels of university-level introductory programming students. Badges were designed and implemented. Feedback via focus groups and a post-badge survey was collected. Results. Findings are inconclusive as the quantitative results suggest that badges did not increase intrinsic motivation scores. Contrastingly, badge survey and qualitative data indicate that badges were received more positively on average. Discussion. We analyse and discuss the results within the context of motivation and the programming discipline, and discuss external factors that may impact the relationship between gamification and motivation. Conclusion. Further research is necessary to investigate whether gamification, through the use of digital badges, can foster positive intrinsic motivational results, particularly in the well-known challenging domain of introductory programming.
... Cheng et al. (2018) for example highlight the reciprocal relationship between digital badges and goal setting where benefits include the digital badge providing an environmental structure that allows, encourages, and manages a connection between goal setting and learning. Multiple researchers have argued goal setting is a foundational component of digital badges that help to motivate learners (Antin and Churchill 2011;Chou and He 2017;Gamrat et al. 2014;McDaniel and Fanfarelli 2016). ...
Article
Digital badges, widely known as alternative or micro-credentials, have gained increasing recognition in recent years as innovative pedagogical tools in higher education. Despite many anecdotal and conceptual statements of value, the effectiveness of using digital badges to improve learning performance is still largely unknown. This study addressed this gap by investigating the impact of these badges with added instructional scaffolding on pre-service teachers’ perceived technology capabilities and their actual learning performance while studying within a large undergraduate technology integration course. Compared with similar participants who experienced traditional instructional projects instead of the badges, those learning with digital badges not only reported higher levels of perceived confidence in their technology integration skills but also achieved higher levels of course assignment and overall course grades. Conclusions from this study offered ways to improve learning performance with the support of digital badge technology and drew implications for future scholarship in this area.
... They rated higher group badges compared to individual badges and attempts were made to avoid achieving negative badges. Chou and He (2016) conducted a study in a graduate program for teacher education in order to explore the effect of badges on student participation and interaction. The researchers found that badges increased student interaction, although it did not significantly impact participation. ...
... Recent research showed that participation has attracted increasing attention in online higher education (Kuh, 2001). Online participation plays a key role in learners' completion of courses (Chou and He, 2017). Previous research has reported positive effects of participation to the satisfaction, higher retention rates (Rovai, 2003), and learning outcomes (Hiltz et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Participation in synchronous online learning is an increasing need for students’ learning outcomes. Teachers generally cannot be sure about the fact that students who are seen in the participation lists are really following the online tasks. Recent studies have shown that gamification can be an effective way to support learners’ participation in the tasks. This study intended to suggest sample scenarios in line with using gamification elements in online learning environments. Two basic scenarios were developed considering the properties of online learners’ characteristics and gamification elements. First scenario giving learning responsibilities to the learners includes a puzzle activity. Second scenario presents a block-building activity including the leaderboards. The suggested model includes some new ways of using awards, reputation, badges, levels, and leader boards to provide an attractive learning environment. It is hoped that suggested scenarios can provide learning opportunities via increasing participation in synchronous learning environments.
... In addition, there is a lack of "validated psychometric measurements" created according to rigorous research methodologies (Ortiz, Chiluiza, & Valcke, 2016). Most of the gamification research in higher education that sought students' perspectives was conducted after students' involvement in a gamified learning experience (Chou & He, 2017;Denny, 2013;Domıńguez et al., 2013;Fotaris, Mastoras, Leinfellner, & Rosunally, 2016;Kumar & Khurana, 2012;O'Donovan, Gain, & Marais, 2013;Pettit, McCoy, Kinney, & Schwartz, 2015). Because developing gamified online courses are costly endeavors (Bernik, Bubas, & Radosevic, 2015), using validated instruments to investigate students' attitudes toward gamification in online learning environment before implementation is needed. ...
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Gamification is “the use of game design elements in non-game contexts” (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011, p. 10). To overcome the lack of rigorous methodologies that investigated students’ attitudes before the implementation of educational gamification, this paper reports a research methodology to investigate graduate and undergraduate students’ attitudes toward gamification in online learning environments. This explanatory mixed- method approach employs both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore students’ perspectives toward the pleasurability of different learning experiences. This new approach proposes to identify the main key features of educational gamification from students’ perspectives with the objective of changing the way of identifying students’ needs before the implementation of educational gamification in online learning environments.
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Designing Effective Digital Badges is a hands-on guide to the principles, implementation, and assessment of digital badging systems. Informed by the fundamental concepts and research-based characteristics of effective badge design, this book uses real-world examples to convey the advantages and challenges of badging and showcases its application across a variety of contexts. Researchers and professionals in education, game development, mobile app development, and beyond will find strategies for practices such as credentialing, goal-setting, and motivating their learners.
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P class=abstract>This article challenges the belief that strong sense of community is limited to the traditional classroom and proposes that the virtual classroom has the potential of building and sustaining sense of community at levels that are comparable to the traditional classroom. Drawing on research literature, the concept of learning community is applied to the virtual classroom by taking on the issue of how best to design and conduct an online course that fosters community among learners who are physically separated from each other. Course design principles are described that facilitate dialogue and decrease psychological distance, thereby increasing a sense of community among learners. Key Terms Distance education, community, spirit, trust, interaction, learning, persistence, attrition, ALN, online</P
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While Garrison and colleagues? (2000) Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework has generated substantial interest among online learning researchers, it has yet to be subjected to extensive quantitative verification or tested for external validity. Using a sample of students from 55 online MBA courses, the findings of this study suggest strong empirical support for the framework and its ability to predict both perceived learning and delivery medium satisfaction in online management education. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications for online management education researchers and those interested in further study of the CoI framework.
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This paper explores the opportunities and challenges associated with implementing a digital badge system that awards high school credit for students’ participation in after school programs serving non-dominant youth. Data include interviews and focus groups with 43 students, and interviews with 24 teachers and afterschool mentors and one college admissions director. Across all stakeholders, the most frequently cited opportunity related to the potential that badges hold for establishing learners’ credibility outside the context in which their badges were earned by providing a trustworthy record of the skills and achievements that students gain through their participation in the afterschool programs. However, credibility also emerged as the dominant challenge associated with digital badges. Participants observed that in order for badges to succeed in proving one’s credibility to external audiences, these audiences—such as college admissions officers and employers—must know about and recognize the validity of badges. Students, teachers, and program staff all expressed the belief that this essential criterion had not yet been achieved. We examine these findings in light of theory and research on the role of artifacts within and outside the communities of practice in which they were created and used. The findings hold implications for designers of openly networked learning environments that seek to span and connect diverse social settings.
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Cognitive theory suggests more interaction in learning environments leads to improved learning outcomes and increased student satisfaction, two indicators of success useful to program administrators. Using a sample of 359 lower-level online, undergraduate business courses, we investigated course enrollments, student and faculty time spent in interaction, and course completion rates, all drivers of resource consumption. Our key findings indicate that increased levels of interaction, as measured by time spent, actually decrease course completion rates. This result is counter to prevailing curriculum design theory and suggests increased interaction may actually diminish desired program reputation and growth.
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An increasingly common feature of online communities and social media sites is a mechanism for rewarding user achievements based on a system of badges. Badges are given to users for particular contributions to a site, such as performing a certain number of actions of a given type. They have been employed in many domains, including news sites like the Huffington Post, educational sites like Khan Academy, and knowledge-creation sites like Wikipedia and Stack Overflow. At the most basic level, badges serve as a summary of a user's key accomplishments; however, experience with these sites also shows that users will put in non-trivial amounts of work to achieve particular badges, and as such, badges can act as powerful incentives. Thus far, however, the incentive structures created by badges have not been well understood, making it difficult to deploy badges with an eye toward the incentives they are likely to create. In this paper, we study how badges can influence and steer user behavior on a site---leading both to increased participation and to changes in the mix of activities a user pursues on the site. We introduce a formal model for reasoning about user behavior in the presence of badges, and in particular for analyzing the ways in which badges can steer users to change their behavior. To evaluate the main predictions of our model, we study the use of badges and their effects on the widely used Stack Overflow question-answering site, and find evidence that their badges steer behavior in ways closely consistent with the predictions of our model. Finally, we investigate the problem of how to optimally place badges in order to induce particular user behaviors. Several robust design principles emerge from our framework that could potentially aid in the design of incentives for a broad range of sites.
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Badge-based achievement systems are being used increasingly to drive user participation and engagement across a variety of platforms and contexts. Despite positive anecdotal reports, there is currently little empirical evidence to support their efficacy in particular domains. With the recent rapid growth of tools for online learning, an interesting open question for educators is the extent to which badges can positively impact student participation. In this paper, we report on a large-scale (n > 1000) randomized, controlled experiment measuring the impact of incorporating a badge-based achievement system within an online learning tool. We discover a highly significant positive effect on the quantity of students' contributions, without a corresponding reduction in their quality, as well as on the period of time over which students engaged with the tool. Students enjoyed being able to earn badges, and indicated a strong preference for having them available in the user interface.
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Student engagement is considered an important predictor of student achievement, but few researchers have attempted to derive a valid and reliable measure of college student engagement in particular courses. In 2 studies, we developed and explored the validity of a measure of student engagement, the Student Course Engagement Questionnaire (SCEQ). Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 dimensions of college student engagement that were distinct and reliable: skills engagement, participation/interaction engagement, emotional engagement, and performance engagement. We reported evidence of the convergent and discriminant validity of the measure. In particular, we found relationships between factors on the SCEQ and self-report measures of engagement, endorsement of self-theories, goal preferences, and grades.
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Educational Badges are touted as an alternative assessment that can increase learner motivation. We considered two distinct models for educational badges; merit badges and videogame achievements. To begin unpacking the relationship between badges and motivation, we conducted a study using badges within an intelligent-tutor system for teaching applied mathematics to middle-school students. Our findings indicate that badge earning could be driven by learner motivations and that systems with badges could have a positive effect on critical learner motivations. However, badge acquisition patterns were different across learners with different levels of prior knowledge. Different badge types also affected different learners motivation. Additionally, we believe that our findings are compatible with the research finding that extrinsic motivators have a negative influence on learning. The implication for educational badge designers is that they must consider the ability and motivations of learners when choosing what badges to include in their curricula. We believe our findings exist as one piece of the large research base needed to understand educational badges.
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Most treatments of the concept of interaction in distance education have been based on Moore's (1989) discussion of three types of interaction: learner‐content, learner‐instructor, and learner‐learner. However, these previous discussions have failed to consider the interaction that occurs between the learner and the technologies used to deliver instruction. This article presents the concept of learner‐interface interaction and recommends instructional design strategies that will facilitate students' acquisition of the skills needed to participate effectively in the electronic classroom.
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The present study was designed to investigate the effects of conveyance system design and social presence, in the form of teacher immediacy behavior, on perceived student learning and satisfaction in the televised classroom. Results indicate that system design and teacher immediacy behavior strongly impact student learning and satisfaction. System variables such as interactivity and clear audio and video transmission positively influenced perceived learning and satisfaction. Further, instructors who engaged in immediate behaviors such as encouraging involvement, offering individual feedback, maintaining relaxed body posture and using vocal variety were viewed more favorably.
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This research used formative evaluation methods to examine a number of synchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) systems for online learning. CMC systems provide an ideal venue for both knowledge construction and community building. The principles of learner-centeredness, constructivism, and sociocultural theories provided the bases for the design of synchronous activities such as student-moderated seminars in this study. Several synchronous online activities were introduced and evaluated. Based on the results of observers' logs, ratings on social presence, communication effectiveness, and communica- tion interface, 10 desirable features of synchronous CMC sys- tems were recommended.
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Students ranked themselves and peers on perceived class participation (i.e., unsolicited questions and comments during class). The instructor also ranked students. Results suggested that students ranked themselves higher, on average, than did their peers and instructor. Students' self-rankings did not correlate well with either peer or instructor ranks, although the latter, 2 agreed substantially. We recommend using multiple, measures of student participation and self-monitoring in classroom discussions.
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This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and instructional tasks, and information overload. Effective online learning requires interdependence for a shared understanding of learning goals in a learning community. Monitoring student participation and patterns of participation closely can help instructors identify student needs and scaffold learning accordingly. (Contains 3 tables and 1 figure.)
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