ArticlePDF Available

Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control

Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Lantana camara
Lantana camara is one of the most commonly known noxious weed distributed worldwide. The red
flower variety (L. camara var. aculeata) of this weed is mainly toxic and usually prevalent in tropical
and sub-tropical countries. Lantana leads to hepatotoxicity, photosensitization and intrahepatic
cholestasis almost in all the animals. LA is the main toxic pentacyclic triterpenoid present in this weed.
Lantadene toxicity leads to fatty degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, gall bladder edema, degeneration
of parenchymal cells and portal fibrosis observed on histopathological examination. L. camara toxicity
causes fluctuation in hematological as well as in biochemical parameters. The management of toxic
effects can be achieved by activated charcoal, vaccination and supportive therapy but are not much
effective. Besides the harmful effects of this plant, there are some beneficial effects also including anti-
inflammatory, hepatoprotective action, antitumor action etc. The control of this weed is difficult because
of its allelopathic action. Nowadays this plant is used in many recent advanced techniques like
phytoremediation of particulate pollution, phytoextraction of heavy metals and many others. Thereby
the use of this plant in the field of research can be an effective way to manage this alien weed. As far as
the toxicity is concerned it can be prevented by the using conventional therapeutic methods along with
immunological, nanotechnological and biotechnological approaches. The aim of this article is to discuss
the information regarding its progression, mechanism by which it affect animals, pathological
alterations, treatment and what strategies we can opt to get rid of this weed.
Rakesh Kumar*, Rahul Katiyar, Surender Kumar, Tarun Kumar and Vijay Singh
ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P, India - 243122
Received April 28, 2016; Revision April 09, 2016; Accepted May 21, 2016
Available Online May 25, 2016
E-mail: (Rakesh Kumar)
Peer review under responsibility of Journal of Experimental Biology and
Agricultural Sciences.
* Corresponding author
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, June - 2016; Volume 4(3S)
Production and Hosting by Horizon Publisher India [HPI]
All rights reserved.
All the article published by Journal of Experimental
Biology and Agricultural Sciences is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0
International License Based on a work at
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
1 Introduction
Toxic plants are of major concern to veterinarians because of
their harmful effects to livestock in terms of causing mortality
and reduction in productivity (Sharma et al., 2007; Diaz,
2011). The severity of toxic effects caused by poisonous plants
varies among species and depends upon the nature, part and
amount of toxic component taken, environmental conditions,
species, age, size and body condition of the animals (Sharma et
al., 2007). Along with the toxic effects to livestock, these
invasive species are supposed to be the one of the major threat
to biodiversity and ecosystem after habitat destruction (Drake
et al., 1989; Holmes, 1990; Buckley & Roughgarden, 2004; De
Milliano et al., 2010; Osunkoya & Perrett, 2011; Zhang &
Chen, 2011). These invasive plants have turned to predators
and are responsible for causing diseases in animals as well as
in plants (Ehrenfeld, 2006; Chambers et al., 2007; Drenovsky
et al., 2012).
Among poisonous plants L. camara is one of the most
commonly known noxious (Pereira et al., 2003; Mello et al.,
2005) and invasive weed worldwide (Palmer et al., 2000; Baars
et al., 2003; Totland et al., 2005; Moura et al., 2009; Van
Driesche et al., 2010). This weed is responsible to cause heavy
mortality of livestock as well as responsible to cause loss of
agro and forest ecosystem (Day et al., 2003; Mello et al., 2005;
Sharma et al., 2007). L. camara Linn. was introduced as an
ornamental shrub by a British in Calcutta Botanical Garden in
year 1809, belongs to family Verbenaceae (Bouda et al., 2001;
Kumar, 2001; Yadav & Tripathi, 2003; Munsif et al., 2007).
The word Lantana is derived from a Latin word lento, which
means ―to bend‖ (Ghisalberti, 2000). This weed is locally
known as bunch berry, baraphulnoo, red or wild sage (Sharma
et al., 2007). This plant shows change in inflorescence with age
and season that’s why very difficult to classify taxonomically
(Munir, 1996). The binomial name of this plant was given by
Linnaeus in year 1753 (Kumarasamyraja et al., 2012). The
main varieties of Lantana on the basis of flower colour
includes Pink L. camara, White L. camara, Red L. camara,
Pink edged red L. camara and Orange L. camara. Other
important species of the genus lantana includes L. indica, L.
crenulata, L. trifolia, L. lilacina, L. involuerata and L.
Sellowiance but red flower variety (L. camara var. aculeate) is
most toxic (Sharma et al., 2007). A pink variety of Lantana
camara called as Taxon is usually grazed by animals in New
Zealand and it is nontoxic (Black & Carter, 1985).
This plant attains a height of 2-3 m and the branches carry
curved prickles. The leaves are oval, cuneate, rounded at the
base and rugose and crenate at the upper portion, which are
rough at maturity and give an offensive odor (Sharma et al.,
2007). The fruits are greenish in early stages and become dark
blue later on. The green immature fruits are poisonous, while
the ripened dark blue fruits are tasty so often taken by birds as
well as human beings (Sharma et al., 2007). Many species of
lantana are native to Africa and America and has covered
many of the neighboring countries (Day et al., 2003). But later
on this species has displaced the invertebrate population and
other native populations in Africa (Samways et al., 1996).
Lantana camara is among 100 most notorious weeds in the
world and got entry approximately in 60 countries (GISD,
2010; Lüi, 2011). This weed has been found as a major weed
in 12 countries and listed among the 5 most noxious weeds
prevalent in Australia and has covered 60% pastures in
Queensland (Holm et al., 1979; Anderson et al., 1983;
Ghisalberti, 2000). This weed has replaced Quercus
leucotrichphora and Pinus roxburghii forests in Kumaun hills
(U.P.) (Bhatt et al., 1994); invaded the teak plantations in
Tamil Nadu (Clarson & Sudha, 1997); covered Western Ghats
(South India) (Muniappan & Viraktamath, 1993) and heart
water region of Garhwal (U.P.) (Rajwar, 1998). In Himachal
Pradesh, heavy outbreaks of lantana toxicity have been
reported from Rampur Bushair and sporadic cases of toxicity
have also been reported from cattle, buffaloes and small
ruminants (Sharma, 1984).
In general for the success and impact of any weed many biotic
and abiotic environmental factors are responsible (Sheppard et
al., 2012). One of the most important factor for the huge
prevalence of this weed throughout world is its phytotoxic or
allelopathic action which is due to the presence of phenolic
compounds (umbelliferone, methylcoumarin, salicylic acid
etc.) and lantadenes i.e. LA (lantadene A) and LB (lantadene
B) (Achhireddy et al., 1984; Jain et al., 1989; Singh et al.,
1989; Ferguson & Rathinasabapathi, 2003). The suppressive
allelopathic action of this plant has been seen on certain plant
species like Glycine max (Linn), Cyclosorus dentatus Forsk,
Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L. and Lolium multiflorum
Lam (Achhireddy et al., 1985; Sharma et al., 2007). This weed
is mainly disseminated by droppings of moving animal flocks/
birds, cutting and pollination (Ghazoul 2002; Sharma et al.,
2 Toxic components of Lantana camara
The most important toxic components present in this weed are
lantadenes. Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenes (Table. 1)
and often led to hepatotoxicity, photosensitization and jaundice
(Sharma et al., 1979; Sharma & Makkar, 1981; Sharma et al.,
2007). There are 2 forms isolated from lantana toxin i.e.
crystalline and amorphous. The amorphous form is found to be
icterogenic to guinea pigs (Sharma et al., 1988a). Among the
known compounds present in lantana, LA is the most hepato-
toxic component while certain other compounds like
naphthoquinones, oil constituents (citral), iridoid glycosides
(Theveside) and some of the oligosaccharides are of lesser
importance as far as toxicity is concerned (Ajugose)
(Dominguez et al., 1983; Abeygunawardena et al., 1991). The
lantadenes are mainly present in the leaves of this plant
(Sharma et al., 2007) having varying toxic effects among
different species and strains of mammals/livestock. The toxic
effects of this plant are evident both in ruminants as well as in
non-ruminants (Sharma et al., 2007).
322 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Table 1 Chemical compounds obtained from Lantana camara and their mechanism of actions.
LA, LB, LC, RLA and icterogenin
Brown et al., 1963; Johns et al., 1983a; Sharma et al
1991; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter et al., 2001; Khan
et al., 2003; Srivastava et al., 2005; Kong et al., 2006;
Parimoo et al., 2015
Antimicrobial and
antibacterial activity
LA, LB, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, 4-
Epihederagonic acid and 24-Hydroxy-3-oxours-
12-en-28-oic acid
Brown et al., 1963; Sharma et al 1991; Inada et al.,
1995, 1997; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter et al., 2001;
Kong et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2006; Barreto et al.,
2010; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012
Protein kinase C
Herbert et al., 1991
Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and Oleanonic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Liu, 1995;
Verma et al., 1997;
Giner-Larza et al., 2001; Benites et al., 2009; Ghosh et
al., 2010; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012
LA, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, Camaraside and
Lantalucratins A-F
Brown & Rimington, 1964; Seawright & Hardlicka,
1977; Mahato et al., 1994; Deena & Thoppil, 2000;
Ghisalberti, 2000; Hayashi et al., 2004; Gomes de
Melo et al., 2010; Bisi-Johnson et al., 2011
Anxiolytic action
(Psychiatric disorder)
Kessler et al., 1994; Awad et al., 2009; Kazmi et al.,
Seawright & Hardlicka, 1977; Verma et al., 1997;
Wachter et al., 2001; Kong et al., 2006
LA, Umbelliferone, Hydroxycoumarin, 6-
methylcoumarin, Salicylic acid, gentisic acid,
Vanillic acid and Quercetin
Brown et al., 1963; Johns et al., 1983a; Singh et al.,
1989; Sharma et al 1991; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter
et al., 2001; Kong et al., 2006; Verdeguer et al., 2009
LA, LB, LC, RLA, RLB and 22beta-Hydroxy-3-
oxolean-12-en-28-oic acid
Johns et al., 1983a; Inada et al., 1995
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Singh et al.,
1990, 1991; Liu, 1995; Siddiqui et al., 1995
Leukotriene inhibitor
Oleanonic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Giner-Larza et
al., 2001
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Liu, 1995, Liu, 2005; Mishra et al.,
1997; Verma et al., 1997; Chen et al., 2005, Chen et
al., 2006
22beta-Dimethylacryloyloxylantanolic acid
Barre et al., 1997; Mello et al., 2005
Camarinic acid, Linaroside and Lantanoside
Siddiqui et al., 1995; Begum et al., 2000
Triterpnes from Lantana montevidensis
Mohameda et al., 2016
5,5-Trans-fused cyclic lactone containing euphane
O’Neill et al., 1998; Weir et al., 1998
Apigenin, Cirsilineol, Eupafolin, Eupatorin and
Nagao et al., 2002
Cardio active
Syah et al., 1998
Insecticidal action
Bioactive molecules without any cross resistance
Seyoum et al., 2002; Dua et al., 2010; Rajashekar et
al., 2012 a; Rajashekar et al., 2012 b; Rajashekar et al.,
2012 c
Venkatachalam et al., 2011; Kazmi et al., 2013
Inhibitor of larval
hatch and exsheathing
Lantana decoction in combination with A.
zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta
Macedo et al., 2012
Abbreviations: Lantadene A (LA), Lantadene B (LB), Lantadene C (LC), Reduced Lantadene A (RLA), Reduced Lantadene B (RLB),
Ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG)
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 323
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Among ruminants cattle, buffalo and sheep are highly
susceptible, while goats are little resistant to lantadene toxicity
(Lal & Kalra, 1960; Sharma et al., 1988b; Sharma et al., 2007).
Guinea pigs show most typical signs of lantana toxicity
(Sharma et al., 1988b), while male rats are often resistant to
lantana toxicity because of the action of testosterones (Pass et
al., 1979a; Pass et al., 1985; Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma et al.,
2007). The toxic effects of lantana have been seen in
Kangaroos and Ostriches also (Johnson & Jensen, 1998;
Cooper, 2007). Green fodder scarcity is the major causes of
lantana toxicity in animals, mainly in those who are often send
to pastures without feeding any prior feed (Sharma & Makkar,
1981). In spite of having many toxic effects this weed is also
having anticancer (Gomes et al., 2010; Sathish et al., 2011),
antibacterial (Rwangabo et al., 1988; Barreto et al., 2010),
antifungal (Sharma et al., 2007), anti-diabetic (Garg et al.,
1997), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimotility (Ghosh et al.,
2010), anti-feedant, larvae repellent (Moffitt et al., 2010),
anticonvulsant (Bisi-Johnson et al., 2011), antiulcer and
antioxidant actions (Sathish et al., 2011). Oleanolic acid and
ursolic acid are the major components, while LA and LB are
the minor constituents obtained from Townsville prickly
orange variety of lantana (Hart et al., 1976a).
Figure 1 Flow diagram showing different chemical compounds present in Lantana camara.
324 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Figure 2 Flow chart of absorption and mechanism of action of lantadenes.
3 Absorption and mechanism of action of lantadenes
This toxin has been found to be absorbed through entire GIT
(gastrointestinal tract), mainly small intestine (Sharma et al.,
2007). The retention time of lantadenes in GIT plays a
significant role in progression of effect (Pass et al., 1981a).
Bile has not been found to be having any role in toxin
L. camara mainly attacks liver and kidneys of ruminants and
leads to photosensitization. The animals are died within 2-4
days in acute cases. In sub acute lantadene toxicity study a
dose dependent mortality was reported (Parimoo et al., 2015).
Sluggishness, weakness, bloody diarrhea, edematous ears and
eyelids, cracks and fissurs on muzzle and other non-hairy parts,
conjunctivitis, ulceration of the tip and under surface of the
tongue (if un-pigmented), pale conjunctival, vulvar or vaginal
mucous membranes and sclera of eye are some of the clinical
signs observed in lantana toxicity. The acute lantana toxicity
can be induced either by the leaf powder or by partially
purified lantadene powder (Sharma & Makkar, 1981). In
sheep, the oral administration of lantadene leaf powder (at the
dose of 4 and 8 g/kg body weight) leads to photosensitization,
conjunctivitis and bile stained liver while administration of
lantadene leaf powder in goats diarrhoea, anorexia and
jaundice is evident, but no photosensitization has been seen
(Obwolo et al., 1990). The LD50 value of lantadene in sheep is
1-3 mg/kg body weight, when administered by intravenous
route, while the LD50 value is 60 mg/kg body weight when
administered by oral route, because of show absorption (Nellis,
1997). The oral administration of lantadenes at the dose rate of
25 mg/kg body weight did not lead to mortality in guinea pigs,
but produced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects which were
evident on histopathology and on biochemical estimation and
were indicative of sub-acute toxicity (Parimoo et al., 2015).
Transfer of lantana toxins to milk, placenta, or to the offspring
has not been reported, but some teratological effects has been
seen in rats (Mello et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2007).
Lantadenes are also having effect on reproductive system, as
found to interfere with the sperm count, daily sperm
production, and sperm morphology (Sharma et al., 2007).
4 Hepatotoxic action of lantadenes
Lantana toxins cause intrahepatic cholestasis along with the
inhibition of bile secretions without widespread hepatic
necrosis (Pass et al., 1979b). Hepatocellular damage precedes
the intense and prolonged jaundice observed during lantana
poisoning (Sharma et al., 2007). Significantly, in lantana
toxicity, the cells located around the central vein remain
normal, while parenchymal cells lying to the periphery of the
liver are damaged. Generally, changes associated with
intrahepatic cholestasis include dilation of bile canaliculi, loss
of microvilli, alterations in enzyme activities and composition
of the canalicular membrane (Trauner et al., 1998).
Phylloerythrin, a degradation product of chlorophyll formed by
the action of microorganisms in the GIT gets accumulated in
the liver and leads to photosensitization (Rimington & Quin,
1934). This type of photosensitization is also called as
hepatogenous photosensitization, which occurs due to the
impaired hepatobiliary excretion (Kellerman & Coetzer, 1985).
This impaired hepatobiliary excretion of phylloerythrin leads
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 325
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
to its accumulation in plasma. The inhibition of bile secretion
leads to accumulation of bilirubin and ultimately leads to
jaundice (Trauner et al., 1998). L. camara toxicity leads to
collagen fibres formation in advanced stages, which extends
into periportal areas of the liver and can be seen when stained
with Foot’s reticulin and Van Gieson stain (Gopinath & Ford,
5 Clinical signs (de Mello et al., 2003; Sharma et al., 2007)
The dose of lantadenes determines the severity of ictericity
(Gopinath & Ford, 1969). The clinical signs follow a definite
pattern as given below:
I. Loss of appetite and decrease in ruminal motility
(within 24 h)
II. Photosensitization in un-pigmented areas leads to
necrosis later on (within 24-48h)
III. Icterus (yellowish sclera and other mucus
membranes, within 48-72h)
IV. In acute/ more severe cases (death within 2 to 4
V. In less severe cases (death within 1-3 weeks)
VI. In female rats, fetal abnormalities, embryo toxicity
and implantation losses have been reported
6 Pathology
Seawright (1965) was the first to study the effects of oral
administration of lantana leaf extracts on guinea pigs and
observed pathological lesions in heart, lungs, liver, gall bladder
and kidneys.
A. Gross pathology:
I. Liver: Swollen, fragile, pale yellow, mottled with
rounded edges (Sharma et al., 1991, 1992).
II. Gall bladder: 34 times distended with dark opaque
and viscous contents (Sharma et al., 2007).
III. Kidneys: Swollen, pale and yellowish brown
(Seawright & Allen, 1972).
IV. Stomach: Gas accumulation (Sharma et al., 1991;
Sharma et al., 1992).
V. Mucus membranes: Pale (Sharma et al., 1991,
B. On histopathological examination lantadenes showed
degeneration of the periportal parenchymal cells,
distended bile canaliculi, fatty degeneration, portal
fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts, and edema of gall
bladder walls in cattle (Dwivedi et al., 1971; Uppal &
Paul, 1978). Hematological examination in cattle reveals,
increase in blood clotting time and hematocrit values but
decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate has been
reported (Hussain & Roychoudhury, 1992). There was an
increase in direct and total bilirubin, increase in the
phylloerythrin levels, increase in serum AST, ALP,
GLDH, serum total protein, serum albumin, and serum
globulin and decrease in albumin/globulin ratio in cattle
(Dwivedi et al., 1971; Seawright & Hrdlicka, 1977). The
fibrous tissue formation is seen in chronic liver conditions
irrespective of etiology, as in chronic diseases the
myofibroblasts produce type 1 collagen which leads to
Table. 2 Histopathological alterations in different animal species.
S. No
Histopathological alterations
Degeneration of the periportal parenchymal cells, distended bile canaliculi, fatty
degeneration, portal fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts, edema of gall bladder in
Dwivedi et al.,
1971; Uppal &
Paul, 1978
Hemorrhages of inter-sinusoidal spaces, coagulative necrosis, cirrhosis and
proliferation of bile ductules, fatty degeneration of proximal convoluted tubules
of kidneys, proliferation of bile ductules in the liver occurs.
Sharma et al.,
Centrilobular cells vacuolation with bile mainly in chronic cases.
Sharma et al.,
Guinea Pigs
and Rats
Periportal vacoular degeneration, fatty degeneration, haemorrhages, bile duct
proliferation with yellow-brown bile plugs, portal fibrosis in liver. Fatty
degeneration of PCT, vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium of cortex,
hyaline cast in kidneys. Oedema and haemorrhagic ulcer in gall bladder.
Subepicardial petechial haemorrhages in heart along with pulmonary oedema and
haemorrhages in lung.
Sharma et al.,
1992; Parimoo et
al., 2015
Portal fibrosis, bile canaliculi dilatation, degeneration and swelling of hepatic
cells, biliary hyperplasia, biliary cirrhosis in the liver. Tubular nephrosis,
inflammatory interstitial reaction, degeneration of tubules in the kidneys.
Sharma et al.,
326 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Table. 3 Hematological examination in different animal species.
S. No.
Hematological parameters
Increase in blood clotting time and hematocrit values but decrease in
erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Hussain &
Roychoudhury, 1992
Transient increase in the hematocrit value and neutrophils number but a
decline in number of thrombocytes seen.
Seawright, 1963
Progressive decrease in packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and total erythrocyte
count while increase in leukocyte count and blood clotting time observed.
Ali et al., 1995
Increase in hematocrit, erythrocyte and leukocyte number, hemoglobin and
urea levels in acute lantana toxicity. Significant increase in PCV and TLC, but
not in TEC observed in sub-acute lantadene toxicity study.
Sharma et al., 2007;
Parimoo & Sharma,
Table. 4 Biochemical Alterations in different animal species.
S. No.
Biochemical Alteration
Increase in direct and total bilirubin, increase in the phylloerythrin levels,
increase in serum AST, ALP, GLDH, serum total protein, serum albumin, and
serum globulin and decrease in albumin/globulin ratio.
Dwivedi et al., 1971;
Seawright & Hrdlicka,
No change in the serum ALP, AST and ALT levels.
Seawright, 1963;
Dwivedi et al., 1971
Rise of serum bilirubin, AST, creatinine, GGT and BUN levels.
Obwolo et al., 1991
Marked increase in conjugated form of bilirubin, AST, LDH, GLDH, BUN,
ALT and SDH. No significant increase in total proteins, ACP and creatinine
levels were observed in sub-acute toxicity of lantadenes while ALT, AST and
ALP were significantly elevated.
Sharma et al., 1992;
Sharma et al., 2007;
Parimoo et al., 2015
7 Treatment
Specific treatment for lantana toxicity is still lacking, the
preventive measures are more effective than curative measures
to decline the harmful effects of this notorious weed (Oyourou
et al., 2013), but there are some conventional treatment
methods which can be applied (McSweeney & Pass, 1982;
Sharma et al., 2007):
I. Keep the intoxicated animals away from light;
provide fluid therapy and adequate feed.
II. Administration of activated charcoal 5g/kg body
weight with electrolyte in stomach tube within 24h,
which reduces the absorption of lantadenes.
III. Administration of bentonite 5g/kg body weight. It is
much cheaper than charcoal but takes longer time to
show desired effect.
IV. Administration of Tefroli powder obtained from
Tephrosia purpurea plant.
V. Oral administration of liver tonics like Liv-52.
VI. Vitamin B-complex administration.
VII. Enzymatic removal of bilirubin by bilirubin-oxidase,
which is effective in jaundice.
VIII. Herbal tea i.e. Yin Zhi Huang (YZH) from
Artemisia capillaries, effective in neonatal jaundice.
IX. Herbal plants like Tinospora cordifolia, Gingko
biloba, Berberis lycium and Hippophae salicifolia
also show ameliorative effect on L. camara-induced
toxicity in guinea pigs. Gingko biloba has also
shown the protective effect against CCl4 (Shenoy et
al., 2001; Chavez- Morales et al., 2011) and
rifampicin (Naik & Panda, 2008) leads to decrease
ALT and AST levels when fed to rats. Ginko biloba
also shows hepatoprotective action against
glyphosate, uranium and CCl4 toxicity, which are
potent hepatotoxicant (Yapar et al., 2010; Cavusoglu
et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2011).
X. Vaccination can also be done but it is not an
effective measure.
XI. Bacterial strains like Pseudomonas picketii,
Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes odorans can be
used which degrades the LA.
XII. Rumenotomy can be done to evacuate the entire GI
8 Prevention
It is the cost effective way of controlling the accidental
introduction of lantana into the ecosystem. The different ways
by which lantana infestation can be prevented includes
(Priyanka et al., 2013):
i. The international standards for trading partner
countries in a well targeted form must be
ii. The adequate surveillance and monitoring system
for early detection of lantana infestation must be
iii. Implementation of strict border controls, transport
controls and quarantine methods should be followed.
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 327
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
The biosecurity and quarantine system should be
strengthened in an organized form.
iv. Collaboration with government agencies, so that
outline can be made to prevent the spread of lantana.
Involvement of all the agencies concerned with
invasive species management is must.
v. Educate and communicate people regarding the
harmful effects of this alien weed which can be done
by organizing campaigns and training programs.
8 Control and Management
Against this alien weed 41 biological agents are introduced
worldwide since 1902 which covers the largest and longest
running control program for weed control, but no satisfactory
success has been achieved till date (Baars & Neser, 1999;
Sheppard, 2003; Zalucki et al., 2007). In past years a huge man
power and different ways were used to eradicate lantana. Many
mechanical, biological techniques, use of fire etc. were used in
India but no success was achieved. In Australia (Haseler, 1979)
and South- Africa (Marsh, 1978) efforts were made to
eradicate this weed but everything was vain.
9 Strategies which can be opted for controlling L. camara
1. Monitoring of lantana population by mapping, remote
sensing, GPS/GNSS techniques and satellite; assessment and
implementation of control measures like crop rotation, sowing
the pastures, plantation etc. are the key steps to be taken for
successful control of this alien weed (Priyanka et al., 2013).
2. The maximum use of this weed in our routine life can
decrease the incidences of its prevalence. So, the small scale
research projects can be supported to utilize this plant in many
different ways like:
i. Train the people for making furniture, baskets,
mosquito repellent cakes, incense sticks etc. from
lantana. This method is followed in few states of
India like Tamil Naidu.
ii. This plant is a part of folk medicines for many
ailments like cancers, asthma, respiratory infections
etc. (Deena & Thoppil, 2000; Ghisalberti, 2000;
Bevilacqua et al., 2011). In many parts of the world,
this weed is used in the treatment of many ailments
like wound healing, scratches, rheumatism, fever,
toothache, rashes and malaria (Chharba et al., 1993;
Ghisalberti, 2000; Silva et al., 2005). Because of its
multifarious applications in health, this weed is also
called as traditional and tropical folk medicinal plant
(Taviano et al., 2007; Awad et al., 2009; Moffitt et
al., 2010; Pour & Sasidhara, 2011).
iii. In India because of human health concerns and
environmental hazards the insecticides are never
mixed with grains, and biofumigants are often
proven as very good model against the insects and
have no risk of cross resistance as well (Rajashekar
et al., 2012a; Rajashekar et al., 2012b). The extracts
obtained from different parts of lantana have many
beneficial properties like anthelminthic,
antibacterial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory,
termiticidal, antifungal, antiprotozonal, antipyretic
and many more (Siddiqui et al., 1995; Barre et al.,
1997; Kumar et al., 2006; Rajesh & Suman, 2006;
Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012). The
leaves of this weed contain many bioactive
compounds and also have insecticidal activities
(Khan et al., 2002; Dua et al., 2010; Rajashekar et
al., 2012c).
iv. Essential oils obtained from L. camara leaves have
adulticidal activity against mosquitoes (Dua et al.,
2010). The essential oils obtained from the leaves
and flowers of this weed, also shows fumigant
action (Alitonou et al., 2004; Zoubiri &
Baaliouamer, 2012).
v. The leaf extracts of this weed are having inhibitory
effect on aquatic weeds like Microcystis aeruginosa
and Eichhornia crassipes (Sharma et al., 2007; Rai,
2013) and are often used for controlling pests and
almond moths in an environment friendly way
(Gotyal et al., 2010; Rajashekar at al., 2012c;
Rajashekar et al, 2013).
vi. It also improves the hydraulic properties which is
often beneficial to certain crops like wheat and rice
(Bhushan & Sharma, 2005; Rai, 2013).
vii. The fruit eating populations consume dark blue
ripened fruits of this plant as a food (Gosper &
Vivian-Smith, 2006; Sharma et al., 2007; Rai,
2013). So it can be used as a source of food.
viii. The methanolic extract of L. camara can reduce
lipid peroxidation and can elevate the level of
glutathione, thereby can prevent free radicals
induced damage (Loganayaki & Manian, 2010;
Sathish et al., 2011). L. camara along with L.
montevidensis shows antioxidant activity (Sousa et
al., 2015).
ix. This weed can be used as a bio-fuel and in Kraft
pulping (Naithani & Pande, 2009; Bhatt et al.,
x. Lantana camara nowadays is being utilized for
vermicomposting (Hussain et al., 2015).
3. Chemical control includes the use of chemical weapons like
Brush killer 64, Gramoxone, Bladex-H etc. which can reduce
the spread of lantana.
4. The biological control is supposed to be the cost effective
and long term solution to get rid of this alien weed (Hunt et al.,
2008). Risk assessment is most effective tool to check the
stability of biological control agents used against lantana
(Arnett & Louda, 2002; Baars, 2003; Berner & Bruckart, 2005;
Briese, 2005; Sheppard et al., 2005; Wright et al., 2005; Ding
et al., 2006; Hunt et al., 2008). Biological control includes:
328 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Table. 5. List of some useful products obtained from different parts L. Camara.
S. No.
Leaves, stem
Oleanonic acid
Leaves, stem, roots
Oleanolic acid
Antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory
Aerial parts
Camarinic acid, Lantanoside
Lactones containing euphanes
Leaves and branches
(Sources: Sharma et al., 2007; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012)
i. Use of certain biological agents like
plume moth (Lantanophaga spp.), seed
fly (Ophiomyia spp.), fungus
(Corynespora cassiicola) (Pereira et al.,
2003) and Tingid bug
ii. Some of the plants like Aconophora
compressa and Citharexylum spinosum
can be introduced for the biological
control of this weed as in Australia
(Palmer et al., 1996; Dhileepan et al.,
2006; Manners & Walter, 2009; Manners
et al., 2010).
5. In some of the states like Himachal Pradesh the state forest
department has introduced a ―Cut Root Stock (CRS) ―method
for the eradication of this weed.
6. Use of lantana in research can be done e.g. the ripened
berries of lantana are often used for preparing silver
nanoparticles nowadays (Kumar et al., 2015).
7. In many metal polluted tropical and sub-tropical countries
this weed is used in phytoextraction of heavy metals especially
lead (Jusselme et al., 2012; Jusselme et al., 2013; Jusselme et
al., 2015) and phytoremediation of particulate pollution (Rai,
2012; Rai, 2015a; Rai, 2015b).
10 Differential diagnoses
It is little bit difficult to differentially diagnose lantana toxicity
from other plant toxicities, because almost similar kind of
lesions and symptoms are produced by these plants e.g.
Senecia, Crotolaria, Helenium spp (Sneezeweed) produce
hepatotoxicity like lantana poisoning. The oak poisoning also
produces similar signs. Therefore clinical history, clinical
signs, presence of plant in feed and ruminal contents are quite
informative to assess the lantana toxicity.
L. camara is an invasive toxic weed which is dominating
globally and is capable of over-run neighbouring young
plantations. The allelopathic effect is the major contributor for
hampering the growth of surrounding vegetation and flare up
wherever it finds place. The lantadenes are the major toxic
components present in this plant which are responsible to cause
toxicity in almost all the animals thereby leads to economic
losses to the farmers by causing diseases and mortality.
Specific treatment for lantana toxicity is not available and only
preventive measures are supposed to be more effective. Certain
methods for the management of toxicity are often used but are
not much effective. Besides many harmful effects this weed is
having many advantages. But the harmful effects often
supervenes the utility of this weed. So, it is very important to
develop the measures to control this weed in a desirable and
cost effective way. Many approaches are applied to destroy
this weed but most of them are not effective. Only the
utilization of this plant is supposed to be an effective method
for managing this weed. This utilization approach can only be
capable to get rid of the negative impact of this weed on
environment and can help to promote economic upliftment of
rural economy. It is also very important to develop rational
therapies against lantana toxicity by using immunological and
biotechnological approaches, so that along with utilization the
therapeutic measures can be evolved for livestock treatment.
Already many pharmacological effects of this weed have been
known, but still there is a scope to use this plant in the field of
nanotechnology and therapeutics which can provide long term
solutions to avoid the cruelty of this weed to the livestock,
mankind, vegetation and our ecosystem.
Conflict of interest
Authors would hereby like to declare that there is no conflict of
interests that could possibly arise.
Abeygunawardena C, Kumar V, Marshall DS, Thomson RH,
Wickramaratne DBM (1991) Furanonaphthoquinones from
two lantana species. Phytochemistry 30: 941945.
Achhireddy NR, Suigh M, Achhhireddy LL, Nigg HN, Nagy S
(1984) Isolation and Partial Characterization of Phytotoxic
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 329
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
compounds from Lantana (Lantana camara, L). Journal
of Chemical Ecology 11: 979-988.
Achhireddy NR, Singh M, Achhireddy LL, Nigg HN, Nagy S
(1985) Isolation and partial characterisation of phytotoxic
compounds from Lantana (Lantana camara L.). Journal
of Chemical Ecology 11: 979988.
Ali MK, Pramanik AK, Guha C, Misra SK, Basak DK (1995)
Gross and histopathological changes in experimental Lantana
camara poisoning in goats. Indian Journal of Animal Health
34: 1718.
Alitonou G, Avlessi F, Bokossa I, Ahoussi E, Dangou J,
Sohounhloue DCK (2004) Composition Chimique et Activite´
Biologique de l’Huile Essentielle de Lantana camara L..
Compte Rendue de Chimie 7:11011105.
Anderson RC, Liberta AE, Dickman LA, Katz AJ (1983)
Spatial variation in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza spore
density. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 110: 519-525.
DOI: 10.2307/2996286.
Arnett AE, Louda SM (2002) Re-test of Rhinocyllus conicus
host specificity, and the prediction of ecological risk in
biological control. Biological Conservation 106: 251257.
Awad R, Muhammad A, Durst T, Trudeau VL (2009) Bioassay
guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.)
using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.
Phytotherapy Research 23: 1075-1081.
Baars JR, Neser S (1999) Past and present initiatives on the
biological control of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) in South
Africa. In: Olckers T, Hill MP (Eds.), Biological control of
weeds in South Africa (19901999). African Entomology,
Memoir No. 1. Entomological Society of Southern Africa,
Johannesburg, South Africa. pp. 182.
Baars JR (2003) Geographic range, impact, and parasitism of
Lepidopteran species associated with the invasive weed
Lantana camara in South Africa. Biological Control 28: 293
Baars JR, Urban AJ, Hill MP (2003) Biology, host range, and
risk assessment supporting release in Africa of Falconia
intermedia (Heteroptera: Miridae), a new biocontrol agent for
Lantana camara. Biological Control 28: 282292.
Barre JT, Bowden BF, Coll JC, DeJesus J, De La Fuente VE,
Janairo GC, Ragasa CY (1997) A bioactive triterpene from
Lantana camara. Phytochemistry 45:321324.
Barreto F, Sousa E, Campos A, Costa J, Rodrigues F (2010)
Antibacterial activity of Lantana camara Linn and Lantana
montevidensis Brig extracts from Cariri-Ceará, Brazil. Journal
of Young Pharmacists 2: 42-44.
Begum S, Wahab A, Siddiqui BS, Qamar F (2000)
Nematicidal constituents of the aerial parts of Lantana camara.
Journal of Natural Products 63: 765767.
Benites J, Moiteiro C, Miguel G, Rojo L, Lopez J, Venancio F,
Ramalho L, Feio S, Dandlen S, Casanova H, Torres I (2009)
Composition and biological activity of the essential oil of
Peruvian Lantana camara. Journal of the Chilean Chemical
Society 54: 379384.
Berner DK, Bruckart WL (2005) A decision tree for evaluation
of exotic plant pathogens for classical biological control of
introduced invasive weeds. Biological Control 34 : 222-232.
Bevilacqua AHV, Suffredini IB, Romoff P, Lago JHG,
Bernardi MM (2011) Toxicity of apolar and polar Lantana
camara L. crude extracts in mice. Research in Veterinary
Science 90: 106115.
Bhatt YD, Rawat YS, Singh SP (1994) Changes in ecosystem
functioning after replacement of forest by Lantana shrubland in
Kumaon Himalaya. Journal of Vegetation Science 5: 67-70.
Bhatt N, Gupta PK, Naithani S (2011) Ceric-induced grafting
of Acrylonitrile onto Alpha Cellulose isolated from Lantana
camara. Cellulose Chemistry and Technology 45 : 321-327.
Bhushan L, Sharma PK (2005) Longterm effects of lantana
residue additions on water retention and transmission
properties of a mediumtextured soil under ricewheat
cropping in northwest India. Soil use and management 21: 32-
Bisi-Johnson MA, Obi CL, Hattori T, Oshima Y, Li S,
Kambizi L, Eloff JN, Vasaikar SD (2011) Evaluation of the
antibacterial and anticancer activities of some South African
medicinal plants. BMC complementary and alternative
medicine 11: 14. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-11-14.
Black H, Carter RG (1985) Lantana poisoning of cattle and
sheep in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary journal 33:
Bouda H, Tapondjou LA, Fontem DA, Gumedzo MYD (2001)
Effect of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides,
Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata on the mortality of
Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of
Stored Products Research 37: 103109.
Briese DT (2005) Translating host-specificity test results into
the real world: the need to harmonize the yin and yang of
current testing procedures. Biological Control 35: 208214.
Brown JMM, Rimington C, Sawyer BC (1963) Studies on
biliary excretion in the rabbit II. The relationship between the
chemical structure of certain natural or synthetic pentacyclic
triterpenes and their icterogenic activity. P 1. The substituents
330 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
on carbon atoms 3, 17, 22 and 24. Proceedings of Royal
Society B 157: 473491.
Brown JMM, Rimington C (1964) Studies on biliary excretion
II. The relationship between the chemical structure of certain
natural or synthetic pentacyclic triterpenes and their
icterogenic activity. Part 2. The substituents on carbon atoms
17, 19, 20 and 22. Proceedings of Royal Society B 160: 246
Buckley LB, Roughgarden J (2004) Biodiversity conservation:
effects of changes in climate and land use. Nature 430: 2-20
Cavusoglu K, Yapar K, Oruc E, Yalcin E (2011) Protective
effect of Ginkgobiloba L. leaf extract against glyphosate
toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Journal of Medicinal Food 14:
Chambers JC, Roundy BA, Blank RR, Meyer SE, Whittaker A
(2007) What makes Great Basin sagebrush ecosystems
invasible by Bromus tectorum? Ecological Monographs 77 :
Chavez-Morales RM, Jaramillo-Juarez F, Posadas Del Rio FA,
Reyes RomeroMA, Rodriguez-Vazquez ML, Martinez-Saldana
MC (2011) Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract on liver
damage by a singledose of CCl4 in male rats. Human and
Experimental Toxicology 30: 209216.
Chen Y, Liu J, Yang X, Zhao X, Xu H (2005) Oleanolic acid
nanosuspensions: preparation, in-vitro characterization and
enhanced hepatoprotective effect. Journal of Pharmacy and
Pharmacology 57: 259264.
Chen J, Liu J, Zhang L, Wu G, Hua W, Wu X, Sun H (2006)
Pentacyclic triterpenes. Part 3: Synthesis and biological
evaluation of oleanolic acid derivatives as novel inhibitors of
glycogen phosphorylase. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Letters 16: 29152919.
Chhabra SC, Mahunnah RLA, Mashiu EN (1993) Plants used
in Eastern Tanzania VI Angiosperms (Sapotaceae) to
Zingiberaceae). Jornal of Ethnopharmacol 39: 83-103.
Clarson D, Sudha P (1997) Studies on the weeds infestation
and their management in teak plantations. Indian Forester
Cooper RG (2007) Poisoning in ostriches following ingestion
of toxic plants-field observations. Tropical Animal Health
Production 39: 439-442.
Day M, Wiley CJ, Playford J, Zalucki, MP (2003) Lantana:
Current Management, Status and Future Prospects. Australian
Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra.
de Mello FB, Jacobus D, de Carvalho KC, de Mello JR (2003)
Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on rat fertility.
Veterinary and Human Toxicology 45: 2023.
De Milliano JW, Woolnough A, Reeves A, Shepherd D (2010)
Ecologically significant invasive species: A monitoring
framework for natural resource management groups in Western
Australia. Natural Heritage Trust 2 Program, Department of
Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, South Perth,
Australia 14.
Deena MJ, Thoppil JE (2000) Antimicrobial activity of the
essential oil of Lantana camara. Fitoterapia 71: 453455.
Dhileepan K, Trevino M, Raghu, S (2006) Temporal patterns
in incidence and abundance of Aconophora compressa
(Hemiptera: Membracidae), a biological control agent for
Lantana camara, on target and non-target
plants. Environmental Entomology 35 : 1001-1012.
Diaz GJ (2011) Toxic plants of veterinary and agricultural
interest in colombia. International Journal of Poisonous Plant
Research 1 : 1-19.
Ding J, Blossey B, Du Y, Zheng F (2006) Galerucella
birmanica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a promising potential
biological control agent of water chestnut, Trapa natans.
Biological Control 36: 8090.
Dominguez XA, Franco R, Cano G, Garcia FMC, Dominguez
SXA Jr, Pena ML de la (1983) Isolation of a newfurano-1, 4-
naphthoquinone, diodantunezone from Lantana
achyranthifolia. Planta Medica 49: 63. DOI: 10.1055/s-2007-
Drake JA, Mooney HA, Di Castri F, Groves F, Kruger FJ,
Rejmánek M, Williamson M (1989) Biological Invasions: A
Global Perspective. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Drenovsky RE, Grewell BJ, D'Antonio CM, Funk, JL, James
JJ, Molinari N, Parker IM, Richards CL (2012) A functional
trait perspective on plant invasion. Annals of Botany. doi:
Dua VK, Pandey AC, Dash AP (2010) Adulticidal activity of
essential oil of Lantana camara leaves against mosquitoes.
Indian Journal of Medical Research 131: 434439.
Dwivedi SK, Shivnani GA, Joshi HC (1971). Clinical and
biochemical studies in lantana poisoning in ruminants. Indian
journal of Animal Sciences 41: 948953.
Ehrenfeld JG (2006) A potential novel source of information
for screening and monitoring the impact of exotic plants on
ecosystems. Biological Invasions 8: 1511-1521.
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 331
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Ferguson JJ, Rathinasabapathi B (2003) Allelopathy: how
plants suppress other plants. Document HS944, Horticultural
Sciences Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service,
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of
Florida. July. Web page:
Garg SK, Shah MAA, Garg KM, Farooqui MM, Sabir M
(1997) Antilymphocytic and immunosuppressive effects of
Lantana camara leaves in rats. Indian Journal of Experimental
Biology 35: 13151318.
Ghazoul J (2002) Flowers at the front line of invasion?
Ecological Entomology 27: 638-640.
Ghisalberti EL (2000). Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae).
Fitoterapia71: 467486.
Ghosh S, Das Sarma M, Patra A, Hazra B (2010) Anti-
inflammatory and anticancer compounds isolated from
Ventilago madraspatana Gaertn, Rubia cordifolia Linn. and
Lantana camara Linn. Journal Pharmacy and Pharmacology
62: 115866.
Giner-Larza EM, Manez S, Recio MC, Giner RM, Prieto JM,
Cerda-Nicolas M, Rios JL (2001) Oleanonic acid, a 3-
oxotriterpene from Pistacia, inhibits leukotriene synthesis and
has anti-inflammatory activity. European Journal of
Pharmacology 428:137143.
Global Invasive Species Database-GISD (2010) Species
s&fr=1&x=0&y=0&sn=&rn=India&hci=- 1&ei=-
Gomes de Melo J, de Sousa Araújo TA, Thijan Nobre de
Almeida e Castro V, Lyra de Vasconcelos Cabral D, do
Desterro Rodrigues M, Carneiro do Nascimento S, Cavalcanti
de Amorim EL, de Albuquerque UP (2010) Antiproliferative
activity, antioxidant capacity and tannin content in plants of
semi-arid northeastern Brazil. Molecules 15 : 8534-8542.
Gopinath C, Ford EJH (1969) The effect of Lantana camara
on the liver of sheep. Jornal of Pathology 99: 75-85.
Gosper CR, Vivian-Smith G (2006) Selecting replacements for
invasive plants to support frugivores in highly modified sites: a
case study focusing on Lantana camara. Ecological
Management and Restoration 7: 197e203.
Gotyal BS, Srivastava C, Walia S, Jain SK, Reddy DS (2010)
Efficacy of wild sage (Lantana camara) extracts against
almond moth (Cadra cautella) in stored wheat (Triticum
aestivum) seeds. Indian Journal of Agriculture Science 80:
Guo WY, Ni ZJ, Wang ZX, Fu ZR, Li RD (2011) The
protective effectsof Ginkgo leaf extract on CCL4-induced liver
injury in mice. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5: 2361
Hart NK, Lamberton JA, Sioumis AA, Saures H (1976a) New
triterpenes of Lantana camara. A comparative study of the
constituents of several taxa. Australian Journal of Chemistry
29: 655671. doi:10.1071/CH9760655.
Hart NK, Lamberton JA, Sioumis AA, Saures H, Seawright
AA (1976b) Triterpenes of toxic and nontoxic taxa of Lantana
camara. Experientia 32: 412-413.
Haseler WH (1979) Annual Report 197879 Sir Alan Fletcher
Research Station. Queensland, Department of Lands.
Secondary Journal, Biocontrol News and Information 1: 317.
Hayashi KI, Chang FR, Nakanishi Y, Bastow KF, Cragg G,
McPhail AT, Nozaki H and Lee KH (2004) Antitumor agents
Lantalucratins A-F, new cytotoxic naphthoquinones from
Lantana involucrata. Journal of Natural Products 67: 990993.
Herbert JM, Maffrand JP, Taoubi K, Augereau JM, Fouraste I
and Gleye J (1991) Verbascoside isolated from Lantana
camara, an inhibitor of protein kinase C. Journal of Natural
Products 54: 15951600.
Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, and Pluncknett DL (1979)
A geographical atlas of the world weeds. John Wiley, New
Holmes PM (1990) Dispersal and predation in alien Acacia.
Oecologia 83: 288290.
Hunt EJ, Kuhlmann U, Sheppard A, Qin TK, Barratt BIP,
Harrison L, Mason PG, Parker D, Goolsby J (2008) Review of
invertebrate biological control agent regulation in Australia,
New Zealand, Canada and the USA: recommendations for a
harmonised European regulatory system. Journal of Applied
Entomology 132: 89123.
Hussain P and Roychoudhury RK (1992) Liver function tests
in Lantana camara (Linn.) poisoning in cattle. Indian Journal
of Veterinary Medicine 12: 2233.
Hussain H, Hussain J, Al-Harrasi A, Shinwari ZK (2011)
Chemistry of some species genus Lantana. Pakistan Journal of
Botany 43: 5162.
Hussain N, Abbasi T, Abbas SA (2015) Vermicomposting
eliminates the toxicity of Lantana (Lantana camara) and turns
it into a plant friendly organic fertilizer. Journal of Hazardous
Materials 298: 46-57.
332 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Inada A, Nakanishi T, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Iwashima A and
Sharma OP (1995) Inhibitory effects of lantadenes and related
triterpenoids on Epstein-Barr virus activation. Planta Medica
61: 558 559.
Inada A, Nakanishi T, Tokuda H, Nishino H and Sharma OP
(1997) Anti-tumor promoting activities of lantadenes on mouse
skin in tumors and mouse hepatic tumors. Planta Medica 63:
Jain R, Singh M and Dezman DJ (1989) Qualitative and
quantitative characterization of phenolic compounds from
lantana (Lantana camara) leaves. Weed Science 37: 302307.
Johns SR, Lamberton JA, Morton TC, Saures H and Willing
RI (1983a) 22(S) -2-methylbutanoyloxy-3-oxoolean-12-en-28-
oicacid, a new constituent of Lantana camara. Australian
Journal of Chemistry 36: 18951902.
Johns SR, Lamberton JA, Morton TC, Saures H and Willing
R1 (1983b) Triterpenes of Lantana tiliaefolia. 24-hydroxy-3 -
oxours-12-en-28-oic acid, a newtriterpene. Australian Journal
of Chemistry 36: 25372547.
Johnson JH and Jensen JM (1998) Hepatotoxicity and
secondary photosensitization in a red kangaroo (Megaleia
rufus) due to ingestion of Lantana camara. Journal of Zoo and
Wild Medicine 29: 203-207.
Jusselme MD, Poly F, Miambi E, Mora P, Blouin M, Pando A,
Rouland-Lefèvre C (2012) Effect of earthworms on plant
Lantana camara Pb-uptake and on bacterial communities in
root-adhering soil. Science of the Total Environment 1: 200
Jusselme MD, Miambi E, Mora P, Diouf M, Rouland-Lefèvre
C (2013) Increased lead availability and enzyme activities in
root-adhering soil of Lantana camara during phytoextraction
in the presence of earthworms. Science of the Total
Environment 12: 101109.
Jusselme MD, Poly F, Lebeau T, Rouland-lefèvre C, Miambi E
(2015) Effects of earthworms on the fungal community and
microbial activity in root-adhering soil of Lantana camara
during phytoextraction of lead. Applied Soil Ecology 96: 151-
Kazmi I, Afzal M, Ali B, Zoheir A, Damanhouri, Ahmaol A,
Anwar F (2013) Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative-
a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L.
(verbanaceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Kellerman TS, Coetzer JAW (1985) Hepatogenous
photosensitivity diseases in South Africa. Onderstepoort
Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 157 173.
Kessler RC, McGonagle KA, Zhao S, Nelson CB, Hughes M,
Eshleman S, Kendler, KS (1994) Lifetime and 12-month
prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United
States: results from the National Comorbidity
Survey. Archives of general psychiatry 51: 8-19.
Khan M, Srivastava SK, Syamasundar KV, Singh M, Naqvi
AA (2002) Chemical composition of leaf and flower essential
oil of Lantana camara from India. Flavor and Fragrance
Journal 17 : 7577.
Khan M, Srivastava SK, Jain N, Syamasundar KV, Yadav AK
(2003) Chemical composition of fruit and stem essential oils
of Lantana camara from northern India. Flavor and Fragrance
Journal 18: 376379.
Kong CH, Wang P, Zhang CX, Zhang MX, Hu F (2006)
Herbicidal potential of allelochemicals from Lantana camara
against Eichhornia crassipes and the alga Microcystis
aeruginosa. Weed Research 46: 290295.
Kumar S (2001) Management of Lantana in India: trend,
prospects and need for integrated approach. In: Proceedings
Workshop on Alien Weeds in Moist Tropical Zones: Banes
and Benefits 91-106.
Kumar VP, Chauhan NS, Padh H, Rajani M (2006) Search for
antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian
medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107: 182
Kumar B, Smita K, Cumbal L, Debut A (2015) Lantana
camara berry for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Asian
Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 5: 192-195.
Kumarasamyraja D Jeganathan NS, Manavalan R (2012)
Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of
Acalypha indica. International Journal of Pharmaceutical
Science 6: 313-316.
Lal M, Kalra DB (1960) Lantana poisoning in domesticated
animals Lantana poisoning in domesticated animals. Indian
veterinary journal 37: 263269.
Liu J (1995) Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 49: 5768.
Liu J (2005) Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid: Research
perspectives. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100: 9294.
Loganayaki N, Manian S (2010) In vitro antioxidant properties
of indigenous underutilized fruits In vitro antioxidant
properties of indigenous underutilized fruits. Food Science
Biotechnology 19: 725734.
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 333
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Lüi XR (2011) Quantitative risk analysis and prediction of
potential distribution areas of common lantana (Lantana
Camara) in China. Computational Ecology and Software 1:
Macedo IT, Bevilaqua CM, de Oliveira LM, Camurça-
Vasconcelos AL, Morais SM, Machado LK, Ribeiro WL
(2012) In vitro activity of Lantana camara, Alpinia zerumbet,
Mentha villosa and Tagetes minuta decoctions on Haemonchus
contortus eggs and larvae. Veterinary Parasitology 190: 504-
Mahato SB, Sahu NP, Roy SK, Sharma OP (1994) Potential
antitumor agents from Lantana camara: Structures of
flavonoid- and phenylpropanoid glycosides. Tetrahedron 50:
9439 9446.
Manners AG, Walter GH (2009) Multiple host use by a sap-
sucking membracid: population consequences of nymphal
development on primary and secondary host plant species.
Arthropod Plant Interactions 3: 8798.
Manners AG, Palmer WA, Dhileepan K, Hastwell GT, Walter
GH (2010) Characterising insect plant host relationships
facilitates understanding multiple host use. Arthropod-Plant
Interactions 4 : 7-17.
Marsh EK (1978) The cultivation and management of
commercial pine plantations in South Africa. Forestry and
Environmental Conservation Branch Bulletin 56. Pretoria:
Department of Forestry.
McSweeney CS, Pass MA (1982) Treatment of
experimentallyinduced lantana poisoning in sheep. Journal of
Applied Toxicology 2: 1115.
McSweeney CS, Pass MA (1983) The mechanism of ruminal
stasis in lantana poisoned sheep. Quarterly journal of
experimental physiology 68: 301313.
Mello FB, Jacobus D, Carvalho K, Joa˜o RB, Mello (2005)
Effects of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) on general
reproductive performance and teratology in rats. Toxicon 45:
Misra LN, Dixit AK, Sharma RP (1997) High concentration of
hepatoprotective oleanolic acid and its derivatives in Lantana
camara roots. Planta Medica 63: 582.
Moffitt TE., Caspi A, Taylor A, Kokaua J, Milne BJ,
Polanczyk G, Poulton R (2010) How common are common
mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are
doubled by prospective versus retrospective
ascertainment. Psychological medicine 40 : 899-909.
Mohamed NM, Makboul MA, Farag SF, Jain S, Jacob MR,
Tekwani BL, Ross SA (2016) Triterpenes from the roots of
Lantana montevidensis with antiprotozoal
activity. Phytochemistry Letters 15: 30-36.
Moura MZD, Alves TMA, Soares GLG, dos Santos Isaias RM
(2009) Intra-specific phenotypic variations in Lantana camara
leaves affect host selection by the gall maker Aceria lantanae.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 37: 541548.
Muniappan R, Viraktamath CA (1993) Invasive alien weeds in
the western Ghats. Current Science 64: 555558.
Munir AA (1996) A revision taxonomic of Lantana camara L.
and L.montevidensis Briq. (Verbenaceae) in Australia. Journal
of Adelaide Botanic Gardens 17: 127
Munsif S, Khan MA, Ahmad M, Zafar M, Shah GM, Shaheen
N (2007) Leaf epidermal anatomy as an aid to the
identification of genera Lantana, Verbena and Vitex of family
Verbenaceae from Pakistan. Journal of Agriculture & Social
Sciences 3: 18132235.
Nagao T, Abe F, Kinjo J and Okabe H (2002) Antiproliferative
Constituents in Plants 10. Flavones from the Leaves of
Lantana montevidensis BRIQ and consideration of structure
activity relationship. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
25: 875879.
Naik SR, Panda VS (2008) Hepatoprotective effect of Ginkgo
select phytosome in rifampicin induced liver injury in rats:
evidence of antioxidant activity. Fitoterapia 79: 439445.
Naithani S, Pande PK (2009) Evaluation of Lantana camara
Linn. stem for pulp and paper making. Indian Forester 135(8):
Nellis DW (1997) Poisonous plants and animals of Florida and
the Caribbean. Pineapple Press Inc.
O’Neill MJ, Lewis JA, Noble HM, Holland S, Mansat C,
Farthing JE, Foster G, Noble D, Lane SJ, Sidebottom PJ, Lynn
SM, Hayes MV and Dix CJ (1998) Isolation of translactone-
containing triterpenes with thrombin inhibitory activities from
the leaves of Lantana camara. Journal of Natural Products 61:
1328 1331.
Obwolo MJ, Odiawo GO, and Goedegebuure SA (1990)
Clinicopathological features of experimental low-dose Lantana
camara poisoning in indigenous Zimbabwean goats.
Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 21: 17.
Obwolo MJ, Basudde CDK, Odiawo GO and Goedegebuure
SA (1991) Clinicopathological features of experimental acute
Lantana camara poisoning in indigenous Zimbabwean goats.
Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Africa 39: 339346.
Osunkoya OO, Perrett C (2011) Lantana camara L.
(Verbenaceae) invasion effects on soil physicochemical
properties. Biology and Fertility of Soils 47: 349355.
334 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Oyouroua JN, Combrincka S, Regnier T, Marstonb A (2013)
Purification, stability and antifungal activity of verbascoside
from Lippia javanica and Lantana camara leaf extracts.
Industrial Crops and Products 43: 820826.
Palmer WA, Willson BW, Pullen KR (1996) The host range
of Aconophora compressa Walker (Homoptera:
Membracidae): a potential biological control agent for Lantana
camara L. (Verbenaceae). Entomological Society of
Washington (USA).
Palmer WA, Willson BW, Pullen KR (2000) Pullen,
introduction, rearing, and host range of Aerenicopsis
championibates (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) for the Biological
Control of Lantana camara L. in Australia. Biological Control
17: 227233.
Parimoo HA, Sharma R (2014) Orally Induced Sub-Acute
Toxicity of Lantadenes of Lantana camara in Guinea Pigs: A
Haematological Study. Journal of Pathology 1(2): 12-15.
Parimoo HA, Sharma R, Patil RD, Patial V (2015) Sub-acute
toxicity of lantadenes isolated from Lantana camara leaves in
guinea pig animal model. Comparative Clinical Pathology 24:
Pass MA, Seawright AA, Heath TJ (1976) Effect of ingestion
of Lantana camara L. on bile formation in sheep. Biochemical
Pharmacology 25: 21012102.
Pass MA, Findlay L, Pugh MW, Seawright AA (1979a)
Toxicity of reduced lantadene A (22 β-angeloyloxyoleanolic
acid) in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 51:
Pass MA, Seawright AA, Lamberton JA, Heath TJ (1979b)
Lantadene A toxicity in sheep: A model for cholestasis.
Pathology 11: 8994.
Pass MA, Mc Sweeney CS, Reynoldson JA (1981a)
Absorption of the toxins of Lantana camara L. from the
digestive system of sheep. Journal of Applied Toxicology 1:
Pass MA, Poilitt S, Goosem MW, McSweeney CS (1985) The
pathogenesis of lantana poisoning. Queensland Poisonous
Plants Committee, Yeerongpilly Australia. Plant Toxicology
Pass MA (1991) Poisoning of livestock by lantana plants. In:
Handbook of Natural Toxins, Vol. 6, Toxicology of Plant and
Fungal Compounds R. Keeler, and T. Anthony, eds., Marcel
Dekker, Inc., New York. pp. 297311.
Pereira JM, Barreto RW, Ellison CA, Maffia LA (2003)
Corynespora cassiicola sp. lantanae: a potential bio control
agent from Brazil for Lantana camara. Biological Control 26 :
Pour BM, Sasidharan S (2011) In vivo toxicity study of
Lantana camara. Asian Pacific journal of tropical
biomedicine 1: 230-232.
Priyanka N, Shiju MV, Joshi PK (2013) A framework for
management of Lantana camara in India. Proceedings of the
International Academy of Ecology and Environmental
Sciences 3 : 306-323.
Rai PK (2012) An eco-sustainable green approach for heavy
metals management: two case studies of developing industrial
region. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 421-
Rai PK (2013) Plant invasion ecology: Impacts and
Sustainable management. New York: Nova Science Publisher
pp. 196.
Rai PK (2015a) Concept of plant invasion ecology as prime
factor for biodiversity crisis: Introductory review. International
Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 4: 85-90.
Rai PK (2015b) Invasion in different ecosystems, continents
and global impacts on biodiversity: Multifaceted review on
sustainable green approach. International Journal of Green and
Herbal Chemistry 4: 461-473.
Rajashekar Y, Bakthavatsalam N, Shivanandappa T (2012a)
Botanicals as grain protectants. Psyche: A Journal of
Entomology. Article ID 646740.
Rajashekar Y, Rao LJM, Shivanandappa T (2012b)
Decaleside: a new class of natural insecticide targeting tarsal
gustatory sites. Naturwissenschaften 99: 843852.
Rajashekar Y, Ravindra KV, Bakthavatsalam N (2012c)
Leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae) as a potential
insecticide for the management of three species of stored grain
insect pests. Journal of Food Science and Technology 51:
Rajashekar Y, Kumar HV, Kothapalli V Ravindrac,
Nandagopal Bakthavatsalamc (2013) Isolation and
characterization of biofumigant from leaves of Lantana
camara for control of stored grain insect pests. Industrial
Crops and Products 51: 224228.
Rajesh KV, Suman KV (2006) Phytochemical and termiticidal
study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves. Fitoterapia 77:
Rajwar, GS (1998) Changes in plant diversity and related
issues for environmental management in the Garhwal
Himalaya. In Headwaterswater resources and soil
conservation: Proceedings of the fourth international
conference on headwater control 335-343.
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 335
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Rimington C, Quin JI (1934) Studies on the photosensitization
of animals in South Africa. VII. The nature of the
photosensitizing agent in Geeldikkop. Onderstepoort Journal of
Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 3:137 157.
Rwangabo PC, Claeys M, Pieters L, Corthout J, Berghe DAV,
Vlientinck AJ (1988) Umuhengerin, a new antimicrobially
active flavonoid from Lantana trifolia. Journal of Natural
Products 51: 966968.
Samways MJ, Caldwell PM, Osborn R (1996) Ground living
invertebrate assemblages in native planted and invasive
vegetation in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystem and
Environment 59: 1932.
Sathish R, Vyawahare B, Natarajan K (2011) Antiulcerogenic
activity of Lantana camara leaves on gastric and duodenal
ulcers in experimental rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology
134: 195197.
Seawright AA (1963) Studies on experimental intoxication of
sheep with Lantana camara. Australian Veterinary Journal 39:
Seawright AA (1965) Toxicity for the guinea pig of an extract
of Lantana camara. Journal of comparative Pathology 75:
Seawright AA, Hrdlicka J (1977) The oral toxicity for sheep of
triterpenoids isolated from Lantana camara. Australian
Veterinary Journal 53:230 235.
Seawright AA, Allen JG (1972) Pathology of the liver and
kidney in lantana poisoning of cattle. Australian Veterinary
Journal 48: 323331. DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-
Seyoum A, Kabiru EW, Lwande W, Killeen GF, Hassanali A,
Knols BG (2002) Repellency of live potted plants against
Anopheles gambiae from human baits in semi-field
experimental huts. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and
Hygiene 67: 191195.
Sharma OP, Makkar HPS, Pal RN, Negi SS (1979) Lantana
The hazardous ornamental shrub. Farmer Parliament14:18.
Sharma OP, Makkar HPS (1981) Lantana-the fore most
livestock killer in Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh.
Livestock Advise 6: 2931.
Sharma OP (1984) Review of biochemical effects of Lantana
camara toxicity. Veterinary Human Toxicology 26: 488493.
Sharma OP, Dawra RK, Makkar HPS (1988a) Effect of
polymorphic crystal forms of lantana toxins on icterogenic
action in guinea pigs. Toxicology Letters 42: 29-37.
Sharma OP, Makkar HPS, Dawra RK (1988b) A review of the
noxious plant Lantana camara. Toxicon 26: 975987.
Sharma OP, Dawra RK, Pattabhi V (1991) Molecular structure,
polymorphism and toxicity of lantadene A, the pentacyclic
triterpenoid from the hepatotoxic plant Lantana camara.
Journal of Biochemistry and Toxicology 6: 5763.
Sharma OP, Vaid J, Pattabhi V, Bhutani KK (1992) Biological
action of lantadene C, a new hepatotoxicant from Lantana
camara var. aculeala. Journal of Biochemical and Molecularr.
Toxicology 7: 7379.
Sharma OP, Sharma S, Pattabhi V, Mahato SB, Sharma PD
(2007) A Review of the Hepatotoxic Plant Lantana camara.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 37: 313-352.
Shenoy KA, Somayaji SN, Bairy KL (2001) Hepatoprotective
effect ofGinkgo biloba against CCl4-induced hepatic injury in
rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 33: 260266.
Sheppard, AW (2003) Prioritizing agents based on predicted
efficacy: beyond the lottery approach. In: Spafford Jacob JH,
Briese DT (Eds.), Improving the Selection, Testing and
Evaluation of Weed Biological Control Agents. CRC for
Australian Weed Management Technical series 7: 11-22.
Sheppard AW, Van Klinken RD, Heard TA (2005) scientific
advances in the analysis of direct risks of weed biological
control agents to nontarget plants. Biological Control 35: 215
Sheppard C, Alexander J, Billeter R (2012). The invasion of
plant communities following extreme weather events under
ambient and elevated temperature. Plant Ecology 213: 1289
Siddiqui BS, Raza SM, Begum S, Siddiqui S, Firdous S (1995)
Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Lantana camara.
Phytochemistry 38: 681685.
Silva GN, Martins FR, Matheus ME, Leitão SG, Fernandes PD
(2005) Investigation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive
activities of Lantana trifolia. Journal of Ethnopharmacology
100 : 254-259.
Singh M, Tamma RV, Nigg HN (1989) HPLC identification of
allelopathic compounds from Lantana camara. Journal of
Chemical Ecology 15: 8189.
Singh SK, Tripathi VJ, Singh RH (1990) 3β-24-
dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene
acid from Lantana indica. Phytochemistry 29: 33603362.
Singh SK, Tripathi, VJ, Singh RH (1991) A new pentacyclic
triterpene acid from Lantana indica. Journal of Natural
Products 54: 755758.
336 Rakesh et al
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences
Sousa EO, Costa JGM (2012) Genus Lantana: chemical
aspects and biological activities. Revista Brasileira de
Farmacognosia 22: 1115-1180.
Sousa FO, Miranda CMBA, Nobre CB, Boligon AA, Athayde
ML, Costa JGM (2015) Phytochemical analysis and
antioxidant activities of Lantana camara and Lantana
montevidensis extracts Industrial Crops and Products 70: 7-15.
Srivastava SK, Khan M, Khanuja SPS (2005) Process for
isolation of hepatoprotective agent ―oleanolic acid‖ from
Lantana camara. United State Patent. 6,884,908 (April 26).
Syah YM, Pennacchio M, Ghisalberti EL (1998) Cardioactive
phenylethanoid glycosides from Lantana camara. Fitoterapia
69: 285286.
Taviano MF, Miceli N, Monforte MT, Tzakou O, Galati EM
(2007) Ursolic acid plays a role in Nepeta sibthorpii bentham
CNS depressing effects. Phytotherapy Research 21: 382-385.
Totland O, Nyeko P, Bjerknes AL, Hegland SJ, Nielsen A
(2005) Does forest gap size affects population size, plant size,
reproductive success and pollinator visitation in Lantana
camara, a tropical invasive shrub? Forest Ecology and
Management 215: 329338.
Trauner M, Meier PJ, Boyer JL (1998) Mechanisms of
Disease: Molecular Pathogenesis of Cholestasis. The New
England Journal of Medicine 339: 12171227.
Uppal RP, Paul BS (1978) Assessment of hepatic dysfunction
in experimental lantana poisoning in sheep. Indian Veterinary
Journal 55: 779 802.
Van Driesche RG, Carruthers RI, Center T, Hoddle MS,
Hough-Goldstein J, Morin L, Smith L, Wagner DL, Blossey B,
Brancatini V, Casagrande R, Causton CE, Coetzee JA, Cuda J,
Ding J, Fowler SV, Frank JH, Fuester R, Goolsby J, Grodowitz
M, Heard TA, Hill MP, Hoffmann JH, Huber J, Julien M,
Kairo MTK, Kenis M, Mason P, Medal J, Messing R, Miller
R, Moore A, Neuenschwander P, Newman R, Norambuena H,
Palmer WA, Pemberton R, Perez Panduro A, Pratt PD,
Rayamajhi M, Salom S, Sands D, Schooler S, Schwarzla¨nder
M, Sheppard A, Shaw R, Tipping PW, van Klinken RD (2010)
Classical biological control for the protection of natural
ecosystems. Biological Control doi:10.1016/j.biocontrol.
Venkatachalam T, Kumar VK, Selvi PK, Maske AO,
Anbarasan V, Kumar PS (2011) Anti-diabetic activity of
Lantana camara Linn fruits in normal and streptozotocin-
induced diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmacy Research 4: 1550
Verdeguer M, Blazquez MA, Boira H (2009) Phytotoxic
effects of Lantana camara, Eucalyptus
camaldulensis and Eriocephalus africanusessential oils in
weeds of Mediterranean summer crops. Biochemical
Systematics and Ecology 37: 362369.
Verma DK, Singh, SK, Nath G, Tripathi V (1997).
Antimicrobially active triterpenoids from lantana species.
Indian Drugs 34: 390392.
Wachter GA, Valcic S, Franzblau SG, Suarez E, Timmermann
BN (2001) Antitubercular activity of triterpenoids from Lippia
turbinate. Journal of Natural Products 64: 3741.
Weir MP, Bethell SS, Cleasby A, Campbell CJ, Dennis RJ,
Dix CJ, Finch H, Jhoti H, Mooney CJ, Patel S, Tang CM,
Ward M, Wonacott AJ, Wharton CW (1998) Novel natural
product 5,5-trans-lactone inhibitors of human alpha-thrombin:
Mechanism of action and structural studies. Biochemistry 37:
6645 6657.
Wright MG, Hoffmann MP, Kuhar TP, Gardner J, Pitcher SA
(2005) Evaluating risks of biological control introductions: a
probabilistic risk-assessment approach. Biological Control 35:
Yadav SB, Tripathi V (2003) A new triterpenoid from Lantana
camara. Fitoterapia 74: 320321.
Yapar K, Cavusoglu K, Oruc E, Yalcin E (2010) Protective
role of Ginkgo biloba against hepatotoxicity and
nephrotoxicity in uranium-treated mice. Journal of Medicinal
Food 13: 179188.
Zalucki MP, Day MD, Playford J (2007) Will biological
control of Lantana camara ever succeed? Patterns, processes
& prospects. Biological Control 42: 251261.
Zhang WJ, Chen B (2011) Environment patterns and
influential factors of biological invasions: a worldwide survey.
Proceedings of the International Academy of Ecology and
Environmental Sciences 1: 1.
Zoubiri S, Baaliouamer A (2012) GC and GC/MS analyses of
the Algerian Lantana camara leaf essential oil: Effect against
Sitophilus granarius adults. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society
16: 291297.
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 337
... It causes yield losses and the farmer can spend all the available useful time trying to maintain a weed free farmland. He can sometimes abandoned the crop and weed altogether when the farmer is overwhelmed and also cause injury to him and his animals [7], [8], [9], [10]. ...
Full-text available
Crop production involves the combination of various farming systems practices to produce food and cash crops and at the same time have a reasonable control over weed infestation without course to soil health. Weeds are part of agroecosystems community and are neighbors to our crops and the soil. The work was aimed to investigate the weeds that are common in the sites chosen. A simple reconnaissance weed enumeration survey was adopted for the twenty-two (22) arable farmlands by walk through the farms within and round the boundaries. This was investigated between June 2020 as wet season and in January, 2021 as dry season respectively. A total of 154 weed species were recorded for both wet and dry seasons. The wet and dry seasons had 113 and 120 weed species made up of 37 and 36 families respectively. It revealed 168 broad leaved, 32 grasses and 26 sedges, composed of annual and perennial weed species. All the farms were continuously cultivated and mixed cropped, with 27 crop species identified and recorded. The farmers most preferred crops are Manihot esculenta Crantz being a tuberous crop and Zea mays L., grain cereal with 90.91% each from the overall percentage of individual crop species recorded from farmers who planted them on their farmland (Table 1) respectively, and been staple food items in most part of Nigeria, while the least cropped species are (Amaranthus hybridus L., and Solanum lycopersicon L., Ocimum. americanum L., and Solanum sp.) with 4.54% each respectively which are vegetables to supplement peoples ‘diet. Farming systems methods has a tremendous influence on weed species composition in arable farmlands either during the cropping season (wet) or off the season (dry). Some activities are very peculiar within crop production for example bush clearing, and burn, soil tillage in any form or pattern and weed removal either culturally, biological or chemically due impact on weed species in arable farmlands in short or long term and therefore, its impact on crop species and the environment should be minimized and sustained.
... Ingestion of lantana foliage is a main cause of hepatotoxicity and causes huge mortality in areas infested with lantana foliage (Sharma et al 1981). The severity of Lantana camara effects varies by species and is dependent upon the nature, amount, and type of toxic component consumed as well as factors like species, age, sex and condition of the animal (Kumar et al 2016). Jaundice refers to the yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera, and visible mucous membranes along with the deposition of bilirubin in the tissues (Chaudhury et al 2010). ...
... The L. camara species possess a high ornamental value, invasive ability, and allelopathic behavior which contributes to its pantropical distribution. Furthermore, it is recognized for being hazardous for the health of grazing livestock in many regions (Kumar et al., 2016). There are reports associating its consumption with mortality of 1000-1500 cattle within a year (Day et al., 2003). ...
Although Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) consumption has been considered a health hazard for many livestock species, its true feeding value for ruminants should not be disregarded. The present work describes the feeding behavior of 36 Criollo goats towards L. camara in the heterogeneous grazing/browsing context of the low deciduous forest (LDF). An observational methodology focusing on the bite-scale (frequency, size, height, and part of plant) was implemented for eight weeks. Almost all experimental goats (35 of 36) consumed freely and consistently L. camara, including bites (up to 30 cm) directed to leaves, stems, flowers, and fruits. Goats possess anatomical, physiological, and behavioral strategies that help them select a wide range of plant species, and the nutritional context could play an important role on their dietary decisions. Considering the heterogeneity present in the LDF, mixing plant species, avoiding large intake of specific feed resources, and maintaining a constant intake of diverse plant secondary metabolites seems to be the foundation of goat feeding behavior. In conclusion, voluntary L. camara consumption by Criollo goats in the LDF is constant, albeit small. Future works should focus on its phytochemical profile and relationships with the nutritional and health status of goats.
... Phytochemical constituents observed in the plant include saponins [53], tannins, flavonoids, steroids, anthocyanins [54], alkaloids [55], terpenoids [56], glycosides, quinones, cardiac glycosides [57] caumarins, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and phenols [58,59]. Pharmacological activities have been reported on varying extracts of the plant including; Anti-diabetic [60], Antiprotozoan [61], anti-inflammatory [62], antioxidant and antimicrobial activity [59]. A study conducted by Sathish and his colleagues [63], revealed the potential of the leaves of L. camara against H. pylori infection. ...
Full-text available
Peptic ulcer disease affects many people globally. With the increasing resistance to some orthodox antibiotics such as Clarithromycin and Metronidazole, it is important that new acceptable, safer and effective therapies are developed to manage this disease. Various herbal medicines have been used traditionally for the remedy of peptic ulcer disease (PUD), however scientific information with regards to their anti-peptic ulcer both in-vivo and in-vitro as well as clinical studies supporting their use is still inadequate. The Centre for Plant Medicine Research, (CPMR) Mampong-Akuapem, Ghana manufactures three herbal Products namely Enterica, Dyspepsia and NPK 500 capsules which are currently used for the remedy of PUD as a triple therapy at its out-patient clinic with promising effects. The aim of this review is to gather information from literature on the anti-ulcer properties, pharmacological, phytochemical constituents and related activities of herbal plants used at the CPMR for formulation of the triple herbal therapy. This review may, provide some scientific bases for the use of Enterica, Dyspepsia and NPK 500 capsules in the management of Peptic ulcer at the CPMR out-patient clinic. Methods Organization for the review involved the on and/or offline search for information from available literature using electronic data and scientific research information resources such as PubMed, Science Direct and Google scholar. Results In this review, fifteen ethno-medicinal plants used for the formulation of Enterica, Dyspepsia and NPK capsules have been discussed, presenting the description of the plants, composition and pharmacological activity. Interpretation Tables with the summary of reviewed medicinal plants with their anti-ulcer models and inference on possible mechanisms of action were drawn up. The mechanism(s) of action of individual plants and products (Enterica, Dyspepsia and NPK 500 capsules) must be further investigated and established experimentally in-vitro in addition to in-vivo pharmacological and clinical activity studies to confirm their use in the remedy of PUD.
... It is common as an ornamental plant in all parts of the Flora of Ethiopia within an altitudinal range of 500 to 2500 meter above sea level (Sebsebe Demissew and Hedberg, 2006). The distribution of Lantana camara in Ethiopia is great and many ecosystems are affected by this species are cultivated and non-cultivated land, road side, grazing area, rural villages, river side, wetlands, forest and urban areas .It causes the loss of maximum amount biodiversity (Aravind et al.,2010, Habtamu Kefelegn, 2015, Kumar et al.,2016. ...
Full-text available
Invasive alien species represent one of the major threats to biodiversity and all economic sectors. Lantana camara has been ranked as the highest impacting invasive plant species in the study areas. However, its impact on diversity and composition of invaded plant communities has not been well studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Lantana camara on species diversity and composition of invaded plant communities in the study areas. A total of 120, 10m X 10m plots were sampled so as to examine its effects of invasions on the species diversity and composition of invaded communities. A total of 109 species were found in the non-invaded areas as compared to 56 in the invaded areas. The number of species decreased by 48.6% in Lantana camara invaded areas as compared to the control . The mean evenness values of the entire invaded sampled study site and that of the control were 0.24 and 0.81 respectively. Thus, the heterogeneity of the invaded study sites was reduced by 57%. The number of plant families was 44 in the control areas in contrast to only 30 in the invaded areas. The number of plant families decreased by 31.8% in the invaded areas as compared to the control. Therefore, it was noted that Lantana camara has a serious impact on plant diversity hence the finding calls for an urgent management and control strategy against the spread of Lantana camara so as to save the ongoing threat to biodiversity .
... Finally, weed infestation may affect fresh and processed products quality such as beer, wine, forage [18,19]. In this respect, weed residuals may cause accumulation of off-flavors products [20,21], or in some cases, can make them harmful to humans and animals [22,23]. Weeds may also contain high levels of allergens and/or toxic metabolites that, if ingested, can cause asthma, skin rash, and other reactions [24,25]. ...
Full-text available
Weeds are amongst the most impacting abiotic factors in agriculture, causing important yield loss worldwide. Integrated Weed Management coupled with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (drones), allows for Site-Specific Weed Management, which is a highly efficient methodology as well as beneficial to the environment. The identification of weed patches in a cultivated field can be achieved by combining image acquisition by drones and further processing by machine learning techniques. Specific algorithms can be trained to manage weeds removal by Autonomous Weeding Robot systems via herbicide spray or mechanical procedures. However, scientific and technical understanding of the specific goals and available technology is necessary to rapidly advance in this field. In this review, we provide an overview of precision weed control with a focus on the potential and practical use of the most advanced sensors available in the market. Much effort is needed to fully understand weed population dynamics and their competition with crops so as to implement this approach in real agricultural contexts.
Full-text available
Poisonous plants cause tremendous economic losses to the livestock industry. These economic losses are deterioration in their health, decreased productivity, deformed offspring, and reduced longevity. The current study is the first comprehensive report on poisonous plants of Azad Jammu and Kashmir which systematically documents the phytotoxicological effect and mode of action in livestock. The information was gathered from 271 informants including 167 men and 104 women through semi-structured interviews and literature search through available databases. The data collected through interviews was analyzed with quantitative tools viz. the factor informant consensus and fidelity level. A total of 38 species of flowering plants belonging to 23 families and 38 genera were reported. Family Asteraceae (5 spp) was the most dominant, followed by Solanaceae (4 spp), Fabaceae (4 spp), Euphorbiaceae (4 spp) and Convolvulaceae (3 spp). Among all the species collected, herbs were the dominant life form (22 spp, 57.89%), trailed by shrubs (11 spp, 28.95%), and trees (5 spp, 13.16%). Whole plant toxicity was reported to be the highest (15 spp, 39.47%), followed by leaf toxicity (12 spp, 31.58%), seed toxicity (4 spp, 7.89%), fruit toxicity (3 spp, 10.53%), latex toxicity (2 spp, 5.26%), flowers toxicity (1 spp, 2.63%), and berries toxicity (1 spp, 2.63%). The most toxic route of administration was found oral (39 spp, 40.63%), followed by intraperitoneal (24 spp, 25%), and intravenous (21 spp, 21.88%). The most commonly affected organ was found liver (20.41%), followed by gastrointestinal tract (20.341%), CNS (16.33%), skin (14.29%), kidneys (12.24%), lungs (4.04%), reproductive organs (2.04%), spleen (1.75%), blood (1.75%), heart (1.75%), urinary tract (1.75%), and pancreas (1.75%). The maximum F ic value was found for dermatological disorders (0.91), followed by the endocrine system (0.90), gastrointestinal (0.82), neurology (0.77), nephrology (0.67), cardiovascular (0.67), urinary (0.67), respiratory (0.60), sexual (0.60) disorders. Senecio vulgaris , and Ageratum conyzoides were the most important plants with fidelity level (0.95) and (0.87). Nerium oleander , Lantana camara , Leucaena leucocephala , and Ricinus communis were the important poisonous plant with maximum fidelity level (100%). Ricinus communis with reported lowest LD 50 (<20 mg/kg) was the top-ranked poisonous plant followed by Lantana camara and Justicia adhatoda (25–50 mg/kg), Nerium Oleander (157.37 mg/kg), and Datura innoxia (400 mg/kg). We found that knowledge about poisonous plants is less prevailing in the rural areas of Azad Kashmir compared to the knowledge about medicinal plants and poisonous nature of reported plants is due to production of toxic substances and presence of essential oils.
Background The toxicity of Lantana camara weed is common in grazing livestock throughout the world. Specific treatment for the toxicity is lacking. However, herbal plants could be investigated for their effectiveness in inhibiting hepatic damage caused by lantadenes of L. camara. Therefore, the extracts Berberis lycium and Picrorhiza kurroa, which are known to exhibit multiple useful effects were assessed for their hepatoprotective action in sub-chronic lantadene toxicity. Purpose The focus of the study was to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of sub-chronic lantadene toxicity and, the mechanism of hepatoprotection by freeze-dried methanolic extracts of the Berberis lycium root bark and Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome in lantadenes-induced sub-chronic hepatopathy in guinea pig laboratory animal model. Methods Isolation of lantadenes from L. camara leaves, followed by its characterization and quantification by UPLC-MS method was done. The methanolic extracts of ameliorating plant parts (root bark of B. lycium, rhizome of P. kurroa) were prepared and quantification of berberine and picroside was carried out. The in vivo sub-chronic toxicity and amelioration experiment in guinea pigs was conducted for 90 days by distributing them into 7 groups with 6 animals in each group. At the end of the experiment, serum biochemical analysis, oxidation stress levels in the liver and kidneys were determined. Gross pathology and microscopic observations in different organs, Masson’s trichome staining for fibrous collagenous tissue deposition assessment, and immunohistochemical expression of the TGF-β antigen in the liver of animals were done. The effect of lantadenes on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of α-smooth muscle actin in the liver was estimated by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results Sub-chronic lantadene intoxication increased serum ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, creatinine, total proteins and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue; decreased catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione activity in liver tissue; caused hepatic necrosis with bile duct proliferation and TGF-β antigen expression in the periportal regions; upregulated the IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and COX-2 pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and increased the titre of α-SMA in the liver. The P. kurroa extract at 200 mg/kg bw and B. lycium extract at 200 mg/kg bw produced favourable effects against lantadenes-induced hepatic toxicity and significantly reversed these changes to near normal. Conclusions P. kurroa and B. lycium extracts at 200 mg/kg bw can be used to ameliorate the hepatotoxicity produced by sub-chronic exposure to lantadenes. The findings of the molecular pathogenesis of sub-chronic lantadene toxicity and its amelioration in guinea pig laboratory animal model are novel. Further investigations are needed to study the in-depth mechanism of hepatoprotection of P. kurroa and B. lycium in lantana intoxicated grazing (host) animals.
Full-text available
Pollinator richness, abundance and visitation frequency may be affected by the abundance of floral resources and abiotic factors, influencing plant reproductive success. We analysed whether the diversity, abundance and frequency of butterfly visitation on Lantana camara vary across the year in a tropical urban landscape and whether this variation in butterfly community influences plant’s reproductive success. A two-period survey, referred to here as rainier and drier seasons, was carried out in 12 spatially independent plants. Five pollination treatments were applied: single visit, hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, spontaneous self-pollination and open pollination (control). A total of 15,749 flowers were used for fruit production analysis. Butterfly richness, abundance and the reproductive success of L. camara increased in the drier season. Open pollination was ninefold more reproductively successful during the drier season. Fruit production of hand cross-pollinated plants was threefold higher than open-pollinated plants during the rainier season. No significant difference was found between these treatments in the drier season, attesting the highest abundance of pollination during this period. We provide evidence that changes in the pollinator community affect fruit production. The increase in pollinator diversity allows different visitors to pollinate the plant, increasing fruit set through functional complementarity. This effort establishes baseline data of plant–pollinator interactions for further long-term investigations across different weather seasons. The understanding of L. camara and butterflies’ synergism will support conservation measures of pollinator populations.
Investigations to record the diversity and phenological patterns of insect pollinators associated with scrubland weed flora in three sites differing in their land use were made. In this study the plant-pollinator interaction network consisted of 25 insect species and 14 weedy plants associated with crop ecosystems. This research identifies potential weedy plants supporting indigenous pollinators including social bees, solitary bees and wasps. The group-level index revealed that mean number of partners for the pollinators varied from 0.597 to 0.704 while for the weedy plants this value was 1.626 to 1.868. The phenological patterns indicated that majority of pollinators showed congruent pattern in visitation abundance. Among the weedy plants, Caesulina axillaris, Luffa echinata and Alternanthera ficoidea showed high degree, species strength and effective number of partners. The findings suggest that sustainable management of weedy species can provide important forage resources to the pollinators in these ecosystems.
Full-text available
Invasive species are recognized as potential threats to ecosystem and this problem is exacerbated as global trade and travel accelerates and human-mediated disturbance increases. Synergies are lacking across management, research, policies and decision making as there are insufficient networking, coordination and collaboration across organizations and departments to manage invasion. Thus, sustainable management of invasive species is challenging but inevitable given the increasing range of alteration caused by invasion which has little prospect of irreversibility. To be sustainable, Invasive Species Management Framework (ISMF) strategies must include environmental, social, economic and political factors that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across spatio-temporal scales. Although these elemental management strategies are easy to document and comprehend but their implementation is often limited by insufficient control measures, funds, research, socio-economic pressures and political constraints. In this paper, specific objectives for sustainable management of invasive species, Lantana camara - notorious weed, is proposed for Indian settings. Even a few of the outlined ISMF strategies, if incorporated into a management plan, will lead to effective management through increased coordination, communication, transparency, accountability and help avert potential risks posed by accidental and/or intentional introduction of L. camara. Incorporating these management strategies in formulating plans will allow not only allow decision makers to respond quickly and effectively to invasions but will also enable to combat new invasion in a rapidly changing global environment.
Full-text available
An experiment was conducted during 2007-08 to evaluate the seed protectant activity of Lantana camara leaves extracts against almond moth [Cadra cautella (Walker)]. Wheat seeds were treated with different extracts/fractions with 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0 g/kg and freshly emerged larvae were released based on parameters, like per cent weight loss, per cent seed damage and per cent adult emergence. Efficacy of extracts of L. camara on wheat seeds were studied to control infestation of C. cautella and it was found that per cent weight loss and seed damage was reduced as the treatment concentration was increased. Among the various extracts LC 4 hexane extract (hexane fraction) showed maximum reduction in percentage weight loss. At higher doses of 2 and 5 g/kg all extracts showed reduced per cent seed damage but efficacy of extract LC 4 showed significant low per cent seed damage with doses 0.5, 1.0, 1.5gm/kg. Adults emergence could not be observed with highest treatment concentration (5 g/kg) of all the extracts.
Full-text available
The membracid Aconophora compressa Walker is endemic to the Neotropics where it is found on various species of Lantana. Host range tests were conducted to ascertain whether it would be safe to introduce and release this insect in Australia for the biological control of Lantana cainara, a serious weed in many tropical and subtropical countries. These tests, conducted in both Mexico and Australia, indicated that A. compressa was narrowly stenophagous. In all tests A. compressa oviposited and immatures developed on L. camara. In one of three tests oviposition and nymphal development occurred on Duranta repens and in two tests oviposition but not nymphal development occurred on Jacaranda spp. Oviposition did not occur on 55 other plant species tested. Permission to release this treehopper was obtained, and it was released in Queensland in 1995.
Phytotoxins from lantana leaves were extracted in aqueous media adjusted to pH 4, 7, or 10. All three leaf extracts showed considerable phytotoxic activity in duckweed growth bioassay. The acidic and the neutral extracts of lantana leaves at 10 g fresh weight/L were more phytotoxic to duckweed growth than the alkaline extract at the same concentration. Phenolic compounds present in lantana leaves were isolated by alkaline hydrolysis of the crude leaf extracts followed by separation of the various components in ether or aqueous media. The fraction containing the phenolics showed considerable phytotoxic activity against duckweed growth. In addition, the fraction containing the nonpolar substances separated from the acidic and the neutral crude extracts also showed significant phytotoxic activity against duckweed growth. No attempt was made to isolate and identify the phytotoxic component from the nonpolar fraction. Characterization of the phenolic fraction by HPLC revealed the presence of at least 14 phenolic compounds. All three leaf extracts contained the same array of phenolic compounds. However, the quantity of phenolic compounds extracted varied with the pH of the extraction medium. The acidic extract contained p -hydroxybenzoic acid (0.09 mM) as the most abundant phenolic compound, whereas the neutral and the basic extracts contained p -coumaric acid (0.11 and 0.26 mM, respectively) as the most abundant phenolic compound. All phenolic compounds, except p -hydroxybenzoic acid, proved phytotoxic to duckweed growth at a concentration of 1 mM or lower. Salicylic acid was the most phytotoxic of the phenolic compounds detected in lantana leaf extracts. The phytotoxicity of lantana leaf extracts is probably partly due to a complex interaction of all phenolic compounds present.