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Impact of ethical leadership on creativity: the role of psychological empowerment

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  • Namal Institute

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This study examines the relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity with mediating role of psychological empowerment. Data were collected from 183 supervisor–subordinate dyads in different hotels across Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the distinctiveness of variables used in our study. The results also confirmed that ethical leadership promotes creativity at workplace, while psychological empowerment mediates the effect of ethical leadership on creativity. The cognitive evaluation theory was used to support findings. Implications are also discussed.
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Impact of ethical leadership on creativity: the role
of psychological empowerment
Basharat Javed, Atique Arif Khan, Sajid Bashir & Surendra Arjoon
To cite this article: Basharat Javed, Atique Arif Khan, Sajid Bashir & Surendra Arjoon (2016):
Impact of ethical leadership on creativity: the role of psychological empowerment, Current
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Impact of ethical leadership on creativity: the role of psychological
Basharat Javed
*, Atique Arif Khan
, Sajid Bashir
and Surendra Arjoon
Management and Social Sciences, Capital University of Science and Technology Islamabad,
Zone-V, Kahota Road Islamabad, Pakistan;
Department of Management Studies/Arthur Lok Jack
Graduate School of Business, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine Campus, St
Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
(Received 2 March 2016; accepted 8 May 2016)
This study examines the relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity
with mediating role of psychological empowerment. Data were collected from 183
supervisorsubordinate dyads in different hotels across Pakistan. Conrmatory factor
analysis conrmed the distinctiveness of variables used in our study. The results also
conrmed that ethical leadership promotes creativity at workplace, while
psychological empowerment mediates the effect of ethical leadership on creativity.
The cognitive evaluation theory was used to support ndings. Implications are also
Keywords: employee creativity; ethical leadership; psychological empowerment; hotel;
services Pakistan
Creativity in business is of increasing concern in the research studies (Shalley & Zhou,
2008) and serves as a means of survival in an environment characterized by dynamic
changes (Amabile, 1996; Gourlay & McGrath, 2013; Hirst, Van Knippenberg, & Zhou,
2009; McMahon & Ford, 2012; Porter, 1998; Xia & Li-Ping Tang, 2011). Therefore, organ-
izations have focused on developing and fostering a culture of creativity (George & Zhou,
2001). Ethical leadership is seen as one of the main driving forces in developing and sus-
taining a culture of creativity. As such, the quest to understand ethical leadership continues
to be at the forefront among researchers, individuals, organizations, and societies across the
world (Gu, Tang, & Jiang, 2015).
In the current era, scholars have placed signicant consideration on the contribution of
leadership in promoting creativity via developing new and novel ideas. Numerous studies
have found a positive relationship between ethical leadership, as well as, a negative
relationship between controlling/authoritative leadership and employee creativity
(Amabile, Schatzel, Moneta, & Kramer, 2004; Amundsen & Martinsen, 2015; Bryant,
2003; Gupta & Singh, 2015; Jung, Chow, & Wu, 2003; McMahon & Ford, 2012; Shin
& Zhou, 2003; Tierney & Farmer, 2002,2004; Wang & Zhu, 2011). Ethical leaders:
build community, have effective communication with their subordinates, (Brown,
Treviño, & Harrison, 2005) and promote an environment which encourages innovative
thinking (Madjar, Oldham, & Pratt, 2002).
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
*Corresponding author. Email:
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Creativity in an organizational setting is a non-routine task and therefore ways to foster
creativity warrant serious consideration and commitment fromthe top in recognizing it as a pri-
ority for the organization. Creativity requires breaking the rules of traditional thinking, taking
risks, creating constructive conict, and challenging authority (Baucus, Norton, Baucus, &
Human, 2008). In addressing the creative process to bring about these requirements, ethical
leaders recognize the need to promote psychological empowerment among their employees.
Psychologically empowered employees are intrinsically motivated, competent, and self-deter-
mined. Psychological empowerment therefore encourages creativity (Seibert, Wang, & Court-
right, 2011). It therefore appears that psychological empowerment mediates the relationship
between ethical leadership and employee creativity (Chughtai, 2014).
The majority of ethical management scholarship usually describes the inuence of
ethical leadership on the outcomes of societal learning or societal exchange (Brown &
Treviño, 2006; Brown et al., 2005; Chughtai, 2014). However, Tu and Lu (2013) used a
different approach and explained the psychological mechanism between ethical leadership
and creativity through cognitive evaluation theory (CET) based on the tenet that external
factor enhances employeesautonomy and competence, and therefore employees involve
their selves in the process of developing new ideas. In particular, CET provides the rationale
for considering factors that are at the basis of psychological empowerment through increas-
ing autonomy and developing competence. Following this line of study, we used CET fra-
mework to explain the psychological mechanism (e.g. psychological empowerment)
between ethical leadership and creativity. Ethical leadership could improve the followers
internal empowerment by providing meaning, prociency, self-resolve, and the impact
that will inspire employees to be creative.
In summary, our study contributes to the extant ethical leadership literature in several
ways: (1) we explore and provide a more insightful understanding of how the characteristics
of ethical leadership can empower employees to be creative through psychological empow-
erment, (2) we utilize CET to explain the process of how ethical leadership inuences
employee creativity through the mediation of psychological empowerment, and (3) we
identify the implications of this research which can help organizations to better understand
and develop key knowledge of ethical leadership that can improve creativity. The concep-
tual model showing the proposed relationships is presented in Figure 1.
Literature review and hypothesis development
Ethical leadership and creativity
Brown et al. (2005, p. 120) dened ethical leadership as the demonstration of normatively
appropriate conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the
Figure 1. Conceptual model.
2B. Javed et al.
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promotion of such conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement,
and decision making. Ethical leaders are seen as leaders who have the following charac-
teristics: honesty, integrity, care for others, altruism, visibility, group determination,
reliability, supporting proper rights, along with their particular conduct as principled
folks who create well-balanced judgements (Brown & Treviño, 2006). Oldham and Cum-
mings (1996) stated that employees show more creativity when directed in an encouraging
and supportive manner. Here, it is imperative to differentiate between the concepts of crea-
tivity and innovation. Creativity represents the production of novel and useful ideas in any
domain, while innovation is the successful implementation of creative ideas within an
organization(Amabile, Conti, Coon, Lazenby, & Herron, 1996, p. 1155). Creativity indi-
cates the starting point of innovation, but it should be noted that it is not the only condition
for innovation. Innovation comes from many factors, for example, technology transfer may
also result in innovation (Amabile et al., 1996).
Creativity refers to the generation of novel and useful ideas relating to products, ser-
vices, processes, and procedures (Madjar et al., 2002; Zhou & Shalley, 2003). Creativity
seeks out new work means and novel ideas related to developing new opportunities
(Amabile, 1983). Seeking new opportunities forces employees to disagree with leader
(Cheung & Wong, 2011). Thus, employees need supportive behaviour of leader to
perform a non-routine role of creativity (Amabile & Gryskiewicz, 1987). In this regard,
ethical leaders develop sincere and compassionate relationship with followers who perceive
them as supportive in promoting their creativity. Tierney, Farmer, and Graen (1999) empha-
sized the quality of the relationship between the leader and the follower based on leader
member exchange theory and found that a positive relationship improved employee crea-
tivity. Other studies found a positive relationship between ethical leadership and employee
creativity (Chughtai, 2014; Ma, Cheng, Ribbens, & Zhou, 2013). We therefore hypothesize
H1: Ethical leadership is positively related to employee creativity.
Ethical leadership and psychological empowerment
Psychological empowerment is conceptualized as an experienced mental state or band of
cognitions. Conger and Kanungo (1988, p. 474) dened psychological empowerment as
a process of heightening feelings of employee self-efcacy through the identication of
conditions that foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organiz-
ational practices and informal techniques of providing efcacy information. Empowerment
involves the concept of decentralization decision-making authority that is giving lower
level employees decision-making responsibilities and ensuring that they have the resources
to take decisions on their own (Barton & Barton, 2011; Mills & Ungson, 2003; Pardo del
Val & Lloyd, 2003). These are some characteristics promoted by ethical leadership (Shalley
& Zhou, 2008).
Ethical leaders consider each employees developmental needs and strengths in order to
place them in positions in which there is a strategic t (May, Gilson, & Harter, 2004; Zhou,
1998). Such leaders deal with their employees with respect, rather than managing them
simply as a means to an end, particularly with regard to organizational outcomes and pro-
ductivity. Ethical leaders are adept at increasing: employeesself-respect and condence;
level of ownership; team membersdevelopment and growth; and alignment between the
employeesambitions and the organizations goals (May et al., 2004; Zhu, 2008; Zhu,
May, & Avolio, 2004). In summary, ethical leadership protects and promotes employees
rights, dignity, and autonomy which can result in psychological empowerment. Researchers
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have found this positive relationship between ethical leadership and psychological empow-
erment (Chughtai, 2014; Deci & Ryan, 2000; Den Hartog & De Hoogh, 2009; Tu & Lu,
2013; Walumbwa et al., 2011). We therefore hypothesize that:
H2: Ethical leadership is positively related to psychological empowerment.
Psychological empowerment and employee creativity
Creativity refers to the generation of original and practical ideas or problem elucidation
on products, processes, or services that are appropriate to the problem or opportunity pre-
sented (Zhou & George, 2003). As per this denition, creativity means generating new
ideas that are both novel and useful. The unique ideas with practicality indicate their
novelty as well as usefulness, and contribute both directly and indirectly to the organiz-
ation both in the short term and in the long term (Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham, 2004). Crea-
tivity can therefore be considered a type of non-routine task in which employees go
beyond the standard operating procedures through psychological empowerment in the
development of new ideas.
Whilst employees identify that their job requirements are signicant and personally
important, they exert additional effort to view a problem from numerous viewpoints
(Shalley & Gilson, 2004). Additionally, when they believe that they have the ability
and are given the requisite means to execute employment productively, they possess a
certain scope of self-determination above job set-up. They therefore can easily shape
ideal outcomes as a result of their behaviour and actions and they are more likely to
focus on idea generation and solution-oriented outcomes in a more attentive and persist-
ent manner (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Spreitzer, 1995; Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Consequently,
psychologically empowered employees would tend to demonstrate more creativity in the
organization. Moreover, previous research supports the link between psychological
empowerment and creativity (Seibert et al., 2011; Zhang & Bartol, 2010). We therefore
hypothesize that:
H3: Psychological empowerment is positively related to creativity.
Mediating role of psychological empowerment
Chughtai (2014) identied the causal function of psychological empowerment linking
ethical leadership and creativity. In our study, we also examine the mediating role of
psychological empowerment between ethical leadership and creativity, but based on a
CET framework. CET framework explains the process of locus of causality mediating
the evaluation and motivation relationship (Shalley & Perry-Smith, 2001). Deci and
Ryan (1980,1985) and Ryan (1982) stated that CET explained the situational factors that
either increase or decrease the employeesmotivation to perform a given role. This
theory stated two aspects of situational factors like controlling as well as informational
aspect, which affect the employeesjudgement of their competences and self-determination
of a particular task. Controlling aspect of situational factors brings employees under some
particular constraints and therefore pressurizes them to meet certain outcomes. However,
informational aspect of contextual factors provides important information to employees
regarding their task competency and self-determination without pressurizing them to
behave in a dened way. Thus, informational aspect plays a signicant role in employees
self-determination and competencies (psychological empowerment) regarding the given
task role.
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By incorporating aspects of this framework, Spreitzer (1995) explored four dimensions
of psychological empowerment that include meaning, competence, self-determination, and
impact. Within the CET framework, meanings and impact of the job are viewed as initiators
of individualsintrinsic task motivation, while competence and self-determination or auton-
omy increases task-related motivation (Deci, Connell, & Ryan, 1989). Based on this argu-
ment along with the depiction of ethical leadership, we argue that employeesperception of
ethical leadership can invoke task-related motivation such as psychological empowerment.
Ethical leaders serve as informational aspect of contextual factors. Ethical leaders align
workersexpertise with their work role and emphasize the signicance of the workersinput
(May et al., 2004; Piccolo, Greenbaum, Hartog, & Folger, 2010) which result in increasing
employeesempowerment (Avey, Wernsing, & Palanski, 2012). Ethical leadership further-
more supports employees in making tough ethical decisions and seek effective training
opportunities for them which results in developing greater feelings of empowerment
(Shalley & Zhou, 2008). Zhou (1998) also found that employees show more willingness
to take risks and generate creative ideas when they work in a high-task autonomous
work environment. Furthermore, psychologically empowered employees show more crea-
tivity (Rahman, Panatik, & Alias, 2014). Studies supports the linkage between psychologi-
cal empowerment and employee creativity (Janssen, 2005; Tierney & Farmer, 2011; Sun,
Zhang, Qi, & Chen, 2012; Woodman, Sawyer, & Grifn, 1993; Zhang & Bartol, 2010).
We therefore hypothesized the following relationship:
H4: Psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and
employee creativity.
Sample and procedure
The data were collected under a study programme that aimed to look at the ethical leadership
and creativity relationship in employees working in different hotels (ve, four, three, and two
stars) of the hospitality industry in Pakistan. Five stars hotels were Sarena hotel, Moven stag,
and Avari Hotel, four starts hotels like Hotel Grand Ambassador, Shangrila Hotel, Rose
Palace Hotel, Hospitality Inn, and Smart Hotel, three starts hotels comprise of New Cape
Grace Guest House, Envo Continental Hotel, Hotel one Gulberg, Hotel one Downtown,
Lahore Continental Hotel, Best Western Lahore, and Vacation Rentall Villas and nally,
Capeton Guest House, White Rose Guest House, and Swiss Cottage were two stars hotel
included in the nal sample. Wahab and Cooper (2001) state that the services sector is
facing high environmental uncertainties and one of their goals is to nd avenues for improv-
ing services. The industry has placed emphasis on capitalizing on employeescapability to
develop innovative ideas to improve service quality (Chang & Lee, 2015; Guttentag, 2015;
Hon, 2012; Javed, Bashir, Rawwas, & Arjoon, 2016;Lusch,Vargo,&OBrien, 2007;
Mei, Arcodia, & Ruhanen, 2013; Ottenbacher, 2007;Richards,2014;Tsai&Lee,2014).
Thus, the hospitality industry was selected due to its focus on innovation.
Before disseminating the questionnaires, supervisors handling operations at different
departments were contacted to enquire about their willingness to take part in the investigation
and to ascertain the number of persons who would like to participate. Data were collected
from two sources: supervisors and their subordinates. The subordinate questionnaire included
the independent variable and mediator variables (ethical leadership and psychological
empowerment), and control variables (demographic variables), whereas the supervisor ques-
tionnaire included the mediator variable (psychological empowerment) and dependent
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variable (employee creativity). Data were collected from supervisors as well their subordi-
nates using a time lag of thirty (30) days between them in order to promote a more effective
understanding of the relationships among the Constructs that comprise our study.
Three hundred questionnaires were administered with 197 returned. The nal sample
included one hundred and eight-three (183) supervisor subordinate dyads, after removing
14 sets due to missing data. The overall response rate was 61%. For subordinates, the majority
of sample members were male 73.8% and females were only 26.2%. In age category, 1.1%
were 22 years and under, 18% were in the range 2326, 35.5% were in the range 2730,
19.7% were in the range 2730, and 25.7% were over 34 years. With respect to employees
qualication, 27.9% attained their bachelors degree, 48.1% had masters degrees, and 24%
had MS/M. Phil. degrees. With respect to employeesyears of work experience, 49.2% were
in the 15 category, 25.7% were in the 610 category, 5.5% were in the 1115 category, 9.3%
were 1620 category, and 10.4% were 20 years and above. These demographics show a well-
represented approximation of the population of interest.
Survey measures
Five-point Likert scales with descriptors of strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5) were
used to measure ethical leadership, psychological empowerment, and employee creativity.
With respect to ethical leadership, respondents completed the 10-item ethical leadership
scale developed by Brown et al. (2005). Sample items include my supervisor disciplines
employees who violate ethical standards, and my supervisor discusses business ethics or
values with employees. With respect to psychological empowerment, employees com-
pleted the 12-item psychological empowerment scale developed by Spreitzer (1995).
Sample items include I am condent about my ability to do my joband I can decide
on my own how to go about doing my work.With respect to creativity, leaders completed
the 13 items developed by George and Zhou (2001). A sample item is Suggests new ways
to achieve goals or objectives.Previous research has shown that gender, age, qualication,
and experience may affect employee creativity (Carmeli & Schaubroeck, 2007; Scott &
Bruce, 1994; Shin & Zhou, 2003,2007). In our study, we found that these demographic
variables had no effects on employee creativity. Data used in our study were collected
from two separate sources (employees and their immediate supervisors) in order to avoid
the effect of common method variance which may affect the validity of research ndings
(Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003).
Validity analyses (common method bias)
We rst conducted conrmatory factor analyses (CFAs) to validate the distinctiveness of the
variables in this study. Table 1 shows that the model ts the data well (IFI = .91, TLI = .89,
CFI = .90, RMSEA = .05) (Hinkin, 1998; Steiger, 1990). These CFAs results conrmed the
satisfactory discriminant validity and showed the absence of common method bias.
Table 1. Measurement model.
Original model .18 .70 .68 .70
Revised .05 .91 .89 .90
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Descriptive statistics and correlation
Table 2 shows the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and the alpha reliabilities.
Ethical leadership was signicantly correlated with psychological empowerment (r= 470,
p< .01) and employee creativity (r= .348, p< .01) and in the expected directions. Psycho-
logical empowerment was signicantly correlated with employee creativity (r= .520,
p< .01) and in the expected direction.
Hypothesis testing
Table 3 shows the results from the regression analysis. Results show a positive and signi-
cant relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity (as indicated by
un-standardized regression coefcient (B=.138, t=2.011, p=.046) and so H1 (ethical lea-
dership is positively related to employee creativity) was not rejected. Results also show a
positive and signicant relationship between ethical leadership and psychological empow-
erment (as indicated by unstandardized regression coefcient (B=.426, t=6.826, p=.000)
and so H2 (ethical leadership is positively and signicantly related to psychological
empowerment) was not rejected. Results show a positive and signicant relationship
between psychological empowerment and employee creativity (as indicated by un-standar-
dized regression coefcient (B=.497, t=6.782, p=.000) and so H3 accepted (psychologi-
cal empowerment is positively and signicantly related to employee creativity). Finally,
results indicated that psychological empowerment mediates the relationship between
ethical leadership and employee creativity as bootstrapped 95% condence interval
around the indirect effect did not contain zero (.126, .348).Therefore, H4 (psychological
Table 2. Descriptive statistics, reliabilities, and correlations among variables.
Variables Mean SD 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1 Gender 1.26 .44
2 Age 3.50 1.10 .08
3 Qualications 3.96 .72 .10 .18
4 Experiences 2.06 1.36 .06 .72** .12*
5 Ethical Leadership 3.92 .48 .04 .08 .11* .112 (.82)
6 Psychological
3.56 .44 .00 .14 .06 .152 .46** (.78)
7 Employee Creativity
3.62 .46 .04 .10 .03 .230** .34** .52**
Notes: N= 183; Correlation is signicant at 0.01 levels (two-tailed); Correlation is signicant at 0.05 levels (two-
tailed); αreliabilities are given in parentheses.*p< .05.**p< .01.
Table 3. The mediating effect of psychological empowerment.
BSE tp
Ethical LeadershipCreativity .138 .068 2.012 .046
Ethical LeadershipPsychological Empowerment .426 .062 6.826 .000
Psychological EmpowermentCreativity .498 .074 6.782 .000
LL 95% CI UL 95% CI
Bootstrap results for indirect effect .12 .34
Notes: Un-standardized regression coefcients reported. Bootstrap sample size 1000. LL = lower limit; CI =
condence interval; UL = upper limit.
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empowerment mediates the relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativ-
ity) was also not rejected.
Discussion and implications
The purpose of the present study was to validate the effect of ethical leadership on employee
creativity and examine the underlying mediator mechanism of psychological empowerment
between ethical leadership and employee creativity. The results showed a signicant
relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity, ethical leadership and
psychological empowerment, psychological empowerment and employee creativity, and
psychological empowerment was found to mediate the relationship between ethical leader-
ship and employee creativity.
The above results are aligned with the preceding studies which found that perception of
positive leadership can signicantly inuence and encourage employees to bind in creative
work (Atwater & Carmeli, 2009; Ma et al., 2013). Since creativity is a non-routine task
involving high risk, employees need support from leadership. The positive relationship
between ethical leadership and employee creativity demonstrates that ethical leaders who
are characterized by traits such as trustworthiness, fairness, and balanced decision (Brown
& Treviño, 2006; Brown et al., 2005) can inuence their employees to be engaged in creative
behaviour. The result that ethical leadership signicantly predicted psychological empower-
ment is also aligned with the previous studies. De Hoogh and Den Hartog (2008) explained
that ethical leadership raises the meaningfulness of work function, by demonstrating a clear
link between employeescollective responsibilities with organizational targets. This aspect
of ethical leadership can increase employeesself-efcacy, condence, competence, and job
satisfaction. Furthermore, ethical leaders include employees within the decision-making
process, which ought to enable them to work autonomously on their assignments as well
as their jobs (Brown & Treviño, 2006; Piccolo et al., 2010).
Our study found that psychological empowerment signicantly predicted employee
creativity. Zhang and Bartol (2010) discovered that when employees feel efcacious and
believe that they will shape desired outcomes via their actions, they may focus on a particu-
lar challenge more determinedly. Such employees show more intention to take risks and
create more unique ideas. As such, they are therefore more expected to show higher
degrees of creativity in their work. Since psychological empowerment was found to
mediate the relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity in our
current study, ethical leaders should then allow employees to satisfy the three basic psycho-
logical needs of relatedness, competence, and autonomy. This in turn promotes psychologi-
cal empowerment (Mayer, Kuenzi, Greenbaum, Bardes, & Salvador, 2009) which fosters
the creative process (Deci et al., 1989). Moreover, CET explains the effects of external con-
sequences on internal motivation. In our study, ethical leadership serves as an external
factor that promotes employeesinternal motivation and they are therefore more willing
to engage in creative activities. Employees who perceive their leaders as ethical will
have greater job impact, autonomy, and competence in their work; in other words, this per-
ception realizes employeespsychological empowerment (Piccolo et al., 2010) and which
further promotes creativity (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Based on our empirical analysis using
the CET framework, we found that ethical leadership externally affected employees
psychological empowerment that fostered their creativity.
Theoretically, this study conrmed the mediating role of psychological empowerment
between ethical leadership and employee creativity. It therefore offers a useful insight in
understanding the underlying mechanism through which ethical leadership inuences
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employee creativity based on the CET framework. These ndings extend the previous nd-
ings of Chughtai (2014) who found a mediating role of psychological empowerment
between ethical leadership and creativity. The signicant contribution of our study is that
previous studies examined the effect of ethical leadership on consequential outcomes
such as the process of social learning and social exchange (Brown & Treviño, 2006;
Brown et al., 2005; Ma et al., 2013). However, our study introduces and utilizes a CET fra-
mework (Deci, 1975) in explaining the relationship between ethical leadership and
employee creativity with underlying mediator of psychological empowerment.
Our study has important connotations for managers. By demonstrating that ethical lea-
dership inuences employee creativity, managers should develop an ethical leadership style
by highlighting ethics in workplace such as respecting the rights and dignity of others and
by providing an environment and work practice that would encourage employees to
develop new ideas that can be put into practice. Given that our study revealed that psycho-
logical empowerment acts as a mediator between ethical leadership and employee creativ-
ity, leaders should pay more attention in developing ways to psychologically empowering
employees. For example, leaders should motivate employees to understand the intrinsic
value of work rather than focus on external rewards, give employees signicant autonomy
in doing their work, and help them understand the signicance and impact of their work on
others. Furthermore, leaders should act as ethical role models for their employees and
organizations should follow proper human resource policies regarding ethical and moral
standards, especially in respect to psychological empowerment.
Our research provides some methodological and theoretical strengths that increase our
condence in the results. First, in order to reduce the potential effects of common
methods and single-source bias, we collected data on ethical leadership, psychological
empowerment, and employee creativity from different hotels in the hospitality industry
across Pakistan. Second, we collected data related to ethical leadership and psychological
empowerment from employees and employee creativity from leaders. Third, we collected
responses from supervisors and their subordinates using a time lag of 30 days between
them in order to promote a more effective understanding of the relationships among the
constructs that comprise our study. Our study has also some limitations. The rst limit-
ation was that sample size was relatively small. Increasing sample size can help more in
the generalizability of the results. Future studies should be conducted with a longitudinal
research design in order to capture the impact of situational factors. Second, we used
psychological empowerment in explaining the relationship between ethical leadership
and employee creativity; however, there are a number of other mediator variables that
can be considered such as intrinsic motivation, psychological safety, trust in leadership,
and creative self-efcacy.
Disclosure statement
No potential conict of interest was reported by the authors.
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... Çalışanlar etik liderlerine karşı hissettikleri sorumlulukları çerçevesinde örgütsel vatandaşlık gibi pozitif örgütsel davranışlar sergilemektedir (Kacmar vd., 2010). Etik liderliğin psikolojik güçlendirmeyi olumlu yönde etkilediği (Arslantaş ve Dursun, 2008;Javed, 2017;Can ve Doğan, 2020) ve psikolojik sahiplenme düzeyini de yükselttiği (Avey vd., 2012;Park, 2015) göz önüne alındığında, psikolojik güçlendirmenin psikolojik sahiplenme üzerindeki etkisini de kuvvetlendireceği öngörülmektedir. Bunu destekler şekilde, alan yazın incelendiğinde etik liderlik algısının pozitif örgütsel davranışlar arasındaki ilişkilerde düzenleyici rol oynadığı görülmektedir. ...
... Employees exhibit positive organizational behaviors such as organizational citizenship within the framework of their responsibilities toward their ethical leaders (Kacmar et al., 2010). Considering that ethical leadership positively affects psychological empowerment (Arslantaş & Dursun, 2008;Javed, 2017;Can & Doğan, 2020) and increases the level of psychological ownership (Avey et al., 2012;Park, 2015), ethical leadership is predicted to strengthen the effect psychological empowerment has on psychological ownership. When examining the literature supporting this, perceived ethical leadership is seen to play a moderating role in the relationships among positive organizational behaviors. ...
... Mainemelis (2010) and Lin et al. (2016) named this innovative behavior that violates referent norms to benefit the organization "creative deviance." However, few studies explored the antecedents and occurrence mechanisms of creative deviance from the leadership perspective (Lin et al., 2016;Javed et al., 2017). Conceptually, authoritarian leadership is a power-centric phenomenon (Farh and Cheng, 2000) whereby leaders "provide a clear, unambiguous, and direct prototype" (Wang and Guan, 2018, p. 357), and "centralize decision-making" (Spagnoli et al., 2020, p. 620310). ...
... On the contrary, a team operating under highly authoritarian management undergoes strong constraints in job contents and details. Meanwhile, Criscuolo et al. (2014) and Javed et al. (2017) noted that individuals who formerly engaged in well-intentioned deviant conducts might turn to implement cautiously obedient deeds later, for scholars have theorized that leadership-level behaviors can increase subordinates' hindrance occupational stress by strengthening norms and punishments (Decoster et al., 2014). According to the aforementioned discussion, the dual occupational stress-creative deviance relationship should follow an inverted U-shaped function. ...
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Recently, creative deviance has been lauded to be an innovation-enhancing approach with applications in many new and high-tech domains. Previous study on antecedents to creative deviance remains scattered and vague. Our research conceptualizes creative deviance from the perspective of independent innovation and explores its antecedents, mechanisms, as well as conditions. Team authoritarian leadership is conceptualized as a contradictory unity as it mixes advantages and disadvantages. However, it is surprising to find that there are very few researches that have examined its relevant influence mechanisms and boundary conditions for authoritarian leadership. Contributing to an advanced understanding of authoritarian leadership in research and development teams, we investigated whether team authoritarian leadership is positively or negatively related to creative deviance. Drawing on social information processing theory and regulatory focus theory, we supposed that team authoritarian leadership facilitates creative deviance when the degree is low and inhibits it when the degree is high; dual occupational stress and prevention regulatory focus play mediation roles between team authoritarian leadership and creative deviance respectively, both variables play a chain mediation role in that relationship; and the mindfulness characteristic of an individual moderates the inverted-U team authoritarian leadership-creative deviance association, such that this association is weaker with low individual mindfulness. With two-phase questionnaire data collected from 433 members in 82 R&D teams of high-tech enterprises in electronic information technology, new material technology, new medical technology, resource and environment technology and advanced manufacturing technology randomly selected from five provinces in eastern China, these hypotheses are supported empirically. Overall, we find that, our study broadens antecedents and the relevant occurrence mechanisms of creative deviance when studied through a leadership management lens. Moreover, our research enriches the cognate studies on authoritarian leadership by empirically demonstrating that team authoritarian leadership may function as an double-edged sword of creative deviance in the R&D workplace. These above findings offer insightful thoughts to scholars in the field of authoritarian leadership and bring practical suggestions for team superiors who seek to implement best innovation practice.
... Particularmente, la mayoría de estudios en los que se ha analizado el efecto del liderazgo ético sobre la creatividad de los empleados reportan relaciones positivas (Chughtai, 2016;Duan, Liu y Che, 2018;Javed, Khan, Bashir y Arjoon, 2017;Ma, Cheng, Ribbens y Zhou, 2013;Mehmood, 2016;Shafique, Ahmad y Kalyar, 2020;Tu, Lu, Choi y Guo, 2019), aunque en dos de ellos se encontró una relación curvilínea entre estas dos variables, lo cual señala que se requiere una percepción ajustada de liderazgo ético para motivar a la creatividad (Feng et al., 2018;Mo, Ling y Xie, 2019). En general, se puede deducir que los líderes identificados como personas morales y promotores de prácticas éticas en el trabajo influyen sobre el actuar creativo de los empleados al valorar las ideas, comunicar efectivamente, establecer confianza en el equipo, inspirar acciones innovadoras, y fortalecer el compromiso con los objetivos y retos, así como comportarse coherentemente con los valores morales de la organización, lo cual genera acciones de reciprocidad e intercambio que se reflejan en la expresión abierta, espontánea y libre de ideas nuevas o creativas (Feng, et al., 2018;Kalshoven, Den Hartog y De Hoogh, 2013;Ma et al., 2013;Ng y Feldman, 2015). ...
... Por su parte, en las principales variables mediadoras reportadas en la relación se encontraron individuales, grupales y organizacionales. Entre las variables individuales, se encuentran la motivación intrínseca (Feng et al., 2014;Feng et al., 2018;Shafique et al., 2020), el empoderamiento psicológico (Chugtai, 2016;Duan et al., 2018;Javed et al., 2017;Shafique et al., 2020), el comportamiento de expresión abierta de los trabajadores o voice behavior (Chen y Hou, 2016), el compromiso afectivo (Asif, Qing, Hwang y Shi, 2019), la autoeficacia (Ma et al., 2013), la autoeficacia creativa (Wadei, Chen, Frempong y Appienti, 2020) y la disposición para tomar riesgos (Duan et al., 2018). ...
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Este artículo presenta una revisión de la literatura y del estado de investigación sobre la relación entre liderazgo ético y creatividad en el trabajo. La metodología comprendió la búsqueda, organización, selección y análisis de artículos incluidos en las bases de datos EBSCO, Web of Science y Scopus. Se describen las características de los estudios, instrumentos de evaluación, teorías de soporte y principales resultados, y se discuten las perspectivas de investigación. A partir de los hallazgos reportados, se concluye que las prácticas de liderazgo ético en las organizaciones tienen efecto favorable sobre la creatividad de los trabajadores. Esta revisión sirve como insumo para estudios futuros y también como soporte para señalar la importancia en la toma de decisiones éticas como factor generador de comportamiento creativo.
... Likewise, in support of the above argument, the meta-analysis by Seibert et al. (2011) highlighted that different supportive and positive leadership behaviors are important antecedents of psychological empowerment. Recent research suggests that in context of change, ethical leadership, authentic leadership, transformational leadership, servant leadership, and empowering leadership stimulate employees' psychological empowerment to predict change-oriented behaviors (Amundsen & Martinsen, 2015;Javed et al., 2016;Joo & Jo, 2017;Yang et al., 2019;Yoo, 2017;Zhang & Bartol, 2010). Accordingly, we hypothesized as follow: ...
... Several researchers ( (impact). Previous studies also reported the excellent reliability of psychological empowerment (Javed et al., 2016;Pradhan et al., 2017). The value of Cronbach's alpha for psychological empowerment was 0.79 in current study. ...
Although there have been studies in the past that have highlighted the important role of leadership in motivating employees to speak up, relational leadership has been scarcely investigated in this context. Therefore, the current research investigates the relationship between inclusive leadership, as a form of relational leadership, and employees' voice behavior directly and indirectly via psychological empowerment. Using the data collected from 252 employees and their respective supervisors working in cargo companies across the United Kingdom, this study finds a positive relationship between inclusive leadership and voice behavior. The results further confirm the mediating role of psychological empowerment in the relationship between inclusive leadership and voice behavior. We use causal attribution theory to support the findings and discuss implications for research and practice.
... Furthermore, Ghaedi et al. (2020) assert that spiritual leaders boost innovation both at individual and group level, besides inhibiting the workplace mistreatments as well. Consequently, if a manager is ethical, employees are stimulated to act and promote an ethical climate and creativity (Javed et al., 2016) at the workplace. The hospitality industry can better develop pressure handling capabilities, and productivity, and can accomplish enhanced quality of service to customers, by fostering workplace spirituality practices. ...
Purpose This study aims to understand and examine the mediating role of workplace spirituality on ethical leadership and behavioral outcomes. The study used the social exchange theory and social learning theory to study the underlying mechanism. Design/methodology/approach The data was collected from 348 frontline hotel employees of North India using convenience sampling. The study used structural equation modeling and Macro PROCESS Hayes (2017) to test the hypothesized model. Findings The study found a positive association between ethical leadership and organizational citizenship behavior and a negative association between ethical leadership and unethical pro-organizational behavior. Workplace spirituality mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and its outcomes. Practical implications The study brings out the significance of ethical leadership and workplace spirituality in enhancing organizational citizenship behavior and reducing unethical pro-organizational behavior. Originality/value There is a paucity of research done on the mediating role of workplace spirituality in understanding its significance in aligning ethical leadership and behavioral outcomes. Hence, the authors attempt to address this gap by understanding the role of workplace spirituality and its association with ethical leadership, unethical pro-organizational behavior and organizational citizenship behavior among the employees of the hotel industry.
... The major five-star hotels within Pakistan selected were Sarena, Moven stag, and Avari hotel. Some of the four-star and three-star hotels were also selected to collect the data [39]. In the year 2018, Mamoona Masood did research to find out the relationship between stress and job performance. ...
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In today's digital world, smartphones and web-based applications have gained remarkable importance throughout the globe. These smart applications are playing a very significant role in maintaining a powerful business. As well as, they are helping a lot to expand these businesses via social networks. Social media networks such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn are playing a prominent role to promote the companies. In the hospitality sector, most of the companies are running their hotel booking systems by utilizing mobile applications and a web-based infrastructure, but usability issues still exist. This study has been conducted specifically to tackle the usability issues of hotel booking systems and the best utilization of social networks to promote the business. TripAdvisor was selected as an authentic source for selecting those systems and two international hotels are selected for this study. The first step is to identify different hotel booking systems. In the second step, the user's satisfaction level was measured for the selected systems by performing the System Usability Scale (SUS, Quick & Dirty) approach. Additionally, by which source (social media or personal relations) they found these hotels. It is found that the SUS rating for both systems is below the acceptable level of usability. The Mean SUS for hotel 1 is found at 55.25 and 51.2 for hotel 2. The third step was to identify the user interface (UI) issues, and heuristic evaluation is performed for this. The experts identified the UI issues on the basis of their experience. The major issues were related to the visibility of system status, error prevention, flexibility and efficiency of use. Depending upon the identified issues, an interactive UI (prototype) for the selected web-based applications was proposed. This prototype is mainly based on the user's perspective. This prototype can be used for improving the UI of the selected systems which is based on the user's perspective. During the process of verifying the satisfaction level, it is revealed that the targeted audience is not able to use these systems efficiently and effectively. The reason behind this is the negligence of usability guidelines throughout the process of design and development of these hotel booking systems. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the usability of these systems should be evaluated and redesigned, based on expert opinions. It has also been observed that the reviews/ feedback of customers has spread a negative impact through social networks.
... Some researchers also found that leadership influences empowerment. For example, Javeda et al. (2017) demonstrated that psychological empowerment mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and creativity in hotels across Pakistan. Garg and Dhar (2016) found that psychological empowerment moderated the relationship between LMX (leader-membership exchange) and affective commitment, increasing employees' extra-role customer service in 64 hotels in India. ...
Purpose Employee’s service innovative behavior lays the groundwork for bottom-up innovation and ongoing service improvement in service firms. Therefore, it is vital for service organizations to understand the antecedents of employees service innovative behavior. Drawing upon the social cognitive theory, this study aims to develop a research model that examines the effects of ethical and entrepreneurial leadership on service innovative behavior. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 178 managers and 415 employees working in 178 small- and medium-sized (SME) hotels in Vietnam. Findings The findings showed that ethical leadership has direct and indirect effects on service innovative behavior, while entrepreneurial leadership only influences service innovative behavior via intrinsic motivation. In addition, trust in leader moderates the effect of intrinsic motivation on service innovative behavior Research limitations/implications The study advances current scholarly research on leadership by combining the two areas of entrepreneurial and ethical leadership into one theoretical model and examines how these leadership styles generate hospitality employees’ service innovative behavior through the mediating effect of intrinsic motivation and the moderating effect of trust in leader. Practical implications The findings of this research offer significant implications for SME hotels and their managers. In their recruitment processes, hotels should search for particular personality traits, which have been found to predict ethical and entrepreneurial leadership. Hospitality firms also need to encourage communication between leaders and co-workers to enhance employees’ intrinsic motivation. Originality/value There are calls for research to examine whether both entrepreneurial and ethical leadership styles can be integrated to enhance employees’ positive outcomes. Evidence about the mechanism linking entrepreneurial and ethical leadership to service innovative behavior is limited. With this stated, the current study makes significant contribution to leadership and innovation literature by filling in these voids.
Purpose This study investigates the relationship between leaders' ethical behaviors and internal whistleblowing among hotel employees through the mediation role of organizational virtuousness. According to the conceptual framework, ethical leadership creates a virtuous workplace and encourages whistleblowing. Design/methodology/approach A survey approach with responses of 442 employees from Egyptian five-star hotels was used. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypotheses proposed based on leader–member exchange (LMX) and ethical leadership theories. Findings Ethical leadership has a favorable impact on organizational virtuousness and, as a result, has a significant impact on whistleblowing intention. The ethical leaders–subordinates' intents to whistleblow association partially mediated organizational virtuousness. To assist them in reporting ethics violations, most hotel employees require organizational characteristics, such as organizational climate and psychological empowerment, in addition to individual characteristics, such as moral bravery and ethical efficacy. Originality/value The conceptual framework of this paper adds a new guide for future research related to the hospitality literature, which is how employees' intent to internal whistleblowing. As such, senior management should serve as a moral role model for hotel employees, inspiring them to be moral and allowing them to participate in decision-making.
We investigate how and when ethical leadership predicts team creativity. With its strong compliance with organizational norms and procedures, ethical leadership can be seen as antithetical to creativity. Similarly, collective need for cognitive closure can negatively impact creativity as this is a motivational tendency toward making quick decisions and avoiding open-ended processes. However, we argue that they both can have a positive effect on team creativity when collective team identification is considered as an underlying mechanism. Accordingly, we hypothesize that ethical leadership fosters team creativity via strengthening collective team identification, and collective need for cognitive closure positively moderates the indirect relationship between ethical leadership and team creativity via collective team identification. We studied 55 teams in a food-services organization in South Korea in a multi-wave and multi-source design and found support for our hypotheses.
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This study’s focus is on the relationship between Islamic Work Ethic (IWE) and adaptive performance with the mediating role of innovative work behaviour (IWB) and moderating role of ethical leadership among hospitality sector employees in Pakistan. Data were collected using questionnaires from 257 employees working in various hotels across Pakistan. Results indicate that IWE significantly predicts adaptive performance both directly and indirectly through IWB. In addition, results also confirm the moderating role of ethical leadership between IWE and IWB. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
This study adopted an interactional approach to understanding how 2 of the Five-Factor traits, openness to experience and conscientiousness, are related to creative behavior in the workplace. Openness to experience is theorized to result in high levels of creative behavior and conscientiousness is theorized to result in low levels of creative behavior when the situation allows for the manifestation of the trait influences. More specifically, the authors hypothesized that openness to experience would result in high levels of creative behavior if feedback valence were positive and job holders were presented with a heuristic task that allowed them to be creative. The authors also hypothesized that conscientiousness would result in low levels of creative behavior if supervisors engaged in close monitoring and coworkers were unsupportive. The authors tested their hypotheses in a sample of office workers, and 5 out of the 6 hypotheses were supported.
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Previous study indicates the user’s degree of Web 2.0 usage is positively associated with his or her behavior. However, there is a paucity in examining the effect of Web 2.0 usage especially on innovative work behavior among academia in research universities, even though it is imperative to be identified due to its demanding research nature. Web 2.0 is technologically driven and designed to allow people to communicate, share information and create online communities. Meanwhile, innovative work behavior refers to the creativity and involvement in bringing changes and new ideas in duties or in solving problems especially among academia in research universities which has become the focus of this study. Innovative work behavior consists of idea generation, idea promotion, and idea realization. Therefore, this study aims to identify the effect of Web 2.0 usage on innovative work behavior among academia in research universities. In our endeavor to this matter, we view the issue from a positivist paradigm with quantitative approach. This approach used surveys as research strategy by adapting questionnaire technique. The data collection has been conducted among 393 lecturers in five research universities and emphasizes on the lecturer’s research activities. Accordingly, data collected were analyzed using SPSS and SEM AMOS by looking at the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), model fit, and path analysis. The result of this study indicates that the Web 2.0 usage has a positive and significant relationship with the idea generation, idea promotion and idea realization of innovative work behavior.
Despite increasing attention on the topic of empowerment, our under-standing of the construct and its underlying processes remains limited. This article addresses these shortcomings by providing an analytical treatment of the construct and by integrating the diverse approaches to empowerment found in both the management and psychology literatures. In addition, the authors identify certain antecedent conditions of powerlessness and practices that have been hypothesized to empower subordinates.
The present study integrated a number of streams of research on the antecedents of innovation to develop and test a model of individual innovative behavior. Hypothesizing that leadership, individual problem-solving style, and work group relations affect innovative behavior directly and indirectly through their influence on perceptions of the climate for innovation, we used structural equation analysis to test the parameters of the proposed model simultaneously and also explored the moderating effect of task characteristics. The model explained approximately 37 percent of the variance in innovative behavior. Tasktype moderated the relationship between leader role expectations and innovative behavior.