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Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control

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KEYWORDS
Lantana camara
Lantadenes
Allelopathy
Hepatotoxic
Poisonous
ABSTRACT
Lantana camara is one of the most commonly known noxious weed distributed worldwide. The red
flower variety (L. camara var. aculeata) of this weed is mainly toxic and usually prevalent in tropical
and sub-tropical countries. Lantana leads to hepatotoxicity, photosensitization and intrahepatic
cholestasis almost in all the animals. LA is the main toxic pentacyclic triterpenoid present in this weed.
Lantadene toxicity leads to fatty degeneration, bile duct hyperplasia, gall bladder edema, degeneration
of parenchymal cells and portal fibrosis observed on histopathological examination. L. camara toxicity
causes fluctuation in hematological as well as in biochemical parameters. The management of toxic
effects can be achieved by activated charcoal, vaccination and supportive therapy but are not much
effective. Besides the harmful effects of this plant, there are some beneficial effects also including anti-
inflammatory, hepatoprotective action, antitumor action etc. The control of this weed is difficult because
of its allelopathic action. Nowadays this plant is used in many recent advanced techniques like
phytoremediation of particulate pollution, phytoextraction of heavy metals and many others. Thereby
the use of this plant in the field of research can be an effective way to manage this alien weed. As far as
the toxicity is concerned it can be prevented by the using conventional therapeutic methods along with
immunological, nanotechnological and biotechnological approaches. The aim of this article is to discuss
the information regarding its progression, mechanism by which it affect animals, pathological
alterations, treatment and what strategies we can opt to get rid of this weed.
Rakesh Kumar*, Rahul Katiyar, Surender Kumar, Tarun Kumar and Vijay Singh
ICAR-IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P, India - 243122
Received April 28, 2016; Revision April 09, 2016; Accepted May 21, 2016
Available Online May 25, 2016
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18006/2016.4(3S).321.337
Lantana camara: AN ALIEN WEED, ITS IMPACT ON ANIMAL HEALTH AND
STRATEGIES TO CONTROL
E-mail: rakudoc@gmail.com (Rakesh Kumar)
Peer review under responsibility of Journal of Experimental Biology and
Agricultural Sciences.
* Corresponding author
Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences, June - 2016; Volume 4(3S)
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1 Introduction
Toxic plants are of major concern to veterinarians because of
their harmful effects to livestock in terms of causing mortality
and reduction in productivity (Sharma et al., 2007; Diaz,
2011). The severity of toxic effects caused by poisonous plants
varies among species and depends upon the nature, part and
amount of toxic component taken, environmental conditions,
species, age, size and body condition of the animals (Sharma et
al., 2007). Along with the toxic effects to livestock, these
invasive species are supposed to be the one of the major threat
to biodiversity and ecosystem after habitat destruction (Drake
et al., 1989; Holmes, 1990; Buckley & Roughgarden, 2004; De
Milliano et al., 2010; Osunkoya & Perrett, 2011; Zhang &
Chen, 2011). These invasive plants have turned to predators
and are responsible for causing diseases in animals as well as
in plants (Ehrenfeld, 2006; Chambers et al., 2007; Drenovsky
et al., 2012).
Among poisonous plants L. camara is one of the most
commonly known noxious (Pereira et al., 2003; Mello et al.,
2005) and invasive weed worldwide (Palmer et al., 2000; Baars
et al., 2003; Totland et al., 2005; Moura et al., 2009; Van
Driesche et al., 2010). This weed is responsible to cause heavy
mortality of livestock as well as responsible to cause loss of
agro and forest ecosystem (Day et al., 2003; Mello et al., 2005;
Sharma et al., 2007). L. camara Linn. was introduced as an
ornamental shrub by a British in Calcutta Botanical Garden in
year 1809, belongs to family Verbenaceae (Bouda et al., 2001;
Kumar, 2001; Yadav & Tripathi, 2003; Munsif et al., 2007).
The word Lantana is derived from a Latin word lento, which
means ―to bend‖ (Ghisalberti, 2000). This weed is locally
known as bunch berry, baraphulnoo, red or wild sage (Sharma
et al., 2007). This plant shows change in inflorescence with age
and season that’s why very difficult to classify taxonomically
(Munir, 1996). The binomial name of this plant was given by
Linnaeus in year 1753 (Kumarasamyraja et al., 2012). The
main varieties of Lantana on the basis of flower colour
includes Pink L. camara, White L. camara, Red L. camara,
Pink edged red L. camara and Orange L. camara. Other
important species of the genus lantana includes L. indica, L.
crenulata, L. trifolia, L. lilacina, L. involuerata and L.
Sellowiance but red flower variety (L. camara var. aculeate) is
most toxic (Sharma et al., 2007). A pink variety of Lantana
camara called as Taxon is usually grazed by animals in New
Zealand and it is nontoxic (Black & Carter, 1985).
This plant attains a height of 2-3 m and the branches carry
curved prickles. The leaves are oval, cuneate, rounded at the
base and rugose and crenate at the upper portion, which are
rough at maturity and give an offensive odor (Sharma et al.,
2007). The fruits are greenish in early stages and become dark
blue later on. The green immature fruits are poisonous, while
the ripened dark blue fruits are tasty so often taken by birds as
well as human beings (Sharma et al., 2007). Many species of
lantana are native to Africa and America and has covered
many of the neighboring countries (Day et al., 2003). But later
on this species has displaced the invertebrate population and
other native populations in Africa (Samways et al., 1996).
Lantana camara is among 100 most notorious weeds in the
world and got entry approximately in 60 countries (GISD,
2010; Lüi, 2011). This weed has been found as a major weed
in 12 countries and listed among the 5 most noxious weeds
prevalent in Australia and has covered 60% pastures in
Queensland (Holm et al., 1979; Anderson et al., 1983;
Ghisalberti, 2000). This weed has replaced Quercus
leucotrichphora and Pinus roxburghii forests in Kumaun hills
(U.P.) (Bhatt et al., 1994); invaded the teak plantations in
Tamil Nadu (Clarson & Sudha, 1997); covered Western Ghats
(South India) (Muniappan & Viraktamath, 1993) and heart
water region of Garhwal (U.P.) (Rajwar, 1998). In Himachal
Pradesh, heavy outbreaks of lantana toxicity have been
reported from Rampur Bushair and sporadic cases of toxicity
have also been reported from cattle, buffaloes and small
ruminants (Sharma, 1984).
In general for the success and impact of any weed many biotic
and abiotic environmental factors are responsible (Sheppard et
al., 2012). One of the most important factor for the huge
prevalence of this weed throughout world is its phytotoxic or
allelopathic action which is due to the presence of phenolic
compounds (umbelliferone, methylcoumarin, salicylic acid
etc.) and lantadenes i.e. LA (lantadene A) and LB (lantadene
B) (Achhireddy et al., 1984; Jain et al., 1989; Singh et al.,
1989; Ferguson & Rathinasabapathi, 2003). The suppressive
allelopathic action of this plant has been seen on certain plant
species like Glycine max (Linn), Cyclosorus dentatus Forsk,
Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L. and Lolium multiflorum
Lam (Achhireddy et al., 1985; Sharma et al., 2007). This weed
is mainly disseminated by droppings of moving animal flocks/
birds, cutting and pollination (Ghazoul 2002; Sharma et al.,
2007).
2 Toxic components of Lantana camara
The most important toxic components present in this weed are
lantadenes. Lantadenes are pentacyclic triterpenes (Table. 1)
and often led to hepatotoxicity, photosensitization and jaundice
(Sharma et al., 1979; Sharma & Makkar, 1981; Sharma et al.,
2007). There are 2 forms isolated from lantana toxin i.e.
crystalline and amorphous. The amorphous form is found to be
icterogenic to guinea pigs (Sharma et al., 1988a). Among the
known compounds present in lantana, LA is the most hepato-
toxic component while certain other compounds like
naphthoquinones, oil constituents (citral), iridoid glycosides
(Theveside) and some of the oligosaccharides are of lesser
importance as far as toxicity is concerned (Ajugose)
(Dominguez et al., 1983; Abeygunawardena et al., 1991). The
lantadenes are mainly present in the leaves of this plant
(Sharma et al., 2007) having varying toxic effects among
different species and strains of mammals/livestock. The toxic
effects of this plant are evident both in ruminants as well as in
non-ruminants (Sharma et al., 2007).
322 Rakesh et al
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Table 1 Chemical compounds obtained from Lantana camara and their mechanism of actions.
S.No.
Action
Triterpenoids
References
1.
Hepatotoxic
LA, LB, LC, RLA and icterogenin
Brown et al., 1963; Johns et al., 1983a; Sharma et al
1991; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter et al., 2001; Khan
et al., 2003; Srivastava et al., 2005; Kong et al., 2006;
Parimoo et al., 2015
2.
Antimicrobial and
antibacterial activity
LA, LB, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, 4-
Epihederagonic acid and 24-Hydroxy-3-oxours-
12-en-28-oic acid
Brown et al., 1963; Sharma et al 1991; Inada et al.,
1995, 1997; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter et al., 2001;
Kong et al., 2006; Kumar et al., 2006; Barreto et al.,
2010; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012
3.
Protein kinase C
inhibitor
Verbascoside
Herbert et al., 1991
4.
Anti-inflammatory
Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and Oleanonic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Liu, 1995;
Verma et al., 1997;
Giner-Larza et al., 2001; Benites et al., 2009; Ghosh et
al., 2010; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012
5.
Antitumor
LA, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, Camaraside and
Lantalucratins A-F
Brown & Rimington, 1964; Seawright & Hardlicka,
1977; Mahato et al., 1994; Deena & Thoppil, 2000;
Ghisalberti, 2000; Hayashi et al., 2004; Gomes de
Melo et al., 2010; Bisi-Johnson et al., 2011
6.
Anxiolytic action
(Psychiatric disorder)
UASG
Kessler et al., 1994; Awad et al., 2009; Kazmi et al.,
2013
7.
Antitubercular
LA
Seawright & Hardlicka, 1977; Verma et al., 1997;
Wachter et al., 2001; Kong et al., 2006
8.
Allelopathy
LA, Umbelliferone, Hydroxycoumarin, 6-
methylcoumarin, Salicylic acid, gentisic acid,
Vanillic acid and Quercetin
Brown et al., 1963; Johns et al., 1983a; Singh et al.,
1989; Sharma et al 1991; Verma et al., 1997; Wachter
et al., 2001; Kong et al., 2006; Verdeguer et al., 2009
9.
Antiviral
LA, LB, LC, RLA, RLB and 22beta-Hydroxy-3-
oxolean-12-en-28-oic acid
Johns et al., 1983a; Inada et al., 1995
10.
Hepatoprotective
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Singh et al.,
1990, 1991; Liu, 1995; Siddiqui et al., 1995
11.
Leukotriene inhibitor
Oleanonic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Johns et al., 1983b; Giner-Larza et
al., 2001
12.
Anti-hyperlipidemic
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid
Hart et al., 1976b; Liu, 1995, Liu, 2005; Mishra et al.,
1997; Verma et al., 1997; Chen et al., 2005, Chen et
al., 2006
13.
Antimutagenic
22beta-Dimethylacryloyloxylantanolic acid
Barre et al., 1997; Mello et al., 2005
14.
Nematicidal
Camarinic acid, Linaroside and Lantanoside
Siddiqui et al., 1995; Begum et al., 2000
15.
Antiprotozoal
Triterpnes from Lantana montevidensis
Mohameda et al., 2016
16.
Antithrombin
5,5-Trans-fused cyclic lactone containing euphane
triterpenoids
O’Neill et al., 1998; Weir et al., 1998
17.
Antiproliferative
Apigenin, Cirsilineol, Eupafolin, Eupatorin and
Hispidulin
Nagao et al., 2002
18.
Cardio active
Martynoside
Syah et al., 1998
19.
Insecticidal action
Bioactive molecules without any cross resistance
Seyoum et al., 2002; Dua et al., 2010; Rajashekar et
al., 2012 a; Rajashekar et al., 2012 b; Rajashekar et al.,
2012 c
20.
Anti-diabetic
UASG
Venkatachalam et al., 2011; Kazmi et al., 2013
21.
Inhibitor of larval
hatch and exsheathing
Lantana decoction in combination with A.
zerumbet, M. villosa and T. minuta
Macedo et al., 2012
Abbreviations: Lantadene A (LA), Lantadene B (LB), Lantadene C (LC), Reduced Lantadene A (RLA), Reduced Lantadene B (RLB),
Ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG)
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Among ruminants cattle, buffalo and sheep are highly
susceptible, while goats are little resistant to lantadene toxicity
(Lal & Kalra, 1960; Sharma et al., 1988b; Sharma et al., 2007).
Guinea pigs show most typical signs of lantana toxicity
(Sharma et al., 1988b), while male rats are often resistant to
lantana toxicity because of the action of testosterones (Pass et
al., 1979a; Pass et al., 1985; Sharma et al., 1992; Sharma et al.,
2007). The toxic effects of lantana have been seen in
Kangaroos and Ostriches also (Johnson & Jensen, 1998;
Cooper, 2007). Green fodder scarcity is the major causes of
lantana toxicity in animals, mainly in those who are often send
to pastures without feeding any prior feed (Sharma & Makkar,
1981). In spite of having many toxic effects this weed is also
having anticancer (Gomes et al., 2010; Sathish et al., 2011),
antibacterial (Rwangabo et al., 1988; Barreto et al., 2010),
antifungal (Sharma et al., 2007), anti-diabetic (Garg et al.,
1997), anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimotility (Ghosh et al.,
2010), anti-feedant, larvae repellent (Moffitt et al., 2010),
anticonvulsant (Bisi-Johnson et al., 2011), antiulcer and
antioxidant actions (Sathish et al., 2011). Oleanolic acid and
ursolic acid are the major components, while LA and LB are
the minor constituents obtained from Townsville prickly
orange variety of lantana (Hart et al., 1976a).
Figure 1 Flow diagram showing different chemical compounds present in Lantana camara.
324 Rakesh et al
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Figure 2 Flow chart of absorption and mechanism of action of lantadenes.
3 Absorption and mechanism of action of lantadenes
This toxin has been found to be absorbed through entire GIT
(gastrointestinal tract), mainly small intestine (Sharma et al.,
2007). The retention time of lantadenes in GIT plays a
significant role in progression of effect (Pass et al., 1981a).
Bile has not been found to be having any role in toxin
absorption.
L. camara mainly attacks liver and kidneys of ruminants and
leads to photosensitization. The animals are died within 2-4
days in acute cases. In sub acute lantadene toxicity study a
dose dependent mortality was reported (Parimoo et al., 2015).
Sluggishness, weakness, bloody diarrhea, edematous ears and
eyelids, cracks and fissurs on muzzle and other non-hairy parts,
conjunctivitis, ulceration of the tip and under surface of the
tongue (if un-pigmented), pale conjunctival, vulvar or vaginal
mucous membranes and sclera of eye are some of the clinical
signs observed in lantana toxicity. The acute lantana toxicity
can be induced either by the leaf powder or by partially
purified lantadene powder (Sharma & Makkar, 1981). In
sheep, the oral administration of lantadene leaf powder (at the
dose of 4 and 8 g/kg body weight) leads to photosensitization,
conjunctivitis and bile stained liver while administration of
lantadene leaf powder in goats diarrhoea, anorexia and
jaundice is evident, but no photosensitization has been seen
(Obwolo et al., 1990). The LD50 value of lantadene in sheep is
1-3 mg/kg body weight, when administered by intravenous
route, while the LD50 value is 60 mg/kg body weight when
administered by oral route, because of show absorption (Nellis,
1997). The oral administration of lantadenes at the dose rate of
25 mg/kg body weight did not lead to mortality in guinea pigs,
but produced hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effects which were
evident on histopathology and on biochemical estimation and
were indicative of sub-acute toxicity (Parimoo et al., 2015).
Transfer of lantana toxins to milk, placenta, or to the offspring
has not been reported, but some teratological effects has been
seen in rats (Mello et al., 2005; Sharma et al., 2007).
Lantadenes are also having effect on reproductive system, as
found to interfere with the sperm count, daily sperm
production, and sperm morphology (Sharma et al., 2007).
4 Hepatotoxic action of lantadenes
Lantana toxins cause intrahepatic cholestasis along with the
inhibition of bile secretions without widespread hepatic
necrosis (Pass et al., 1979b). Hepatocellular damage precedes
the intense and prolonged jaundice observed during lantana
poisoning (Sharma et al., 2007). Significantly, in lantana
toxicity, the cells located around the central vein remain
normal, while parenchymal cells lying to the periphery of the
liver are damaged. Generally, changes associated with
intrahepatic cholestasis include dilation of bile canaliculi, loss
of microvilli, alterations in enzyme activities and composition
of the canalicular membrane (Trauner et al., 1998).
Phylloerythrin, a degradation product of chlorophyll formed by
the action of microorganisms in the GIT gets accumulated in
the liver and leads to photosensitization (Rimington & Quin,
1934). This type of photosensitization is also called as
hepatogenous photosensitization, which occurs due to the
impaired hepatobiliary excretion (Kellerman & Coetzer, 1985).
This impaired hepatobiliary excretion of phylloerythrin leads
Lantana camara: An alien weed, its impact on animal health and strategies to control 325
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to its accumulation in plasma. The inhibition of bile secretion
leads to accumulation of bilirubin and ultimately leads to
jaundice (Trauner et al., 1998). L. camara toxicity leads to
collagen fibres formation in advanced stages, which extends
into periportal areas of the liver and can be seen when stained
with Foot’s reticulin and Van Gieson stain (Gopinath & Ford,
1969).
5 Clinical signs (de Mello et al., 2003; Sharma et al., 2007)
The dose of lantadenes determines the severity of ictericity
(Gopinath & Ford, 1969). The clinical signs follow a definite
pattern as given below:
I. Loss of appetite and decrease in ruminal motility
(within 24 h)
II. Photosensitization in un-pigmented areas leads to
necrosis later on (within 24-48h)
III. Icterus (yellowish sclera and other mucus
membranes, within 48-72h)
IV. In acute/ more severe cases (death within 2 to 4
days)
V. In less severe cases (death within 1-3 weeks)
VI. In female rats, fetal abnormalities, embryo toxicity
and implantation losses have been reported
6 Pathology
Seawright (1965) was the first to study the effects of oral
administration of lantana leaf extracts on guinea pigs and
observed pathological lesions in heart, lungs, liver, gall bladder
and kidneys.
A. Gross pathology:
I. Liver: Swollen, fragile, pale yellow, mottled with
rounded edges (Sharma et al., 1991, 1992).
II. Gall bladder: 34 times distended with dark opaque
and viscous contents (Sharma et al., 2007).
III. Kidneys: Swollen, pale and yellowish brown
(Seawright & Allen, 1972).
IV. Stomach: Gas accumulation (Sharma et al., 1991;
Sharma et al., 1992).
V. Mucus membranes: Pale (Sharma et al., 1991,
1992).
B. On histopathological examination lantadenes showed
degeneration of the periportal parenchymal cells,
distended bile canaliculi, fatty degeneration, portal
fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts, and edema of gall
bladder walls in cattle (Dwivedi et al., 1971; Uppal &
Paul, 1978). Hematological examination in cattle reveals,
increase in blood clotting time and hematocrit values but
decrease in erythrocyte sedimentation rate has been
reported (Hussain & Roychoudhury, 1992). There was an
increase in direct and total bilirubin, increase in the
phylloerythrin levels, increase in serum AST, ALP,
GLDH, serum total protein, serum albumin, and serum
globulin and decrease in albumin/globulin ratio in cattle
(Dwivedi et al., 1971; Seawright & Hrdlicka, 1977). The
fibrous tissue formation is seen in chronic liver conditions
irrespective of etiology, as in chronic diseases the
myofibroblasts produce type 1 collagen which leads to
fibrosis.
C.
Table. 2 Histopathological alterations in different animal species.
S. No
Species
Histopathological alterations
References
1
Cattle
Degeneration of the periportal parenchymal cells, distended bile canaliculi, fatty
degeneration, portal fibrosis, hyperplasia of bile ducts, edema of gall bladder in
cattle.
Dwivedi et al.,
1971; Uppal &
Paul, 1978
2
Goats
Hemorrhages of inter-sinusoidal spaces, coagulative necrosis, cirrhosis and
proliferation of bile ductules, fatty degeneration of proximal convoluted tubules
of kidneys, proliferation of bile ductules in the liver occurs.
Sharma et al.,
2007
3
Sheep
Centrilobular cells vacuolation with bile mainly in chronic cases.
Sharma et al.,
2007
4
Guinea Pigs
and Rats
Periportal vacoular degeneration, fatty degeneration, haemorrhages, bile duct
proliferation with yellow-brown bile plugs, portal fibrosis in liver. Fatty
degeneration of PCT, vacuolar degeneration of tubular epithelium of cortex,
hyaline cast in kidneys. Oedema and haemorrhagic ulcer in gall bladder.
Subepicardial petechial haemorrhages in heart along with pulmonary oedema and
haemorrhages in lung.
Sharma et al.,
1992; Parimoo et
al., 2015
5
Rabbits
Portal fibrosis, bile canaliculi dilatation, degeneration and swelling of hepatic
cells, biliary hyperplasia, biliary cirrhosis in the liver. Tubular nephrosis,
inflammatory interstitial reaction, degeneration of tubules in the kidneys.
Sharma et al.,
2007
326 Rakesh et al
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Table. 3 Hematological examination in different animal species.
S. No.
Species
Hematological parameters
References
1.
Cattle
Increase in blood clotting time and hematocrit values but decrease in
erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
Hussain &
Roychoudhury, 1992
2.
Sheep
Transient increase in the hematocrit value and neutrophils number but a
decline in number of thrombocytes seen.
Seawright, 1963
3.
Goat
Progressive decrease in packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and total erythrocyte
count while increase in leukocyte count and blood clotting time observed.
Ali et al., 1995
4.
Guinea
pigs
Increase in hematocrit, erythrocyte and leukocyte number, hemoglobin and
urea levels in acute lantana toxicity. Significant increase in PCV and TLC, but
not in TEC observed in sub-acute lantadene toxicity study.
Sharma et al., 2007;
Parimoo & Sharma,
2014
Table. 4 Biochemical Alterations in different animal species.
S. No.
Species
Biochemical Alteration
References
1.
Cattle
Increase in direct and total bilirubin, increase in the phylloerythrin levels,
increase in serum AST, ALP, GLDH, serum total protein, serum albumin, and
serum globulin and decrease in albumin/globulin ratio.
Dwivedi et al., 1971;
Seawright & Hrdlicka,
1977
2.
Sheep
No change in the serum ALP, AST and ALT levels.
Seawright, 1963;
Dwivedi et al., 1971
3.
Goats
Rise of serum bilirubin, AST, creatinine, GGT and BUN levels.
Obwolo et al., 1991
4.
Guinea
pigs
Marked increase in conjugated form of bilirubin, AST, LDH, GLDH, BUN,
ALT and SDH. No significant increase in total proteins, ACP and creatinine
levels were observed in sub-acute toxicity of lantadenes while ALT, AST and
ALP were significantly elevated.
Sharma et al., 1992;
Sharma et al., 2007;
Parimoo et al., 2015
7 Treatment
Specific treatment for lantana toxicity is still lacking, the
preventive measures are more effective than curative measures
to decline the harmful effects of this notorious weed (Oyourou
et al., 2013), but there are some conventional treatment
methods which can be applied (McSweeney & Pass, 1982;
Sharma et al., 2007):
I. Keep the intoxicated animals away from light;
provide fluid therapy and adequate feed.
II. Administration of activated charcoal 5g/kg body
weight with electrolyte in stomach tube within 24h,
which reduces the absorption of lantadenes.
III. Administration of bentonite 5g/kg body weight. It is
much cheaper than charcoal but takes longer time to
show desired effect.
IV. Administration of Tefroli powder obtained from
Tephrosia purpurea plant.
V. Oral administration of liver tonics like Liv-52.
VI. Vitamin B-complex administration.
VII. Enzymatic removal of bilirubin by bilirubin-oxidase,
which is effective in jaundice.
VIII. Herbal tea i.e. Yin Zhi Huang (YZH) from
Artemisia capillaries, effective in neonatal jaundice.
IX. Herbal plants like Tinospora cordifolia, Gingko
biloba, Berberis lycium and Hippophae salicifolia
also show ameliorative effect on L. camara-induced
toxicity in guinea pigs. Gingko biloba has also
shown the protective effect against CCl4 (Shenoy et
al., 2001; Chavez- Morales et al., 2011) and
rifampicin (Naik & Panda, 2008) leads to decrease
ALT and AST levels when fed to rats. Ginko biloba
also shows hepatoprotective action against
glyphosate, uranium and CCl4 toxicity, which are
potent hepatotoxicant (Yapar et al., 2010; Cavusoglu
et al., 2011; Guo et al., 2011).
X. Vaccination can also be done but it is not an
effective measure.
XI. Bacterial strains like Pseudomonas picketii,
Alcaligenes faecalis and Alcaligenes odorans can be
used which degrades the LA.
XII. Rumenotomy can be done to evacuate the entire GI
tract.
8 Prevention
It is the cost effective way of controlling the accidental
introduction of lantana into the ecosystem. The different ways
by which lantana infestation can be prevented includes
(Priyanka et al., 2013):
i. The international standards for trading partner
countries in a well targeted form must be
implemented.
ii. The adequate surveillance and monitoring system
for early detection of lantana infestation must be
implemented.
iii. Implementation of strict border controls, transport
controls and quarantine methods should be followed.
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The biosecurity and quarantine system should be
strengthened in an organized form.
iv. Collaboration with government agencies, so that
outline can be made to prevent the spread of lantana.
Involvement of all the agencies concerned with
invasive species management is must.
v. Educate and communicate people regarding the
harmful effects of this alien weed which can be done
by organizing campaigns and training programs.
8 Control and Management
Against this alien weed 41 biological agents are introduced
worldwide since 1902 which covers the largest and longest
running control program for weed control, but no satisfactory
success has been achieved till date (Baars & Neser, 1999;
Sheppard, 2003; Zalucki et al., 2007). In past years a huge man
power and different ways were used to eradicate lantana. Many
mechanical, biological techniques, use of fire etc. were used in
India but no success was achieved. In Australia (Haseler, 1979)
and South- Africa (Marsh, 1978) efforts were made to
eradicate this weed but everything was vain.
9 Strategies which can be opted for controlling L. camara
includes
1. Monitoring of lantana population by mapping, remote
sensing, GPS/GNSS techniques and satellite; assessment and
implementation of control measures like crop rotation, sowing
the pastures, plantation etc. are the key steps to be taken for
successful control of this alien weed (Priyanka et al., 2013).
2. The maximum use of this weed in our routine life can
decrease the incidences of its prevalence. So, the small scale
research projects can be supported to utilize this plant in many
different ways like:
i. Train the people for making furniture, baskets,
mosquito repellent cakes, incense sticks etc. from
lantana. This method is followed in few states of
India like Tamil Naidu.
ii. This plant is a part of folk medicines for many
ailments like cancers, asthma, respiratory infections
etc. (Deena & Thoppil, 2000; Ghisalberti, 2000;
Bevilacqua et al., 2011). In many parts of the world,
this weed is used in the treatment of many ailments
like wound healing, scratches, rheumatism, fever,
toothache, rashes and malaria (Chharba et al., 1993;
Ghisalberti, 2000; Silva et al., 2005). Because of its
multifarious applications in health, this weed is also
called as traditional and tropical folk medicinal plant
(Taviano et al., 2007; Awad et al., 2009; Moffitt et
al., 2010; Pour & Sasidhara, 2011).
iii. In India because of human health concerns and
environmental hazards the insecticides are never
mixed with grains, and biofumigants are often
proven as very good model against the insects and
have no risk of cross resistance as well (Rajashekar
et al., 2012a; Rajashekar et al., 2012b). The extracts
obtained from different parts of lantana have many
beneficial properties like anthelminthic,
antibacterial, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory,
termiticidal, antifungal, antiprotozonal, antipyretic
and many more (Siddiqui et al., 1995; Barre et al.,
1997; Kumar et al., 2006; Rajesh & Suman, 2006;
Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012). The
leaves of this weed contain many bioactive
compounds and also have insecticidal activities
(Khan et al., 2002; Dua et al., 2010; Rajashekar et
al., 2012c).
iv. Essential oils obtained from L. camara leaves have
adulticidal activity against mosquitoes (Dua et al.,
2010). The essential oils obtained from the leaves
and flowers of this weed, also shows fumigant
action (Alitonou et al., 2004; Zoubiri &
Baaliouamer, 2012).
v. The leaf extracts of this weed are having inhibitory
effect on aquatic weeds like Microcystis aeruginosa
and Eichhornia crassipes (Sharma et al., 2007; Rai,
2013) and are often used for controlling pests and
almond moths in an environment friendly way
(Gotyal et al., 2010; Rajashekar at al., 2012c;
Rajashekar et al, 2013).
vi. It also improves the hydraulic properties which is
often beneficial to certain crops like wheat and rice
(Bhushan & Sharma, 2005; Rai, 2013).
vii. The fruit eating populations consume dark blue
ripened fruits of this plant as a food (Gosper &
Vivian-Smith, 2006; Sharma et al., 2007; Rai,
2013). So it can be used as a source of food.
viii. The methanolic extract of L. camara can reduce
lipid peroxidation and can elevate the level of
glutathione, thereby can prevent free radicals
induced damage (Loganayaki & Manian, 2010;
Sathish et al., 2011). L. camara along with L.
montevidensis shows antioxidant activity (Sousa et
al., 2015).
ix. This weed can be used as a bio-fuel and in Kraft
pulping (Naithani & Pande, 2009; Bhatt et al.,
2011).
x. Lantana camara nowadays is being utilized for
vermicomposting (Hussain et al., 2015).
3. Chemical control includes the use of chemical weapons like
Brush killer 64, Gramoxone, Bladex-H etc. which can reduce
the spread of lantana.
4. The biological control is supposed to be the cost effective
and long term solution to get rid of this alien weed (Hunt et al.,
2008). Risk assessment is most effective tool to check the
stability of biological control agents used against lantana
(Arnett & Louda, 2002; Baars, 2003; Berner & Bruckart, 2005;
Briese, 2005; Sheppard et al., 2005; Wright et al., 2005; Ding
et al., 2006; Hunt et al., 2008). Biological control includes:
328 Rakesh et al
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Table. 5. List of some useful products obtained from different parts L. Camara.
S. No.
Part
Compounds
Action
1.
Leaves, stem
Oleanonic acid
Anti-inflammatory
2.
Leaves, stem, roots
Oleanolic acid
Antimicrobial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory
3.
Aerial parts
Camarinic acid, Lantanoside
Nematicidal
4.
Leaves
Lactones containing euphanes
Anti-thrombin
5.
Leaves
Apigenin
Anti-proliferative
6.
Leaves
Camaraside
Antitumor
7.
Leaves and branches
Martynoside
Cardioactive
(Sources: Sharma et al., 2007; Hussain et al., 2011; Sousa & Costa, 2012)
i. Use of certain biological agents like
plume moth (Lantanophaga spp.), seed
fly (Ophiomyia spp.), fungus
(Corynespora cassiicola) (Pereira et al.,
2003) and Tingid bug
(Leptobyrsadecora).
ii. Some of the plants like Aconophora
compressa and Citharexylum spinosum
can be introduced for the biological
control of this weed as in Australia
(Palmer et al., 1996; Dhileepan et al.,
2006; Manners & Walter, 2009; Manners
et al., 2010).
5. In some of the states like Himachal Pradesh the state forest
department has introduced a ―Cut Root Stock (CRS) ―method
for the eradication of this weed.
6. Use of lantana in research can be done e.g. the ripened
berries of lantana are often used for preparing silver
nanoparticles nowadays (Kumar et al., 2015).
7. In many metal polluted tropical and sub-tropical countries
this weed is used in phytoextraction of heavy metals especially
lead (Jusselme et al., 2012; Jusselme et al., 2013; Jusselme et
al., 2015) and phytoremediation of particulate pollution (Rai,
2012; Rai, 2015a; Rai, 2015b).
10 Differential diagnoses
It is little bit difficult to differentially diagnose lantana toxicity
from other plant toxicities, because almost similar kind of
lesions and symptoms are produced by these plants e.g.
Senecia, Crotolaria, Helenium spp (Sneezeweed) produce
hepatotoxicity like lantana poisoning. The oak poisoning also
produces similar signs. Therefore clinical history, clinical
signs, presence of plant in feed and ruminal contents are quite
informative to assess the lantana toxicity.
Conclusion
L. camara is an invasive toxic weed which is dominating
globally and is capable of over-run neighbouring young
plantations. The allelopathic effect is the major contributor for
hampering the growth of surrounding vegetation and flare up
wherever it finds place. The lantadenes are the major toxic
components present in this plant which are responsible to cause
toxicity in almost all the animals thereby leads to economic
losses to the farmers by causing diseases and mortality.
Specific treatment for lantana toxicity is not available and only
preventive measures are supposed to be more effective. Certain
methods for the management of toxicity are often used but are
not much effective. Besides many harmful effects this weed is
having many advantages. But the harmful effects often
supervenes the utility of this weed. So, it is very important to
develop the measures to control this weed in a desirable and
cost effective way. Many approaches are applied to destroy
this weed but most of them are not effective. Only the
utilization of this plant is supposed to be an effective method
for managing this weed. This utilization approach can only be
capable to get rid of the negative impact of this weed on
environment and can help to promote economic upliftment of
rural economy. It is also very important to develop rational
therapies against lantana toxicity by using immunological and
biotechnological approaches, so that along with utilization the
therapeutic measures can be evolved for livestock treatment.
Already many pharmacological effects of this weed have been
known, but still there is a scope to use this plant in the field of
nanotechnology and therapeutics which can provide long term
solutions to avoid the cruelty of this weed to the livestock,
mankind, vegetation and our ecosystem.
Conflict of interest
Authors would hereby like to declare that there is no conflict of
interests that could possibly arise.
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... Ingestion of lantana foliage is a main cause of hepatotoxicity and causes huge mortality in areas infested with lantana foliage (Sharma et al 1981). The severity of Lantana camara effects varies by species and is dependent upon the nature, amount, and type of toxic component consumed as well as factors like species, age, sex and condition of the animal (Kumar et al 2016). Jaundice refers to the yellowish discoloration of the skin, sclera, and visible mucous membranes along with the deposition of bilirubin in the tissues (Chaudhury et al 2010). ...
... The L. camara species possess a high ornamental value, invasive ability, and allelopathic behavior which contributes to its pantropical distribution. Furthermore, it is recognized for being hazardous for the health of grazing livestock in many regions (Kumar et al., 2016). There are reports associating its consumption with mortality of 1000-1500 cattle within a year (Day et al., 2003). ...
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... It is common as an ornamental plant in all parts of the Flora of Ethiopia within an altitudinal range of 500 to 2500 meter above sea level (Sebsebe Demissew and Hedberg, 2006). The distribution of Lantana camara in Ethiopia is great and many ecosystems are affected by this species are cultivated and non-cultivated land, road side, grazing area, rural villages, river side, wetlands, forest and urban areas .It causes the loss of maximum amount biodiversity (Aravind et al.,2010, Habtamu Kefelegn, 2015, Kumar et al.,2016. ...
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Invasive alien species represent one of the major threats to biodiversity and all economic sectors. Lantana camara has been ranked as the highest impacting invasive plant species in the study areas. However, its impact on diversity and composition of invaded plant communities has not been well studied. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of Lantana camara on species diversity and composition of invaded plant communities in the study areas. A total of 120, 10m X 10m plots were sampled so as to examine its effects of invasions on the species diversity and composition of invaded communities. A total of 109 species were found in the non-invaded areas as compared to 56 in the invaded areas. The number of species decreased by 48.6% in Lantana camara invaded areas as compared to the control . The mean evenness values of the entire invaded sampled study site and that of the control were 0.24 and 0.81 respectively. Thus, the heterogeneity of the invaded study sites was reduced by 57%. The number of plant families was 44 in the control areas in contrast to only 30 in the invaded areas. The number of plant families decreased by 31.8% in the invaded areas as compared to the control. Therefore, it was noted that Lantana camara has a serious impact on plant diversity hence the finding calls for an urgent management and control strategy against the spread of Lantana camara so as to save the ongoing threat to biodiversity .
... Finally, weed infestation may affect fresh and processed products quality such as beer, wine, forage [18,19]. In this respect, weed residuals may cause accumulation of off-flavors products [20,21], or in some cases, can make them harmful to humans and animals [22,23]. Weeds may also contain high levels of allergens and/or toxic metabolites that, if ingested, can cause asthma, skin rash, and other reactions [24,25]. ...
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Background The toxicity of Lantana camara weed is common in grazing livestock throughout the world. Specific treatment for the toxicity is lacking. However, herbal plants could be investigated for their effectiveness in inhibiting hepatic damage caused by lantadenes of L. camara. Therefore, the extracts Berberis lycium and Picrorhiza kurroa, which are known to exhibit multiple useful effects were assessed for their hepatoprotective action in sub-chronic lantadene toxicity. Purpose The focus of the study was to investigate the molecular pathogenesis of sub-chronic lantadene toxicity and, the mechanism of hepatoprotection by freeze-dried methanolic extracts of the Berberis lycium root bark and Picrorhiza kurroa rhizome in lantadenes-induced sub-chronic hepatopathy in guinea pig laboratory animal model. Methods Isolation of lantadenes from L. camara leaves, followed by its characterization and quantification by UPLC-MS method was done. The methanolic extracts of ameliorating plant parts (root bark of B. lycium, rhizome of P. kurroa) were prepared and quantification of berberine and picroside was carried out. The in vivo sub-chronic toxicity and amelioration experiment in guinea pigs was conducted for 90 days by distributing them into 7 groups with 6 animals in each group. At the end of the experiment, serum biochemical analysis, oxidation stress levels in the liver and kidneys were determined. Gross pathology and microscopic observations in different organs, Masson’s trichome staining for fibrous collagenous tissue deposition assessment, and immunohistochemical expression of the TGF-β antigen in the liver of animals were done. The effect of lantadenes on pro-inflammatory cytokines and the level of α-smooth muscle actin in the liver was estimated by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Results Sub-chronic lantadene intoxication increased serum ALT, AST, ALP, bilirubin, creatinine, total proteins and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue; decreased catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione activity in liver tissue; caused hepatic necrosis with bile duct proliferation and TGF-β antigen expression in the periportal regions; upregulated the IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, and COX-2 pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and increased the titre of α-SMA in the liver. The P. kurroa extract at 200 mg/kg bw and B. lycium extract at 200 mg/kg bw produced favourable effects against lantadenes-induced hepatic toxicity and significantly reversed these changes to near normal. Conclusions P. kurroa and B. lycium extracts at 200 mg/kg bw can be used to ameliorate the hepatotoxicity produced by sub-chronic exposure to lantadenes. The findings of the molecular pathogenesis of sub-chronic lantadene toxicity and its amelioration in guinea pig laboratory animal model are novel. Further investigations are needed to study the in-depth mechanism of hepatoprotection of P. kurroa and B. lycium in lantana intoxicated grazing (host) animals.
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