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We investigated how the socio–political and ecological environment are associated with the conservation management strategies for two rare, endemic and almost identical Australian white-tailed black-cockatoos: Baudin's ( Calyptorhynchus baudinii ) and Carnaby's black-cockatoo ( C. latirostris ). Substantially less investment and action has occurred for Baudin's black-cockatoo. Interviews with key informants revealed that this disparity has probably arisen because Baudin's black-cockatoo has long been considered a pest to the apple industry, lives primarily in tall forests and has had little research undertaken on its biology and threats. By contrast, Carnaby's black-cockatoo has been the subject of one of the longest running research projects in Australia, is highly visible within the urban environment and does not appear to affect the livelihoods of any strong stakeholder group. We suggest the social context within which recovery efforts occur could be an important determinant in species persistence. We argue that social research is fundamental to a better understanding of the nature of efforts to conserve particular species, the factors associated with these efforts and their likelihood of success.
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Environmental Conservation: page 1 of 12 C
Foundation for Environmental Conservation 2016 doi:10.1017/S0376892916000126
Social values and species conservation: the case of Baudin’s and Carnaby’s
black-cockatoos
GILLIAN B. AINSWORTH1, HEATHER J. ASLIN1, MICHAEL A. WESTON2AND
STEPHEN T. GARNETT1
1Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia and 2Deakin
University, Geelong, Australia. School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Engineering and the Built Environment, Centre for
Integrative Ecology, Melbourne Campus, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, Victoria, Australia
Date submitted: 11 January 2015; Date accepted: 13 April 2016
SUMMARY
We investigated how the socio–political and ecological
environment are associated with the conservation
management strategies for two rare, endemic
and almost identical Australian white-tailed black-
cockatoos: Baudin’s (Calyptorhynchus baudinii)and
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo (C. latirostris). Substantially
less investment and action has occurred for Baudin’s
black-cockatoo. Interviews with key informants
revealed that this disparity has probably arisen because
Baudin’s black-cockatoo has long been considered a
pest to the apple industry, lives primarily in tall
forests and has had little research undertaken on its
biology and threats. By contrast, Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo has been the subject of one of the longest
running research projects in Australia, is highly visible
within the urban environment and does not appear to
affect the livelihoods of any strong stakeholder group.
We suggest the social context within which recovery
efforts occur could be an important determinant in
species persistence. We argue that social research is
fundamental to a better understanding of the nature
of efforts to conserve particular species, the factors
associated with these efforts and their likelihood of
success.
Keywords: attitudes, Australia, birds, black-cockatoo, con-
servation effort, livelihood, pest, socio–political–ecological,
threatened species, values
INTRODUCTION
The international conservation community has long depended
on the biological sciences to inform policy and practice.
As a result, most research and conservation management
on threatened species has been ecologically focused (Mascia
et al. 2003). However, there is a growing realization that
social factors are the primary determinants of conservation
Correspondence: gill.ainsworth@cdu.edu.au; current address:
gill@gillainsworth.com
Supplementary material can be found online at http://dx.doi.org/
10.1017/S0376892916000126
success. Human activities can lead to ‘biodiversity impacts’
where people may impact negatively on biodiversity or vice
versa (Young et al. 2010), and conservation interventions are
the product of human decision-making processes, therefore
changes in human behaviour are required if they are to
succeed (Soulé 1985; Clark & Wallace 1998; Leiserowitz
et al. 2006; Schultz 2011). Threatening processes and
species recovery occur within highly complex socio–political–
ecological environments, and require a multidisciplinary
approach to interpret them (Mascia et al. 2003). Analysing
biodiversity as part of an integrated social–ecological system
can identify social, economic and governance factors that
influence efforts to conserve biodiversity (Lockwood et al.
2014).
At the core of biodiversity conservation is the value placed
on the concept by society. Values – codes or standards that
have some persistence through time or which organize systems
of action that can be justified either morally, by reasoning or
by aesthetic judgement (Kluckhohn 1962) – can be held at
the level of individuals, groups, societies and cultures. Values
sit within a cognitive hierarchy and are influenced by culture
and society through world views and beliefs, and in turn they
influence attitudes and behaviours (Cary et al. 2002). Cultural
values influence individual and group beliefs and are expressed
in a culture’s institutional arrangements and policies, norms
and everyday practices (Schwartz 2006).
Advocacy for particular species or conservation actions
is prevalent within both the scientific and public sectors
(Bowen-Jones & Entwistle 2002;Garnettet al. 2003;Weston
et al. 2006;Chan2008). The focus of conservation efforts
may be influenced by various factors, such as a geographic
bias in research focus towards more populated areas, and
a preoccupation with certain types of wildlife over others
(Weston et al. 2006; Yarwood et al. 2014). Regardless
of legislative responsibilities, human preferences can bias
research and conservation effort towards taxa with higher
social interest due to proximity and exposure (Ainsworth et al.
2015).
Social values, ideals and beliefs to which people individually
and collectively aspire and desire to uphold (Jepson &
Canney 2003) can sometimes then be reflected in relevant
legislation. Thus, in Australia, not only does the Australian
public value biodiversity in general, and threatened species
2G. B. Ainsworth et al.
in particular (Zander et al. 2014), but this has sometimes
been reflected in conservation legislation and policies, and
expressed through Australia’s membership of international
conservation agreements (e.g., the Convention on Biological
Diversity).
Australia’s federal and state environmental legislation,
statutes and policies lack clearly defined objectives with
respect to minimizing species loss (McCarthy et al. 2008)
and provide no guidance on societal values involved. Such
vagueness regarding whose values within society ought to
be addressed in the context of biodiversity conservation has
allowed short-term economic returns to gain priority over
longer-term biodiversity protection (Godden & Peel 2007;
Allchin et al. 2013) and contestation over the most efficient
way to invest conservation resources (Leiserowitz et al. 2006;
McDonald et al. 2015).
Under current western conceptions of wildlife management
as a ‘public good’, biodiversity conservation is primarily the
responsibility of government as a function of public policy.
In Australia, wildlife management and formal conservation
are largely restricted to experts working within contemporary
conservation policy and law as framed by the governments
of various jurisdictions (Holmes 2013). These experts,
however, operate in a contested social context. Rather
than being integrated into all government policies and
departments, responsibility for environmental protection is
commonly spread across multiple departments, which may
have mutually incompatible goals. Individual experts within
these departments must respond not only to policy and
legislation but also to external constituencies that may exploit
legislative ambiguities or perceived inequities to apply political
pressure.
For instance, government spending or restrictions
associated with conservation activities may be more difficult
to implement (Hunter & Rinner 2004) where threatened
species affect land use planning (Ballard 2005;Westonet al.
2012), cause damage to crops or infrastructure (Ballard
2005; Vertebrate Pests Committee 2007; Potts 2009)or
engender fear (Hytten & Burns 2007). Government officers
may also receive pressure from environmentally concerned
citizens (Tranter 2012) and environmental non-government
organizations (ENGOs) advocating on behalf of threatened
species (Weston et al. 2003).
Such contested social contexts can engender conservation
conflicts, especially where stakeholders are excluded from
or disadvantaged by conservation planning, or when
conservation appears threatening due to historical factors
(Redpath et al. 2013).
There is a growing body of research attempting to
understand what motivates people to engage in activities
that harm or promote biodiversity conservation (Teel &
Manfredo 2009; Sandbrook et al. 2013;Ainsworthet al. 2015).
Here, we investigate how the values of key stakeholders are
associated with conservation efforts for two closely-related
threatened species with which they are involved. We aim
to understand why one species has received high levels
of local and institutional support while the other has had
very little, despite both having the same conservation status
and taxonomic distinctiveness, factors commonly thought to
influence conservation investment (Restani & Marzluff 2002;
Garnett et al. 2003). Understanding the values of influential
decision-makers for these threatened birds can help drive
more effective conservation action in the future (Carlos et al.
2014).
Biology and ecology
Baudin’s (Calyptorhynchus baudinii) and Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo (C. latirostris) occur only in south-west Western
Australia (WA). They are similar in appearance, partially
sympatric and sometimes associate in foraging flocks but
differ in their calls, breeding, foraging and nesting behaviour
(Saunders 1974; Chapman 2008;DPaW2013;Fig. 1).
Although identified as separate species in 1948 (Carnaby
1948), subsequent biological and ecological studies confirmed
them to be sympatric species in 1979 (Saunders 1979). Their
most distinguishing feature is subtle differentiation in the
upper mandible size (Saunders 1979), although there is
negligible genetic differentiation between the long- and short-
billed forms (White 2011).
Many published accounts have not differentiated between
the two species, but there has been more research on Carnaby’s
than Baudin’s black-cockatoo (DoE 2014a,b).
Conservation status and governance
Population estimates suggest there are 10 000–15 000 Baudin’s
and c. 40 000 Carnaby’s black-cockatoos (Garnett et al. 2011).
Both species are listed as ‘rare or likely to become extinct’
under the WA Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (WC Act),
but under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) Baudin’s
black-cockatoo is listed as ‘vulnerable’ while Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo is ‘endangered’ (Chapman 2008;DPaW2013).
Baudin’s black-cockatoo conservation is managed under
a combined (two species) recovery plan (Chapman 2008)
implemented by the Forest Black Cockatoo Recovery Team
(FBCRT). At the time we conducted interviews, the FBCRT
comprised a formal group of 12 expert representatives from
various organizations nominated to manage conservation
efforts for Baudin’s black-cockatoo and the Forest Red-
tailed black-cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii naso;Table 1).
Although the Department of Agriculture and Food WA
(DAFWA) had a place on the recovery team, no representative
was attending meetings when the research was conducted,
greatly reducing the opportunities for relevant DAFWA
staff to be fully engaged with the process of conserving
Baudin’s black-cockatoo and suggesting that conservation of
this threatened species was not considered a departmental
priority.
Major threats to the survival of Baudin’s black-cockatoo
across its range include illegal shooting, habitat loss and nest
Social values and species conservation 3
Figure 1 (Colour online) Distributions of
Baudin’s (Calyptorhynchus baudinii)and
Carnaby’s black-cockatoos (C. latirostris). Red
(dark) shading indicates main breeding range;
grey (light) shading indicates main predicted
non-breeding range (adapted with permission
from Garnett et al. 2011).
hollow shortage (Chapman 2008). WA fruit growers have
long considered Baudin’s black-cockatoo as the principal pest
of apple crops (Chapman 2007,2008; Johnstone & Kirkby
2008) and orchardists were allowed to shoot the species
from the 1950s to the 1980s. The Department of Parks and
Wildlife WA (DPaW) continues to issue damage mitigation
licenses allowing orchardists to ‘shoot to scare’, although the
permanent netting of orchards is considered more effective
(Chapman 2007,2008).
Listing of Baudin’s black-cockatoo as a ‘declared pest of
agriculture’ under the Agriculture and Related Resources
Protection Act 1976 allows a management program to be
implemented across the taxon’s range (Chapman 2008).
Consequently, high priority management actions include
promoting non-lethal means of mitigating fruit damage
in orchards and eliminating illegal shooting (Chapman
2008).
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo conservation is managed under
a dedicated recovery plan (DPaW 2013) implemented by the
Carnaby’s Cockatoo Recovery Team (CCRT), consisting of
17 representatives when interviews were conducted (Table 1).
Major threats to the survival of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
across its range include habitat loss, tree health, and
mining and extraction activities (DPaW 2013). High priority
management actions include mitigation of habitat loss, and
maintenance of nesting, feeding and roosting habitat (DPaW
2013).
Social and economic considerations
The ranges of both species cross several of the most populous
regions in WA, which are predicted to experience ongoing
significant human population growth (DSD 2012). The area
is experiencing rapid urban expansion, has extensive mining,
construction and forestry, and the wheatbelt is one of the most
important cropping areas in Australia (DSD 2012). Much
of the region’s diverse endemic biota has been cleared for
agriculture (Coates & Atkins 2001; WWF Australia 2012).
The apple industry is economically important at both state
and national levels (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007).
METHODS
Drawing from the discipline of social psychology, the theory
of social constructionism and the human dimensions of
wildlife research tradition, we used a qualitative multiple
case study approach (Yin 2003; Stake 2006) to explore how
social factors are associated with the conservation of Baudin’s
black-cockatoo and Carnaby’s black-cockatoo: two almost
identical threatened Australian bird species with contrasting
levels of societal investment (e.g., funding, recovery plans and
actions). We first gathered data on the biology and ecology,
conservation status and governance, levels of conservation
investment, social and economic considerations, and major
stakeholders for the two taxa from the peer-reviewed scientific
literature (Ainsworth 2014).
Then we examined the attitudes and motivations of 31
‘key informants’ (‘informants’) in south-west WA, who
we identified through a stakeholder analysis (e.g., advice
from experts, published literature, institutional websites
and personal knowledge) as being influential in relation
to conserving the cockatoos. G.B.A. conducted 31 semi-
structured, anonymous, qualitative interviews with these
informants during October and November 2011 (Ainsworth
2014). More conservation practitioners were working on
Carnaby’s than Baudin’s black-cockatoo with several working
4G. B. Ainsworth et al.
Table 1 Examples of major investments in the conservation of Baudin’s and Carnaby’s black-cockatoos (Weston et al. 2003; Chapman 2008;
BirdLife Australia 2016; WA Museum 2012;DPaW2013;DoE2014 a, b).
Baudin’s black-cockatoo Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
Formal recovery program Forest Black Cockatoo Recovery Team 2005
to 2015
Carnaby’s Black Cockatoo Recovery Team
1999 to 2015
Management plan Combined plan for Baudin’s and the Forest
Red-tailed black-cockatoos (Chapman 2008)
Dedicated plan for Carnaby’s (Department of
Parks and Wildlife 2013)
No. of recovery team members 12 17
DPaW (8 regional office representatives);
Commonwealth Department of the
Environment (DoE) (1); BLA/Curtin
University (1); WA Museum (1); and WWF
Australia (1)
DPaW (11 regional office representatives);
DoE (1); BLA (1); CSIRO (1); DPIWA (1);
WA Museum (1); WWF Australia (1); and a
landholder (1)
Funding $1 810 500: 10 year combined recovery
program
$7 730 000: 10 year recovery program
$11 038: Threatened Species Network Grants
(2005–6)
Stakeholder involvement Australian universities; Department of
Agriculture and Food Western Australia;
DPaW; recovery team; WA Fruit Growers’
Association; WA Museum; WA Water
Corporation
Australian universities; BLA; community
groups; DPaW; Forest Products
Commission of WA; Land Conservation
District Committees; private landholders;
private consultant; recovery team; Perth
Zoo; WA State; Perth Regional and South
Coast Natural Resource Management
Programs; WWF Australia
Expert groups None Carnaby’s Black-Cockatoo Recovery Project
(CBCRP); Carnaby’s Black-cockatoo
Research Group (CBCRG); and BLA WA
Project Advisory Group (BAWAPAG)
Publications (Australian Government
Species Profile and Threats Database)
39 species references 70 species references
Major projects ‘Great Cocky Count’ (BLA); ‘Cockatoo Care’
(WA Museum and WA Water Corporation);
document distribution, status, habitat
preferences, breeding season and diet (WA
Museum and WA Water Corporation); and
‘Derelict’ program (DPaW and Perth Zoo)
‘Great Cocky Count’; ‘Cockatoo Care’; several
research projects (including MSc, PhD):
habitat management, monitoring, captive
breeding and community actions; and
‘Derelict’ program
on both taxa (this represents a real difference in the number
of interviewees available for each taxa). Informants were
selectively sampled and their views are not intended to
represent those of the general public or necessarily of all
stakeholders therefore some findings may be generalized to
similar taxa in similar contexts and some to threatened bird
conservation more generally.
Informants represented the following: Baudin’s black-
cockatoo (6 informants): state government environmental
departments (2), academics (1), ENGOs (1), scientific
consultants (1), and volunteers (1); Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo (15 informants): state government environmental
departments (4), academics (3), bird ENGOs (2), resource
extraction industries (1), habitat restoration agencies
(1), natural resource management agencies (1), scientific
consultants (1), landholders (1) and volunteers (1); and both
species (10 informants): state government environmental
departments (3), academics (2), scientific organizations (2),
Commonwealth government environmental departments (1),
media (1) and wildlife rescue groups (1).
Nine of the 31 interviews were conducted with wildlife
managers representing DPaW, reflecting this organization’s
high level of involvement in recovery efforts.
Interviews lasted approximately 1 hour, focused primarily
on the species with which individual key informants had
most experience (unless they were experienced with both),
and sought to understand whether the values and attitudes
held for the black-cockatoos are associated with the success
of strategies to conserve them. Results from four key
questions are presented (see questions 2.2, 2.3, 2.6 and 2.7
in Appendix S1). Interview questions revealed informants’
values and attitudes towards the two species, and those they
perceived to be held by influential members of society. Direct
questions regarding participant values were generally avoided
(Satterfield 2001) and the term ‘value’ was used minimally
and always in a common language sense. Questions about
Social values and species conservation 5
people’s opinions of the cockatoos and associated conservation
efforts were asked in a way that was considered meaningful to
participants and would enable subsequent qualitative content
analysis (Minichiello et al. 2008).
Interview transcripts were imported into NVivo. Individual
coding nodes were created for each of the 12 categories defined
in a new ‘avifaunal attitudes typology’, which was developed
from existing wildlife attitude typologies to describe the
different ways Australians value birds (Ainsworth 2014;
Table 2). Attitude(s) expressed about the study species were
classified by manually coding text under one or more nodes. As
well as expressing their own attitudes, informants sometimes
reported perceptions they believed were held by people other
than themselves, for example, the public or particular sectors
of society.
RESULTS
Conservation effort
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo has received significantly more
conservation effort than Baudin’s black-cockatoo, particularly
in terms of the length of time since a recovery team was
established, research conducted on its biology and ecology,
and funding invested in recovery (Table 1).
The current distribution and habitat critical to Baudin’s
black-cockatoo survival are only known in general terms
(Chapman 2008;LeSouëfet al. 2013), whereas, several
research and conservation projects have been conducted on
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo, including habitat management,
monitoring and captive breeding. Much of this research
has been conducted by a single investigator, D. Saunders,
beginning in 1968 (Saunders & Ingram 1998; Saunders et al.
2014 a). In addition to the recovery team, three expert groups
contribute to the conservation of this species.
Public involvement in conservation has also been greater
for Carnaby’s than Baudin’s black-cockatoo, especially
stakeholder involvement and public awareness. BirdLife
Australia’s (BLA) volunteers have long supported Carnaby’s
black-cockatoo recovery (Weston et al. 2003) and worked with
natural resource management groups, DPaW and BirdLife
WA to engage relevant sectors of the community and
implement recovery actions (BirdLife Australia 2016).
By contrast, the little research conducted on Baudin’s black-
cockatoo has been recent (Johnstone & Kirkby 2008;LeSouëf
et al. 2013), its recovery team manages two threatened species
and the main management effort has been in promoting non-
lethal means of mitigating fruit damage in orchards (Chapman
2008;Table 1).
Which values are held for each species?
Key findings from four interview questions are presented.
Examples of primary attitudes expressed by informants,
classified according to the avifaunal attitudes typology, are
shown in brackets in alphabetical order. Table 2 compares the
total number of informants expressing each type of attitude
for either species.
Factors considered most important to the conservation of
Baudin’s and Carnaby’s black-cockatoos
Informants perceived habitat loss and fragmentation to be
the greatest threat to both species, and protecting habitat
was a key conservation objective. However, little was said
to be known, especially in the case of Baudin’s black-
cockatoo, about habitat use, preferred food or the habitat
most important to each species’ survival. To conduct the
research needed to obtain this kind of information was said
to require substantial investment and application of rigorous
methodology (conservation attitude).
Since both species are long-lived with low recruitment
rates, key informants emphasized a need to gather data on
species’ population size and dynamics to predict population
viability (biophysical).
Some recovery team members described holding strong
feelings about the species: they said the birds are easy to relate
to and enrich people’s lives; they are of historical significance
in the area through the people after whom they are named;
they have beautiful calls; and are admired for their specialized
feeding techniques (aesthetic; biophysical; humanistic).
Baudin’s black-cockatoo
Specific concerns about Baudin’s black-cockatoo focused on
projections for landscape change due to climate change, fire
and various tree diseases. Two further processes were said to
compound this problem: logging of habitat trees by the Forest
Products Commission WA (FPCWA); and removal of habitat
trees for strip-mining. It was said that DPaW was responsible
for managing most Baudin’s black-cockatoo habitat, but was
neither adequately resourced for the task, nor supported
in its implementation of management strategies by relevant
government ministers and political processes (conservation;
utilitarian).
Loss of habitat was thought to increase Baudin’s black-
cockatoo’s reliance on supplementary food sources such as
orchard fruits, and informants identified illegal shooting
by orchardists as the second most important threat. For
some informants, the threat posed by shooting was a
‘moral indictment’ of Australian society (conservation; moral;
negative).
According to one informant, despite the fact that several
non-lethal bird deterrent options exist, orchardists received no
government support to manage these cockatoos: ‘I genuinely
think farmers are wanting to be on side with all of this but they
feel they’re getting no help . . . the stress of the industry with
the threat of other apples coming into Australia... cockies
coming along is just a nail in the cofn...’ (Volunteer)
(negative).
According to two key informants, some orchardists
perceived the extent of damage caused to their crops by
6G. B. Ainsworth et al.
Table 2 Total number of informants expressing each attitude about Baudin’s and Carnaby’s black-cockatoos in response to four interview
questions, classified according to the avifaunal attitudes typology (n =31; Baudin’s black-cockatoo only: 6 informants; Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo only: 15; both species: 10).
Attitude Baudin’s
black-cockatoo
(16 informants)
Carnaby’s
black-cockatoo
(25 informants)
Definition
Aesthetic 1 1 Appreciation of physical characteristics of birds, including
appearance and song; appreciation of birds as objects of
beauty (e.g., as represented in artworks)
Biophysical 6 11 Physical attributes and biological functioning of birds (e.g.,
taxonomy, bird migrations, use of habitat, life history,
conducting science)
Conservation 11 19 Birds as threatened species; increase or decrease in bird
populations; loss of habitat or nesting ground; contributing
to conservation; financial costs associated with conserving
threatened species
Ecological 2 7 Interrelationships between bird species and natural habitats;
contribution to well-being and continuity of interrelated
flora, fauna and biochemical processes
Experiential 2 12 Direct contact with, or specific exciting or moving experiences
with, birds in their natural habitat; opportunities to
encounter rare birds in their natural surroundings
Humanistic 6 7 Strong affection for or concern for the well-being of
individual birds such as pets or wild iconic or rare birds;
birds have a strong personal and symbolic meaning, such as
association with place, time of day or year
Mastery 1 3 Mastery and control of birds either literally or metaphorically,
typically in sporting situations such as ‘twitching’ and
hunting; may also refer to a sense of getting to know birds
well or better; being a good naturalist
Moral 8 12 Concern for right and wrong treatment of birds, with strong
ethical opposition to presumed over-exploitation or cruelty
towards birds; belief that birds have inherent rights;
responsibility for conserving bird taxa (e.g., via legislation)
Negative 3 2 Active avoidance of birds due to disinterest, dislike or fear;
conflict between birds and humans possibly through
competition for resources
Spiritual 0 0 Birds possessing spiritual significance (e.g., links to
indigenous creation stories or other religious philosophy,
such as Buddhism)
Symbolic 0 1 Symbolic characteristics of birds; transference of bird
qualities to human artifacts such as emblems or mascots;
expressions of group identity or social experiences and
objects of specialized attachments; birds as flagship species
Utilitarian 2 6 Material benefit of birds and bird products to human society
(e.g., food, clothing); material benefit of bird habitat to
human society (e.g., development); material benefit of bird
characteristics to human society (e.g., professional
opportunities)
black-cockatoos to far exceed the actual financial cost incurred
(Chapman 2007) (negative).
It was suggested that habitat loss and illegal shooting should
be primarily addressed at a policy level. For habitat loss,
better inter-governmental information exchange, particularly
about the location and size of potential Baudin’s black-
cockatoo habitat and the extent of logging of existing
habitat, must inform research priorities and more accurate
threshold triggers for referral to the Commonwealth EPBC
Act (conservation; moral; utilitarian).
Informants thought that helping government understand
the effectiveness of netting orchards, so that appropriate
strategies to support netting programs were implemented,
and better enforcement, were paramount to abating illegal
Social values and species conservation 7
shooting. Several key informants suggested that public
pressure on politicians could help achieve some of these goals
(conservation; moral).
A small group of informants working with Baudin’s black-
cockatoo described the difficulty of finding vital resources to
implement recovery actions in a timely way and identified
conflicting values held by different WA state government
agencies: ‘One of the real difficulties is recovery teams are
usually driven by government departments, which makes it
politically very difficult for them to do a lot. So, they have to
get approval from ministers . . . It’s hard because the forestry
side of land management is run by the government as well as
the conservation side so it’s really a political issue . . . even to
the point that one of the DEC (DPaW) people had written a
really nice modelling paper looking at the shooting effects on
Baudin’s cockatoos but they can’t get permission to publish
it’ (Academic #1) (conservation; moral).
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
Because Carnaby’s black-cockatoo inhabits both public and
private land and is commonly seen in Perth, more people
encountered it than Baudin’s black-cockatoo. Thus, there
were more opportunities for the community to participate in
conserving Carnaby’s black-cockatoo, especially landholders
who can protect habitat remaining on their properties
(conservation; experiential).
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo was described as an ‘umbrella’
and ‘iconic’ species because of its important ecological
role across a broad range of habitats. Informants said
this combination of attributes made it particularly valuable
since conserving the species necessarily implied conserving
habitat, and the biodiversity therein, across the landscape
(conservation; ecological; symbolic).
Several informants working with Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
described a heightened appreciation of the benefits of working
with large networks and a wide range of stakeholders.
However, some said that keeping everyone informed can be
challenging, and not all stakeholders are perceived to have the
species’ best interests at heart: ‘ . . . because [Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo] were the one listed federal species they tended to
be what the rallying cry came around . . . they’ve already de
facto become the emblematic species for loss of bushland in
the Perth area. So . . . the green opposition to development is
epitomized in birds . . . a kind of negative flagship’ (Academic
#2) (conservation; symbolic; utilitarian).
Perceived outlook for Baudin’s and Carnaby’s
black-cockatoo conservation efforts
Baudin’s black-cockatoo
On the whole, those working on Baudin’s black-cockatoo
were pessimistic about the species’ future prospects. Some
expected the species’ numbers to decline in the next few
decades and never recover. The main reason for this belief was
the perception of a massive change in the species’ habitat from
old growth nesting habitat to pole timber lacking cockatoo nest
sites. Mining activities and inappropriate fire management
were also blamed for reducing available nesting habitat: ‘I
think the foresters . . . the big mining companies have got a
lot to answer for. We had seven cockatoo nests in one area and
they did a biodiversity management (assessment) there and
we lost three of those nests’ (Consultant #2) (conservation;
moral).
Informants felt that if illegal shooting and an aging
population were added to the mix, then conservation failure
was inevitable, but they also considered the lack of data on
which to base decisions as highly disadvantageous, especially
about the current population size and structure, as well as
about breeding and feeding habitat (biophysical; conservation;
ecological; moral).
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
Far greater optimism was shown for Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo’s survival despite a general sense that threats will
increase and populations shrink before they improve. Two
informants commented that Carnaby’s black-cockatoo may
survive at the expense of Baudin’s black-cockatoo by out-
breeding or out-competing it (biophysical; conservation).
Many informants pointed to Carnaby’s black-cockatoo’s
adaptability as their reason for optimism, citing its ability to
exploit new food sources and places. The larger population
of Carnaby’s compared to that of Baudin’s black-cockatoo
was thought to stand it in good stead increasing its chance of
long-term survival if no more habitat is lost. Although local
population extinction was considered likely because of habitat
loss (e.g., ongoing development planned for Perth and the
Swan Coastal Plain, salinization in the wheatbelt), landscape
scale restoration and long-term protection of viable habitats
may enable survival of the species (biophysical; conservation;
ecological; utilitarian).
It was thought that the conspicuousness of Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo in terms of its presence in the Perth metropolitan
area, and the conservation attention it currently receives from
BLA and other advocates, enhances its chances of being
conserved successfully (conservation; experiential).
Two informants considered that political change might
be needed to ensure its protection. However, there was
also concern that newcomers to WA put less value on
conserving the environment than longer term residents: ‘A
decade ago (Perth) was just on the cusp of a boom, but there
wasn’t the huge population pressure and the new community
who’ve come over here aren’t fully appreciative of what
was and what has already gone. So, there seems to be lots
of birds because they fly over in big flocks . . . so, they’re
not threatened’ (Commonwealth Government informant)
(conservation; experiential; utilitarian).
Informants expressed a range of emotions when asked
what it would mean to them if conservation efforts for
Carnaby’s or Baudin’s black-cockatoo failed. Those who felt
disappointment or sadness tended to take some personal
responsibility for the species and said they would be left
wondering what they could have done differently. Those who
8G. B. Ainsworth et al.
described frustration or moral outrage mostly accused the
government of failing to address the threats, particularly given
the seemingly adequate funds available as a result of a booming
economy. Two informants challenged human nature: ‘I think
Carnaby’s is probably the iconic species for almost all Western
Australians because it is so unique. So, if we didn’t get it right,
WA would really have to look at itself long and hard. It’s an
absolutely essential charismatic species that needs as much
input as possible’ (Academic #3) (aesthetic; conservation;
humanistic; moral; symbolic).
Potential for the local community to influence
conservation of Baudin’s and Carnaby’s black-cockatoos
Baudin’s black-cockatoo
Because Baudin’s black-cockatoo tends to inhabit forested
areas with low human populations, the only community
informants identified as having potential to make direct
contributions to its conservation were the farming and fruit
growing communities. Although many WA fruit-growers
were said to agree that Baudin’s black-cockatoo should be
protected, local orchardists estimated they lose around 6% of
their net income to fruit damage by the species, and spend
a further 2% on damage control (Chapman 2007). While
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo has been associated with damage
to canola crops, claims have been described as exaggerated
(Jackson 2009) (conservation; ecological; experiential; moral;
negative).
Beyond agricultural and horticultural interests, informants
felt that limited awareness of Baudin’s black-cockatoo or its
plight precluded any significant contribution by others. They
thought raising awareness and changing public perceptions
about the birds would help, but the recovery team was said
to have insufficient capacity to implement such strategies.
Two informants raised the notion of an eco-branded program
featuring orchardists who actively support Baudin’s black-
cockatoo conservation. One informant said DPaW had
attempted this but suggested that a non-government group
could manage it better due to fewer political constraints
(conservation; experiential; humanistic; moral; utilitarian).
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
By contrast, informants identified many community sectors
that could play a direct role in conserving Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo (e.g., government agencies, mining companies,
volunteers and landholders).
Informants thought volunteers could assist through
advocacy, by participating in BLA’s monitoring programs
or by identifying development proposals likely to affect
habitat. Wheatbelt landholders in particular were identified
as being able to restore cockatoo habitat, ultimately creating
a better lifestyle for future farmers in the process. Tapping
into the emotional connection people have for the land by
encouraging them to experience nature for themselves was
also recommended, for example through planting schemes at
a backyard or community level, taking people into the bush
or providing opportunities to interact with wildlife: ‘Take a
shrieking, screaming cockatoo to an agricultural show . . . the
kids and the mums and dads love them . . . One of the things
we do in WA badly, probably in Australia too, is say: “Keep off!
The bush is fragile.” You will never get people to appreciate
the bush if they don’t walk in it and love it’ (Habitat restoration
manager) (conservation; ecological; experiential; humanistic;
moral; utilitarian).
Conservation effort imbalance between the species
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo has a higher public profile than
Baudin’s black-cockatoo, is the subject of more management
planning and published studies and has more and a greater
diversity of stakeholders involved in its recovery including
more community involvement (Table 1).
Reasons suggested for this imbalance included, first,
Saunders’ >40 years of research and passion for the species
that provided the essential baseline data for Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo conservation (Saunders & Ingram 1998, Saunders
et al. 2013,2014a,b). Secondly, people could see Carnaby’s
more easily than Baudin’s black-cockatoo because its breeding
habitat is more accessible and it visits urban habitats. Thirdly,
it was suggested that Carnaby’s black-cockatoo’s public profile
and potential for recovery may evoke stronger emotional ties
even though it may not be the more threatened of the two
species: ‘I’m passionate about Carnaby’s because I think we
can probably make a difference. Baudin’s are in far worse
trouble; they’re on the slide, they’re gone. They’re going to get
shot into extinction, no doubt about that . . . and yet we seem
to ignore it. But Carnaby’s, because it’s studied so well and so
well-known and there’s scientific proof that it’s on a decline,
it’s just enabled it to happen . . . you get to know the bird, you
get to like them’ (State Government informant) (biophysical;
conservation; ecological; experiential; humanistic; mastery;
moral).
From a community perspective, Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
was described as a species of interest to BLA because
of what informants described as its ‘keystone’ status and
the complex mix of stakeholders involved in its recovery.
Informants said this had created an opportunity for BLA to
implement its philosophy of engaging with different interest
groups across south-west WA and beyond. The visibility and
charismatic behaviour of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo were said
to have rendered it very popular and an ideal ‘flagship’ for
community campaigns to prevent loss of habitat in inner
city and wheatbelt areas (aesthetic, biophysical; conservation,
ecological, experiential; humanistic; symbolic; utilitarian).
From a policy standpoint, the combination of Carnaby’s
black-cockatoo occurrence in the Perth metropolitan area
and rapid urban expansion were described as providing a
focal point for political pressure. Informants said it was
highly significant that potential impacts on both Baudin’s and
Carnaby’s black-cockatoo must be referred to the EPBC Act
(DSEWPaC 2012).However, a lack of data regarding Baudin’s
black-cockatoo requirements and extent of available habitat
Social values and species conservation 9
made it difficult to calculate thresholds for triggering referrals
(conservation; ecological; experiential; moral; utilitarian).
As a result, according to one informant, EPBC Act
referrals for impacts on Carnaby’s black-cockatoo from
urban development are much more common than those
for Baudin’s black-cockatoo, so the former has a higher
profile regarding community and developer awareness.
Consequently, there were more communications to the
Commonwealth Environment Minister and responses from
DPaW. Informants explained how this process had resulted
in a need for better policy and coordination regarding
development of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo habitat and the need
to protect the species. Government funding has also been more
forthcoming as a result, for example, some Commonwealth
funds provided to DPaW to implement Carnaby’s black-
cockatoo recovery actions were used to initiate a habitat
offset program in and around Perth (conservation; humanistic;
moral; utilitarian).
Some informants thought that perhaps Baudin’s black-
cockatoo would receive greater conservation attention in
the future. There was a perception among informants that
the adaptability of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo may have done
more for its survival than any conservation effort, and some
saw Carnaby’s black-cockatoo as a ‘catch-all’ for those who
might want to use it as a tool to protect interests other
than those of just the cockatoo. Some of those who had
helped promote Carnaby’s black-cockatoo to its status as
an iconic species felt that attention may now be better
diverted to ‘more deserving’ species, such as Baudin’s
black-cockatoo (conservation; biophysical; humanistic; moral;
symbolic; utilitarian).
DISCUSSION
Key informants identified the greatest threats to the survival
of both Baudin’s and Carnaby’s black-cockatoos as habitat
loss and fragmentation due to the impacts of climate change,
fire and various tree diseases, as well as timber harvesting
and land-clearing for mining. They therefore considered
protecting habitat as a key conservation objective for both
species, and research on the attributes of critical habitat was
an immediate priority. Notwithstanding the similarities in
these concerns, political and social factors strongly influenced
what was actually being done to conserve each species.
Political factors
High-level decision-makers and influencers within govern-
ment, ministerial offices and parliaments were perceived
by informants as having most control over conservation
decision-making processes, as well as those currently deemed
by society to have appropriate expertise, such as biological
scientists. Government-led decision-making was thought to
limit the influence of non-government advocacy groups
and give greater weight to the opinions of officials. Some
government department officials (e.g., DAFWA, Department
of Planning and Infrastructure WA (DPIWA), FPCWA)
were thought to hold values incompatible with achieving
conservation objectives for the cockatoos. Economically
important development was described as being prioritized
over threatened species protection, possibly because when this
research was conducted WA had no threatened species law
(ANEDO 2014). Thus, conservation conflict, primarily due
to the conflicting interests and responsibilities held by various
relevant WA government departments, was strongest for
Baudin’s black-cockatoo and seemed to constrain conservation
effort more for that species.
There was a major disparity reported with respect to
recovery teams’ efforts. Baudin’s black-cockatoo recovery
team had fewer members, representing a narrower range
of stakeholder groups than the Carnaby’s black-cockatoo
team, and they were required to manage two species with
fewer resources. Importantly, the DAFWA representative,
who had closest ties to orchardists, was not attending
Baudin’s black-cockatoo recovery team meetings, suggesting
both implicit political support for orchardists, since no
advocacy was deemed necessary within the recovery team,
and a lack of government interest in the team’s efforts.
Priority management actions for Baudin’s black-cockatoo,
therefore, mainly targeted orchard-related problems rather
than promoting research on the species’ requirements. A
lack of reliable data, specifically about current population
size, structure and trends, and breeding and feeding habitat
requirements, hindered recovery. This was exacerbated by
alleged restrictions on publishing government research and a
lack of political support for habitat protection.
Sociological factors
Our findings support the idea that conservation decisions, and
concern about species conservation are specific to particular
cultures and knowledge systems, times and places (Aslin &
Bennett 2000). Also that conservation decisions are influenced
by how biodiversity impacts are characterized in a particular
socio–economic context (Young et al. 2010). Baudin’s and
Carnaby’s black-cockatoos exist within very different human
social contexts. Although diverse attitudes were expressed
about both taxa by a range of community sectors, it appears
the experiential attitudes expressed for Carnaby’s black-
cockatoos, as a result of existing in close proximity to humans,
have engendered greater community interest and conservation
action than they have for the Baudin’s black-cockatoos few
people see or recognize.
Where Carnaby’s black-cockatoo was known to a large
cross-section of society in Perth and the surrounding region
across a diverse range of land tenures and was considered
iconic by many informants and promoted as a flagship
for landscape-scale habitat conservation, Baudin’s black-
cockatoo was known mainly to fruit-growers, many of whom
disliked it.
The social construction of Baudin’s black-cockatoo as a
pest species, with a history of bounties and open shooting
10 G. B. Ainsworth et al.
(Chapman 2007,2008), seems to have been particularly
damaging. If the estimate of illegal shooting by orchardists
of 200–300 Baudin’s black-cockatoo every year is correct
(Chapman 2008), then this shooting could have serious
effects on the persistence of the species; yet the public
outcry seems to have been modest compared to the alarm
expressed at the decline of Carnaby’s black-cockatoo. The
history of human interactions with the two species may
have influenced the different reactions. Informants described
how orchardists have been complaining about Baudin’s
black-cockatoo for decades whereas recent complaints by
WA wheatbelt farmers that Carnaby’s black-cockatoo are
damaging canola crops seems not to have resonated with the
public or the interviewees.
One possible explanation for these contrasting reactions
is that the authorities are discriminating against Baudin’s
black-cockatoo, in what could be considered an example of
speciesism (Ryder 2000) where individuals of one species
are treated differently to another simply due to a person’s
perceptions of that species not because of objective criteria.
People engaged in conservation efforts for Baudin’s black-
cockatoo appear to be faced with challenges comparable to
those faced by people trying to conserve grey-headed flying
foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus) in New South Wales (Ballard
2005). In both cases, some sections of the community claim
to be suffering significant economic damage or risk due to the
presence and behaviour of the species concerned. Partly as a
result of these claims being aired, the public holds conflicting
perceptions about these species, conservation conflicts arise
and support for these efforts may be undermined (Redpath
et al. 2013). If Baudin’s black-cockatoo is to persist, there
is clearly a need to address the conflicting values held for
it, namely by minimizing the extent of negative perceptions
about it and maximizing public awareness of its plight.
This study demonstrates that a variety of stakeholders with
competing socio–political interests can influence threatened
bird conservation decision-making processes and highlights
the importance of understanding the value dynamics existing
between different stakeholders. We argue that employing
the social sciences to explain human behaviour could help
wildlife managers devise conservation strategies that appeal
to different stakeholder attitudes and values and lead to the
broader community becoming more positively involved in
conservation decision-making processes.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank all of the informants and other
correspondents, as well as the anonymous reviewers for
their improvements to this article and G. Ehmke (BirdLife
Australia) for help with Fig. 1. Funding was provided by The
Nature Conservancy Applied Conservation Award 2011, part
of The Nature Conservancy’s Ecological Science Program
and made possible through a generous donation from The
Thomas Foundation. G.B.A. was supported by a Charles
Darwin University Faculty of Engineering, Health, Science
andEnvironmenttravelgrantandanAustralianGovernment
Australian Postgraduate Award scholarship.
Supplementary material
To view supplementary material for this article, please visit
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0376892916000126
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Zander, K.K., Ainsworth, G., Meyerhoff, J. & Garnett, S.T.
(2014) Threatened bird valuation in Australia. PLoS ONE 9:
e100411.
... Conservation practitioners admit to being driven by a deep passion for wild places and for biodiversity conservation (Toussaint 2005;Ainsworth et al. 2016aAinsworth et al. , 2016b, and intrinsically valuing wildlife can influence morally relevant emotions, cognitions and behaviour in ways that benefit wildlife conservation (Lute et al. 2016;Burns 2017). ...
... Major stakeholders and their institutions were identified during a thorough stakeholder analysis which drew on sources including advice from experts, published literature, institutional websites and personal knowledge. This process identified stakeholders who were invited to participate because they were considered experts in relation to conserving the case study taxa and anticipated to hold a diverse range of values towards them (Ainsworth et al. 2016a(Ainsworth et al. , 2016b. These stakeholders were also selected because they regularly communicated information about the case study taxa to the public (e.g. through scientific publications, species management plans, organisational websites, newsletters and conservation activities). ...
... The 74 stakeholders interviewed represented all seven Australian states and territories and were recruited from five societal sectors: government (27 participants); scientific (14); private (13); non-government (11); and public (9) (SM Table 3). Most participants were biological scientists, reflecting their overall importance to the threatened bird conservation process, but the sample also included volunteers, landowners, media personnel and birdwatchers (Ainsworth et al. 2016a(Ainsworth et al. , 2016b. The views of this purposefully recruited sample are indicative of those working to conserve the case study taxa, but do not necessarily represent the full range of possible stakeholders working to conserve threatened birds. ...
Article
Birds are of significant scientific and public interest yet although human interactions with birds are widespread and diverse in nature, relatively few people participate in conservation initiatives. Understanding how conservation practitioners describe conservation issues and whether this resonates with recipients’ attitudes could help create more appealing conservation strategies. This study applied a new typology of 12 avifaunal attitudes during 74 qualitative interviews with Australian conservation practitioners from the government, non-government, private, public and scientific sectors to investigate how they frame threatened bird issues. Messages about threatened bird conservation were typically positive and framed according to four major themes: morality, intrinsic value, empathy and loss. A strong link between empathy for wildlife and moral justification for preventing extinctions emerged. We recommend that public messages advocating for threatened bird conservation could be framed in positive ways that arouse emotions. Expressing a broad range of attitudes could appeal at both public interest and policymaker levels and assist with developing more effective frames to capture some of the complex social landscape within which threatened species conservation operates. These findings could apply to wildlife conservation in Australia and elsewhere. Finally, the typology can assist with developing appropriately framed and targeted conservation engagement strategies.
... Informant transcriptions were manually coded in NVivo by classifying attitudes under one or more of 12 categories defined in a new 'avifaunal attitudes typology' (Ainsworth et al. 2016b). Informants expressed their own attitudes and sometimes reported perceptions they believed other people held, for example the public or particular sectors of society. ...
... The Alligator Rivers yellow chat and Baudin's black-cockatoo have been less newsworthy and have weaker conservation networks (Holmes et al. 2017). Rather than benefiting from a controversial or transformative event, the chat has until very recently remained in relative obscurity (Ainsworth et al. 2016a), while Baudin's black-cockatoo is a declared pest of agriculture (Chapman 2008) and continues to suffer from the consequences of political decisions and societal values that have long placed human needs before habitat protection (Ainsworth et al. 2016b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Iconic, flagship and rare threatened bird taxa attract disproportionate amounts of public attention, and are often used to enable broader conservation strategies. Yet, little is known about why certain taxa achieve iconic or flagship status. Also unclear is whether the perception of rarity among those acting to conserve threatened birds is sufficient to influence attitudes and behaviour that lead to effective conservation action and, if so, which characteristics of rare birds are important to their conservation. We interviewed 74 threatened bird conservation stakeholders to explore perceptions about iconic, flagship and rare threatened birds and classified their attitudes using a new typology of avifaunal attitudes. There was a relationship between societal interest and conservation effort for threatened species characterised as iconic, flagship and rare. Iconic species tended to arouse interest or emotion in people due to being appealing and readily encountered, thereby attracting conservation interest that can benefit other biodiversity. Flagships tended to have distinguishing physical or cultural characteristics and were used to convey conservation messages about associated biodiversity. Attitudes about rarity mostly related to a taxon’s threatened status and small population size. Rarity was important for threatened bird conservation but not always associated with attitudes and behaviour that lead to effective conservation action. We conclude that conservation action for individual threatened bird taxa is biased and directly influenced by the ways taxa are socially constructed by stakeholders, which is specific to prevailing culture and stakeholder knowledge.
... Conover 2002). The sources of these conflicts can very often be seen in terms of the different values held by individual human actors or groups, in relation to the environment and natural resource use (Cocklin 1988, see also Ainsworth et al. 2016b). Across Europe, these values shape both what actors perceive the cormorant-fisheries problem to be, and also dictate what are considered the most sensible and acceptable solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most widespread and persistent environmental conflicts in Europe involves the Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). The ‘continental’ race (P. c. sinensis) comprises over 80% of the European breeding population and its numbers and geographical distribution have increased and expanded dramatically in recent decades. Consequently, Cormorants have increasingly come into conflict with fisheries interests across Europe, as many people believe that the birds are now so numerous that they cause declines in fish catches, with associated impacts on commercial and recreational fisheries. The central European policy issue is thus how to deal with: (1) a large pan-European population of Cormorants, (2) very often breeding in some Member States but overwintering and preying upon fish in others, (3) where there is generally a lack of unequivocal scientific evidence for predation impact on fisheries and (4) where there are growing political calls for coordinated European management, whilst (5) many believe that the site-specific local/regional management advocated by some is ineffective. Using case examples and experiences from several pan-European studies and research networks, this paper describes the complexity of this issue and the diversity of associated opinions. Much of the controversy over Cormorants is fuelled by differences of opinion and, coupled with its persistence and entrenched nature, it has many of the characteristics of a so-called ‘intractable environmental conflict’. As such, this paper draws on a ‘reframing’ model proposed to deal with such situations and discusses the various ‘frames’ by which issues are viewed. It also proposes that future research might best focus on specific fisheries sectors that appear to be ‘hotspots’ for conflicts. Here, demonstration projects could involve a reframing exercise, coupled with new scientific research and practical experimentation within an adaptive management framework – one aim of which might be to increase the scope and geographical coverage of effective management activities.
... Cependant, le choix des espèces à protéger ne répond pas toujours à des critères scientifiques objectifs liés à la rareté ou au risque d'extinction, et fait souvent l'objet d'arbitrages qui sont guidés plus par les dimensions politiques, culturelles et d'usages que par le niveau de menace pesant sur les espèces et leurs populations (Seddon et al. 2005). C'est en particulier le cas des espèces dites chassables ou nuisibles, pour lesquelles un classement en tant qu'espèce protégée ou un moratoire sur les prélèvements sont souvent difficiles pour des problèmes d'acceptabilité sociale même dans le cas d'espèces considérées comme vulnérables (Ainsworth et al. 2016). Il devient alors très difficile de faire évoluer les listes d'espèces protégées en même temps que l'évolution du niveau incitatives existent également, notamment en Europe dans le réseau de sites Natura2000. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Pour faire face aux changements rapides de l’environnement induits par l’Homme, de nombreuses politiques publiques de protection de la nature ont été mises en place. Parmi celles-ci, les mesures compensatoires conduisent à restaurer des habitats d’espèces, qui peuvent cependant créer des pièges écologiques. Ce risque est particulièrement grand pour les dispositifs artificiels, largement plébiscités, dont il est aujourd’hui crucial d’évaluer l’impact sur les populations. Dans cette thèse, à travers les exemples du Rollier d’Europe et des Laridés coloniaux nichant dans le Sud de la France, je montre que le test de l’hypothèse de piège écologique est bien adapté à l’évaluation des dispositifs artificiels, et est généralisable à d’autres contextes. L’étude de mécanismes de création des pièges permet également la formulation de recommandations. Je propose une démarche adaptative pour la conception, la mise en œuvre et l’évaluation des projets de restauration et de compensation écologique.
... Furthermore, Wheatley et al. (2009) advocated that in order to make cross-scalar predictions, a multi-scale research design was necessary. associations with these iconic birds, and they are often adopted as flagship species for habitat conservation (Ainsworth et al. 2016). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Historically it has been difficult to gain information on the movement ecology of psittacine species in Australia. Using a novel double-tagging telemetry method, this research, aimed to: investigate regional differences in movement of the three black cockatoo species endemic to Western Australia; identify key roost and foraging sites for these species across regions; and estimate home range sizes for flocks in resident areas, using a combination of GPS and satellite PTT tags. Tagged birds served as markers of flock movement once integrated into a wild flock of conspecifics, which was confirmed through means of behavioural change point analysis and field observations. Linear mixed models were used to determine differences in movement across regions, revisitation analysis was used to identify key habitat sites, and an auto-corrected Kernel density estimator was used to estimate the home ranges. Results showed that key roosts sites for the three species predominantly occurred on public green space and private property. These were closely associated with foraging habitat which mainly occurred as remnant vegetation in the landscape or as nature reserves. Riparian zones and roadside vegetation were shown to play a crucial role as foraging habitat and in providing connective landscape structures. Daily movement distances differed both between and within regions depending on habitat matrix, resulting in varying home range sizes. These results suggest that movement for the three black cockatoo species is region specific, driven by food resources in the landscape. In addition, between species, movement varied as each species uses the landscape in different ways, depending on seasonal movements and ecological requirements. This research has provided critical baseline data required to address knowledge gaps listed in Recovery Plans for these species of black cockatoo. Further research is now required to include these data in resource and habitat selection models to identify how the landscape matrix affects movement, which will facilitate adaptive habitat management and conservation plans for black cockatoos in Western Australia.
... For example, in Western Australia one of the main reasons behind the high profile of Carnaby's black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris), compared with the equally rare and almost identical Baudin's black cockatoo (C. baudinii), is that Carnaby's cockatoo is highly visible within the urban environment (Ainsworth et al. 2016a). Similarly, the significantly greater conservation effort directed towards one subspecies of yellow chat (Ephthianura crocea) than another almost identical subspecies was attributed to a response to the low initial number of endemic bird species, which developed into strong emotional engagement derived from personal experiences with the bird, in conjunction with increasing local awareness and, ultimately, government funding (Ainsworth et al. 2016b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban areas are highly modified landscapes that can support significant biodiversity, including threatened species, although native species are usually present at low densities and several native species will be absent. The most powerful tool for increasing urban biodiversity is supporting existing biodiversity through appropriately designed and managed public and private greenspaces, and improving habitat quality. However, if a more proactive strategy is required to overcome recolonisation barriers, then reintroduction is another powerful tool to enhance biodiversity across urban landscapes. The health of cities, in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and the quality of the nature experiences accessed by adults and children largely depends on how much human communities value and know about nature. While community-driven habitat restorations can improve biodiversity and increase human-nature connection, reintroduction of appropriate species could fill ecological gaps that would otherwise remain empty, and further enrich biodiversity in residents' nearby neighbourhoods. New Zealand is currently a hotspot of reintroduction activity, but these take place in relatively unmodified terrestrial sites, such as national parks, restored offshore islands, and fenced eco-sanctuaries. We review global examples of animal reintroductions taking place within areas modified by human activity, and, using information elicited from 18 experts, consider potential reintroduction candidates, and consider the benefits, opportunities, challenges, and requirements for the reintroduction of native species into New Zealand's urban areas.
... Results of the binomial logistic regression are provided with the likelihood ratio test (LRT), degree of freedom (df), and chi-square p values (P chi ). Results from the phylogenetic generalised least squares (PGLS) model are provided as the means of the estimate with their standard deviation (SD) in parentheses, p values (P PGLS ), and lambda (λ) biosecurity frameworks (Vall-Llosera and Cassey 2017), this threat class also includes persecution for pest control, a more common issue affecting Australian parrots (Ainsworth et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, Wallacea, and the islands of the Pacific Ocean collectively possess 42% of the world’s parrot species, including half of all Critically Endangered species. We used comparative methods to review the factors related to extinction risk of 167 extant and 5 extinct parrot species from this region, subsequently referred to as ‘Oceania’. We tested a range of ecological and socio-economic variables as predictors of extinction risk for parrots in the region while controlling for phylogeny. Parrot species were most likely to be threatened if they had small historical ranges, large bodies, or a high dependency on forest, or if they were endemic to a single country, or native to a country with high unemployment. Our analysis identifies invasive species as an especially severe threat to the parrots of Oceania. We present maps of parrot species’ diversity and draw attention to regions of conservation concern. Our comparative analysis presents an important overview of the factors contributing to the decline of parrots in Oceania, and provides a strong basis for comparison with other parts of the world.
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This article presents a theory of 7 cultural value orientations that form 3 cultural value dimensions. This theory permits more finely tuned characterization of cultures than other theories. It is distinctive in deriving the cultural orientations from a priori theorizing . It also specifies a coherent, integrated system of relations among the orientations, postulating that they are interdependent rather than orthogonal. Analyses of data from 73 countries, using two different instruments, validate the 7 cultural orientations and the structure of interrelations among them. Conceptual and empirical comparisons of these orientations with Inglehart’s two dimensions clarify similarities and differences. Using the cultural orientations, I generate a worldwide empirical mapping of 76 national cultures that identifies 7 transnational cultural groupings: West European, English-speaking, Latin American, East European, South Asian, Confucian influenced, and African and Middle Eastern. I briefly discuss distinctive cultural characteristics of these groupings. I then examine examples of socioeconomic, political, and demographic factors that give rise to national differences on the cultural value dimensions, factors that are themselves reciprocally influenced by culture. Finally, I examine consequences of prevailing cultural value orientations for attitudes and behavior (e.g., conventional morality, opposition to immigration, political activism) and argue that culture mediates the effects of major social structural variables on them.
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Full-text available
This article presents a theory of 7 cultural value orientations that form 3 cultural value dimensions. This theory permits more finely tuned characterization of cultures than other theories. It is distinctive in deriving the cultural orientations from a priori theorizing . It also specifies a coherent, integrated system of relations among the orientations, postulating that they are interdependent rather than orthogonal. Analyses of data from 73 countries, using two different instruments, validate the 7 cultural orientations and the structure of interrelations among them. Conceptual and empirical comparisons of these orientations with Inglehart’s two dimensions clarify similarities and differences. Using the cultural orientations, I generate a worldwide empirical mapping of 76 national cultures that identifies 7 transnational cultural groupings: West European, English-speaking, Latin American, East European, South Asian, Confucian influenced, and African and Middle Eastern. I briefly discuss distinctive cultural characteristics of these groupings. I then examine examples of socioeconomic, political, and demographic factors that give rise to national differences on the cultural value dimensions, factors that are themselves reciprocally influenced by culture. Finally, I examine consequences of prevailing cultural value orientations for attitudes and behavior (e.g., conventional morality, opposition to immigration, political activism) and argue that culture mediates the effects of major social structural variables on them.
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This research aims to understand why one of two almost identical subspecies of the Australian yellow chat Ephthianura crocea has received significantly higher levels of local and institutional support than the other despite both having the same conservation status and taxonomic distinctiveness, factors commonly thought to influence conservation effort. Using a qualitative multiple case study approach we explored how a range of social factors, including stakeholder attitudes and institutional, policy and operational aspects, might have affected conservation efforts for the two taxa. Our results suggest that the conservation trajectories of these two subspecies have diverged since their identification as threatened species in 2000 because of differences in the social landscapes within which they persist. For one subspecies local advocacy was kindled initially by the small number of local endemic bird species but developed into a strong emotional engagement, resulting in increased local awareness, government funding, and effectiveness of conservation action. The other subspecies has had to compete for attention with approximately 200 other threatened taxa occurring in its region. No individual advocate has accorded this subspecies a high priority for action, and none of those responsible for its conservation have seen it or acknowledged an emotional attachment to it. Our findings confirm that initiation of conservation effort is strongly tied to the social values of individuals with power to take action, regardless of legislation.
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Multivariate analyses of national survey data show that social background has an important influence upon environmental attitudes and behaviour in Australia. The tertiary educated consistently adopt a pro-environmental stance across a range of behaviours, including reducing their consumption, initiating lifestyle changes and voting for the Australian Greens. Men are less likely than women to see global warming as a serious threat and less likely to change their behaviour to protect the environment. However, men are far more likely than women to favour nuclear over coal-fired power, even after controlling for a range of other social background effects. While younger people claim they are willing to pay extra taxes or higher prices to reduce global warming, it is older people who are consuming less and changing their lifestyles because of their environmental concerns. A partisan divide over environmental issues and (in)action on climate change is demonstrated empirically, while conservative political leaders are shown to have an influence upon Green voting.
Book
The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010 is the third in a series of action plans that have been produced at the start of each decade. The book analyses the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) status of all the species and subspecies of Australia's birds, including those of the offshore territories. For each bird the size and trend in their population and distribution has been analysed using the latest iteration of IUCN Red List Criteria to determine their risk of extinction. The book also provides an account of all those species and subspecies that are or are likely to be extinct. The result is the most authoritative account yet of the status of Australia's birds. In this completely revised edition each account covers not only the 2010 status but provides a retrospective assessment of the status in 1990 and 2000 based on current knowledge, taxonomic revisions and changes to the IUCN criteria, and then reasons why the status of some taxa has changed over the last two decades. Maps have been created specifically for the Action Plan based on vetted data drawn from the records of Birds Australia, its members and its partners in many government departments. This is not a book of lost causes. It is a call for action to keep the extraordinary biodiversity we have inherited and pass the legacy to our children. 2012 Whitley Award Commendation for Zoological Resource.
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Baudin's Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus baudinii is an endangered species that is endemic to southwest Western Australia. It is also a declared pest of agriculture because it damages apple and pear (pome fruit) crops in commercial orchards. Although it is unlawful, some fruit growers shoot and kill the cockatoos to prevent fruit damage. A survey of pome fruit growers during the 2004/2005 season showed that shooting to kill can-not be justified in terms of the damage the cockatoos cause or the costs of damage control incurred by growers. Estimated loss of income to fruit damage by birds equated to 6% of farmgate income and the cost of damage control represented 2% of farmgate income. Damage levels varied significantly between individual properties and pink lady apple was the most commonly and severely damaged fruit variety. This study has shown that non-lethal scaring techniques are effective for protecting pome fruit from damage by Baudin's Cockatoo.
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The loss of hollow-bearing trees and lack of replacements are important issues throughout the world where development of intensive agriculture has resulted in the reduction and fragmentation of natural woodlands. Many species of animal depend on hollows (cavities) for breeding and shelter, and are impacted by these changes. One such species is the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris, an endemic of southwestern Australia, which nests in large hollows in eucalypt trees. Nest hollow selection by a breeding population at Coomallo Creek, in the wheatbelt of Western Australia, was studied from 1969 to 2013. The cockatoos nested in any hollow large enough to access (mean entrance diameter 270 mm, floor diameter 407 mm and depth 1.24 m). Nesting attempts in shallow hollows (<400 mm) were less successful than those in deeper hollows (>1000 mm). Breeding females returned to the same hollow they used previously, provided they had been successful in the previous breeding attempt and the hollow was not occupied.