ArticleLiterature Review

Effects of Turmeric ( Curcuma longa ) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence: Effects of Curcuma longa on Skin Health

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Abstract

Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a commonly used spice throughout the world, has been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic properties. Growing evidence shows that an active component of turmeric, curcumin, may be used medically to treat a variety of dermatologic diseases. This systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for the use of both topical and ingested turmeric/curcumin to modulate skin health and function. The PubMed and Embase databases were systematically searched for clinical studies involving humans that examined the relationship between products containing turmeric, curcumin, and skin health. A total of 234 articles were uncovered, and a total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. Nine studies evaluated the effects of ingestion, eight studies evaluated the effects of topical, and one study evaluated the effects of both ingested and topical application of turmeric/curcumin. Skin conditions examined include acne, alopecia, atopic dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, and vitiligo. Ten studies noted statistically significant improvement in skin disease severity in the turmeric/curcumin treatment groups compared with control groups. Overall, there is early evidence that turmeric/curcumin products and supplements, both oral and topical, may provide therapeutic benefits for skin health. However, currently published studies are limited and further studies will be essential to better evaluate efficacy and the mechanisms involved.

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... The rhizomes of this plant provide a spice known as Turmeric that is also characterized as the "Golden Spice", the "Indian Saffron" or the "Herb of the Sun" because of its orange-yellow color [4,5]. Centuries of use as flavoring agent, beauty product, dye, and for medicinal purposes have established its safety and benefits [6,4]. Its first appearance was probably recorded in China by 700 AD and its fame traveled west reaching East Africa by 800 AD, West Africa by 1200 AD, and Jamaica in the 18th century. ...
... In China, it was traditionally used for urticaria, inflammatory conditions of joints, and skin allergies [7]. It can be administered orally, topically, or via inhalation for the treatment of many skin conditions, injuries, infections, stress, and depression [12,6]. India keeps the main production of Turmeric, but it is also grown in tropical parts of America, Africa and Pacific Ocean Islands [11,5,9]. ...
... On the other hand, topical route is an alternative to the oral delivery of CUR with numerus benefits [4]. According to the literature, a few human clinical trials have been conducted applying CUR formulations, both orally (tablets) and topically (creams, gels, herbal oils), for the treatment of various skin diseases such as acne, eczema, facial photoaging, pruritus, psoriasis, radiation-induced dermatitis and vitiligo [18,6]. Currently 246 clinical trials are documented (of which 115 completed) using turmeric ingredients, including CUR, as therapeutic or dietary supplement against a wide variety of conditions such as cancer, periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes and depression, as well as cardiovascular, gynecological, Crohn's, Alzheimer's and chronic kidney diseases, among others [15,59]. ...
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Curcumin (CUR) has a long history of use as an antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing agent, for the treatment of various skin conditions. Encapsulation in nanocarriers may overcome the administration limitations of CUR, such as lipophilicity and photodegradation. Lipid nanocarriers with different matrix fluidity (Solid Lipid Nanoparticles; SLN, Nanostructured Lipid Carriers; NLC, and Nanoemulsion; NE) were prepared for the topical delivery of curcumin (CUR). The occlusive properties and film forming capacity, as well as the release profile of incorporated CUR, its protection against photodegradation and wound healing were studied in vitro, using empty nanocarriers or free CUR as control. The results suggest that incorporation of CUR in nanocarriers offers a significant protection against photodegradation that is not influenced by the matrix fluidity. However, this characteristic regulates properties such as the occlusion, the release rate and wound healing ability of CUR. Nanoparticles of low fluidity provided better surface occlusion, film forming capacity and retention of the incorporated CUR. All nanocarriers but especially NLC, achieved faster wound healing at lower dose of incorporated CUR. In conclusion, nanotechnology may enhance the action of CUR against skin conditions. Important characteristics of the nanocarrier such as matrix fluidity should be taken into consideration in the design of CUR nanosystems of optimal efficiency.
... It has been traditionally used in prematrimonial rituals for thousands of years in the Indian subcontinent as a skin lightening agent. Turmeric is believed to improve skin complexion by reducing facial hair growth, acne, and skin aging [7,8]. Therefore, skin care products supplemented with turmeric are commercially available in the market [9]. ...
... Curcuminoids are the main active compounds responsible for the majority of the biological activities of turmeric. Curcuminoids have potential in cosmeceuticals as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and skin-lightening agents [7,8]. However, in a previous study, we found significant variations in curcuminoid content in turmeric, and some species (C. ...
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Turmeric is traditionally used as a skin cosmetic in some religious and cultural occasions on the Indian subcontinent. In this study, we compared the tyrosinase inhibitory properties of four Curcuma spp., namely, C. xanthorrhiza, C. aromatica, C. amada, and C. zedoaria. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of tyrosinase inhibitors using silica gel column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the compounds was conducted using 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. C. amada showed the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity, with an IC50 of 53.4 μg/mL. Therefore, it was chosen for the isolation and purification of tyrosinase inhibitors. The purified compounds were zederone (1), furanodienone (2), 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptanes (3), 3,5-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptanes (4) and 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptanes (5). The IC50 values for the mushroom anti-tyrosinase activity of compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 108.2, 89.2, 92.3, 21.7, and 41.3 µM, respectively. These compounds also inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity, thus reducing melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Compound 4 showed significantly stronger anti-tyrosinase activity than that of arbutin (a positive control drug). No significant difference was observed in the tyrosinase inhibitory effect between compound 5 and arbutin. Our findings strongly suggest that C. amada is a promising source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors to prevent melanogenesis and could be used as a whitening cosmetic.
... Using the turmeric orally in medicinal dose is well-tolerable and safe; the incidence of adverse effects is low and comparable with the placebo control [21][22][23]. The most abundant side effects were gastrointestinal upsets, like obstipation, dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, reflux and nausea [24]. ...
... Curcumin effectivity has been confirmed on several fields of medical therapy with in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies. Based on the literature it has neuroprotective, memory enhancing, hypoglycemic, anti-tumor, hepatoprotective, and cardioprotective effects [21,22]. Being a natural, herbal remedy, patient compliance may be higher and fewer side effects are expected [40]. ...
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Turmeric has been studied and used as a plant derivate active ingredient for centuries. Several effects of turmeric have been described, however the poor solubility of its active ingredients during the formulation development may limit oral applicability. The aim of research was to involve the development of a dietary supplement of a hard capsule containing turmeric (Curcuma longa) (ground powder from the root standardized to curcuminoid content) and sodium benzoate. The manufacturing technology and the analytic method of the formulation have been developed. Formulation studies according to the Ph. Hg. VIII. standards have been performed. The product may have insulin sensitizing and memory enhancing effects, related animal studies are ongoing.
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a bright yellow-colored spice that has been used for many years in cooking, cosmetics, dye, and medicinal cures all over the world [10]. Turmeric contains anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic effects according to [10]. ...
... Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a bright yellow-colored spice that has been used for many years in cooking, cosmetics, dye, and medicinal cures all over the world [10]. Turmeric contains anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-neoplastic effects according to [10]. The major active ingredient of turmeric is curcumin, which has exhibited a potent and wide range of anti-parasitic effects including anti-malarial [11], antischistosomal [12], and anti-cryptosporidial [13]. ...
Article
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Anti-piroplasm drugs currently on the market have proven toxicity to the host and parasite resistance. Plants are possible sources of novel drugs. Subsequently, a novel strategy should be used to find new anti-piroplasm agents that are both effective and safe. In the present study, we have evaluated the effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) methanolic extract on the in vitro growth of Babesia (B.) bovis, B. divergens, B. caballi, and Theileria (T.) equi. The in vitro inhibitory effectiveness of turmeric was assessed using a fluorescence test. The enhancement in the in vitro inhibitory efficacy of turmeric when administrated in combination with diminazene aceturate (DA) was investigated using in vitro cultures of different piroplasm parasites. Turmeric reduced the in vitro growth of B. bovis, B. divergens, T. equi, and B. caballi with IC50 values of 0.830 0.078, 0.375 0.055, 1.405 0.575, and 0.720 0.090 mg/mL, respectively. An amount of 1 mg/mL turmeric for B. bovis, 0.5 mg/mL turmeric for B. divergens, 1 mg/mL turmeric for T. equi, and 0.5 mg/mL turmeric for B. caballi exhibited 73.43%, 80.065%, 73.47%, and 47.375% inhibitions in the growth of the parasites, respectively. When turmeric was combined with DA, its in vitro inhibitory impact on bovine Babesia and equine Babesia/Theileria parasites was amplified. These findings show that a methanolic extract of turmeric could be a promising medicinal plant for the treatment of babesiosis, especially when administered in conjunction with DA.
... 3 This treatment regimen combined anti-inflammatory activity along with moisturization and exfoliation of psoriatic scale in an aesthetically elegant formulation containing antioxidants. [4][5][6][7][8] The two-step psoriasis treatment system was developed to maximize the efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic elegance of topical salicylic acid. ...
... 8 Specifically, turmeric has been shown to inhibit inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL 12/23, PDE1, PDE4, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, JAK/STAT, ROR gamma, MMP9, PGE2, COX −2, NFkappa B, PHK, MAPK, NO, MMP-9, PI3K/Akt, and INF gamma. 4,7,11 The potential multiple targets of curcumin in the IL-23/IL-17A axis are highlighted in Figure 1. It may also exhibit inhibitory activity on potassium channels in T cells, 12 which are important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. ...
Article
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Introduction: This study examined the efficacy and tolerability of a once-daily regimen of a 3% salicylic acid treatment gel containing turmeric and a low concentration of salicylic acid plus shea butter exfoliating moisturizer when used as monotherapy or in as an adjunct to other Rx psoriasis medications. Patients and methods: This single-site 12-week study enrolled 20 subjects >18 years of age with mild-to-moderate psoriasis involving <10% body surface area. Assessments were performed at baseline and Weeks 4, 8, and 12 using a 5-point scale (0 = none to 4 = severe). The investigator-assessed efficacy (changes from baseline for erythema, desquamation, induration, and overall global assessment [IGA]) and tolerability (irritation and edema). Study subjects assessed efficacy parameters of redness, scaling, and overall skin problems along with tolerability parameters of stinging, burning, itching, and irritation. Subjects applied the turmeric and salicylic acid treatment gel along with a moisturizer once daily to all affected areas. Results: Half (50%) of the subjects were using concomitant Rx psoriasis treatments, while the other 50% received the study psoriasis treatment regimen as monotherapy. Investigator assessments of erythema, desquamation, induration, and IGA scores showed significant reductions from baseline (P ≤ 0.021) at Weeks 4, 8, and 12. At Week 12, these reductions reached 48%, 46%, 51%, and 48%, for these parameters, respectively. The investigator observed no irritation or edema at any time point. Subject assessments of redness, scaling, and overall improvement demonstrated significant reductions in 8 of 9 assessments (P ≤ 0.037). The subjects reported mild irritation at Weeks 4, 8, and 12. No treatment compliance issues or adverse events related to study product occurred during the study. Conclusion: A once-daily over-the-counter (OTC) turmeric/salicylic acid gel followed by a shea butter/salicylic acid exfoliating moisturizer demonstrated excellent tolerability and efficacy in plaque-type psoriasis after 12 weeks of once-daily use.
... It may also inhibit many inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and interleukin-1, -2, -6, -8, and -12. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that curcumin may suppress NF-κB, on the whole playing an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant role [105,106]. ...
Article
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Oxidative stress plays an important pathogenetic role in many chronic inflammatory diseases, including those of dermatological interest. In particular, regarding psoriasis, vitiligo, and lichen planus, excess reactive oxygen species and a decline in endogenous antioxidant systems are observed. In this regard, treatments with antioxidant properties could be appropriate therapeutic options. To date, clinical trials in dermatology on these treatments are limited. We reviewed the available studies on the efficacy of antioxidant therapies in psoriasis, vitiligo, and lichen planus. The role of herbal derivatives, vitamins, and trace elements was analyzed. The antioxidant properties of conventional therapies were also evaluated. Data from the literature suggest that antioxidants might be useful, but available studies on this topic are limited, heterogeneous, not completely standardized, and on small populations. Furthermore, in most cases, antioxidants alone are unable to induce significant clinical changes, except perhaps in mild forms, and must be used in conjunction with standard drug treatments to achieve measurable results. Further studies need to be conducted, considering larger populations and using internationally validated scales, in order to compare the results and clinical efficacy.
... Precisely due to its chemical composition, powdered turmeric as well as its isolated phenolic compounds has wide important pharmacological applications in humans for pain management [14], against skin disease [15], Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis [16], as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory [17,18], antibacterial [19][20][21][22], antifungal [21][22][23][24][25], antidiabetic [13], insecticidal, and larvicidal [5,26,27] activities, among others. ...
Chapter
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Curcuma longa, a native species to South Asia, is commonly known as turmeric and traditionally used as a spice and dye in culinary preparations and as a traditional herbal medicine. The bioactive compounds of C. longa have different effects such as antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, insecticide, larvicide, repellent, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, healing, and gastroprotective properties. In this chapter, we describe the major chemical compounds present in C. longa and how these compounds demonstrate biological potential in human health. C. longa and its bioactive compounds have important health-promoting effects and have the potential for the development of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, or food ingredients.
... Curcumin is found in C. longa and has been prescribed as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for joint inflammation. Different studies validate the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of RA [172]. A clinical trial of patients with RA treated with either 300 mg of phenylbutazone or 1200 mg of curcumin daily reported that morning stiffness, walking speed, and manifestations of joint swelling improved equally in both treatment groups [173]. ...
Chapter
Pulmonary hypertension is caused by a rise in the vascular tone thus affecting the structural composition of the pulmonary arteries. There are various symptoms that are associated with pulmonary hypertension, which includes among others, lungs inflammation, apoptosis inhibition, remodeling of pulmonary vascular and hypoxia. It has been established that the application of medicinal plant could be applied for effective management of pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, this chapter intends to provide a detailed information on some medicinal plant that could be applied for effective management of pulmonary hypertension. Detailed information on isolation, purification, and extraction of the active constituents present in plants that are utilized for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension were also highlighted. Specific techniques for structural elucidation of the active compound were also highlighted. Detailed information on the biochemical pathway involved in the activities of phytochemical in medical plant in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension as well as detailed facts on the modes of action involved in the application of medicinal treatment of pulmonary hypertension were also highlighted.
... Numerous reports have demonstrated that curcumin can be a potential agent for reversing aging. Its high antioxidant capacity offers protection against the negative effects of free radicals, as well as anti-inflammatory effects which potentially stimulate the production of TGF-β and fibroblasts, while also inducing extracellular matrix production and angiogenesis, which both play a significant role in repairing skin and maintaining its health [124][125][126][127]. Curcumin has been seen to demonstrate low water solubility and poor permeability for oral and topical delivery [128]. ...
Article
Skin aging is a phenomenon resulting in reduced self-confidence, thus becoming a major factor in social determinants of health. The use of active cosmetic ingredients can help prevent skin aging. Transfersomes are well known to be capable of deeply penetrating the dermis. This scoping review provides an insight into transfersomes and their prospective use in anti-aging cosmetics. Numerous reports exist highlighting the successful skin delivery of therapeutic agents such as high-molecular-weight, poorly water soluble and poorly permeable active ingredients by means of transfersomes. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies have indicated that transfersomes increase the deposition, penetration and efficacy of active ingredients. However, the use of transfersomes in the delivery of active cosmetic ingredients is limited. Considering their similar physicochemical properties, transfersomes should possess considerable potential as a delivery system for anti-aging cosmetics.
... 21 Additionally, the use of neem and turmeric to treat acne (without any side effect) by reducing the production of harmful reactive oxygen species by P. acnes has been reported in the literature. 37,38 In agreement to the previous studies, 9,10,21,34,37,39 no adverse effect of PNFW was reported by the subjects in the current study and the reduction and/prevention of acne was attained in four weeks. ...
Article
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Background Acne vulgaris is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition of pilosebaceous units. The standard treatment involves topical and oral antibiotics, retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and other synthetic compounds, mostly associated with adverse effects. Hence, herbal skincare products are considered nowadays. Aim To evaluate the safety and efficacy of Purifying Neem Face Wash (PNFW), an herbal skincare product in the prevention and/or reduction of mild-to-moderate acne. Methods An open-label, single-center, single-arm, four-week clinical study was conducted with subjects having either mild-to-moderate acne or oily skin and non-existent acne. The performance of PNFW in the reduction and/or prevention of acne was detected by counting cutaneous inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions in each of the four visits. Sebum level and skin hydration of both cheeks were measured via sebumeter and corneometer, respectively. Self-assessment questionnaires were used to assess the subjects’ responses toward PNFW. Results Out of 120 study subjects, 79% and 72% showed either reduction or no new appearance of inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne lesions, respectively, from baseline to Visits 3 and 4. Skin sebum level and skin hydration showed a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001) and increase (p < 0.001), respectively, in Visits 3 and 4. Self-assessment surveys showed the satisfaction of the subjects about the product in terms of condition improvement, ease in use, and fragrance. Conclusion The present study indicated the beneficial effect of the herbal ingredients (neem and turmeric) of Himalaya's PNFW in the prevention and reduction of mild-to-moderate acne with no side effects.
... Various studies on application of Nicotiana tabacum against external parasite and skin infections had been recorded by different researchers 27,28 . Apart from this, application of Ocimum tenuiflorum, Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica were also reported for skin infection/lesion [29][30][31] ; Cordia dichotoma, Averrhoa carambola, Acacia pennata and Drymaria cordata for diarrhoea/dysentery [32][33][34] and Centella asiatica, and Houttuynia cordata Thunb during fever 35,36 . ...
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Folk traditional knowledge and practices are very rich and popular among the tribal farmers in different agricultural practices. The community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to know about pig farming patterns, ethnoveterinary knowledge and practices among various tribal pig farmers in Karbi Anglong district of Assam, India. Various field data pertaining to pig management were collected through personnel interviews, pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, participatory rural appraisal, group discussions and field visits. This study attempted to evaluate the potential use of medicinal plants and their by-products as feed ingredients and traditional folk medicine. A total of 40 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants were recorded which are principally used to cure various major and minor ailments like fracture, parasitic infestation, maggot wound, diarrhoea, fever, etc. The use of locally available feed ingredients will help in the exploration of forest resources, minimize production costs. The present study recorded a total of 21 wild plant species which are used for feeding pigs with the most frequently used species belonging to Broussonetia papyrifera, Colocasia esculenta, Alternanthera sessilis, etc. The study will help the farmers, environmentalists, researchers, and other stakeholders to identify, document, familiarize and a better understanding of the distribution of rich medicinal plants in the hill region.
... As per Ayurvedic medicine, these properties attract a lot of attention to its therapeutic potential in the treatment and management of different infectious and inflammatory diseases in the dental and medical field, such as oral mucositis [27], periodontitis [19], cancer [28], cardiovascular disease [29], diabetes [30], allergies [31], osteoarthritis [32], skin diseases [33], and others. Several different formulations (materials/mixtures that combine Curcuma with other elements, including polymers, lipids, and nanoparticles in appropriate proportions) have been produced and used in multiple studies and have been recognized as safe by the United States Food and Drug Administration [34,35]. ...
Article
Background Periodontal disease (PD) is the second most prevalent buccal infectious condition in adults. Owing to its multifactorial etiology, treatment and maintenance are challenging. Scaling and root planing, associated with adequate plaque control, are considered the gold standard treatments for this disease. However, the instrumentation techniques can fail to completely eliminate calculus, particularly in higher grade and progression rated PD cases, and the continuing efficient removal of the biofilm by the patient can limit the long-term response of this treatment. Anti-infective herbal products, such as Curcuma, have been added as adjuvant therapy to prolong periodontal treatment outcomes. Objective This systematic review aimed to summarize and evaluate whether Curcuma can contribute to PD treatment when applied as an adjunct to the standard scaling and root planing therapy. Data sources We searched databases using specific keywords and Boolean operators and systematically conducted the extraction and analysis according to the PROSPERO (CRD42019145691) database. The main eligibility criteria were randomized clinical trials in humans published in the English language. Results Twelve studies were included in the review and 11 in the meta-analysis. Quantitative analysis of different clinical parameters was described. In comparison with the control group, Curcuma was associated with a reduction in pocket depth after 90 days of treatment (mean deviation: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.08). Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that Curcuma is an effective product when applied as adjunct therapy for PD treatment. This improved the clinical and microbiological parameters.
... Curcuma longa (curcumin), also called saffron, has antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antineoplastic properties [52]. It is used to treat a variety of diseases because of its actions related to wound healing and the increase in the amount of collagen [53]. ...
Article
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PurposeThis systematic review aimed to identify effective medicinal plants for the treatment of mucositis induced by oncotherapy.Methods The clinical question was the following: “Which medicinal plants are effective in the treatment of oral mucositis induced by cancer treatment?” (PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Lilacs, and SciELO). The keywords were the following: phytotherapy OR “herbal drug” OR “plant extract” OR plant OR “medicinal plant” OR pharmacognosy OR ethnobotany OR ethnomedicine OR ethnopharmacology OR “flower essences” OR “natural product” AND mucositis OR mucositides OR stomatitis OR stomatitides OR “oral ulcer” AND chemotherapy OR radiotherapy OR immunotherapy OR cancer OR neoplasm OR neoplasm OR tumor OR tumor. The inclusion criteria for the selection of articles were the type of study design (clinical trials) and the studied population (cancer patients presenting lesions of oral mucositis having undergone treatment with medicinal plants).ResultsAfter evaluation of the works, 24 of 893 articles were selected. Matricaria chamomilla (chamomilla) presented promising results, such as a reduction in severity and lesion incidence with improved pain symptomatology. The plant extracts Isatis indigótica, Olea europaea, Calendula officinalis, A. digitatae, and M. sylvestris improved the lesions. Mucotrol™ and QRLYD herbal products improved the degree of severity of the lesions, while SAMITAL® and MUCOSYTE allowed for greater pain control.Conclusion The complementary treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions with lower side effects, is an alternative for healthcare professionals.
... 2 In western herbalism, turmeric is primarily used as an antiinflammatory agent. 3 Curcumin and curcuminoids, the active components of turmeric, are found as effective therapies over the years. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin and bisdemethoxycurcumin, these three compounds are called curcuminoids (Figure 1). ...
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Ying Peng,1 Mingyue Ao,1 Baohua Dong,1 Yunxiu Jiang,1 Lingying Yu,1 Zhimin Chen,1 Changjiang Hu,1,2 Runchun Xu1 1State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources; Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 2Neo-Green Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Chengdu, People’s Republic of ChinaCorrespondence: Zhimin Chen; Changjiang Hu Email chenzhimin@cdutcm.edu.cn; 654460129@qq.comAbstract: Curcumin is a natural compound with great potential for disease treatment. A large number of studies have proved that curcumin has a variety of biological activities, among which anti-inflammatory effect is a significant feature of it. Inflammation is a complex and pervasive physiological and pathological process. The physiological and pathological mechanisms of inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, COVID-19 and other research focus diseases are not clear yet, and they are considered to be related to inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin can effectively improve the symptoms of these diseases and is expected to be a candidate drug for the treatment of related diseases. This paper mainly reviews the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin, the inflammatory pathological mechanism of related diseases, the regulatory effect of curcumin on these, and the latest research results on the improvement of curcumin pharmacokinetics. It is beneficial to the further study of curcumin and provides new ideas and insights for the development of curcumin anti-inflammatory preparations.Keywords: anti-inflammatory, osteoarthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerotic, pharmacokinetics, prodrug
... During ancient times, turmeric was applied daily by women during bath but in this century in the midst of busy world this is not possible and due the staining property most of them are avoiding it but other than turmeric there are many herbs and essential oils which plays a key role in inhibition of hair growth. [4]. ...
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Hair is one of the distinguishing characteristics of mammals, and it serves a variety of functions including protection from external forces, production of sebum, apocrine sweat, and pheromones. However, unwanted hair growth is always a worrying aspect among teenage girls and women. The present study is the need of selecting herbal depilatories over chemical depilatories due to their high efficacy, safety, and lesser side effects. The various types of hair removal process, herbs showing depilatory action and their composition for herbal cream are studied. According to statistics, the use of depilatories has been steadily expanding, and the global hair removal products market was valued at USO 2.2 billion in 2018, with a CAGR of 5.5 percent predicted from 2019 to 2025. Depilatories are the cosmetic preparation that is used to remove the hair from the skin, in chemical depilatories the main active ingredients are salts of thioglycolic acids, sulfides and stannites which can produce rashes and side effects on long time usage, whereas herbal depilatories include active ingredients like Turmeric, Indian needle, Neem, Tanner's cassia, Apple cider vinegar, Pawpaw extract, etc. which are tremendously safe to use. Hence in this study, we Review Article Shanker et al.; JPRI, 33(49B): 278-289, 2021; Article no.JPRI.75816 279 have been discussed the importance of a few folklore herbal medicine and preparation methods of both chemical and herbal depilatories. Graphical Abstract
... 221 Combination herbal extract cream containing C. longa in patients with eczema improved all symptoms, including erythema, scaling, thickening, and itching. 222 In LPS-stimulated PBMCs, the C. longa extract decreased IL-10 production to a greater degree than Eucommia ulmoides Olive extract. Although IFN-γ, TNF-α, or IL-13 productions from LPS-stimulated PBMCs were influenced by C. longa in the control or sepsis groups, only IL-10 was affected in both control and sepsis groups by enhancing monocyte HLA-DR expression and decreasing IL-10 production. ...
Article
Curcuma longa (C. longa) or turmeric is a plant with a long history of use in traditional medicine, especially for treating inflammatory conditions C. longa and its main constituent, curcumin (CUR), showed various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anti-microbial properties. The updated knowledge of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. longa and CUR is provided in this review article. Pharmacological effects of C. longa, and CUR, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, were searched using various databases and appropriate keywords until September 2020. Various studies showed anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa and CUR, including decreased white blood cell, neutrophil, and eosinophil numbers, and its protective effects on serum levels of inflammatory mediators such as phospholipase A2 and total protein in different inflammatory disorders. The antioxidant effects of C. longa and CUR were also reported in several studies. The plant extracts and CUR decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels but increased thiol, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels in oxidative stress conditions. Treatment with C. longa and CUR also improved immunoglobulin E (Ig)E, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 4 (IL)-4, transforming growth factor-beta, IL-17, interferon-gamma levels, and type 1/type 2 helper cells (Th1)/(Th2) ratio in conditions with disturbance in the immune system. Therefore C. longa and CUR showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects, indicating a potential therapeutic effect of the plant and its constituent, CUR, for treating of inflammatory, oxidative, and immune dysregulation disorders.
... Epidemiologically, intake of ginger, turmeric, Boswellia serrata, and cat's claw was protective against IBD (9-13). Antiinflammatory properties of their secondary metabolites have been proved in different studies (14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19). ...
Article
Objective: High-fat diet (HFD) rises the susceptibility of both obesity and consequently Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). We designed a study to investigate the improving effects of herbal extract (HE, the combination of turmeric, ginger, boswellia, and cat’s claw extract) on the risk of high AGEs-fat diet 60% (HFD) mice induced colitis and obesity. Materials and Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 male mice after 2 weeks adaptation with normal diet were fed with either HFD or normal diets. After 6 weeks of being on diet, animals received HE for 16 weeks. Obesity index markers were determined as well as histological studies using H&E (Hematoxylin-eosin) staining. Colonic expression of IL-1β was determined. Data analysis was performed by utilizing Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test for post-hoc comparisons, and SPSS (version 17.0) and GraphPad Prism Software (Version 8.0, USA). Results: HE decreased histological scores (by 6-fold) in HFD diet-fed mice, and reduced myeloperoxidase activity (by 2.2-fold), and ratio of colon weight to length (by 4-fold) in HFD diet-fed mice. Moreover, HE prevented intestinal permeability through the restoration of ZO-1 (by 4-fold) and immune homeostasis by modulation of IL-1β (by 2.4-fold) expression. Conclusion: HFD induced obesity-associated colitis. HE decreased the colitis symptoms in HFD diet-fed mice, with the reduction of inflammation.
... has shown efficacy in treating various dermal and non-dermal maladies. [47][48][49][50][51] Therapeutic properties of the mono-and poly-herbal formulations have been attributed to their phytochemical contents including phenol, polyphenol, alkaloid, terpenoid, and glycoside classes of molecules. 52 Phytochemicals identified in DKV-O have been reported to play a major role in regulating inflammation, prevention of allergen, and platelet-activating factors. ...
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Purpose: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that varies in signs and symptoms in different individuals. General symptoms include dryness of the skin, itching, and development of red to brownish-gray patches. Divya-Kayakalp-Vati (DKV) and -Oil (DKO) are Indian polyherbal compositions prescribed for treating inflammatory skin diseases. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory efficacy of DKV and DKO co-treatment (DKV-O) in ameliorating Oxazolone (OXA)-stimulated AD-like inflammation and pro-inflammatory cytokine release in a Swiss albino mouse model. Methods: Phytochemical profiling of the DKV and DKO were done using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) QToF. Swiss albino mice were sensitized for 7 days and treated with OXA in their ear region. Stimulated and control animals were orally treated with DKV and topically with DKO. Anti-inflammatory efficacy of DKV-O was determined in OXA-treated animals through physiological, histopathological, and biochemical parameter analysis. Results: DKV and DKO formulations individually contained 39 and 59 phytochemicals, respectively. Many of the phytochemicals have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities. In the OXA-sensitized Swiss albino mice, combined treatment with DKV-O, and separately with Dexamethasone (positive control) significantly reduced the OXA-stimulated ear edema, biopsy weight, and epidermal thickness. DKV-O further reduced OXA-stimulated induction of inflammatory lesions, neutrophil influx, and release of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and myeloperoxidase. Conclusion: Finally, DKV-O co-treatment showed good pharmacological effects in ameliorating AD-like inflammation through the modulation of inflammatory cell influx and release of soluble mediators. Therefore, DKV-O treatment can be used as a suitable polyherbal therapeutic against AD-like inflammatory diseases.
... Natural antioxidants are favored for their simplicity, safety, effectiveness. Curcumin, a natural polyphenolic and yellow pigment obtained from the spice turmeric, which has been shown to prevent and treat of parasitic skin infections, infected wounds, premature aging, inflammation, and psoriasis [16]. Whereas, curcumin's poor bioavailability, low aqueous solubility, chemical instability, rapid degradation, and rapid systemic elimination as major limitations for its use in clinical practice [17]. ...
Article
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UV induced photoaging is the main external factor of skin aging. In this study, we tested the protective effects of tetrahydrocurcumin on UV-induced skin photoaging of KM mice and researched the multi-target mechanism through RNA sequencing technology. Mouse experiments show that tetrahydrocurcumin strongly changed in skin appearance, epidermal thickness, and wrinkle-related parameters in UV-irradiated mice. RNA-seq result show that we found 29 differentially expressed mRNA transcripts in UV mice relative to Ctrl rats (18 up-regulated and 11 down-regulated) and 7 significantly dysregulated mRNAs were obtained in the THC group compared to the UV group (1 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated), respectively. Spink7, Edn3, Stab2 may be the key target genes of tetrahydrocurcumin in preventing aging. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the response to muscle contraction and melanin biosynthetic GO term and Inflammation related pathway such as PPAR, MAPK would involve in effects of tetrahydrocurcumin. The results of this study indicated that tetrahydrocurcumin can improve the appearance through anti-inflammatory, improving extracellular matrix and inhibiting melanin production. It could be suggested as a protective measure in the prevention of UV-induced photoaging.
... Besides, Curcuma longa is the only species of Zingiberaceae used in powder. Based on Vaughn et al. (2016) Based on literature study of used plant composition in bedaka, this concoction is efficacious for brightening and moisturizing the skin, protecting the skin from UV, helping wound healing, preventing aging, and fragrance. Based on those benefits, this concoction can be developed in the local and national beauty industry. ...
Article
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Sahu tribe at Lako Akediri village has a beauty treatment herbs concoction called bedaka that made from various plants species. Since the knowledge of making the herb is passed down by oral, it cannot be documented the whole local knowledge. Therefore, an investigation on ethnobotany of bedaka herb at Sub District Sahu, West Halmahera has been conducted. The aims of study are to inventory plant species tha used in bedaka herb; to elaborate the function of bedaka based on chemical content of used plants; and to describe conservation behaviour of community towards the used plants. Ethnobotanical data was collected by using participant observation and semi-structure interviews. The result showed that 22 species of plants from 19 families used in bedaka herbs. The most often used part is leaf (11 species) The using way of plant was by mixing the collisions of whole material, made it to sphere, and dried. The utilization of this concoction by diluted it with water. The functions of bedaka herbs are to prevent sunburn, to brighten and to soften skin face. The major resource of used plant is derived from cultivation (55%). It shows that conservation behaviour of community towards used plants has been highly enough applied. This study can be used as a reference in the development of natural-based facial beauty care products, such as skin care packages or face masks.
... As indicated, topical application or oral administration of turmeric is used to prevent and treat various dermatological conditions, such as psoriasis, parasitic skin infections, infected wounds, inflammation, and even premature aging (4,12). Furthermore, South Indian women use turmeric in the form of crude extract or powdered tuber in their daily care, due to its beneficial anti-aging effects including moisture retention and antioxidant activity (13). ...
Article
Curcumin is a plant‐derived yellow‐orange compound widely used as a spice, dye and food additive. It is also believed to have therapeutic effects against different disorders. On the other hand, there are data showing its phototoxicity against bacteria, fungi and various mammalian cells. Since the mechanism of its phototoxic action is not fully understood, we investigated here the phototoxic potential of curcumin in liposomal model membranes and in HaCaT cells. First, detection of singlet oxygen (1O2) luminescence proved that curcumin generates 1O2 upon blue light irradiation in organic solvent and in liposomes. Then, HPLC‐EC(Hg) measurements revealed that liposomal and cellular cholesterol is oxidized by 1O2 photogenerated by curcumin. Enrichment of liposome membranes with curcumin significantly increased the oxygen photo‐consumption rate compared to the control liposomes as determined by EPR oximetry. Cytotoxicity measurements, mitochondrial membrane potential analyzes and protein hydroperoxides detection confirmed strong phototoxic effects of curcumin in irradiated HaCaT cells. These data show that since curcumin is advertised as a valuable dietary supplement, or a component of cosmetics for topical use, caution should be recommended especially when skin is exposed to light.
... Besides systemic administration, also the dermal application of curcumin can be very useful [3]. For example, it can be used for the treatment of acne, alopecia, atopic Pelikh dermatitis, facial photoaging, oral lichen planus, pruritus, psoriasis, radiodermatitis, or vitiligo [4]. Recent studies could further demonstrate the positive effects of curcumin on the wound healing process, the management of wound restoration, and the scar treatment [5][6][7]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Curcumin is a promising drug candidate, but its use for dermal application is limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. Thus, formulations that increase the solubility of curcumin are needed to fully exploit the therapeutic potential of curcumin. Various previous studies address this issue, but a comparison of the efficacy between these formulations remains difficult. The reason for this is a missing standard formulation as benchmark control and an easy-to-use skin penetration model that allows for a fast discrimination between different formulations. Objective: Thus, the aims of this study were the development of a curcumin standard formulation and a screening tool that allows for a fast discrimination between the dermal penetration efficacies of curcumin from different formulations. Methods: Ethanolic curcumin solutions were selected as simple and easy to produce standard formulations, and the ex vivo porcine ear model, coupled with epifluorescence microscopy and subsequent digital image analysis, was utilized to determine the dermal penetration efficacy of curcumin from the different formulations. Results: Results show that the utilized skin penetration model is a suitable and versatile tool that enables not only a fast determination of the dermal penetration efficacy of curcumin from different formulations but also a detailed and mechanistic information on the fate of chemical compounds after dermal penetration. Ethanolic solutions containing 0.25% curcumin were found to be the most suitable standard formulation. Conclusions: Results of the study provide a new, effective screening tool for the development of dermal formulations for improved dermal delivery of curcumin.
... The curcuminoid is the active compound in turmeric rhizomes which has medicinal importance and has been used for curing hepatic disorders, skin diseases and blood purification (Kocaadam andŞanlier, 2017;Marton et al., 2020). It also contains volatile compounds that have medicinal properties in them such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetic, anti-fungal and detoxifying (Vaughn et al., 2016;Mariam et al., 2017;Kotra et al., 2019;Noureddin et al., 2019). Firstly, turmeric used in herbal medicines but at this time, it is used at large scale for different purposes such as coloring agents for food, cosmetics, dyes, even in medicines due to its antioxidant properties (Anandaraj et al., 2014;Gopinath and Karthikeyan, 2018;Kotha and Luthria, 2019;Ahmed et al., 2020;Dua and Paul, 2020). ...
Article
Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) is a perennial herbaceous crop that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is being used for medicinal as well as culinary purposes. Turmeric requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers, animal manure or farmyard manure to produce a high rhizome yield. This study was conducted at Vegetable Research Area, Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during 2019-20. Six different fertilizers treatments, viz. T0 (control), T1 (8 ton ha-1 FYM), T2 (8 ton FYM + N:P:K 75, 25 and 50 kg ha-1), T3 (4 ton FYM + N:P:K 90, 32 and 62 kg ha-1), T4 (N:P:K 136, 100 and 125 kg ha-1) and T5 (2.5 ton FYM + N:P:K 182, 172 and 80 kg ha-1) were used. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and collected data were statistically analyzed using Statistix 8.1. Maximum growth, yield and quality traits, viz. plant height (87.8 cm), number of tillers per plant (3.8), number of leaves per plant (19.0), leaf length (39.8 cm), leaf width (13.3 cm), stem diameter (17.3 mm), number of primary rhizomes per plant (6.4), number of secondary rhizomes per plant (14.2), total number of rhizomes per plant (21.6), weight of primary rhizomes (115.4 g plant-1), weight of secondary rhizomes (116.7 g plant-1), yield (257.7 g plant-1), rhizome length (53.2 mm), rhizome diameter (24.3 mm) and total dry matter (49.5 %) were recorded in treatment T5 (2.5 ton FYM + N:P:K 182, 172 and 80 kg ha-1). Moisture content was highest, i.e. 59.8% and 59.7% in treatment T0 (control) and T1 (8 ton ha-1 FYM), respectively. Total soluble solids were found highest, i.e. 11.92 and 11.48 o Brix, in T3 (4 ton FYM + N:P:K 90, 32 and 62 kg ha-1) and T4 (N:P:K 136, 100 and 125 kg ha-1), respectively. However, maximum curcumin content (0.94%) was observed in treatment T4 (N:P:K 136:100:125 kg/ha). This study concluded that application of N:P:K 136:100:125 kg ha-1 was best for increasing curcumin content (curcumin yield) but further increase in applied nutrients along with FYM, i.e. 2.5 ton FYM + N:P:K 182, 172 and 80 kg ha-1 can produce highest rhizome yield in sandy loam soils.. 2020. Effect of different combinations of organic and synthetic sources of nutrients on growth, yield and quality parameters of turmeric under Faisalabad conditions.
... Studied plantderived drug has been demonstrated to contain principles that possess the ability to facilitate the stability of biological membranes when exposed to induced lysis [46]. Several reports have supported the fact that the membranes of human erythrocytes HbSS blood types have varied stability as determined from the mean corpuscular fragility [34,47]. erefore, plant extracts that can positively affect the red cell membrane would be useful in sickle cell disease management. ...
Article
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Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disease associated with increased morbidity and mortality in Africa and other developing nations. Therefore, modern and traditional remedies are being introduced for use in the treatment and management of this disease. This is because safe, effective, and inexpensive therapeutic agents are urgently needed for the treatment of this disease in Africa and other developing nations. Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify medicinal plant species commonly used by traditional healers in the treatment of sickle cell patients across some localities in the west region of Cameroon. Material and Methods. The ethnopharmacological survey was carried out in several districts within some localities of the western region of Cameroon. The survey was based on a semistructured questionnaire that was administered to 17 traditional healers and 62 sickle cell patients. It took place between November 2018 and March 2019. Personal information of participants and plant therapy data were gathered. Plants were identified at the National Herbarium of Cameroon. Literature review determined pharmacological effects and phytochemical compounds of the identified plants. Data were generally analysed using Epi Info 7 software for Windows. Results: Twelve medicinal plant species belonging to 10 families are being used in the treatment of sickle cell anemia across the study sites. Euphorbiaceae is the dominant family with three plant species. Bark (39.3%) and seeds (35.7%) are the most used plant parts, which get administered through maceration, decoction, and chewing in water. According to the literature review, the identified plants have pharmacological effects and phytochemical compounds (especially polyphenols and alkaloids) that signify the presence of antioxidant compounds, which may possess an antisickling activity. There is therefore a need to conduct another study to scientifically validate (in vitro) antisickling properties of these plants. Conclusion: This study has revealed promising medicinal plants that are currently applied in the traditional treatment of sickle cell anemia. Although still inconclusive, the association of pharmacological effects and phytochemical compounds with these medicinal plants justifies their use in traditional pharmacopoeia.
... To create this MIS, we combined previously utilized ingredients known to facilitate improvements in mitochondrial function, namely α-LA, CoQ10, and vitamin E [12,14], with other compounds independently shown to exhibit skin health benefits within the scientific literature. These additional ingredients, with several key pieces of literature highlighting their beneficial attributes to skin health referenced for interest, include vitamin C [18][19][20][21][22], resveratrol [22][23][24][25][26], curcumin [25,[27][28][29][30], biotin [31], zinc [32][33][34][35], lutein [22,[36][37][38], astaxanthin [39][40][41][42][43], vitamin D [25,[44][45][46][47], and copper [48,49]. ...
Article
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The macroscopic and microscopic deterioration of human skin with age is, in part, attributed to a functional decline in mitochondrial health. We previously demonstrated that exercise attenuated age-associated changes within the skin through enhanced mitochondrial health via IL-15 signaling, an exercise-induced cytokine whose presence increases in circulation following physical activity. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if these mitochondrial-enhancing effects could be mimicked with the provision of a novel multi-ingredient supplement (MIS). Cultured human fibroblasts isolated from older, sedentary women were treated with control media (CON) or CON supplemented with the following active ingredients to create the MIS: coenzyme Q10, alpha lipoic acid, resveratrol, curcumin, zinc, lutein, astaxanthin, copper, biotin, and vitamins C, D, and E. Outcomes were determined following 24 or 72 h of treatment. MIS provision to dermal fibroblasts significantly increased the mRNA abundance of mitochondrial biogenesis activators and downstream IL-15 signaling pathways, and proteins for oxidative phosphorylation subunits and antioxidant defenses. These findings were co-temporal with lower cellular senescence and cytotoxicity following MIS treatment. In summary, MIS supplementation led to exercise-mimetic effects on human dermal fibroblasts and their mitochondria by reproducing the molecular and biochemical effects downstream of IL-15 activation.
... Curcumin is found in C. longa and has been prescribed as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for joint inflammation. Different studies validate the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of RA [172]. A clinical trial of patients with RA treated with either 300 mg of phenylbutazone or 1200 mg of curcumin daily reported that morning stiffness, walking speed, and manifestations of joint swelling improved equally in both treatment groups [173]. ...
... Lavender oil was selected as another essential oil owing to its aroma and extensive use in cosmetic products. [21,22] Table 1 presents the range and levels that were used to construct the design table using response surface methodology (RSM)central composite design (CDD) for different parameters. ...
... Hundreds of works have reported the topical anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of diarylheptanoids-and extracts enriched in these compounds-from Curcuma sp. extracts at both experimental and clinical levels [87][88][89][90] and how they regulate both COX and LOX [91] via transcription factors [92]. There is a controversy about the bioavailability of its components that contribute to a huge variability in therapeutic results [93]. ...
Article
The relationship between lipid peroxidation and inflammation has been accepted as a paradigm in the field of topical inflammation. The underlying biochemical mechanisms may be summarised as unspecific oxidative damage followed by specific oxidative processes as the physio pathological response in skin tissues. In this experimental review we hypothesise that the characteristics attributed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to herbal drugs can be linked to their biomolecular activities within the framework of the above paradigm. To this end, we review and collect experimental data from several TCM herbal drugs to create 2D-3D pharmacological and biochemical spaces that are further reduced to a bidimensional combined space. When multivariate analysis is applied to the latter, it unveils a series of links between TCM herbal characters and the skin lipoperoxidation “Western” model. With the help of these patterns and a focused review on their chemical, pharmacological and antioxidant properties we show that cleansing herbs of bitter and cold nature acting through removal of toxins—including P. amurense, Coptis chinensis, S. baicalensis and F. suspensa—are highly correlated with strong inhibition of both lipid peroxidation and eicosanoids production. Sweet drugs—such as A. membranaceus, A. sinensis and P. cocos—act through a specific inhibition of the eicosanoids production. The therapeutic value of the remaining drugs—with low antioxidant or anti-inflammatory activity—seems to be based on their actions on the Qi with the exception of furanocoumarin containing herbs—A. dahurica and A. pubescens—which “expel wind”. A further observation from our results is that the drugs present in the highly active “Cleansing herbs” cluster are commonly used and may be interchangeable. Our work may pave the way to a translation between two medical systems with radically different philosophies and help the prioritisation of active ingredients with specific biomolecular activities of interest for the treatment of skin conditions.
... Curcumin is found in C. longa and has been prescribed as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent for joint inflammation. Different studies validate the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of RA [172]. A clinical trial of patients with RA treated with either 300 mg of phenylbutazone or 1200 mg of curcumin daily reported that morning stiffness, walking speed, and manifestations of joint swelling improved equally in both treatment groups [173]. ...
Chapter
Aging is the natural, biological process in all organisms, described by a notable decline in the physiological functioning and alterations in the biochemical mechanism. In this chapter, we aim to review the efficacy of traditional medicines as a supportive therapy for aging-associated disorders and stem cell therapy. Aging paves the way for noxious diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases; moreover, the aesthetic value of an individual gets depreciated. Aging leads to the senescence of stem cells and deteriorates the proliferation and differentiation potential of stem cells. With the extensive assets, traditional medicines are used as supportive therapy for various age-related ailments. Traditional medicines are well known for their anti-aging, antioxidative, anticancer properties. Various review articles and research articles were searched from scientific databases like PubMed and MEDLINE. It was found that extracts of Momordica charantia, basil plant, can delay aging process and alleviate age-related diseases. Leaf and root extracts of Tinospora cordifolia and Withania somnifera delayed aging-induced senescence in MSCs efficiently. Herbal extracts of Curcumin Longa L., Salvia miltiorrhiza, and naringin from citrus fruits and grapes have strong potential in inducing cumulative proliferation and differentiation capability of stem cells at precise concentrations. We conclude that an understanding of molecular evidence, ethnopharmacology, and mechanisms of action of herbal extracts in vivo with advancement technologies may have a translational impact on stem cell research and therapies. Further meticulous studies are needed to isolate and characterize the novel active component from herbs and formulate it as an effective drug that may be advised for alleviating age-related disorders.
Article
Turmeric (Curcuma domestica) has nutritious compounds called curcuminoids, which can be used as antioxidants. As an antioxidant, C. domestica extract can be used to ward off free radicals that damage collagen and elastin, a protein that keeps skin moist. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of serum combined with the addition of collagen using the DPPH method. The DPPH was made at a concentration of 80 μg/mL, and the absorption was read at a wavelength of 520 nm using a microplate rider. The study was conducted by making six formulations, namely F0, F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 obtained the results of serum made from C. domestica extract that can inhibit free radicals and meet the physical evaluation test requirements of serum. Furthermore, the formula is made using only one active ingredient and only collagen to determine the antioxidant activity influenced by the extract or collagen. The results obtained indicate that collagen has a supporting role in adding antioxidant activity apart from the extract used. The highest % inhibition value at F5 with 90.526% can be said to ward off free radicals.
Article
Nutrition and dietary supplements have been used to promote a youthful appearance for millennia. Despite high public demand for these products, evidence supporting their efficacy is limited and often inconsistent. We discuss the structural and functional changes that occur in the skin during the aging process. We also review evidence supporting the use of nutritional supplements commonly used to promote a youthful appearance, including vitamins A, C, D, and E, essential fatty acids, coenzyme Q, collagen peptides, curcumin, polyphenols, flavonoids, probiotics, and silymarin. We also consider the role of advanced glycosylated end products, anti-inflammatory diets, and caloric restriction in delaying premature skin aging. While evidence supporting the use of some dietary interventions is promising, further long-term studies in humans are required to fully understand their effects on the promotion of a youthful appearance.
Article
Introduction: Oral mucositis is the most common toxicity of chemoradiotherapy treatment of head and neck cancers. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a researched turmeric formulation on oral mucositis in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for oral cancer. Methods: This randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial included 60 patients with oral cancer who had undergone radical surgery. Patients were equally randomized into 3 arms. Bio-enhanced turmeric formulation (BTF) capsules (low dose [1 g/day] or high dose [1.5 g/day]) or placebo was administered daily for 6 weeks with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Study endpoints included the impact of the treatment on chemoradiotherapy-induced oral mucositis along with dysphagia, oral pain, dermatitis, and weight loss. Results: The incidence of grade 3 toxicity of oral mucositis, oral pain, dysphagia, and dermatitis was significantly lower in patients who received BTF than placebo. Twenty-five and 20% patients in BTF 1 g/day (p = 0.011) and 1.5 g/day (p = 0.004) arms, respectively, developed grade 3 oral mucositis compared to 65% patients in the placebo arm. Thirty-five and 30% patients in BTF 1 g/day (p = 0.027) and 1.5 g/day (p = 0.011) arms, respectively, developed grade 3 oral pain compared to 70% patients in the placebo arm. Twenty-five and 20% patients in BTF 1 g/day (p = 0.025) and 1.5 g/day (p = 0.010) arms, respectively, developed grade 3 dysphagia compared to 60% patients in the placebo arm. Ten and 5% patients in BTF 1 g/day (p = 0.114) and 1.5 g/day (p = 0.037) arms. respectively, developed grade 3 dermatitis compared to 30% patients in the placebo arm. Patients under BTF supplementation experienced significantly less weight loss and greater compliance with treatment than placebo. Conclusion: BTF (BCM-95®) can significantly reduce chemoradiotherapy-induced severe oral mucositis, dysphagia, oral pain, and dermatitis in oral cancer patients. Trial registration: Clinical Trials Registry, India (Registration No. CTRI) (CTRI/2015/12/006413 dated December 4, 2015).
Article
Hair loss has a multifactorial etiology that includes internal and external triggers. These include poor diet and nutrition (extrinsic), as well as the natural aging process (intrinsic). Other external factors include pollution, hair products, hair styling, and ultraviolet exposure, which can cause free radical formation, oxidative stress, and microinflammation at the site of the hair follicles. Botanic substances have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-enhancing properties. Vitamins and minerals are needed when deficiencies are apparent or demonstrate efficacy at higher doses than normally found in one's diet. The safety and efficacy of oral nutraceuticals have been demonstrated in clinical trials.
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Turmeric is traditionally used as a skin cosmetic in some religious and cultural occasions on the Indian subcontinent. In this study, we compared the tyrosinase inhibitory properties of four Curcuma spp., namely, C. xanthorrhiza , C. aromatica, C. amada, and C. zedoaria. Bioassay-guided isolation and purification of tyrosinase inhibitors using silica gel column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the compounds was conducted using ¹ H NMR, ¹³ C NMR, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. C. amada showed the highest tyrosinase inhibitory activity, with an IC 50 of 53.4 μg/mL. Therefore, it was chosen for the isolation and purification of tyrosinase inhibitors. The purified compounds were zederone (1) , furanodienone (2) , 1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl) heptanes (3) , 3,5-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptanes (4) and1,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) heptanes (5) . The IC 50 values for the mushroom anti-tyrosinase activity of compounds 1 , 2 , 3 , 4, and 5 were 108.2, 89.2, 92.3, 21.7 and 41.3 µM, respectively. These compounds also inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity, thus reducing melanin synthesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. Compound 4 showed significantly stronger anti-tyrosinase activity than that of arbutin (a positive control drug). No significant difference was observed in the tyrosinase inhibitory effect between compound 5 and arbutin. Our findings strongly suggest that C. amada is a promising source of natural tyrosinase inhibitors to prevent melanogenesis and could be used as a whitening cosmetic.
Article
Skin barrier restoration is an important part of atopic dermatitis therapy. We investigated the effect of a spot-on containing plant-based essential fatty acids and essential oils on skin barrier parameters in a dog model of acute skin barrier disruption, using five healthy beagle dogs maintained in a laboratory setting. Four test sites on the dorsum and a control site on the abdomen were defined on each dog. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin surface hydration (SSH) were measured before and after tape stripping on the first day and then for three consecutive days, over four consecutive weeks. The spot-on was applied at the end of each of the first three weeks. The increase in TEWL after tape stripping was reduced after the spot-on application and reached control values in Weeks 3 and 4. SSH after tape stripping was reduced in Week 4 compared with the baseline. Thus, the ATOP 7® spot-on significantly reduced acute skin barrier impairment in a dog model. The use of this product should be further evaluated as a potential treatment for skin barrier defects such as canine atopic dermatitis.
Article
Recent advances have revealed that progranulin (PGRN) is related to the aetiology of psoriasis. Moreover, curcumin, a compound derived from turmeric, has been proposed as a potential therapeutic approach in psoriasis-like dermatitis, but it is still unclear whether curcumin affects the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions under PGRN-deficient conditions. Therefore, in this study, we developed a mouse model of psoriatic skin lesions using topical application of imiquimod (IMQ) in both wild type and PGRN-knockout mice to test this possibility. We observed that PGRN deficiency not only increased proinflammatory cytokine IL-17A levels and aggravated psoriasis-like damaged appearance and epidermal thickening but also directly mediated changes in keratinocyte proliferation (Krt 14, cyclinD1 and c-Myc) and differentiation (Krt 10 and Filaggrin) associated gene expression following IMQ challenge, compared to those in the control group. Furthermore, curcumin treatment (50 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, intragastrically) for 21 consecutive days suppressed the IMQ exposure-induced increase in PGRN expression. Importantly, curcumin treatment significantly alleviated the PGRN deficiency-induced exacerbation of psoriatic appearance, histological features and keratinocyte proliferation after IMQ exposure. In summary, these results demonstrate the direct regulation of PGRN in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation in psoriatic lesions and demonstrate the protective effect of curcumin on PGRN deficiency-induced psoriatic skin lesion exacerbation.
Article
This study aimed at developing a cell-based encapsulation carrier for topical delivery of bioactives to the skin. The overall objectives were to evaluate affinity of the yeast-cell based carrier to bind to the skin surface following topical application and to quantify controlled release of curcumin as a model bioactive in ex-vivo skin models using a combination of imaging, modeling and analytical measurements. Both porcine skin tissue and clinically obtained human skin biopsies were studied. The results demonstrated that upon incubation with the ex-vivo skin tissues, the cell carriers rapidly bound to the skin surface following topical delivery and provided sustained release of encapsulated curcumin. The microcarrier binding and penetration of curcumin in the dermal compartment also showed to increase with incubation time. The average flux of curcumin in human skin biopsies Jp was 0.89 ± 0.02 ug/cm2/h. These results illustrated the potential of a novel cell-based carrier for high affinity binding to skin surface, efficient encapsulation of a model bioactive and controlled release from the cell carrier to the skin with enhanced permeation to the dermis section. Overall, this study demonstrated a new class of cost-effective carriers for improving delivery of bioactives to the skin and potentially other epithelial tissues.
Chapter
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a flowering plant of the ginger family with a long history of medicinal use due to its potent anti-inflammatory properties. Its most active constituent is curcumin, which has been widely studied. However, curcumin has extremely limited bioavailability. Thus, it is essential to add a little piperine (from black pepper) to any turmeric preparation, particularly curcumin, to allow for adequate absorption. Turmeric has antibacterial, fungistatic, and wound-healing properties. This chapter examines some of the scientific research conducted on turmeric, both alone and in combination formulas, for treating numerous health conditions. It summarizes results from several human studies of the herb’s use in treating ophthalmological, oral and dental, pulmonary, cardiovascular, cardiometabolic, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychiatric disorders, among many others. Finally, the chapter presents a list of turmeric’s active constituents, different Commonly Used Preparations and Dosage, and a section on “Safety and Precaution” that examines side effects, toxicity, and disease and drug interactions.
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p class="abstract"> Background: Aging of skin has both intrinsic and extrinsic causative factors. Impact of oral consumption of a novel multi-component herbal skin water supplement (HSWS) by Diabliss was investigated in a pilot exploratory study. Methods: A 90-day open label clinical study among 40 healthy male and female subjects aged 35-50 years, presenting with signs of aging including wrinkles and pigmentation related skin concerns. The study assessments included dermatological, instrumental and imaging evaluation to investigate the impact of the Diabliss HSWS in providing improvements in various signs of aging. Results: The Diabliss HSWS was able to show significant improvement in skin elasticity parameters by Cutometer® with improvements that ranged between 23-54% for the six elasticity parameters, skin hydration improvements as measured by Corneometer® in forehead (30%) and cheek (34%), wrinkles reduction reductions by Antera® in forehead (25%) and crows feet area (20%), texture improvements in forehead (25%) and crows feet area (20%), reduction L* value on the localized pigmentation/ spot of 6%. The subject assessments also reported improvement in the skin and general health. There were no product related AE/SAE and the product was found to be safe and well tolerated. Conclusions: In conclusion, this water based oral nutraceutical is a novel delivery system for a skin rejuvenation adjuvant therapy which is cosmetically and systemically acceptable and tolerable for patients.</p
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Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of yellow turmeric-infusa of 5% and 10% on the healing process of perineal wound grade II. Method The method used in this study is quasi-experiment with Pretest–Posttest Control Group design. The sampling technique is Exhaustive Sampling according to inclusion criteria. In this research consisted of three experimental groups with two intervention groups and one control group, with the number of subjects group was 15 people. Turmeric infusa is used daily by washing in the perineal wound area two times a day for 5 days postpartum. Monitoring of grade II perineal wound was performed three times, days 1, 5, and 7 postpartum using REEDA scale assessment. Data analysis used Kruskal–Wallis and Chi-Square tests. Results The results showed that on the 5th and 7th postpartum days, there were differences in redness, edema, and approximation of wounds in each group (p < 0.05) while the other REEDA parameters were not significantly different. There is also a difference in the time of perineal wound healing in each group, and it can be seen from the decrease and the total REEDA score. Turmeric infusa group 5% experienced healing on the 5th day postpartum, turmeric infusa 10% recovered on the 7th day postpartum, and the control group recovered more than 7 days. Conclusion Giving turmeric was proven to eliminate redness, edema, accelerate the closure, and perineal wound healing time, as seen from the p-value (p < 0.05). However, turmeric infusa of 5% and 10% showed better effectiveness than turmeric infusa of 5%.
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The skin is the largest organ in the human body, composed of the epidermis and the dermis. It provides protection and acts as a barrier against external menaces like allergens, chemicals, systemic toxicity, and infectious organisms. Skin disorders like cancer, dermatitis, psoriasis, wounds, skin aging, acne, and skin infection occur frequently and can impact human life. According to a growing body of evidence, several studies have reported that natural products have the potential for treating skin disorders. Building on this information, this review provides brief information about the action of the most important in vitro and in vivo research on the use of ten selected natural products in inflammatory, neoplastic, and infectious skin disorders and their mechanisms that have been reported to date. The related studies and articles were searched from several databases, including PubMed, Google, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect. Ten natural products that have been reported widely on skin disorders were reviewed in this study, with most showing anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-cancer effects as the main therapeutic actions. Overall, most of the natural products reported in this review can reduce and suppress inflammatory markers, like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), induce cancer cell death through apoptosis, and prevent bacteria, fungal, and virus infections indicating their potentials. This review also highlighted the challenges and opportunities of natural products in transdermal/topical delivery systems and their safety considerations for skin disorders. Our findings indicated that natural products might be a low-cost, well-tolerated, and safe treatment for skin diseases. However, a larger number of clinical trials are required to validate these findings. Natural products in combination with modern drugs, as well as the development of novel delivery mechanisms, represent a very promising area for future drug discovery of these natural leads against skin disorders.
Article
Background: Vitiligo is an autoimmune and acquired disease characterized by the destruction of epidermal melanocytes leading to depigmentation of the skin. Although vitiligo is a common disease, there is not a definite cure and conventional therapies can lead to serious adverse effects. Turmeric has been widely studied for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cell proliferation while it is a cost-benefit and available treatment for a variety of diseases. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical turmeric cream on vitiligo's lesions appearance including size and repigmentation. Patients/methods: Following the screening, 30 patients were enrolled according to inclusion criteria. The patients received training to apply turmeric and placebo cream at the specified side of their body twice a day for 4 months. Patients were evaluated at the baseline and at monthly intervals to access possible side effects. Lesion size, vitiligo area scoring index (VASI), vitiligo noticeability scale (VNS) and physician global assessment (PGA) were evaluated at the baseline and after four months to compare the changes induced by turmeric and placebo cream. Results: 24 patients completed the trial. Applying turmeric cream reduced the size of lesions and improved lesion's appearance significantly compared to the placebo group (p-value < 0.001) and also patient's satisfaction score was higher following applying turmeric cream compared to placebo (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Turmeric cream can be used as an alternative remedy or adjuvant therapy in mild to moderate vitiligo lesions and in those who cannot tolerate the adverse effects of conventional therapies.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis related to high morbidity and mortality. The incidence of psoriasis is increasing in recent decades. Some patients with psoriasis are anxious about the underlying side effects of synthetic drugs they are on. Therefore, they are eager to seek alternative and efficient therapy, such as Chinese herbal medicine (CHM). Researchers have found some CHM provides best source for the development of anti-psoriatic drugs because of their structural diversity and fewer adverse reactions. Some of CHM formulas or active constituents extracted from CHM have been rapidly developed into clinical drugs with good efficacy. At present, along with the CHM formulas, single CHM and its active components have been extensively accepted and utilized in the treatment of psoriasis, whose therapeutic mechanisms hitherto have not been thoroughly illustrated. Aim of the study: This review aimed to comprehensively summarize about the existing therapeutic mechanisms of CHM in the treatment of psoriasis and to provide a reference to develop future related studies in this field. Materials and methods Relevant literatures about how CHM treated psoriasis were acquired from published scientific studies (including PubMed, CNKI, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar, The Plant List, Elsevier and SciFinder). All plants appearing in the review have been included in The Plant List or Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS). Results In this review, we collect numerous literatures about how CHM treats psoriasis via immune cells, signaling pathways and disease-related mediators and systematically elucidates potential mechanisms from the point of the suppression of oxidative stress, the inhibition of abnormal abnormal proliferation and differentiation, the inhibition of immune responses, and the suppression of angiogenesis. Conclusions Psoriasis is considered as a complicated disease caused by interaction among various mechanisms. The CHM formulas, single CHM and its active components have considerable positive reports about the treatment of psoriasis, which brings hope for a promising future of CHM in the clinical therapy of psoriasis. In the paper, we have concluded that the existing therapeutic mechanisms of CHM in the treatment of psoriasis.
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Hinduism is the fourth largest religion in the United States; an understanding of Hindu beliefs and practices will help health care providers deliver culturally sensitive care while discussing advance care planning and end-of-life care for adult patients. For many Westerners, the practice of yoga, Ayurveda, and vegetarianism is used by people striving to live healthfully. However, what might be unfamiliar to Westerners is how for Hindus, these practices reflect their millennia-old spirituality and religiosity. Knowing the Hindu beliefs of atman, Brahman, karma, and moksha will help nurses connect to Hindus' various end-of-life wishes. In addition, getting familiar with interrelating factors such as lack of knowledge on palliative care and advance care planning, family dynamics, acculturation, and personal preferences will allow nurses to provide culturally competent care. By facilitating end-of-life conversations at an early stage, nurses can promote confidence and self-efficacy for patients who may fear that their religiosity and personal priorities are trivialized by acculturated family members or disregarded by their adopted homeland. This clinical article provides nurses with information about Asian Indian American Hindus' beliefs and practices, clinical implications for assessment, and suggestions to support patients' and families' end-of-life wishes.
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Introduction: The beauty product preparation from natural ingredients reaches is historical. People of rural area where the practice of modern cosmetic products are not accessible, they mostly use and depend upon the locally available ingredients in their own formulations. The inclusion of extracts in topical formulations can minimize the skin damage of oxidative stress, which has been associated with delaying the aging process. Therapeutic benefits by addition of plant-based active ingredients such as alpha-hydroxy acid, retinoic acid, ferulic acid, ascorbic acid, and coenzyme Q10 are common. Natural preservatives are also in priority but it is equally important to carry research for their efficacy and assurance.
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This umbrella review is to recapitulate and grade the available evidence of associations between consumption of Zingiberaceae plants/curcumin (Cur) and multiple health‐related outcomes. This study included 161 meta‐analyses of randomized controlled trials in 76 articles with 67 unique health outcomes. Data on heterogeneity and publication bias are considered to assess the quality of evidence. Based on the different impact of Zingiberaceae plants/Cur on human health, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur can mainly improve metabolic syndrome, non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, and some chronic inflammatory diseases, likewise, obviously relief the pain of osteoarthritis and related diseases. Ginger supplements have been shown to improve vomiting during pregnancy and to relieve nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy and surgery. The surgery is any type of surgery, including laparoscopic surgery, gynecological surgery and mixed surgery. Beneficial associations were found with Cur intervention in gastrointestinal, neurological and oral diseases. Zingiberaceae plants/Cur are generally safe and favorable for multiple health outcomes in humans. High‐quality research is further needed to prove the observed associations.
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Turmeric, the rhizomes of Curcuma longa L., is one of the top selling spices, food preservatives, and food colorants. In addition, it exhibits health promoting benefits owing to its unique phytochemical composition. Nevertheless, it is commonly subjected to heat drying, hence, the dried powder is the most used form and can easily be adulterated with allied species. Therefore, our research aimed to profile the phytochemical composition and investigate the impact of drying of turmeric. Extraction and fractionation followed by LC-and GC-MS analysis resulted in the identification of a total of 161 metabolites belonged to various phytochemical classes. Moreover, multivariate data analysis identified curcuminoids, terpecurcumins, and organic acids as potential markers for drying. Based on the applied analytical techniques in combination with chemometrics, these investigations have succeeded to provide good coverage of the metabolome of turmeric in both fresh and dried forms.
Article
The aim of this study was to fabricate curcumin-loaded polymeric mixed micelle which was a new nanocarrier of therpeutic agent for skin uses. Curcumin was extracted from dried turmeric rhizomes using ethanol and recrystallized. The purity of curcumin was 79±3.6 %w/w. Six curcumin-loaded polymeric micelles (PM1-PM6) were prepared by simple dissolution method using poloxamer 407 (5% and 10%) as a main core structure. PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil (PEG-40HCO) was incorporated at two percentages (2.5% and 5.0%) to study the effect on the nanoparticle characteristics. The average particle sizes of PM1-PM6 were in the range of 33.3±6.6 nm to 171.3±52.8 nm. The entrapment efficiency and the loading capacity of curcumin were in the range of 47.45%-77.35% and 0.048%w/w-0.078%w/w, respectively. When PEG-40HCO was incorporated in to the polymeric micelles, the particle size decreased and the entrapment efficiency increased. Thus, PM4 and PM5 were selected for further study. Moisturizing antioxidant creams containing 0.005%w/w of curcumin loaded in PM4, PM5 and curcumin simply dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) were formulated. The resulted formulations showed good spreadability and good characteristics. After being subjected to accelerated test, all of the formulations remained with characteristic color, pH and showed no phase separation. The stability data showed that the moisturizing antioxidant creams were stable for the whole 3 months after storage at accelerated temperature (45°C/75%RH). The study demonstrated that polymeric mixed micelle spontaneously encapsulated a poorly water-soluble curcumin and increased the solubility up to 250 folds. The developed moisturizing cream containing 0.005%w/w of curcumin resulted a greenish-yellow color preparation. It had tolerable physicochemical properties based on curcumin content, pH and viscosity under the harsh condition. The cream also had satisfactory antioxidant activity, which can be regarded as an effective and acceptable therapeutic or skincare products for topical uses.
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Objective: The study objective was to assess the effectiveness of a turmeric- and sandal wood oil-containing cream [Vicco(®) turmeric cream (VTC); Vicco Laboratories, Parel, India] on radiodermatitis in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. Methods: A total of 50 patients with head and neck cancer requiring >60 Gy of curative radiotherapy/chemoradiotherapy were enrolled in the study. The volunteers were randomly divided into two groups of 25 patients. Group 1 was assigned to a topical application of Johnson's(®) baby oil (Johnson & Johnson Ltd, Baddi, India) and Group 2 for VTC. Prophylactic application of the cream was initiated on Day 1 and continued every day until 2 weeks after the end of treatment. Both agents were symmetrically applied within the irradiated field five times a day, and the acute skin reactions were assessed twice weekly in accordance with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scores by an investigator who was unaware of the details. Results: The incidence of radiodermatitis increased with the exposure to radiation and was the highest in both groups at Week 7. However, a significant reduction in grades of dermatitis were seen in cohorts applying VTC at all time points, including 2 weeks post radiotherapy (p < 0.015 to p < 0.001). The occurrence of Grade 3 dermatitis was lower in the cohorts using VTC and was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Additionally, follow-up observations 2 weeks after the completion of radiotherapy also showed a reduced degree of radiodermatitis in cohorts applying VTC, which was significant (p = 0.015). Conclusion: VTC is shown to be effective in preventing radiodermatitis and needs to be validated in larger double-blind trials. Advances in knowledge: For the first time, this study shows that the turmeric- and sandal oil-based cream was effective in preventing radiation-induced dermatitis.
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Uremic pruritus as a symptom that affects hemodialysis (HD) patients can decrease the quality of life and increase morbidity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of turmeric on uremic pruritus in HD patients. This was a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted on 100 HD patients suffering from pruritus. Patients (mean age 53.3 ± 15.8 years) were randomized into two groups: turmeric and placebo. The pruritus score and biochemical determinants including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were compared before and at the end of the study between the two groups. The mean decrease in hs-CRP was significantly higher in the turmeric than the placebo group (-0.8 ± 2.6 vs. 0.4 ± 8.7 mg/l, p = 0.012). Also reduction of pruritus scores was greater in the turmeric than the placebo group (13.6 ± 2.6 vs. 7.2 ± 2.6, p = 0.001). No side effect was observed during the study due to the use of turmeric. This study demonstrates the possible efficacy of turmeric in decreasing hs-CRP and uremic pruritus in end stage renal disease patients. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of turmeric.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement of diabetic microangiopathy in patients suffering from this condition since at least five years, and whose disease was managed without insulin. Curcumin, the orange pigment of turmeric, has recently received increasing attention because of its antioxidant properties, mediated by both direct oxygen radical quenching and by induction of anti-oxidant responses via Nrf2 activation. This aspect, combined with the beneficial effects on endothelial function and on tissue and plasma inflammatory status, makes curcumin potentially useful for the management of diabetic microangiopathy. To further evaluate this, Meriva, a lecithinized formulation of curcumin, was administered at the dosage of two tablets/day (1 g Meriva/day) to 25 diabetic patients for four weeks. A comparable group of subjects followed the best possible management for this type of patients. All subjects in the treatment and control group completed the follow-up period; there were no dropouts. In the treatment group, at four weeks, microcirculatory and clinical evaluations indicated a decrease in skin flux (P<0.05) at the surface of the foot, a finding diagnostic of an improvement in microangiopathy, the flux being generally increased in patients affected by diabetic microangiopathy. Also, a significant decrease in the edema score (P<0.05) and a corresponding improvement in the venoarteriolar response (P<0.05) were observed. The PO2 increased at four weeks (P<0.05), as expected from a better oxygen diffusion into the skin due to the decreased edema. These findings were present in all subjects using Meriva, while no clinical or microcirculatory effects were observed in the control group. Meriva was, in general, well tolerated, and these preliminary findings suggest the usefulness of this curcumin formulation for the management of diabetic microangiopathy, opening a window of opportunities to be evaluated in more prolonged and larger studies. The molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of curcumin on microcirculation and edema are also worth investigation.
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Skin is among the first and most heavily damaged organs upon sulphur mustard (SM) exposure. Pruritus is the most common chronic skin complication of SM, which adversely affects the quality of life (QoL). However, current therapies for the management of SM-induced pruritus are very limited and associated with side effects. The present trial investigated the efficacy of curcumin in the alleviation of SM-induced chronic pruritic symptoms. A total of ninety-six male Iranian veterans (age 37-59 years) were randomised to receive either curcumin (1 g/d, n 46) or placebo (n 50) for 4 weeks. Serum concentrations of substance P and activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Assessment of pruritus severity was performed using the pruritus score, visual analogue scale (VAS) and scoring atopic dermatitis (SCORAD) index. QoL was evaluated using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire. Serum concentrations of substance P (P < 0·001) as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (P = 0·02), glutathione peroxidase (P = 0·006) and catalase (P < 0·001) were significantly reduced in the curcumin group, while no significant change was observed in the placebo group. Curcumin supplementation was also associated with significant reductions in measures of pruritus severity including the pruritus score (P < 0·001), VAS score (P < 0·001), overall (P < 0·001) and objective SCORAD (P = 0·009), and DLQI's first question (P < 0·001). None of these measures was significantly changed in the placebo group. As for the QoL, although DLQI scores decreased in both groups (P < 0·001 and P = 0·003 in the curcumin and placebo groups, respectively), the magnitude of reduction was significantly greater in the curcumin group (P < 0·001). In conclusion, curcumin may be regarded as a natural, safe, widely available and inexpensive treatment for the management of SM-induced chronic pruritus.
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To date, we are unaware of a review that has investigated common cosmeceutical ingredients in order to answer the three specific questions proposed by the father of cosmeceuticals, Dr. Albert Kligman. It is the goal of this review to gather all the published scientific data on five common cosmeceutical ingredients, answer the three major questions about the scientific rationale for their use, and ascertain how much we really know about consumers' favorite cosmeceutical ingredients.Most of the research concerning cosmeceutical retinoid ingredients is based upon the effects of retinoic acid on the skin. Clinical trials concerning retinol and retinaldehyde are scant and lacking in statistical evaluation for significance. There is research substantiating the effects of kinetin in plants and also in-vitro antioxidant effects. However, proof of anti-aging activity remains elusive, and the clinical efficacy of kinetin is based on limited data. Niacinamide is the ingredient investigated that most closely upholds the "Kligman standards" of cosmeceutical-ingredient analysis. With the available scientific evidence on topical niacinamide, clinicians are able to adequately answer questions about permeability, mechanism, and clinical effect. Both green tea and soy have been popularized commercially based on their antioxidant effects, yet there is a paucity of clinical studies concerning their efficacy as topical anti-aging agents. It may be that soy and green tea are better at preventing the signs and symptoms of skin aging than actually reversing them. Since cosmeceutical products are claiming to therapeutically affect the structure and function of the skin, it is rational and necessary to hold them to specified scientific standards that substantiate efficacy claims.
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The cytoskeletal protein, FtsZ plays a pivotal role in prokaryotic cell division and is present in majority of the bacterial species. In recent years, inhibitors of FtsZ have been identified that may function as lead compounds for the development of novel antimicrobials. It has been found that curcumin, the main bioactive component of Curcuma longa, inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli growth by inhibiting FtsZ assembly. Though it is experimentally established that curcumin inhibits FtsZ polymerization, the binding site of curcumin in FtsZ is not known. In this study, interaction of curcumin with catalytic core domain of E. coli and B. subtilis FtsZ was investigated using computational docking.
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The extract of medicinal plants containing curcumin is traditionally believed to have a positive contraction effect on the human gall-bladder. To compare the effect of 20 mg curcumin or placebo on the gall-bladder volume of healthy volunteers. A randomized, double blind and crossover design study was carried out in 12 healthy volunteers (seven males and five females). Ultrasonography examination was carried out serially to measure the gall-bladder volume. The data obtained was analysed by paired Student's t-test. The fasting gall-bladder volumes of 15.74 +/- 4.29 mL on curcumin and 15.98 +/- 4.08 mL on placebo were similar (P > 0.20). The gall-bladder volume was reduced within the period after curcumin administration. The percentage of gall-bladder volume reduction at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 h after 20 mg curcumin administration were 11.8 +/- 6.9, 16.8 +/- 7.4, 22.0 +/- 8.5 and 29. 3 +/- 8.3%, respectively, which was statistically significant compared to placebo. On the basis of the present findings, it appears that curcumin induces contraction of the human gall-bladder.
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Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow substance from the root of the plant Curcuma longa Linn., has been demonstrated to inhibit carcinogenesis of murine skin, stomach, intestine and liver. However, the toxicology, pharmacokinetics and biologically effective dose of curcumin in humans have not been reported. This prospective phase-I study evaluated these issues of curcumin in patients with one of the following five high-risk conditions: 1) recently resected urinary bladder cancer; 2) arsenic Bowen's disease of the skin; 3) uterine cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN); 4) oral leucoplakia; and 5) intestinal metaplasia of the stomach. Curcumin was taken orally for 3 months. Biopsy of the lesion sites was done immediately before and 3 months after starting curcumin treament. The starting dose was 500 mg/day. If no toxicity > or = grade II was noted in at least 3 successive patients, the dose was then escalated to another level in the order of 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 12,000 mg/day. The concentration of curcumin in serum and urine was determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). A total of 25 patients were enrolled in this study. There was no treatment-related toxicity up to 8,000 mg/day. Beyond 8,000 mg/day, the bulky volume of the drug was unacceptable to the patients. The serum concentration of curcumin usually peaked at 1 to 2 hours after oral intake of crucumin and gradually declined within 12 hours. The average peak serum concentrations after taking 4,000 mg, 6,000 mg and 8,000 mg of curcumin were 0.51 +/- 0.11 microM, 0.63 +/- 0.06 microM and 1.77 +/- 1.87 microM, respectively. Urinary excretion of curcumin was undetectable. One of 4 patients with CIN and 1 of 7 patients with oral leucoplakia proceeded to develop frank malignancies in spite of curcumin treatment. In contrast, histologic improvement of precancerous lesions was seen in 1 out of 2 patients with recently resected bladder cancer, 2 out of 7 patients of oral leucoplakia, 1 out of 6 patients of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, I out of 4 patients with CIN and 2 out of 6 patients with Bowen's disease. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that curcumin is not toxic to humans up to 8,000 mg/day when taken by mouth for 3 months. Our results also suggest a biologic effect of curcumin in the chemoprevention of cancer.
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Recently, there have been considerable efforts to search for naturally occurring substances that can inhibit, reverse, or retard the multi-stage carcinogenesis. A wide array of phenolic substances derived from edible and medicinal plants have been reported to possess anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities and in many cases, the chemopreventive activities of phytochemicals are associated with their anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidative properties. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer cultivated in Korea has been widely used in traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Certain fractions or purified ingredients of ginseng have been shown to exert anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities. Our previous studies have revealed that the methanol extract of heat-processed Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer attenuates the lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates and is also capable of scavenging superoxide generated by xanthine- xanthine oxidase or by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in differentiated human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Topical application of the same extract onto shaven backs of female ICR mice also suppressed TPA-induced skin tumor promotion. Likewise, topical application of ginsenoside Rg3, one of the constituents of heat-treated ginseng, significantly inhibited TPA-induced mouse epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion. Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in TPA-stimulated mouse skin was markedly suppressed by Rg3 pretreatment. In addition, Rg3 inhibited TPA-stimulated activation of NF-kappaB and extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), one of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in mouse skin and also in cultured human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A).
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Curcumin, derived from the rhizome curcuma longa, is one of the primary ingredients in turmeric and curry powders that are used as spices in Middle Eastern and Asian countries, especially on the Indian subcontinent. More recently, laboratory studies have demonstrated that dietary curcumin exhibits various biological activities and significantly inhibits colon tumorigenesis and tumor size in animals. Curcumin displays both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, giving it the potential to be considered in the development of cancer preventive strategies and applications in clinical research. Experimental studies have shown the biological activities of the compound, but much more information on pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and food content are needed. Whether the amount of curcumin in turmeric and curry powders is sufficient to suggest effects on biological activities and cancer risk is unknown. To determine and compare the quantitative amounts of curcumin that are present in several brands of turmeric and curry powders, a high performance liquid chromatography technique was used to analyze 28 spice products described as turmeric or curry powders and two negative controls. Pure turmeric powder had the highest curcumin concentration, averaging 3.14% by weight. The curry powder samples, with one exception, had relatively small amounts of curcumin present, and the variability in content was great. The curcumin content of these seasoning products that are consumed as a component of the diet should be considered in evaluating baseline tissue concentration and response to curcumin supplementation, which is under study in chemoprevention trials.
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Lipid peroxidation has been implicated in a variety of diseases. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), a major oxidation by-product, is cytotoxic, mutagenic, and genotoxic, being involved in disease pathogenesis. Naturally occurring pharmacologically active small molecules are very attractive as natural nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Interest has greatly increased recently in the pharmacotherapeutic potential of curcumin, the yellow pigment found in the rhizomes of the perennial herb Curcuma longa (turmeric). Curcumin is efficacious against colon cancer, cystic fibrosis, and a variety of other disorders. Curcumin's full pharmacological potential is limited owing to its extremely limited water solubility. We report here that the water solubility of curcumin could be increased from 0.6 microg/ml to 7.4 microg/ml (12-fold increase) by the use of heat. Spectrophotometric (400-700 nm) and mass spectrometric profiling of the heat-extracted curcumin displays no significant heat-mediated disintegration of curcumin. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that employed HNE modification of solid-phase antigen, we found that the heat-solubilized curcumin inhibited HNE-protein modification by 80%. Thus, inhibition of HNE modification may be a mechanism by which curcumin exerts its effect. We also report a simple assay to detect curcumin spectrophotometrically. Curcumin was solubilized in methanol and serially diluted in methanol to obtain a set of standards that were then read for optical density at 405 nm. Curcumin in the heat-solubilized samples was determined from this standard. Heat-solubilized curcumin should be considered in clinical trials involving curcumin, especially in the face of frustrating results obtained regarding curcumin-mediated correction of cystic fibrosis defects.
Book
The global popularity of herbal supplements and the promise they hold in treating various disease states have caused an unprecedented interest in understanding the molecular basis of the biological activity of traditional remedies. This volume focuses on presenting current scientific evidence of biomolecular effects of selected herbs and their relation to clinical outcome and promotion of human health. This book also addresses the ethical challenges of using herbal medicine and its integration into modern, evidence-based medicine. Drawing from the work of leading international researchers in different fields, this book contains an in-depth scientific examination of effects of individual herbs, as well as their use in the treatment of important diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, dermatologic disorders, neurodegenerative disease, and diabetes. Due to the strong associations among oxidative stress, ageing, and disease, the powerful antioxidant properties of herbs and spices are also examined. The herbs featured are some of the most widely used remedies and cover a wide range, including flowering herbs, fruits and berries, roots and rhizomes, and fungi. To help bring a new level of quality control to the production of herbal extracts, the use of mass spectrometry and chemometric fingerprinting technology in the authentication of herbs is also presented. As the need for effective, affordable health promotion and treatment increases, especially in the growing ageing population, there is demand for rigorous scientific examination of herbal medicines. This timely and comprehensive volume addresses this need and is an important text for medical professionals and researchers, as well as those interested in herbal or complementary medicine.
Article
Botanical extracts and single compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics but also in over-the-counter drugs and food supplements. The focus of the present review is on controlled clinical trials with botanicals in the treatment of acne, inflammatory skin diseases, skin infections, UV-induced skin damage, skin cancer, alopecia, vitiligo, and wounds. Studies with botanical cosmetics and drugs are discussed, as well as studies with botanical food supplements. Experimental research on botanicals was considered to a limited extent when it seemed promising for clinical use in the near future. In acne therapy, Mahonia, tea tree oil, and Saccharomyces may have the potential to become standard treatments. Mahonia, Hypericum, Glycyrrhiza and some traditional Chinese medicines appear promising for atopic dermatitis. Some plant-derived substances like dithranol and methoxsalen (8-methoxypsoralen) [in combination with UVA] are already accepted as standard treatments in psoriasis; Mahonia and Capsicum (capsaicin) are the next candidates suggested by present evidence. Oral administration and topical application of antioxidant plant extracts (green and black tea, carotenoids, coffee, and many flavonoids from fruits and vegetables) can protect skin from UV-induced erythema, early aging, and irradiation-induced cancer. Hair loss and vitiligo are also traditional fields of application for botanicals. According to the number and quality of clinical trials with botanicals, the best evidence exists for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, i.e. atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. However, many more controlled clinical studies are needed to determine the efficacy and risks of plant-derived products in dermatology. Safety aspects, especially related to sensitization and photodermatitis, have to be taken into account. Therefore, clinicians should not only be informed of the beneficial effects but also the specific adverse effects of botanicals used for dermatologic disorders and cosmetic purposes.
Article
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses represent the uppermost ladders in the hierarchy of evidence. Systematic reviews/meta-analyses suggest preliminary or satisfactory clinical evidence for agnus castus (Vitex agnus castus) for premenstrual complaints, flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) for hypertension, feverfew (Tanacetum partenium) for migraine prevention, ginger (Zingiber officinalis) for pregnancy-induced nausea, ginseng (Panax ginseng) for improving fasting glucose levels as well as phytoestrogens and St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) for the relief of some symptoms in menopause. However, firm conclusions of efficacy cannot be generally drawn. On the other hand, inconclusive evidence of efficacy or contradictory results have been reported for Aloe vera in the treatment of psoriasis, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in cystitis prevention, ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) for tinnitus and intermittent claudication, echinacea (Echinacea spp.) for the prevention of common cold and pomegranate (Punica granatum) for the prevention/treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A critical evaluation of the clinical data regarding the adverse effects has shown that herbal remedies are generally better tolerated than synthetic medications. Nevertheless, potentially serious adverse events, including herb-drug interactions, have been described. This suggests the need to be vigilant when using herbal remedies, particularly in specific conditions, such as during pregnancy and in the paediatric population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Human studies of curcumin extract on lipid-lowering effect have not been completely investigated and have had controversy results. This study tested the effect of daily curcumin extract for 12 weeks on weight, glucose, and lipid profiles in patients with metabolic syndrome. Sixty-five patients were randomized into two groups; 33 patients taking curcumin extract capsule (630 mg thrice daily) and 32 patients taking a placebo capsule thrice daily for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks after the curcumin extract consumption, the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly increased from 40.96 ± 8.59 to 43.76 ± 2.79 mg/dL (p < 0.05), and the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) was significantly reduced (120.55 ± 36.81 to 106.51 ± 25.02 mg/dL, p < 0.05). The triglyceride-lowering effect, a reduction of 65 mg/dL, was also found in this study. In subgroups analysis, the consumption of curcumin may have a lowering cholesterol effect in male patients and an increasing HDL-C effect in female patients, both of which result in a decrease of T-Chol/HDL-C ratio. The intake of the curcumin extract of 1890 mg/day for 12 weeks was associated with lipid-lowering effect but did not improve weight and glucose homeostasis in the patients with metabolic syndrome. Daily curcumin consumption may be an alternative choice to modify cholesterol-related parameters, especially in metabolic syndrome patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This study aimed to assess the possible beneficial effects of curcumin capsules as lipid-lowering effects and as a permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glyburide and as a P-gp substrate with glyburide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Open-label, randomized control trial was carried out for 11 days on eight type-2 diabetic patients on glyburide therapy. On the first day of the study, following the administration of 5 mg of glyburide, blood samples were collected from the patients at various time intervals ranging from 0.5 to 24 h. Blood sampling was repeated on the 11th day of the study, after treating the patients with curcumin for ten consecutive days. Glyburide concentrations changed at the second hour, Cmax was unchanged, the glucose levels were decreased, Area Under first Movement Curre (AUMC) was increased, and no patient has experienced the hypoglycaemia. The low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides were decreased significantly, and the high-density lipoprotein content increased. The co-administration of curcumin capsules with glyburide may be beneficial to the patients in better glycaemic control. The lipid lowering and antidiabetic properties of the curcumin show as a potential future drug molecule. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Curcuminoids are bioactive polyphenolics with potent antiinflammatory properties. Although several lines of in vitro and preclinical evidence suggest potent anticancer effects of curcuminoids, clinical findings have not been conclusive. The present randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of curcuminoids as adjuvant therapy in cancer patients. Eighty subjects with solid tumors who were under standard chemotherapy regimens were randomly assigned to a bioavailability-boosted curcuminoids preparation (180 mg/day; n = 40) or matched placebo (n = 40) for a period of 8 weeks. Efficacy measures were changes in the health-related quality of life (QoL) score (evaluated using the University of Washington index) and serum levels of a panel of mediators implicated in systemic inflammation including interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8), TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Curcuminoid supplementation was associated with a significantly greater improvement in QoL compared with placebo (p < 0.001). Consistently, the magnitude of reductions in TNF-α (p < 0.001), TGFβ (p < 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.061), substance P (p = 0.005), hs-CRP (p < 0.001), CGRP (p < 0.001) and MCP-1 (p < 0.001) were all significantly greater in the curcuminoids versus placebo group. In contrast, the extent of reduction in serum IL-8 was significantly greater with placebo versus curcuminoids (p = 0.012). Quality of life variations were associated with changes in serum TGFβ levels in both correlation and regression analyses. Adjuvant therapy with a bioavailable curcuminoid preparation can significantly improve QoL and suppress systemic inflammation in patients with solid tumors who are under treatment with standard chemotherapy protocols. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Background: Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as a strong predictor and independent risk factor of CVD. Curcuminoids are multifunctional natural product with promising cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. Curcuminoids have been suggested to lower circulating levels of CRP, but clinical findings have not been consistent. Objectives: To pool the published results of clinical trials on the impact of supplementation with curcuminoids on circulating levels of CRP. Methods: PubMed/MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases were searched for clinical trials reporting circulating CRP changes in individuals receiving curcuminoids. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Inter-study heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Sensitivity analyses were conducted using leave-one-out method. Results: Six trials comprising 172 subjects in the curcuminoids group and 170 subjects in the placebo group fulfilled the eligibility criteria and included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, supplementation with curcuminoids was associated with a significant reduction in circulating CRP levels (weighed mean difference: -6.44 mg/L; 95% CI: -10.77 - -2.11; p = 0.004). This significant effect was maintained in subgroups of trials that used bioavailability-improved preparations of curcuminoids and had supplementation duration of ≥4 weeks, but not in the subgroups without these characteristics. Conclusions: Supplementation with curcuminoids may reduce circulating CRP levels. This effect appears to depend on the bioavailability of curcuminoids preparations and also duration of supplementation. Future well-designed and long-term trials are warranted to verify this effect of curcuminoids. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Curcumin, an active ingredient of Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae), has shown potential antidepressant-like activity in animal studies. The objectives of this trial were to compare the efficacy and safety of curcumin with fluoxetine in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Herein, 60 patients diagnosed with MDD were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio for six weeks observer-masked treatment with fluoxetine (20 mg) and curcumin (1000 mg) individually or their combination. The primary efficacy variable was response rates according to Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, 17-item version (HAM-D17 ). The secondary efficacy variable was the mean change in HAM-D17 score after six weeks. We observed that curcumin was well tolerated by all the patients. The proportion of responders as measured by the HAM-D17 scale was higher in the combination group (77.8%) than in the fluoxetine (64.7%) and the curcumin (62.5%) groups; however, these data were not statistically significant (P = 0.58). Interestingly, the mean change in HAM-D17 score at the end of six weeks was comparable in all three groups (P = 0.77). This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Radiation dermatitis occurs in approximately 95% of patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the ability of curcumin to reduce radiation dermatitis severity in 30 breast cancer patients. Eligible patients were adult females with noninflammatory breast cancer or carcinoma in situ prescribed RT without concurrent chemotherapy. Randomized patients took 2.0 grams of curcumin or placebo orally three times per day (i.e., 6.0 grams daily) throughout their course of RT. Weekly assessments included Radiation Dermatitis Severity (RDS) score, presence of moist desquamation, redness measurement, McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form and Symptom Inventory questionnaire. The 30 evaluable patients were primarily white (90%) and had a mean age of 58.1 years. Standard pooled variances t test showed that curcumin reduced RDS at end of treatment compared to placebo (mean RDS = 2.6 vs. 3.4; P = 0.008). Fisher's exact test revealed that fewer curcumin-treated patients had moist desquamation (28.6% vs. 87.5%; P = 0.002). No significant differences were observed between arms for demographics, compliance, radiation skin dose, redness, pain or symptoms. In conclusion, oral curcumin, 6.0 g daily during radiotherapy, reduced the severity of radiation dermatitis in breast cancer patients.
Article
Background: Chronic cutaneous complications such as pruritus are among the very frequent complaints of sulphur mustard (SM)-exposed patients. The present trial investigated the impact of curcumin on serum inflammatory biomarkers and their association with pruritus severity and quality of life (QoL). Methods: This was a randomized, double-blind trial among 96 male Iranian veterans (age 37-59 y) who were suffering from chronic SM-induced pruritic skin lesions. Patients were randomly assigned to curcumin (1 g/d, n = 46) or placebo (n = 50) for four weeks. Serum concentrations of interleukins 6 (IL-6) and 8 (IL-8) together with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured at baseline and at the end of the trial. Assessment of pruritus severity was performed using the pruritus score and QoL using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Results: Serum IL-8 and hs-CRP were significantly reduced in both groups but the magnitude of reduction was greater in the curcumin group (P < 0.001). Serum CGRP was only decreased in the curcumin group (P < 0.001). No significant change was observed in serum IL-6. There were significant correlations between CGRP and IL-6 changes (P = 0.011) and between DLQI and IL-8 changes (P = 0.026) in the curcumin group. In the curcumin group, changes in serum IL-8 concentrations were found as the significant predictor of DLQI scores (P = 0.026) but none of the independent variables could predict pruritus scores. Conclusions: Curcumin supplementation effectively mitigates inflammation in patients suffering from chronic SM-induced cutaneous complications. This anti-inflammatory effect might account for the observed pruritus alleviation and QoL improvement by this phytochemical.
Article
Curcumin (CUR), a bioactive component of turmeric, which is a commonly used spice and nutritional supplement, is isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae). In recent years, the potential pharmacological actions of CUR in inflammatory disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease and neurological disorders have been shown. However, the clinical application of CUR is severely limited by its main drawbacks such as instability, low solubility, poor bioavailability and rapid metabolism. Multifarious nanotechnology-based delivery approaches have been used to enhance the oral bioavailability, biological activity or tissue-targeting ability of CUR. This article reviews potential novel drug delivery systems for CUR including liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, nanogels, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions, complexes and dendrimer/dimer, which provide promising results for CUR to improve its biological activities.
Article
Summary To determine whether abnormal activity of a calmodulin-containing enzyme which catalyses phosphorylation reactions may play a pathogenetic role in psoriasis, the presence and activity of phosphorylase kinase (PK) in human epidermis were determined in patients with untreated/active psoriasis (n=10), treated/resolving psoriasis (n= 10), and non-psoriatic controls (n= 10). Biopsies were taken from involved and uninvolved skin for PK, organic phosphorus, and inorganic phosphate estimation, and light and electron microscopy. The enzyme was present in involved and uninvolved skin of every patient in the study. PK activity (units/mg protein) was significantly higher in active psoriasis than in resolving psoriasis and controls. PK activity correlated directly with organic phosphorus levels, and inversely with the extent of cellular glycogenolysis measured by the depletion of glycogen granules within the keratinocytes. The study demonstrates that PK is present in both psoriatic and normal epidermis, with significantly higher levels in active psoriasis. Furthermore, higher levels of PK activity, glycogenolysis and phosphorylation are associated with increased clinical psoriatic activity. We conclude that PK, a calmodulin-containing enzyme, is involved in regulating calcium-dependent phosphorylation events in human epidermis, and disturbance of its activity may play a key role in the clinical manifestations of psoriasis.
Article
Phosphorylase kinase (PhK), also known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-phosphorylase b phosphotransferase, integrates multiple calcium/calmodulin-dependent signalling pathways, including those involved in cell migration and cell proliferation, while coupling these pathways to glycogenolysis and ATP-dependent phosphorylation, thus ensuring continuing energy supply for these activities. Our laboratory recently reported correlation of elevated PhK activity with psoriatic activity. This study further evaluates the significance of drug-induced suppression of PhK activity on psoriatic activity. PhK activity was assayed in four groups, each with 10 patients: (i) active untreated psoriasis; (ii) resolving psoriasis treated by calcipotriol (Dovonex(R), Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. ), a vitamin D3 analogue and an indirect inhibitor of PhK; (iii) curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a selective PhK inhibitor; and (iv) 10 normal non-psoriatic subjects. PhK activity in units mg-1 protein was highest in active untreated psoriasis (1204 +/- 804.3; mean +/- SD), lower in the calcipotriol-treated group (550.7 +/- 192. 9), lower in curcumin-treated group (207.2 +/- 97.6), and lowest in normal skin (105.4 +/- 44.6). One-way analysis of variance performed on log-transformed PhK activity measure showed significant differences among the four groups, F3,36 = 48.79, P < 0.0001. Decreased PhK activity in curcumin-and calcipotriol-treated psoriasis was associated with corresponding decreases in keratinocyte transferrin receptor (TRR) expression, severity of parakeratosis and density of epidermal CD8+ T cells. Our results demonstrate that drug-induced suppression of PhK activity is associated with resolution of psoriatic activity as assessed by clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria, and support the hypothesis that effective antipsoriatic activity may be achieved through modulation of PhK activity.
Article
To summarize long-term open-label use of curcuminoids and experience of side-effects in 53 patients with the autoimmune condition oral lichen planus (OLP) who had previously participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of curcuminoids at UCSF. This descriptive retrospective cohort study conducted in 2009 collected information from clinic charts and patient interview on the over-the-counter (OTC) use of curcuminoids during a 1-5 year follow-up period. Of the 53 eligible patients, 33 had previously participated in a RCT (2003-2004) that evaluated a dose of 2000mg/day of curcuminoids and which was ended early for futility and 20 had participated in a RCT (2007-2008) that evaluated a dose of 6000mg/day which demonstrated its efficacy. At the last study visit of each of the 2 RCTs all participants were given current published information about curcuminoids, and some went on to take OTC curcuminoids. Follow-up data was available on 43 participants [25/33 (75%) from the first and 19/20 (95%) from the second RCT]. 18/25 (72%) participants from the first trial took OTC curcuminoids after completion of the trial period. The mean total daily dose was 2137.5mg (SD=793, range 500-3000mg) and mean duration of curcuminoids use was 30 months (SD=27.5). The total follow-up time after completion of the RCT for the 18 participants was mean 68.2 months (SD 5.9). 10/18 (56%) reported that curcuminoids controlled OLP symptoms, and the mean duration of use among these patients was 35.8 months (SD 27.4). 8/18 (44%) were unsure whether curcuminoids helped and the mean duration of use was 21.0 months (SD 27.3). 2 of 18 patients (11%) reported a side-effect (SE) of diarrhea. 19/19 (100%) patients from the second trial took OTC curcuminoids after completion of the trial period. The mean total daily dose was 5058mg (SD=1445, range 1000-6000mg) and mean duration of curcuminoids use 9.6 months (SD=8.04). The total follow-up time after completion of the RCT for the 19 participants was mean 15.8 months (SD 4.8). 12/19 (63%) reported that curcuminoids controlled OLP symptoms, and the mean duration of use was 14.1 months (SD 6.7). 2/19 (11%) reported lack of improvement with a daily dose of 1500mg and 2500mg for 3 months each. 5/19 (26%) were unsure whether curcuminoids helped and the mean duration of use was 1.5 months (1.2 SD). Six of these 19 patients (32%) reported SEs, three had abdominal discomfort, two diarrhea and one slight urgency in defecation on the capsule but not the tablet formulation. The SEs resolved with dose reduction to 4500mg/day in one and 3000mg/day in two patients, while two patients [2/19 (11%)] discontinued curcuminoids due to the SE. A total of 22/37 (60%) of patients reported a reduction of symptoms with curcuminoids, 13/37 (35%) were unsure and 2/37 (5%) reported that it did not help in reduction of symptoms. Side-effects included abdominal discomfort and diarrhea, however occurrence was dose-related, and complaints were mild.
Article
1. Curcumin is the active ingredient of the dietary spice turmeric and has been consumed for medicinal purposes for thousands of years. Modern science has shown that curcumin modulates various signalling molecules, including inflammatory molecules, transcription factors, enzymes, protein kinases, protein reductases, carrier proteins, cell survival proteins, drug resistance proteins, adhesion molecules, growth factors, receptors, cell cycle regulatory proteins, chemokines, DNA, RNA and metal ions. 2. Because of this polyphenol’s potential to modulate multiple signalling molecules, it has been reported to possess pleiotropic activities. First demonstrated to have antibacterial activity in 1949, curcumin has since been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, pro-apoptotic, chemopreventive, chemotherapeutic, antiproliferative, wound healing, antinociceptive, antiparasitic and antimalarial properties as well. Animal studies have suggested that curcumin may be active against a wide range of human diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurological and psychiatric disorders and cancer, as well as chronic illnesses affecting the eyes, lungs, liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3. Although many clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of curcumin against human ailments have already been completed, others are still ongoing. Moreover, curcumin is used as a supplement in several countries, including India, Japan, the US, Thailand, China, Korea, Turkey, South Africa, Nepal and Pakistan. Although inexpensive, apparently well tolerated and potentially active, curcumin has not been approved for the treatment of any human disease. 4. In the present article, we discuss the discovery and key biological activities of curcumin, with a particular emphasis on its activities at the molecular and cellular levels, as well as in animals and humans.
Article
Curcuminoids are components of turmeric (Curcuma longa) that possess anti-inflammatory properties. We sought to study the efficacy of curcuminoids in controlling the signs and symptoms of oral lichen planus, at doses of 6000 mg/d (3 divided doses), and their safety at this dose. Twenty consecutive, eligible patients who consented were enrolled into this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 2007 through 2008. Measurement of symptoms and signs of oral lichen planus using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Modified Oral Mucositis Index (MOMI), respectively; complete blood counts; liver enzymes; C-reactive protein; and interleukin-6 levels was done at baseline and day 14. Two-sided P values are reported. In the placebo group, the percentage changes from baseline in NRS (median [interquartile range] = 0.00 [-29 to 16.7], P > .99), erythema (0.00 [-10 to 16.7], P = .98), ulceration (0.00 [0.00 to 26.7], P = .63), and total MOMI scores (-3.2 [-13 to 9.09], P = .95) were not statistically significant, whereas they were statistically significant in the curcuminoids group: NRS (-22 [-33 to -14], P = .0078); erythema (-17 [-29 to -8.3], P = .0078), ulceration (-14 [-60 to 0.00], P = .063), MOMI (-24 [-38 to -11], P = .0039). The curcuminoids group showed a greater reduction in clinical signs and symptoms as compared with the placebo group, measured by percentage change in erythema (P = .05) and total MOMI score (P = .03), and proportion showing improvement in NRS (0.8 vs 0.3, P = .02) and total MOMI score (0.9 vs 0.5, P = .05). Adverse effects were uncommon in both groups. The small sample size resulted in limited power, particularly for multivariate analyses. Curcuminoids at doses of 6000 mg/d in 3 divided doses are well tolerated and may prove efficacious in controlling signs and symptoms of oral lichen planus.
Article
Background: Several botanically derived agents are available for the treatment of male-pattern baldness. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of 5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa, a botanically derived inhibitor of 5α-reductase and 5% minoxidil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. Methods: Eighty-seven men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) were randomized to receive 5% Curcuma aeruginosa, 5% minoxidil, combination formulation (5% hexane extract of Curcuma aeruginosa + 5% minoxidil) or placebo, twice daily for 6 months. Efficacy was assessed by target area hair count, global photographic review as well as patients' subjective assessments of hair regrowth and hair shedding. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in global photographic review (p < 0.001), subjects' overall assessments of hair regrowth (p = 0.008), and hair shedding (p = 0.004) when the combination formulation was compared with placebo. Similarly, treatment with 5% minoxidil and 5% C. aeruginosa extract also led to some degrees of hair regrowth. There were no serious adverse events during and after the study. Conclusion: In men with hair loss in the vertex area of the scalp, the combination of 5% hexane extract of C. aeruginosa and 5% minoxidil slowed hair loss and increased hair growth.