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Exploring the link between the neighborhood typologies, bicycle infrastructure and commuting cycling over time and the potential impact on commuter GHG emissions

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Abstract

This paper investigates the evolution of urban cycling in Montreal, Canada and its link to both built environment indicators and bicycle infrastructure accessibility. The effect of new cycling infrastructure on transport-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is then explored. More specifically, we aim at investigating how commuting cycling modal share has evolved across neighborhood built-environment typologies and over time in Montreal, Canada. For this purpose, automobile and bicycle trip information from origin–destination surveys for the years 1998, 2003 and 2008 are used. Neighborhood typologies are generated from different built environment indicators (population and employment density, land use diversity, etc.). Furthermore, to represent the commuter mode choice (bicycle vs automobile), a standard binary logit and simultaneous equation modeling approach are adopted to represent the mode choice and the household location. Among other things, we observe an important increase in the likelihood to cycle across built environment types and over time in the study region. In particular, urban and urban-suburb neighborhoods have experienced an important growth over the 10 years, going from a modal split of 2.8–5.3% and 1.4–3.0%, respectively. After controlling for other factors, the model regression analysis also confirms the important increase across years as well as the significant differences of bicycle ridership across neighborhoods. A statistically significant association is also found between the index of bicycle infrastructure accessibility and bike mode choice – an increase of 10% in the accessibility index results in a 3.7% increase in the ridership. Based on the estimated models and in combination with a GHG inventory at the trip level, the potential impact of planned cycling infrastructure is explored using a basic scenario. A reduction of close to 2% in GHG emissions is observed for an increase of 7% in the length of the bicycle network. Results show the important benefits of bicycle infrastructure to reduce commuting automobile usage and GHG emissions.

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... Regarding cycling mobility, the topic of the current paper, some studies indicate that the growth of bicycle usage is correlated with the implementation of initiatives designed to transform public spaces to accommodate dedicated infrastructure (Heesch et al., 2016;Zahabi et al., 2016;Hong et al., 2019;Félix et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2021). For example, Zahabi et al. (2016) observed, for the city of Montreal, an increase in the modal share in favor of cycling, passing from 2.8% to 5.3% in urban areas and from 1.4% to 3.0% in suburban neighborhoods, thanks to the installation of cycling facilities over time. ...
... Regarding cycling mobility, the topic of the current paper, some studies indicate that the growth of bicycle usage is correlated with the implementation of initiatives designed to transform public spaces to accommodate dedicated infrastructure (Heesch et al., 2016;Zahabi et al., 2016;Hong et al., 2019;Félix et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2021). For example, Zahabi et al. (2016) observed, for the city of Montreal, an increase in the modal share in favor of cycling, passing from 2.8% to 5.3% in urban areas and from 1.4% to 3.0% in suburban neighborhoods, thanks to the installation of cycling facilities over time. Analyzing the case of the city of Lisbon, which over the years has developed its network of cycle paths and bike sharing services, Felix et al. (2020) indicated that these kinds of "hard" measures put in place by the administration to promote cycling can have a major impact on the growth of bicycle modal share in a starter cycling city. ...
... Some researchers based their findings on counting users of new bicycle lanes (Heesch et al., 2016;Hong et al., 2019), but by so doing they did not account for the fact that many cyclists utilizing the new infrastructure used to cycle before its creation. Others (Zahabi et al., 2016;Yang et al., 2021) did not compare, from a modeling standpoint, the impact of the different factors influencing the use of the bike over time. More specifically, there has been little quantitative analysis, from an econometric standpoint, of the effect on the propensity to cycle of living in a neighborhood before and after that cycling infrastructure was created. ...
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Recently walking and cycling, known as active mobility, have attracted the attention of both citizens and policymakers. Many new pedestrian areas and cycle paths have been created or extended in various cities across Europe and monetary incentives have been offered to support and encourage citizens to use active mobility. Starting from this context, the aim of the current paper is to evaluate the impact that interventions of re-functionalization of the street space have in boosting cycling mobility in the city of Cagliari (Italy). Employing data collected in three distinct cross-sectional surveys (2014, 2019 and 2020), we constructed a logit model that simulates individuals’ probability to cycle/not cycle for one purpose or another. Model results indicate a general increase in the probability to cycle over time and that individuals living in those areas where cycling facilities are provided were more likely to use the bicycle than the rest of the city’s residents. Furthermore, our findings show that measures developed to improve cycling infrastructure should be implemented jointly with interventions of urban regeneration, that modify the environment in terms of both safety and livability. Finally, our results stress the importance of the longitudinal assessment of policies and strategies.
... Beyond the complex task of empirically defining the cyclable distance to identify the pool of commuters that can potentially cycle to work, we need to understand the suite of factors that the extant scholarship has identified as impacting the participation of cycling-to-work. There exists a large number of empirical studies that have examined the role of the physical environment (e.g., Buehler, 2012;Cole-Hunter et al., 2015;Zahabi et al., 2016), socio-demographics (e.g., de Souza et al., 2014;Fowler et al., 2017;Piatkowski & Marshall, 2015), and individuals' attitudes and perceptions (e.g., Heinen et al., 2011;Muñoz et al., 2016;Piatkowski & Marshall, 2015) each of which shaping participation in cycling-to-work. However, this longstanding and growing empirical literature has painted a somewhat varied picture wherein a number of inconsistencies exist. ...
... Furthermore, some studies reported that commuters living in neighborhoods with higher road intersection densities were more likely to commute by cycling (e.g., Zahabi et al., 2016), while no such significant influence on cycling participation was found by Schoner et al. (2015) and Piatkowski and Marshall (2015). Parkin et al. (2007) reported that the proportion of cycle routes with signed lanes had no significant effect on cycling mode share of journey-to-work and the off-road cycle route had a moderate positive influence. ...
... Cole-Hunter et al. (2015) argued that higher proportions of cycle-lanes to the road network in the home and work/study area, as well as in the commuting route's buffer area were not significantly correlated with higher cycling-to-work frequencies of individuals. Zahabi et al. (2016) found that commuters living closer to cycle-lanes are more likely to cycle to work. In addition, Godefroy and Morency (2012) reported that living near the CBD indicates a high probability of cycling-travel. ...
Article
In car orientated nations, most commuters living close to work typically do not commute by bicycle. Empirical scholarship seeking to delineate the various barriers to cycling-to-work present a set of somewhat inconsistent findings. This study seeks to demystify this lack of clarity by introducing the concept of “cycling dissonance”—the mismatch between cycling potential and cycling reality—and place an empirical focus on non-cycling commuters who travel a distance to work, deemed “cyclable.” By introducing the concept of cycling dissonance embedded within a spatial modeling approach, the relationship between cycling dissonance and the natural and built environment is captured whilst controlling for the socio-demographic characteristics of commuters. Our findings reveal important spatial variations highlighting commuters working in areas with hillier terrains, sparser populations and lower employment densities, or commuters living in areas with hillier terrains and higher land-use mixes tend to have higher levels of cycling dissonance. By drawing these results together, we develop a new policy tool that spatially delineates the place-based factors that matter for cycling dissonance and in doing so provide a new evidence base with the capacity to better target place-specific cycling-supportive policy.
... As Vancouver, BC, made significant improvements to walking and cycling infrastructure in the city between 2013 and 2018, trips made by walking and cycling increased by 29% while total vehicles miles travelled per person decreased by 3% (City of Vancouver 2018). In Montreal, Zahabi et al. (2016) found that an increase of 10% in the bicycle accessibility index resulted in a 3.7% increase in ridership and for every increase of 7% in the length of the bicycle network, a reduction of almost 2% in GHG emissions was found (Zahabi et al. 2016). Bento et al. (2003) have found that jobs-housing balance and the availability of public transit might decrease vehicle miles traveled by 25% using data from 26 american cities. ...
... As Vancouver, BC, made significant improvements to walking and cycling infrastructure in the city between 2013 and 2018, trips made by walking and cycling increased by 29% while total vehicles miles travelled per person decreased by 3% (City of Vancouver 2018). In Montreal, Zahabi et al. (2016) found that an increase of 10% in the bicycle accessibility index resulted in a 3.7% increase in ridership and for every increase of 7% in the length of the bicycle network, a reduction of almost 2% in GHG emissions was found (Zahabi et al. 2016). Bento et al. (2003) have found that jobs-housing balance and the availability of public transit might decrease vehicle miles traveled by 25% using data from 26 american cities. ...
... There exists a limited number of longitudinal studies evaluating the effects of active transportation infrastructure on travel behavior (Goodman et al., 2013Hunter et al., 2015;Pucher et al., 2010;Yang et al., 2010). Even fewer studies evaluate the specific effect on motorized travel behavior and the impact on energy use and GHG emissions (Brand et al., 2014;Zahabi et al., 2016), with these studies only investigating the overall effect of multiple improvement projects or entire cycling networks. To address this gap in the literature, we present the results of a longitudinal case study of a single urban greenway. ...
... For the present study, only motor vehicle and transit bus trips (taxi trips were combined with vehicle trips) were included in the scope of analysis in order to estimate the effects on the motorized energy and emission outcomes. We focused the analysis on utilitarian trips following Zahabi et al. (2016), as these types of trips generate the greatest environmental externalities and their travel characteristics are generally stable over time. The travel survey covered six utilitarian trip purposes: work, education, personal business, shopping, dining, and passenger pick-up/drop-off. ...
... In a similar manner, emissions for suggested travel behavior is calculated as well to get a reduction rate. The following equation, also used in other studies [37], is adopted for the measurement of GHG (CO 2 ) emissions. ...
... Usually, during this part of the year, the temperature ranges between 10 and 22°C and there are around 29% of the chances of a wet day (precipitation of at least 0.04 in.). It was noted that around a similar percentage of citizens in terms of the three age groups, i.e., [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44], and greater than 44 years have participated in the study. Majority of the participants have an education status equivalent to a bachelor's degree or above (i.e., 87%); however, income distribution has been observed to be more uniform. ...
Article
Full-text available
Informational interventions are important to bring positive changes in attitudes and perception among individuals. In relation to the individual’s mobility behavior, habits, attitudes, and perceptions are difficult to change. Therefore, it is vital to identify relatively soft aspects of travel behavior with a potential to reduce the negative impacts of mobility on the environment and individual health. This paper provides a methodological framework and describes the development of a computational algorithm that helps to identify soft changes in the travel behavior. The algorithm is based on a variety of different data sources such as activity-travel diaries and related constraint information, meteorological conditions, bicycle and public transport supply data, and emissions and air pollutant concentrations data. A variety of rules that are part of the algorithm are derived from the transport modeling literature, where constraints and factors were examined for activity-travel decisions. Three major aspects of activity-travel behavior, such as reduced car use, cold start of car engines, and participation in non-mandatory outdoor activities are considered in assessing pro-environmental potential. The algorithm is applied to collected small datasets from citizens of Hasselt (Belgium), Bologna (Italy), and Guildford (UK). A significant replaceable potential for car trips within 3 km to cycling and car trips to public transport has been found. The replaceable potential of excessive cold starts and participation in non-mandatory outdoor activities were also found, to some extent, to bring positive changes in the environment. In future research, these identified potentials are reported back to individuals with their consequence as part of a mobility-based informational intervention.
... There has been increasing research activity over the last decade to find what works in practice to promote mode shift from cars to walking and cycling. To date, a number of reviews have examined the policies expected to be most effective in promoting walking and cycling; other reviews have focused on the health outcomes of mode shift to active transport (Bird et al., 2013;Ogilvie et al., 2004Ogilvie et al., , 2007Pucher et al., 2010;Saunders et al., 2013;Shemilt et al., 2013;Stewart et al., 2015;Wanner et al., 2012;Yang et al., 2010). By and large this literature concludes that there are significant gaps in understanding what are the most effective ways to promote mode shift to active transport and in quantifying the health benefits (and harms) of such a shift. ...
... For example one study in New Zealand estimated that shifting 5% of urban kilometres travelled by car into cycle trips (which would represent about 30% of all urban trips being made by cycling and walking) would reduce carbon dioxide emissions annually by 53,000 tonnes (about 0.4% of the total domestic road transport carbon emissions) (Lindsay et al., 2011). Another study, using systems dynamic modelling, suggested that increasing cycling network length by 7% could result in a reduction in GHG emissions of 2%, which would be as effective as much more costly policies such as electrifying train networks (Zahabi et al., 2016). The setting of the current intervention was small cities that are relatively unaffected by congestion. ...
Article
Policies promoting active transport, such as walking and cycling, can reduce transport-related carbon emissions. However, there are few studies that examine the carbon emission outcomes of such policies. This paper presents a case study of an intervention carried out in New Zealand that involved the construction of urban cycling and walking infrastructure in parallel with programmes to encourage such active travel. Using vehicle licensing data in the context of a quasi-experimental study design, we evaluated transport carbon dioxide emissions saved. Vehicle distance travelled within the study area was derived from odometer readings that are recorded on the New Zealand licensed vehicle administration system. Using a representative sample of households in the intervention and control areas, we also estimated changes in the number of vehicles licensed per household. Consistent with increases found previously in walking and cycling trips, there was a decline of 1.6% in average distance travelled per passenger vehicle by the third year of the intervention. Averaged across the intervention period, there was a 1% reduction in distance travelled per vehicle and associated carbon dioxide emissions. It is possible that this estimate is conservative as there was indicative evidence from travel survey data that the number of vehicles per household also fell. This is the first study we know of to have shown, using independent and objectively measured data, that the establishment of cycling and walking infrastructure is associated with reduced transport carbon dioxide emissions within a short space of time, even though the reductions found were modest.
... A residential neighborhood is an important component of the external environment that is experienced on a daily basis by commuters. It is characterized by a variety of built environment factors, such as population and employment densities and street designs, and also differs in socioeconomic status, such as median income or age (Handy et al. 2006;Zahabi et al. 2016). While some studies have identified bicycling-inducing neighborhood types as a function of land-use characteristics and transport facilities (for instance : Oliva, Galilea, & Hurtubia, 2018;Pinjari et al. 2008;Zahabi et al. 2016), commuters' attitudes and psychological perceptions were not jointly taken into consideration in those analyses. ...
... It is characterized by a variety of built environment factors, such as population and employment densities and street designs, and also differs in socioeconomic status, such as median income or age (Handy et al. 2006;Zahabi et al. 2016). While some studies have identified bicycling-inducing neighborhood types as a function of land-use characteristics and transport facilities (for instance : Oliva, Galilea, & Hurtubia, 2018;Pinjari et al. 2008;Zahabi et al. 2016), commuters' attitudes and psychological perceptions were not jointly taken into consideration in those analyses. As a result, no studies have incorporated attitudinal/perceptual dimensions into the analysis of distinct neighborhood typologies, and their relationships with bicycle commuting choice. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the effects of individual perceptions and residential neighborhoods on university commuters’ bicycling decisions using the 2015 Ohio State University Travel Pattern Survey data. We generate eight attitudinal/perceptual components based on the 26 bicycling related questions that capture detailed perceptions of commuters towards bicycling, neighborhood environments, and residential location choice. We create distinct neighborhood typologies combining land-use and socioeconomic characteristics, including population, employment, housing and intersection densities, housing types, median age of housing stock and median household income. Probit regression models are estimated to assess the effects of socio-demographic, attitudinal/perceptual components and neighborhood types while accounting for the residential self-selection effect. Results show that people residing in different neighborhood types reveal significant attitudinal differences in terms of their conditional willingness to bicycle, and evaluation of bicycle friendliness of neighborhoods and routes. We find that bicyclists are more likely to live in neighborhoods that they perceive as of good quality for bicycling in terms of access to bicycle facilities and lower traffic levels. Results also show the significant association of neighborhood types with bicycle commuting outcomes. People from medium-density mixed-use and suburban single-family neighborhoods are less likely to commute by bicycle as compared to those from high-density mixed-use neighborhoods.
... Examples of activities for which data collection through mobile technologies is useful include the identification of travel patterns (Wang, Palm, Chen, Vogt, & Wang, 2016), network coverage (Zahabi, Chang, Miranda-Moreno, & Patterson, 2016), infrastructure optimization (Calvey, Shackleton, Taylor, & Llewellyn, 2015), corridors delimitation (Yeboah & Alvanides, 2015) or routing (Segadilha & Sanches, 2014). ...
Article
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Bicycling is an important mode of transport for cities and many cities are interested in promoting its uptake by a larger portion of the population. Several cycling mobile applications primarily rely on competition as a motivation strategy for urban cyclists. Yet, collaboration may be equally useful to motivate and engage cyclists. The present research reports on an experiment comparing the impact of collaboration-based and competition-based rewards on users’ enjoyment, satisfaction, engagement with, and intention to cycle. It involved a total of 57 participants in three European cities: Münster (Germany), Castelló (Spain), and Valletta (Malta). Our results show participants from the study reporting higher enjoyment and engagement with cycling in the collaboration condition. However, we did not find a significant impact on the participants’ worldview when it comes to the intentions to start or increase cycling behavior. The results support the use of collaboration-based rewards in the design of game-based applications to promote urban cycling.
... Bicycling is shown to improve health and relieve urban congestion (Oja et al. 2011;Götschi et al. 2016;Zahabi et al. 2016). Cities around the world are promoting bicycling as a healthy and sustainable form of travel (Buehler and Pucher 2012;Fishman 2016;Pucher and Buehler 2017;Fan et al. 2019;Lee and Pojani 2019;Rosas-Satizábal and Rodriguez-Valencia 2019;Soliz 2021). ...
Article
Bicycling‐related injury data are difficult to obtain from official reports, which capture only about 20% of crashes and often lack coordinates, injury outcomes, and narratives needed for understanding where and why incidents occurred. Crowdsourced data on bicycling safety provides new opportunities for the study of bicycling injury and risk. Our goal was to quantify factors that influence the spatial variation in unsafe bicycling across a city, based on self‐reports of bicycling incidents. To meet this goal, we leveraged BikeMaps.org, a global tool for reporting bicycling safety incidents, drawing on data from Metro Vancouver. We summarized incident conditions that led to injury, developed a model to identify predictors of injury using random forest regression, and mapped bicycling incident hot spots. Our results demonstrate that injuries from bicycling incidents are associated with older and younger bicyclists, downhill slopes, parked cars, recreation and weekend rides, falls, and single bicycle incidents with infrastructure, roads, and railroads. The broad range of incidents reported to BikeMaps.org allows us to add evidence that falls and single bicycle collisions are major causes of injury. Also, we demonstrate the value of attributing safety hot spots with contextual details to identify infrastructure interventions that can reduce injury for bicyclists. Falls and single bicycle incidents with infrastructure, roads, and railroads are relatively frequent incidents and lead to injury. Crowdsourced data can supplement official reports to improve bicycling safety analysis. Narrative and contextual details help inform interventions that can reduce injury for bicyclists. Falls and single bicycle incidents with infrastructure, roads, and railroads are relatively frequent incidents and lead to injury. Crowdsourced data can supplement official reports to improve bicycling safety analysis. Narrative and contextual details help inform interventions that can reduce injury for bicyclists. Les données sur les blessures reliées à la pratique du vélo sont difficiles à obtenir des rapports officiels qui ne recensent qu'environ 20% des collisions. De plus, il manque souvent dans ces rapports les coordonnées des lieux de la collision, la nature des blessures et le détail des faits requis pour comprendre où et pourquoi les incidents se sont produits. Les données de type « crowdsourcing » sur la sécurité du cyclisme offrent de nouvelles possibilités pour l'étude des risques et des blessures reliés à la pratique du vélo. L'objectif de cette recherche est de quantifier les facteurs qui influencent la variation spatiale des risques associés à la pratique du vélo dans une ville selon les propres déclarations des personnes impliquées dans des incidents. Pour atteindre cet objectif, nous avons misé sur BikeMaps.org, un outil reconnu pour signaler les incidents à vélo, en focalisant sur les données du grand Vancouver. Dans cette optique, nous avons compilé les caractéristiques des incidents, puis développé un modèle de type arbre de décision pour identifier les variables explicatives des blessures et, finalement, nous avons cartographié les points chauds pour les incidents à vélo. Nos résultats démontrent que les blessures en vélo touchent davantage les plus jeunes et les plus vieux cyclistes, elles se localisent dans des pentes descendantes, elles impliquent des voitures stationnées, elles se font lors de balades récréatives et de fin de semaine, elles sont reliées aux chutes, aux infrastructures ainsi qu'aux routes et voies ferrées. Le large éventail d'incidents signalé sur BikeMaps.org nous permet d'ajouter des données probantes sur le fait que les chutes et les collisions individuelles des cyclistes sont des causes majeures de blessures. Au final, nous démontrons la valeur de l'identification des points chauds incluant le contexte de l'incident pour identifier des interventions visant les infrastructures routières qui peuvent réduire les risques et blessures des cyclistes.
... Yet, other contextual factors can limit the potential for active travel, including climate, altitude and city size 115 . Several North America-based studies indicate that strong active travel measures could serve to offset expected growth in emissions rather than yielding a net decrease [116][117][118] . On the other hand, a modelling study of Albuquerque, New Mexico, suggests that increasing cycling mode share to 20% can play a substantial role in a land-use policy mix that would achieve 40% GHG reductions; however, the authors admit that such a mode share might not be achievable 106 . ...
Article
Transport CO2 emissions continue to grow globally despite advances in low-carbon technology and goal setting by numerous governments. In this Perspective, we summarize available evidence for the effectiveness of climate policies and policy mixes for road transport relative to 2030 and 2050 mitigation goals implied by the Paris Agreement. Current policy mixes in most countries are not nearly stringent enough. We argue that most regions need a stronger, more integrated policy mix led by stringent regulations and complemented by pricing mechanisms as well as other efforts to reduce vehicle travel. As road transport emissions are set to grow, stronger policy mixes are needed to reach mitigation goals. This Perspective considers the evidence for several policy types—strong regulation, pricing and reduced travel—and the best combination to reduce emissions for passenger and freight vehicles.
... Active transport (walking, bicycling, and relatedly public transport) has multiple benefits, including environmental, congestion, and health benefits (Götschi et al., 2016;Zahabi et al., 2016). For these reasons, increasing the number of people using bicycles for transportation has become a public health and sustainability goal. ...
Article
Background Bicycling shows potential for addressing both health and transportation challenges. One strategy to encourage more people to bicycle is skills training courses; however, there is limited evidence for their effectiveness, especially longer-term. We assessed the impact of adult bicycle skills training programs offered in Metro Vancouver, Canada, using a longitudinal, quasi-experimental study design to compare changes in bicycling and confidence over time between course participants and a comparison group. Methods Bicycle courses delivered by accredited instructors, 2 to 4.5 hours in duration, aimed to increase participant comfort level to ride on residential and urban streets through teaching in-person and on-road traffic handling skills. We collected data in 2016 and 2017 through online questionnaires at baseline, 1, 3, and 12 months post-course, and used mixed models to assess changes. Results We enrolled 135 course and 43 comparison participants. At baseline, 32 participants reported no bicycling; 18 started bicycling during the study. Adjusted models did not find different trajectories for course and comparison participants for bicycling overall (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.96, 1.02) or for any specific purpose (commuting RR=1.03, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.08; errands RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.01; leisure RR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.00), or for confidence. Conclusion: Bicycle courses aim to address individual-level barriers to bicycling, such as skills, knowledge, and confidence, but such courses may not be enough to overcome other barriers. Bicycle courses should be combined with environmental and other means of support to achieve greater impact on bicycling.
... Understanding the effects of the built environment characteristics on cycling behaviors can help policymakers to alter the built environment to promote bicycle-transit integration [14][15][16]. The cycling destination accessibility of transit stations, which is defined as the degree to which a person can cycle to her or his destination from a transit station or vice versa, is believed to be the primary determinant of transit use [17]. ...
Article
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Cycling is a green, sustainable, and healthy choice for transportation that has been widely advocated worldwide in recent years. It can also encourage the use of public transit by solving the “last-mile” issue, because transit passengers can cycle to and from transit stations to achieve a combination of speed and flexibility. Cycling as a transfer mode has been shown to be affected by various built environment characteristics, such as the urban density, land-use mix, and destination accessibility, that is, the ease with which cyclists can reach their destinations. However, cycling destination accessibility is loosely defined in the literature and the methods of assessing cycling accessibility is often assumed to be equivalent to walking accessibility using the same decay curves, such as the negative exponential function, which ignores the competitive relationship between cycling and walking within a short distance range around transit stations. In this study, we aim to fill the above gap by measuring the cycling destination accessibility of metro station areas using data from more than three million bicycle-metro transfer trips from a dockless bicycle-sharing program in Shenzhen, China. We found that the frequency of bicycle-metro trips has a positive association with a trip distance of 500 m or less and a negative association with a trip distance beyond 500 m. A new cycling accessibility metric with a lognormal distribution decay curve was developed by considering the distance decay characteristics and cycling’s competition with walking. The new accessibility model outperformed the traditional model with an exponential decay function, or that without a distance decay function, in predicting the frequency of bicycle-metro trips. Hence, to promote bicycle-metro integration, urban planners and government agencies should carefully consider the destination accessibility of metro station areas.
... Understanding the impact of different characteristics of built environment on cycling behaviors can shed lights on developing urban design and planning policy which can create a cycling-friendly environment and promote cycling and overall physical activity among adults Mertens et al., 2017;Zahabi, Chang, Miranda-Moreno, & Patterson, 2016). Urban greenness is believed to be an essential factor for the participation of cycling, because the urban greenness can make the cycling environment more pleasant and attractive (Chen, Zhou, & Sun, 2017;Christiansen et al., 2016;Xiao, Lu, Guo, & Yuan, 2017). ...
... Additionally, Braun et al. (2016) further identify the competition between bike-sharing service and public transport in the aspect of mode choice for commuting trips. From the bike-sharing system in Montreal, Canada, Zahabi et al. (2016) find that there is an increase in the likelihood of commuting by cycling over time. It may be affected by the attitudinal and cultural changes in the climate of reducing transportationrelated greenhouse gas emission. ...
Article
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Facing the rapidly growing popularity of bike-sharing systems worldwide, this study explores the trip characteristics of using public bikes at the level of zonal Origin-Destination (O-D) pairs, particularly with respect to the effect of pricing scheme change. Based on the transaction records of Youbike, a bike-sharing system in Taipei, Taiwan, which contain data before and after an increase of the rental fee (as the cancellation of a free-usage period for the first 30-minute), the associated demand-side responses are studied in the context of multivariate analysis. Two regression models are developed thereupon to investigate the effect of the change on the O-D demand associated various land-use patterns. A multiple linear regression model is developed for direct before-after analysis on the variation of zonal O-D demand. A finite mixture model is further constructed, which identifies three usage groups with different levels of sensitivity toward the price change. Both models suggest that the pricing scheme change have greater impact on short-distance trips and O-D pairs where alternative transit services are provided; these affected trips can be generally related to frequent users. Such research findings enable better understanding of the usage pattern of bike-sharing systems, which can benefit the associated planning and operation. They also imply the trade-off between the perspective of encouraging greener mobility and other managerial principles regarding public transportation and government subsidy. Keywords: Bike sharing system, Pricing scheme, Land use pattern, User-pays principle, Before-after analysis
... Many governments have advocated cycling by adopting pro-bicycle measures such as bicycle-exclusive road networks and full integration with public transportation. Cycling can be faster than other forms of transport for short or even medium-distance trips (Zahabi et al., 2016). As a result, bicycles have become particularly important in some countries. ...
Preprint
Cycling is a green transportation mode, and is promoted by many governments to mitigate traffic congestion. However, studies concerning the traffic dynamics of bicycle flow are very limited. This study experimentally investigated bicycle flow dynamics on a wide road, modeled using a 3-m-wide track. The results showed that the bicycle flow rate remained nearly constant across a wide range of densities, in marked contrast to single-file bicycle flow, which exhibits a unimodal fundamental diagram. By studying the weight density of the radial locations of cyclists, we argue that this behavior arises from the formation of more lanes with the increase of global density. The extra lanes prevent the longitudinal density from increasing as quickly as in single-file bicycle flow. When the density is larger than 0.5 bicycles/m2, the flow rate begins to decrease, and stop-and-go traffic emerges. A cognitive-science-based model to reproduce bicycle dynamics is proposed, in which cyclists apply simple cognitive procedures to adapt their target directions and desired riding speeds. To incorporate differences in acceleration, deceleration, and turning, different relaxation times are used. The model can reproduce the experimental results acceptably well and may also provide guidance on infrastructure design.
... Based on previous research we hypothesized a number of key covariates that have been shown to confound the association between changes in mobility-related carbon emissions and changes in transport mode choice and use (e.g. Brand et al., 2013;Büchs and Schnepf, 2013;Cervero, 2002;Goodman et al., 2019;Stevenson et al., 2016;Zahabi et al., 2016). Demographic and socio-economic covariates considered in the analyses were age, sex, employment status, household income, educational level, and household composition (e.g. ...
Article
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Active travel (walking or cycling for transport) is considered the most sustainable and low carbon form of getting from A to B. Yet the net effects of changes in active travel on changes in mobility-related CO2 emissions are complex and under-researched. Here we collected longitudinal data on daily travel behavior, journey purpose, as well as personal and geospatial characteristics in seven European cities and derived mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions over time and space. Statistical modelling of longitudinal panel (n = 1849) data was performed to assess how changes in active travel, the ‘main mode’ of daily travel, and cycling frequency influenced changes in mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions. We found that changes in active travel have significant lifecycle carbon emissions benefits, even in European urban contexts with already high walking and cycling shares. An increase in cycling or walking consistently and independently decreased mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions, suggesting that active travel substituted for motorized travel – i.e. the increase was not just additional (induced) travel over and above motorized travel. To illustrate this, an average person cycling 1 trip/day more and driving 1 trip/day less for 200 days a year would decrease mobility-related lifecycle CO2 emissions by about 0.5 tonnes over a year, representing a substantial share of average per capita CO2 emissions from transport. The largest benefits from shifts from car to active travel were for business purposes, followed by social and recreational trips, and commuting to work or place of education. Changes to commuting emissions were more pronounced for those who were younger, lived closer to work and further to a public transport station. Even if not all car trips could be substituted by active travel the potential for decreasing emissions is considerable and significant. The study gives policy and practice the empirical evidence needed to assess climate change mitigation impacts of urban transport measures and interventions aimed at mode shift to more sustainable modes of transport. Investing in and promoting active travel whilst ‘demoting’ private car ownership and use should be a cornerstone of strategies to meet ‘net zero’ carbon targets, particularly in urban areas, while also reducing inequalities and improving public health and quality of urban life in a post-COVID-19 world.
... Most of the evaluations were based on cycling counts and cyclist surveys. Zahabi et al. (2016) explored the potential impact of cycling infrastructure on bicycle commuting and thereby greenhouse gas emissions in Montreal, Canada. Heinen et al. (2017) studied the travel behaviour of commuters working in Cambridge, UK over four years to assess patterns of change in travel behaviour on exposure to a dedicated busway with walking and cycling paths. ...
Article
The Dutch concept of ‘bicycle highways’ is increasingly being adopted by urban planners owing to rising environmental and health consciousness, and the growing popularity of electric bicycles. Bicycle highways differ from other types of cycling infrastructure in that they avoid intersections with motorised traffic, and are wide enough to allow for safe overtaking, thereby increasing cycling speeds. While many studies investigate the feasibility of constructing bicycle highways, few explore their effect on users’ travel preferences. In this context, our study aims to assess the potential impact of bicycle highways on commuter mode choice. We built a discrete choice model based on individual commute data from a national household travel survey, Mobilität in Deutschland 2008. The model was estimated in a logit modelling framework using Biogeme. We estimated multinomial logit and nested logit models and found nested logit to be more appropriate. The model estimates were then applied to forecast mode shares in scenarios with the pilot bicycle highway proposed in the Munich region. The variation in mode shares across scenarios with increasing average cycling speeds was analysed in areas with varying proximity to the infrastructure. The results suggest that bicycle highways reduce motorised travel and increase cycling. The effect is stronger as proximity to the corridor increases. The analysis helps to quantify the potential impact of bicycle highways on commuter mode choice even without considering further benefits beyond travel time reductions, such as increased safety, convenience, comfort, and reduced risks due to fewer interactions with motorised traffic.
... Studies have shown that cycling duration is related not only to individual attributes (e.g., sociodemographic characteristics), but also to the environment in which people live and move around [16][17][18]. There is empirical evidence that population and address density, land use, building diversity, and urban design (e.g., street network configurations) affect cycling levels [19][20][21][22][23]. The effects of population density on cycling behavior might often be indirect. ...
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Background: Cycling for transportation has the potential to contribute to an increase in people's physical activity levels. A growing body of evidence links the natural and the built environment to cycling. Whereas previous studies were mostly done within one city or one region, the present study covers the whole of the Netherlands, allowing an investigation of whether associations between environmental characteristics and cycling are context-specific. The study examines the extent to which objectively measured natural and built environment characteristics contribute to cycling duration in the Netherlands, as well as the differential effect of environmental characteristics on cycling duration by municipality size. Methods: Our sample from the Dutch National Travel Survey 2010-2014 comprised 110,027 people aged 20-89 years, residing in 3163 four-digit postal code areas, nested within 387 municipalities across the whole of the Netherlands. Multilevel Tobit regression models were fitted to assess the associations between the natural and the built environment with average daily cycling duration (in minutes), while adjusting for individual and household characteristics. Interaction effects of natural and built environment characteristics and municipality size on cycling duration were also investigated. Results: Higher address density, more bus stops, and shorter distance from home to the nearest train station were positively related to cycling duration. Respondents were more likely to cycle on days with higher temperatures, less wind, and less precipitation. Interaction tests showed that increased street density and address density were less cycling-promotive in small urban areas compared to medium or large cities. On the other hand, the positive association between number of bus stops and cycling duration was weaker in the largest and medium-sized cities compared to small urban and rural areas. Conclusions: Interactions suggest that relations between environmental characteristics and cycling duration are context-specific (i.e., dependent on circumstances that differ between highly urbanized and less urbanized areas). Our findings need to be replicated in other countries to gain more insight into the interplay between environmental factors and municipality size.
... Bicycling offers important health, transport, and environmental benefits (Götschi et al., 2016;Lindsay et al., 2011;Zahabi et al., 2016), and cities around the world are looking for potential ways to increase levels of active travel by bicycle. Together with supportive infrastructure and changing social environments, experts suggest that bicycle skills training has potential for increasing ridership (Pucher et al., 2010). ...
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Background Encouraging more trips by bicycle is often an objective of bicycle skills training. Bicycle skills training programs have been implemented in several countries, cities, and schools, but few evaluations measure changes in bicycling. We conducted a scoping review to identify and describe evidence of changes in bicycling frequency associated with bicycle skills training. We also describe and compare the theoretical basis, context, and training content of bicycle skills trainings that might be associated with changes in bicycling. Methods We searched six electronic databases, grey literature websites, Google Scholar, and citations in relevant articles for pre- and post-test studies of bicycle skill training interventions which measured bicycling frequency in children or adults. We assessed the theory, context, and content of the bicycle skills training interventions using pre-defined concepts and a behaviour change technique taxonomy. Results We found 12 studies. Six studies assessed programs for adult populations, of which five reported increases in overall bicycling and three reported increases in bicycling to work. Six studies assessed programs for children, of which five reported increases in overall bicycling and three reported increases in bicycling to school. Information about the statistical significance of these results was sometimes missing. Studies described intervention content adequately, but poorly reported details about intervention theory and context. No associations were found between intervention content and changes in bicycling frequency. Conclusions Bicycle skills training increases participants’ bicycling, but evidence is heterogeneous among a small number of studies. Sparse reporting limited our ability to detect associations between changes in bicycling frequency and the training theory, context, or content. Future studies should strive to report details on theory, context, and content to help assess effectiveness and generalizability.
... Urban mobility is undergoing transformative changes to achieve a sustainable future in cities. Active modes of transport such as walking and cycling and public transport provide substantial environmental, health and economic benefits compared to the use of motorized personal vehicles (Andersson et al., 2018;Lovelace et al., 2017;Mulley et al., 2013;Ryu et al., 2020;Sun et al., 2020). Additional benefits include climate change mitigation (Keall et al., 2018;Zahabi et al., 2016). Based on the data collected from London (UK), and Delhi (India), Woodcock et al. (2009) showed that substantial reduction in carbon dioxide emissions is possible by introducing a combination of increased active mobility and increased use of low carbon-emission motor vehicles, rather than implementing one of the two measures. ...
Article
Previous studies on bikeability/cycling index have explored factors that influence cycling in cities, and developed indicators to characterize a bicycle-friendly environment. However, despite its strong influence on cycling behavior, cyclists’ exposure to traffic-related air pollution has been often disregarded. To close this knowledge gap, we propose a comprehensive bikeability index that comprises four sub-indices: accessibility, suitability, perceptibility, and prevailing air quality in the vicinity of cycling routes. We evaluate cyclists’ exposure to fine particulate matter and black carbon, and used open-source data, land-use regression models, deep neural networks and spatial analysis. The application of the proposed bikeability framework reveals that the inclusion of air quality makes a significant difference when calculating bikeability index in Singapore and hence it merits serious consideration. We believe that the newly developed framework will convince city planners to consider the importance of assessing cyclists’ exposure to airborne particles when planning cycling infrastructure ------------------------------------------------------------------------------(Free download within 50 days https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1bq-F4rgZigiSj).
... De Vos et al. (2019) found the presence of appropriate infrastructure to drastically increase travel satisfaction in active travellers. Montreal saw a significant increase in cycling likelihood after years of safe-road enhancing networks (Zahabi et al., 2016). However, a study led over three selected sites in the UK, found that infrastructure alone may not be sufficient (Song et al., 2017). ...
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Active travel provides significant public health benefits including improving physical and mental health and air quality. Given the geography of congested roads, availability of required infrastructure and cost of transportation in cities, promoting active travel, including cycling, can be a good solution for commuting within built environments. Having a better understanding of the key drivers that may influence bike ridership can help with designing cities that accommodate cyclists’ needs for healthier citizens. This paper examines the built environment features that may affect commuting cyclists. We respectively employ Ordinary Linear Square (OLS) regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) for 136 Intermediate Zones of the city of Glasgow, UK. The results of GWR show that the significant local variation in green areas suggests that even though the global regression showed a negative association between the greenness and commute cycling, over half of the IZ areas had a strong positive association with the green areas. Building height and Public Transport Availability Index show geographic patterns where the residuals are fairly stationary across the study area with some clusters of high residuals. Performance wise, the results from GWR provided an R2 of 0.73 which was higher than OLS at 0.3. Our results can provide insights into how to use crowdsourced cycling data when there are spatially and temporally limited resources available.
... For example, the UK's iConnect consortium and the Sydney Transport and Health Study have produced papers analysing longitudinal, mixed method and quasi-experimental evidence (Song et al., 2017;Sahlqvist et al., 2013Sahlqvist et al., , 2015Goodman et al., 2014;Ogilvie et al., 2011;Crane et al., 2017;Rissel et al., 2015). Other examples include research from Canada, Barcelona, and analysis of the Cambridge Guided Busway (Wasfi et al., 2015;Zahabi et al., 2016;Braun et al., 2016;Panter et al., 2011). These new studies indicate that the magnitude of any effects depends upon proximity to new infrastructure and takes time to appear (e.g. ...
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Background More evidence is needed on the impacts of building infrastructure for walking and cycling. A knowledge gap and an implementation gap have been mutually reinforcing. This paper reports on a longitudinal study examining the impacts of the still in progress ‘mini-Hollands programme’, which seeks to transform local environments for walking and cycling, in three Outer London boroughs. Compared to Inner London, Outer London has low levels of cycling and low levels of walking, and is relatively car dependent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of 1712 individuals sampled from households in mini-Holland boroughs (intervention sample) and from non mini-Holland Outer London boroughs (control sample). The intervention sample was further divided, a priori, into those living in “high-dose neighbourhoods”, where substantial changes to the local walking and cycling infrastructure had been implemented, versus “low-dose neighbourhoods” where such improvements had not (yet) been made. At both baseline (2016) and one-year follow-up (2017), we administered an online survey of travel behaviour and attitudes to transport and the local environment. Results One year’s worth of interventions was associated with an increase in active travel among those living in areas defined as ‘high-dose’ neighbourhoods. Specifically, those in high-dose areas were 24% more likely to have done any past-week cycling at follow-up, compared to those living in non mini-Holland areas (95% CI, 2% to 52%). The mid-point estimate for increase in active travel (walking plus cycling) time for the same group was an additional 41.0 min (95% CI 7.0, 75.0 min). Positive changes in views about local environments were recorded in intervention areas, driven by a perceived improvement in cycling-related items. Controversy related to the interventions is expressed in a growth in perceptions that ‘too much’ money is spent on cycling in intervention areas. However, intervention areas also saw a reduction in perceptions that ‘too little’ money is spent (the latter view being common both at baseline and Wave 1 in control areas). Conclusion Overall, the findings here suggest that programme interventions, while controversial, are having a measurable and early impact on active travel behaviour and perceptions of the local cycling environment.
... Compared to other transportation modes, travelling by bicycle is more enjoyable (Páez and Whalen 2010), and is associated with better self-perceived health (Avila-Palencia et al. 2018) and reduced risk of chronic disease (Celis-Morales et al. 2017;Oja et al. 2011). Furthermore, increasing bicycling infrastructure has the potential to lead to reduced greenhouse gas emissions (Zahabi et al. 2016), while other policies that increase human-powered modes can help to improve air and noise pollution (Nazelle et al. 2011). These benefits serve as motivation for cities to encourage more travel by this mode, but this requires effort to put bicycling on par with other modes of transportation at a policy level. ...
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Bicycling is an increasingly popular mode of travel in Canadian urban areas, like the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA). While trip origins and destinations can be inferred from travel surveys, data on route choice is often not collected which makes it challenging to capture the attributes of routes travelled by people who cycle. With new algorithms for cycle routing it is now possible to infer routes. Using bicycle trip records from the most recent regional travel survey, a spatial interaction model is developed to investigate the built environment correlates of bicycling flows in Hamilton, Ontario, a mid-sized city part of the GTHA. A feature of the analysis is the use of CycleStreets to compare the distance and time according to different routes inferred between trip zones of origin and destination. In addition, network autocorrelation is accounted for in the estimated models. The most parsimonious model suggests that shortest-path quietest routes that minimize traffic best explain the pattern of bicycle trip flows in Hamilton. Commercial and office locations and points of interest at the zone of origin negatively correlate with the production of trips, while different land uses and the availability of jobs at the zone of destination are trip attractors. The use of a route planner offers a novel approach to modelling and understanding bicycling flows within a city. This may be useful for transportation planners to infer different types of routes that bicyclists may seek out and consider these in travel demand models.
... Many governments have advocated cycling by adopting probicycle measures, such as bicycle-exclusive road networks and full integration with public transportation. Cycling can be faster than other forms of transport for short or even medium-distance trips (Zahabi et al., 2016;Campbell et al., 2016). As a result, bicycles have become particularly important in some countries. ...
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Cycling is a popular and sustainable mode of transportation. However, few studies have examined experimental and modeling studies on bicycle flow dynamics. In particular, for wide roads, the characteristics of high-density regimes in the fundamental diagram have not been well addressed, and the emergence of stop-and-go waves has not been fully understood. This study experimentally investigated bicycle flow dynamics on wide roads, using two types of 3-m-wide track. Different riding behaviors, namely, free riding, following, and overtaking, were analyzed. The bicycle flow dynamics were found to be essentially the same on the two tracks: (i) The bicycle flow rate remained nearly constant across a wide range of densities, in marked contrast to the single-file bicycle flow, which exhibited a unimodal fundamental diagram. By studying the weight density of the radial and lateral locations of cyclists, we argue that this behavior arises from the formation of more lanes with increase in global density. The newly formed lanes prevented the flow rate from decreasing. (ii) When the density exceeded 0.5 bicycles/m², the flow rate began to decrease, and stop-and-go traffic emerged. Based on these behavioral observations, we propose an improved heuristic-based model to simulate bicycle flow on roads of different radii and explicitly account for the centrifugal effect of bicycles. The calibration and validation results demonstrate that the proposed model can reproduce the traffic dynamics of bicycle flow.
... The effect of bicycle infrastructure on general bicycle demand has been studied in Krizek et al. (2009), Amir et al. (2016 and Van Goeverden and Godefrooij (2011);Van Goeverden et al. (2015). All these studies examine the general change in percentage of cyclists over a longer time period and the results are not unambiguous. ...
... parks) influenced the use of AT by older adults [13]. The presence of a sidewalk and a bike lane was also identified as important built-environmental factors in promoting AT modes [43][44][45][46][47][48][49]. Aziz et al. discovered that appropriate sidewalk width, length of the bike lane, and proportion of protected bike lane will increase the likelihood of more people using AT modes for their home-to-work commute [50]. ...
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Now more than ever, the health and economic benefits of active transportation (AT) are evident and several planning efforts and programs are particularly targeted at improving active transportation options for different populations, such as students and seniors. Administrative employees at universities received less attention in the literature than other population groups.This population spends a lot of time doing sedentary activities and behaviors during their working time. Thus, the present study used a C5 decision tree to examine the usage of university employees’ AT modes when they are out of campus to get to work, shopping, and leisure. The effects of the sociodemographic and living environment of employees on their AT mode choice were also examined. According to the results, walking was the most frequently used mode to get to work and leisure and public transport was the most frequently used mode to get to shopping. Transit station conditions (25), sidewalk availability and coverage (36), and bike path availability and coverage (30) were the most important factors in the use of AT modes by employees to get to work, shop, and leisure, respectively. Furthermore, several decision rules were extracted from the C5 tree, which included combinations of multiple factors.KEYWORDS: Active transportation, mode choice, university employees, trip purposes, C5
... parks) influenced the use of AT by older adults [13]. The presence of a sidewalk and a bike lane was also identified as important built-environmental factors in promoting AT modes [43][44][45][46][47][48][49]. Aziz et al. discovered that appropriate sidewalk width, length of the bike lane, and proportion of protected bike lane will increase the likelihood of more people using AT modes for their home-to-work commute [50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Now more than ever, the health and economic benefits of active transportation (AT) are evident and several planning efforts and programs are particularly targeted at improving active transportation options for different populations, such as students and seniors. Administrative employees at universities received less attention in the literature than other population groups.This population spends a lot of time doing sedentary activities and behaviors during their working time. Thus, the present study used a C5 decision tree to examine the usage of university employees’ AT modes when they are out of campus to get to work, shopping, and leisure. The effects of the sociodemographic and living environment of employees on their AT mode choice were also examined. According to the results, walking was the most frequently used mode to get to work and leisure and public transport was the most frequently used mode to get to shopping. Transit station conditions (25), sidewalk availability and coverage (36), and bike path availability and coverage (30) were the most important factors in the use of AT modes by employees to get to work, shop, and leisure, respectively. Furthermore, several decision rules were extracted from the C5 tree, which included combinations of multiple factors.
... The use of bicycle is one of the friendliest ways for people to go to work or for leisure. It brings significant benefits the environment and the economy (Götschi, et al ., 2016̇͘ ;Zahabi et al., 2016). It is a healthy and cost-effective alternative to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (Mizdrak et al., 2020;Hopkins & Mandic, 2017). ...
... Bicycling has multiple health and environmental benefits (Götschi et al., 2016;Zahabi et al., 2016). For these reasons, increasing the use of bicycles, especially for transportation, has become a public health and sustainability goal, and cities around the world are increasingly promoting bicycle use (Buehler and Pucher, 2012). ...
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Bicycling has multiple health benefits. Child-rearing may influence bicycling, but little is known about the impact of this between men’s and women’s bicycling, or of number and ages of children on bicycling. This study examined the longitudinal associations between having dependent children and bicycling for transportation and recreation over 4 years among mid-aged men and women. Data were from the HABITAT study (Australia). We analysed data from three survey waves (2007, 2009, 2011) using multilevel logistic regression stratified by gender (N=7758). Findings indicate that having dependent children was associated with bicycling for transportation and recreation in contrasting ways for men and women. The odds of bicycling were higher in men with ≥2 children aged under 18y than men without children (transportation: OR=1.93, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.98; recreation: OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.67, 3.37). Over time, the odds of recreational bicycling were lower in women with ≥2 children than women without children (OR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.93). However, for both men and women, the odds of recreational bicycling were higher in those with children aged 6-12y than those with younger or older children (men: OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.39, 2.49; women: OR=1.79, 95% CI: 1.31, 2.46). Interventions to promote bicycling must therefore consider gendered differences in bicycling for travel and active leisure, and family circumstances. An opportunity to promote bicycling might be to target parents with children aged 6-12y.
... thousand tonnes citywide. Similarly, the use of transport models and a GHG inventory at the trip level showed a reduction in emissions by 2% for every 7% increase in the bicycle network in another study [47] . Bicycles and bicycle infrastructure, as a replacement for motorcycles in Uganda, could have these impacts for the environment. ...
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Public transport demand in Uganda is often met by a combination of local paratransit services and motorcycle taxis (boda bodas). Studies suggest that boda bodas alone account for a significant proportion of all motorized trips in the country. Their popularity, often attributed to their maneuverability within traffic and their easy navigation of untarred terrain is also accompanied by concerns of the harmful emissions that are produced as a result of their activities. This makes it of interest to determine the willingness of commuters to adopt bicycling as an alternative, that has some of the benefits of boda bodas, without the element of pollution. This study therefore, sought first to understand the factors underlying the use of bicycles through exploratory factor analysis, and as well, used a binary logistic regression to model potential shift in mode choice from boda bodas to bicycles. The results show that four factors have implications for bicycling. These are: the transport system and safety factors, natural environmental factors, perceptions of cycling and demographic characteristics of the individual. The logistic model also highlights mainly demographic characteristics (age, gender and the individual's ability to cycle) as predictors of the individual's shift in mode to bicycles. As a whole, the results suggest that male respondents would be more inclined to shift from boda bodas to bicycles, as compared to their female counterparts. In the end, it is recommended that transport system improvements that reduce the perceived risks of cycling be prioritized since these improvements could potentially address the concerns of respondents with the current infrastructure, and make cycling, a more feasible option for commuters.
... Numerous measures and strategies have been adopted to mitigate the traffic congestion, such as prioritizing public transport, developing bicycle systems, and congestion pricing [1,2]. Among these, bicycle systems have been increasingly popular around the world since the last decade [3], due to various positive returns, such as reduction in traffic [4], fuel consumption, and harmful emissions [5][6][7], increases in public transportation service and economic outcome [8], and improvements in physical and mental health [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
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This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the effect of bicycle infrastructure on car usage. The mixed logit model with random coefficients was used to capture the differences in individuals’ preferences. Based on data from a stated preference survey conducted in Huhhot, China, the estimated results showed that the mixed logit model provides better fitting than the standard logit model. Considerable variations were found in individuals’ attitudes toward the use of cars and bicycles. Riding a bicycle is preferred by most individuals. Furthermore, based on the constraints for maintaining the effect on car usage equal, the equivalent change in parking fees for improvement in bicycle infrastructures was estimated. The results showed that the effect of a 100 m reduction in walking distance to bicycle stations on the probability of driving is the same as that of an approximately 2.00 yuan/h (US 0.30$/h) increase in the parking fees, and the effect of providing bike lanes is in line with additional parking fees of approximately 3.00 yuan/h (US 0.45$/h). The findings of this study can be an important reference for decision makers to consider improvements in bicycle systems and rational allocation of infrastructure investment and road resources.
... Among them, the metro-bike transfer mode has received great interest from both researchers and urban planners owing to its remarkable advantages such as reducing private vehicle use [17], enhancing public transit usage, and promoting travel efficiency and convenience [18]. Therefore, exploring the impacts of driving factors on dockless bike-sharing usage in the metro-bike transfer mode remains the focus of cycling-related studies [2,4], which can shed light on urban planning and design to provide a cycling-friendly built environment for the purpose of encouraging such an environmentally friendly travel mode and residents' physical condition [19][20][21][22]. ...
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Dockless bike sharing plays an important role in residents’ daily travel, traffic congestion, and air pollution. Recently, urban greenness has been proven to be associated with bike sharing usage around metro stations using a global model. However, their spatial associations and bike sharing usage on public holidays have seldom been explored in previous studies. In this study, urban greenness was obtained objectively using eye-level greenness with street-view images by deep learning segmentation and overhead view greenness from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was applied to fill the research gap by exploring the spatially varying association between dockless bike sharing usage on weekdays, weekends, and holidays, and urban greenness indicators as well as other built environment factors. The results showed that eye-level greenness was positively associated with bike sharing usage on weekdays, weekends, and holidays. Overhead-view greenness was found to be negatively related to bike usage on weekends and holidays, and insignificant on weekdays. Therefore, to promote bike sharing usage and build a cycling-friendly environment, the study suggests that the relevant urban planner should pay more attention to eye-level greenness exposure along secondary roads rather than the NDVI. Most importantly, planning implications varying across the study area during different days were proposed based on GWR results. For example, the improvement of eye-level greenness might effectively promote bike usage in northeastern and southern Futian districts and western Nanshan on weekdays. It also helps promote bike usage in Futian and Luohu districts on weekends, and in southern Futian and southeastern Nanshan districts on holidays.
Article
Transportation is a basic social need, but most trips are done by private vehicles, which is not environmentally sustainable with growing urban populations. Micromobility (e.g., shared bikes) represents a significant opportunity to replace short private vehicles trips (0–3 miles) and reduce transportation sector emissions. This paper uses Seattle as a case study and estimates that up to 18% of short car trips could be replaced by micromobility. A static traffic assignment model is developed to simulate and compare the results of peak hour traffic under a base case scenario (2014 traffic conditions) to scenarios where a portion of short car trips are substituted by micromobility. Results indicate that micromobility could reduce congestion on heavily congested corridors and wide-scale bike lane deployment can maximize congestion benefits, but the impacts to energy use and emissions are disproportionately low and other measures (e.g., vehicle electrification) are needed to meet climate change emissions targets.
Article
GPS-equipped bike-share fleets are a source of rich data that can be used to estimate cycling volumes to assist infrastructure investment decisions aimed at increasing ridership. Using global positioning system (GPS) trajectories collected between January 1st, 2018 and December 31st, 2018 by Hamilton Bike Share (HBS), the volume of bike share trips on every traveled link in the HBS service area is modeled. A map-matching toolkit is used to generate users’ routes to derive the number of observed bike share trips on every traveled link. To model annual bike share traffic volumes, several variables were created at the link level including accessibility measures, distances to important locations in the city, proximity to transportation infrastructure, and bike infrastructure. A linear regression model was estimated, incorporating eigenvector spatial filtering to remove spatial autocorrelation. The results suggest that the largest positive predictors of bike share traffic volumes in terms of cycling infrastructure are those that are physically separated from automobiles by a space or barrier. Additionally, hub-trip distance accessibility, a novel measure, was significant in the model, outperforming other accessibility metrics. A demonstration of how the model can be used for planning cycling infrastructure upgrades is presented.
Article
Background Bicycling is known to have many health benefits. For this reason, transport planners and public health officials in Canada increasingly aim to encourage bicycling for transport. On- and off-street infrastructure is often implemented to facilitate bicycling and planners rely on a range of tools for informing the design of the network of facilities. This mixed methods study compares objectively measured attributes and bicyclists’ perceptions of the built environment along inferred bicycle routes in Hamilton, Ontario. Methods Environmental audits were conducted along six bicycle routes in Hamilton to document the attributes that might support or hinder bicycling. The routes were inferred based on the output of a model of bicycling flows. Bicyclists, 9 male and 5 female, then participated in semi-structured interviews where a form of photo elicitation, which we call photo-journeys, was used to explore their perceptions and preferences of the routes. Interview data were analyzed using both inductive and deductive thematic analysis based on the categories of the audit instrument. Results Bicyclists prefer routes that have dedicated bicycle infrastructure, or residential streets with low volumes of traffic even if they lack infrastructure. They dislike routes with busy arterial roads or that lack bicycle infrastructure. Their experiences and knowledge of bicycling in a city transitioning to be more bicycle-friendly revealed preferences that can help to improve existing infrastructure and bicycle routes, which may also help to reduce barriers for non-bicyclists. Conclusions Photo-journeys are an innovative and practical approach to explore perceptions of regular bicyclists, which can be leveraged to inform policies and interventions to make bicycling routes and infrastructure safer and more attractive. Transport planners in developing cycling cities should pay attention to both the objective attributes of the built environment and how they are perceived by the public.
Article
This article looks at the different factors that contributed to an increase in utilitarian cycling between 1996 and 2015 in ten communities of various sizes and locations across Canada. Interviews with engineers, planners, activists, politicians and academics were conducted to assess which factors were more important in changing cycling practice in ten case studies areas that witnessed very large increases in their cycling commuting mode shares between the censuses of 1996 and 2011. The results show that although the story varies from case to case, some factors had more impact on cycling behaviour than others. Factors beyond the control of local actors, such as cultural, demographic and economic changes, have contributed significantly to an increase in utilitarian cycling in all case studies. In addition to these macro-trends, locally adopted measures have also been effective: the development of pro-cycling policies and programs, as well as the expansion of cycling infrastructure, seem to have heavily influenced cycling in several communities. In some case study areas, the activities and advocacy of cycling groups have been very influential. In a few cases, such as two small mountain communities, a specific event triggered the increase in cycling in the area. More often, however, it was a combination of government-controlled factors and larger macro-trends that created an environment favourable to cycling for transportation in the studied municipalities.
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The nexus between the residential sector and environmental quality is reciprocal and complex. The residential sector generates environmental impacts via land and materials use, energy consumption and the transport activity it engenders. Environmentally motivated policies on land-use, construction and energy efficiency, and transport seek to alleviate these impacts by incorporating the cost of environmental externalities into house prices. As a result, such policies often have negative impacts on affordability. Housing policies can also have environmental implications insofar as they affect the environmental footprint of residential development. The impacts of environmental policies on housing markets, and vice versa, depend on policy and the characteristics of the urban areas where they are implemented. Sustainability in the housing market can be promoted according to social welfare approach that accounts for housing affordability, as well as the environmental and economic impacts of policies.
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This study explores factors contributing to the uneven success of past expansions of dock-based public bikesharing systems, in which middle- and - higher-income neighborhoods have tended to benefit considerably more than poorer neighborhoods. After a review of the differing performance of the three phases of expansion by Chicago's Divvy bikeshare system, this study uses multivariate adaptive regression splining (MARS) to select among more than 100 community- and station-level factors to explain variations in Divvy system usage at the station level. MARS demonstrates that neighborhood racial and ethnic diversity, proportion of condominium units, and job accessibility to public transit are strongly and positively correlated with total annual station trips, whereas percentage unemployed, average distance to Divvy stations, and percentage of residential foreclosures are negatively correlated. Model results are compared with those of earlier studies to foster insights into ways to more accurately predict the use of bikesharing systems across urban neighborhoods.
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This paper analyses attitudes to cycling and driving, using qualitative survey data from 2128 participants in a study examining impacts of active travel schemes in Outer London. London has seen some success in reducing driving and increasing active travel; but progress remains patchy. Results show cycling attracted more support than driving, and fewer negative comments, although with differences between sub-groups. Views were more polarised in boroughs with major active travel interventions planned and under way. Car owners were more supportive of driving and less supportive of cycling than non-car owners. The use of a ‘place’ rather than movement frame elicited more negative comments about driving, however, such critiques were often ambivalent or ambiguous. More generally, discourses critiquing driving remain weak, despite widespread awareness of negative impacts of car use. For instance, narratives of congestion highlight the potential for problems associated with car use to be re-framed in support of driving. Comparison of comments on poor driving and poor cycling highlighted the persistence of cycling stigma. Cycling stigma combines with the weakness of anti-car narratives to reinforce controversy obstructing active travel policies. Challenging these twin barriers may prove essential to accelerating mode shift in London and elsewhere.
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The share of electric bicycles is increasing. This change implies a series of outcomes, which are not understood today. Firstly, it increases travel speed for bicycles. This leads to additional consumer surplus benefits that depend on the share of electric bicycles. Secondly, it affects how infrastructure should be designed to accommodate faster bikes and avoid accidents. Thirdly, since electric bicycles can travel longer distances, they represent an alternative mode of transport for a wider range of trips. Hence, it is expected that the substitution of bicycle trips for car and public transport trips will increase. These implications have motivated the development of a large-scale econometric model where a combination of infrastructure scenarios and different bicycle types can be studied. This involves the modelling of mode and destination choice in combination with a route choice model for bicycles that accounts for differences in speed profiles across the types of bicycles and infrastructure. The main finding of this study is that the impact and importance of a bicycle network cannot be considered without, at the same time, considering the changes in the composition of bicycle types. Not accounting for the increasing share of electric bicycles will underestimate the direct travel time benefits by as much as 25% in the most extreme cases. It is also found that the introduction of more cycle superhighways in combination with increasing shares of electric bicycles caused more substitution of car trips for bicycle trips. In the extreme case, the share of bicycle trips increases to as much as 7.4%, where approximately 40% of the new bicycle trips came from substituted car drivers. The spatial distribution of benefits between different infrastructure scenarios were also investigated. The result suggests that even minor expansions of existing infrastructure can have significant effects, if these expansions are carried out at locations that increase the network connectivity.
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Introduction: Although stop signs are popular in North America, they have become controversial in cities like Montreal, Canada where they are often installed to reduce vehicular speeds and improve pedestrian safety despite limited evidence demonstrating their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of stop-control configuration (and other features) on safety using statistical models and surrogate measures of safety (SMoS), namely vehicle speed, time-to-collision (TTC), and post-encroachment time (PET), while controlling for features of traffic, geometry, and built environment. Methods: This project leverages high-resolution user trajectories extracted from video data collected for 100 intersections, 336 approaches, and 130,000 road users in Montreal to develop linear mixed-effects regression models to account for within-site and within-approach correlations. This research proposes the Intersection Exposure Group (IEG) indicator, an original method for classifying microscopic exposure of pedestrians and vehicles. Results: Stop signs were associated with an average decrease in approach speed of 17.2 km/h and 20.1 km/h, at partially and fully stop-controlled respectively. Cyclist or pedestrian presence also significantly lower vehicle speeds. The proposed IEG measure was shown to successfully distinguish various types of pedestrian-vehicle interactions, allowing for the effect of each interaction type to vary in the model. Conclusions: The presence of stop signs significantly reduced approach speeds compared to uncontrolled approaches. Though several covariates were significantly related to TTC and PET for vehicle pairs, the models were unable to demonstrate a significant relationship between stop signs and vehicle-pedestrian interactions. Therefore, drawing conclusions regarding pedestrian safety is difficult. Practical Applications: As pedestrian safety is frequently used to justify new stop sign installations, this result has important policy implications. Policies implementing stop signs to reduce pedestrian crashes may be less effective than other interventions. Enforcement and education efforts, along with geometric design considerations, should accompany any changes in traffic control.
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Introduction Cycling behavior has recently attracted great research attention as an important type of physical activity and sustainable mode of transportation. In addition, cycling provides other environmental benefits, such as reducing air pollution and traffic congestion. Various built environment factors have been demonstrated to be associated with the popularity of cycling behaviors. However, the most recent built environment cycling reviews were conducted nearly 10 years ago, and these reviews reached no clear consensus on which built environment factors are associated with which domain of cycling behaviors. To determine the crucial features of a cycling-friendly city, it is therefore necessary to conduct a review based on empirical studies from the last decade (2007–2017). Methods Thirty-nine empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals between 2007 and 2017 were retrieved and reviewed. The results were summarized based on built environment factors and four domains of cycling behaviors (transport, commuting, recreation, and general). Weighted elasticity values for built environment factors were calculated to estimate effect sizes. Results We found consistent associations with large effect sizes between street connectivity and cycling for commuting and transport. The presence of cycling paths and facilities was found to be positively associated with both commuting cycling and general cycling. However, the effects of land-use mix, availability of cycling paths to non-residential destinations, and terrain slope on cycling behaviors remained weak. The effects of urban density and other built environment factors are mixed. Conclusions This review has demonstrated that street connectivity and the presence of cycling paths and facilities are the two most significant built environment factors that may promote cycling behaviors. With the emergence of advanced measurement methods for both the built environment and cycling behaviors, further studies may overcome current research limitations and provide robust evidence to support urban planning and public-health practice.
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Policy statements and planning documents of many North American municipalities recognize the benefits of increased cycling, however, rates of bicycling for transport remain low and programming interventions have been limited and rarely rigorously evaluated. We investigate the impact of four cycling mentorship interventions based in non-cycling partner organizations on: cycling behaviour, attitudes towards cycling, and willingness to spend on bicycles and accessories. Residents, mostly newcomers to Canada, participated in 12–16 week cycling mentorship programs, involving personal support from an experienced cyclist. They were provided with safety training, bicycles, locks and helmets and publicly committed to participate in the program. 146 of the 197 participants completed entry and exit surveys. At program exit each participant cycled on average an additional 1.8 days per week to shopping (p ≤ 0.001) and an additional 1.35 days per week to work and school (p ≤ 0.001) compared to program entry. At program exit, participants were willing to spend 23% more on a bicycle and 32% more (p < 0.01) on accessories like carriers, helmets and locks. They were more confident about the rules of the road and were aware of safe streets for riding in their neighbourhood. They were less confident of finding a safe route and more aware of the relative rarity of women cyclists. The programs were effective in increasing cycling for transport regardless of the distance people lived from their respective central business district. These results are promising and suggest that with sufficient support people will bicycle in neighbourhoods throughout the region. Increased availability of cycling infrastructure would likely increase confidence in finding a safe route and improve these results.
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Understanding how built environment features are associated with travel-related carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions is essential for planners to encourage environmentally sustainable travel through transportation and land use policies. Applying gradient boosting decision trees to the data from the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area, this study addresses two gaps in the literature by identifying critical built environment determinants of CO2 emissions, and more importantly, illustrating threshold effects of built environment elements. The results show that three neighborhood-level built environment factors have the strongest influences on CO2 emissions: distance to the nearest transit stop, job density, and land use diversity. The distance to downtowns also has a substantial impact. This study further confirms that built environment variables are effective only within a certain range. These threshold effects offer valuable implications for planners to achieve desirable environmental benefits efficiently.
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Bike-sharing systems have rapidly expanded around the world. Previous studies found that docked and dockless bike-sharing systems are different in terms of user demand and travel characteristics. However, their usage regularity and its determinants have not been fully understood. This research aims to fill this gap by exploring smart card data of a docked bike-sharing scheme and GPS trajectory data of a dockless bike-sharing scheme in Nanjing, China, over the same period. Both docked and dockless bike-sharing users can be classified into regular users and occasional users according to their usage frequency. Two systems are cross-compared regarding their travel characteristics. Then, binary logistic models are applied to reveal the impacts of travel characteristics and built environment factors on the regularity of bike-sharing usage. Results show that for both bike-sharing systems, regular users and occasional users share similar riding time and distance, while significant differences in the spatio-temporal distribution between docked and dockless bike-sharing systems are observed. The regression model results show that the “Trips during morning and afternoon peak hours” are positively associated with the regularity of both docked and dockless bike-sharing usage. However, the “Riding distance” variable is negatively associated with the usage regularity of both systems. Built environment factors including working point of interest (POI), residential POI, and transit POI promote the usage regularity of both bike-sharing systems. Finally, policy implications are proposed, such as increasing the density of docking stations in suburban areas and developing high-quality parking area for dockless bike-sharing around public transport stations. This study can help operators or governments to launch or improve the service of bike-sharing systems.
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There is a growing recognition of the importance of proper urban design in the improvement of air flow and pollution dispersion and in reducing human exposure to air pollution. However, a limited number of studies have been published so far focusing on the development of standard procedures which could be applied by urban planners to effectively evaluate urban conditions with respect to air quality. To fill this gap, a new approach for the determination of urban Air Quality Management Zones (AQMZs) was proposed and presented based on two case studies: Antwerp, Belgium and Gdańsk, Poland. The main objectives of the study were to 1) formulate a theoretical framework for the management of urban ventilation potential and human exposure to air pollution and to 2) develop methods for its implementation by means of a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the analysis, the typologies that may be associated with decreased ventilation potential and the areas that require close monitoring due to potential human exposure to air pollution were identified for both cities. It is advocated that delimiting these typologies – combined with investigating local climate, wind and topography conditions and air pollution characteristics – could constitute a preliminary step in the urban planning process aimed at air quality improvement. These methods can be further applied to other urban areas in order to indicate where detailed studies are required and to facilitate the development of planning guidelines. Moreover, the directions for further research and urban planning strategies were discussed.
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According to the United Nations, cities will represent two-thirds of the world’s population in 2050, which presents some challenges, especially to the transportation sector. To improve the population’s quality of life and the sustainability of cities, mobility must be sustainable, and cycling will play an important role in achieving this. Literature shows that we can promote cycling with better infrastructures, through multimodality, and through behavioral changes. Promoting the use of bicycles through behavior can involve a number of aspects, but in this work, we explore what a digital platform should have in order to promote and increase bicycle usage, as well as to improve cycling conditions in a city. To evaluate what is needed, we conducted an analysis on different types of digital platforms that are available on the market in order to assess the main characteristics and outputs that they provide to cyclists, as well as the type of information that can and should be added to promote the use of bicycles in cities. Moreover, we also carried out a survey in a Portuguese mid-sized “starter cycling city”, which showed, among other data, the relevance and type of information that a digital platform dedicated to cyclists should have in such types of cities.
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In this paper a cost-benefit analysis is performed to evaluate an ambitious cycle superhighway infrastructure in the Greater Copenhagen area. In the analysis, we separate the effects of electric and conventional bikes and the estimation of user benefits thus allow differentiation with respect to travel time savings due to different travel speed profiles and different external effects regarding health and safety for different bicycle technologies. The cost-benefit analysis show that the proposed bicycle infrastructure has a positive net present value with an internal rate between 6%-23% depending on different assumptions. The cost-benefit performance of the analysed bicycle infrastructure thereby exceeds other types of network infrastructure that is often prioritised. At the specific level, it is found that larger shares of e-bikes implies lower benefits as these bikes provide lower health benefits and larger accident costs. These costs exceeds the higher surplus from travel time savings. The study also show that most benefits are non-local benefits, suggesting that it could be relevant to revise the investment strategy to have a national perspective rather than a local perspective at the municipality level, which is the common practise today.
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The paper carries out a cost-benefit assessment of an ambitious cycle superhighway infrastructure for the Greater Copenhagen area. In the analysis, we differentiate between e-bikes and conventional bikes to account for differences in the estimated consumer surplus with respect to travel time savings, external health benefits and safety costs. The assessment shows that the investigated bike infrastructure is beneficial with a rate of return on investment between 8%-28% depending on the assumptions. It is revealed that increasing shares of e-bikes render lower benefits. This is because e-bikes provide lower health benefits, which cannot outweigh the increased surplus from travel time savings. The study also suggest that most benefits are non-local benefits. This further suggests that, while bike infrastructure investments historically have been undertaken by municipalities and local authorities, it could be relevant to revise the role of the investment strategy from the state perspective.
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In recent years, the popularity of sharing economy has been growing worldwide. Therefore, its features must be understood to adapt the economic development for the enterprises. The performance of Mobike in Beijing is used as a case in this study. Mobike is the largest shared bike company in the world and plays a prominent role in the sharing economy. Based on data obtained, online reports, and actual situations, the factors affecting the environment from shared bikes and the usage of bikes have been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. From the qualitative analysis, the model of the contribution of carbon dioxide emission reduction to the society has been constructed with the significant variables of registered rate, riding distance, and usage rate for shared bikes. The influence degree of each variable and their interactions are evaluated through response surface method and Minitab. The influencing extent of factors on CO2 emission reduction is in the following order: riding distance > proportion of registered users > usage rate of shared bikes. The results show that shared bike plays comprehensive and positive roles for economy and environment. The study will provide a significant help for policymakers and business supervisors on development of shared bikes.
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Few studies have evaluated the effects of infrastructural improvements to promote walking and cycling. Even fewer have explored how the context and mechanisms of such interventions may interact to produce their outcomes. This mixed-method analysis forms part of the UK iConnect study, which aims to evaluate new walking and cycling routes at three sites - Cardiff, Kenilworth and Southampton. Applying a complementary follow-up approach, we first identified differences in awareness and patterns of use of the infrastructure in survey data from a cohort of adult residents at baseline in spring 2010 (n = 3516) and again one (n = 1849) and two (n = 1510) years later following completion of the infrastructural projects (Analysis 1). We subsequently analysed data from 17 semi-structured interviews with key informants to understand how the new schemes might influence walking and cycling (Analysis 2a). In parallel, we analysed cohort survey data on environmental perceptions (Analysis 2b). We integrated these two datasets to interpret differences across the sites consistent with a theoretical framework that hypothesised that the schemes would improve connectivity and the social environment. After two years, 52% of Cardiff respondents reported using the infrastructure compared with 37% in Kenilworth and 22% in Southampton. Patterns of use did not vary substantially between sites. 17% reported using the new infrastructure for transport, compared with 39% for recreation. Environmental perceptions at baseline were generally unfavourable, with the greatest improvements in Cardiff. Qualitative data revealed that all schemes had a recreational focus to varying extents, that the visibility of schemes to local people might be an important mechanism driving use and that the scale and design of the schemes and the contrast they presented with existing infrastructure may have influenced their use. The dominance of recreational uses may have reflected the specific local goals of some of the projects and the discontinuity of the new infrastructure from a satisfactory network of feeder routes. Greater use in Cardiff may have been driven by the mechanisms of greater visibility and superior design features within the context of an existing environment that was conducive neither to walking or cycling nor to car travel.
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Bicycle sharing systems are increasingly popular around the world and have the potential to increase the visibility of people cycling in everyday clothing. This may in turn help normalise the image of cycling, and reduce perceptions that cycling is ‘risky’ or ‘only for sporty people’. This paper sought to compare the use of specialist cycling clothing between users of the London bicycle sharing system (LBSS) and cyclists using personal bicycles. To do this, we observed 3594 people on bicycles at 35 randomly-selected locations across central and inner London. The 592 LBSS users were much less likely to wear helmets (16% vs. 64% among personal-bicycle cyclists), high-visibility clothes (11% vs. 35%) and sports clothes (2% vs. 25%). In total, 79% of LBSS users wore none of these types of specialist cycling clothing, as compared to only 30% of personal-bicycle cyclists. This was true of male and female LBSS cyclists alike (all p>0.25 for interaction). We conclude that bicycle sharing systems may not only encourage cycling directly, by providing bicycles to rent, but also indirectly, by increasing the number and diversity of cycling ‘role models’ visible.
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Objective To examine how adults use new local walking and cycling routes, and what characteristics predict use. Methods 1849 adults completed questionnaires in 2010 and 2011, before and after the construction of walking and cycling infrastructure in three UK municipalities. 1510 adults completed questionnaires in 2010 and 2012. The 2010 questionnaire measured baseline characteristics; the follow-up questionnaires captured infrastructure use. Results 32% of participants reported using the new infrastructure in 2011, and 38% in 2012. Walking for recreation was by far the most common use. In both follow-up waves, use was independently predicted by higher baseline walking and cycling (e.g. 2012 adjusted rate ratio 2.09 (95% CI 1.55, 2.81) for > 450 min/week vs. none). Moreover, there was strong specificity by mode and purpose, e.g. baseline walking for recreation specifically predicted walking for recreation on the infrastructure. Other independent predictors included living near the infrastructure, better general health and higher education or income. Conclusions The new infrastructure was well-used by local adults, and this was sustained over two years. Thus far, however, the infrastructure may primarily have attracted existing walkers and cyclists, and may have catered more to the socio-economically advantaged. This may limit its impacts on population health and health equity.
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This research aims at estimating a GHG emission inventory at the household level using completely disaggregate trip data and taking into account all emitting modes. The impact of urban form (UF) and transit accessibility (TA) characteristics on household level GHG emissions is then quantified and compared to the impact of the introduction of emerging green technologies. Using a large and representative sample of household diaries, trip-level GHG emissions are estimated by combining different sources of data (origin-destination (OD) survey data, vehicle fleet characteristics, transit ridership data, etc.) and by using modelling tools (traffic assignment and GHGs models). Moreover, UF and TA indicators are developed and combined to generate neighbourhood typologies. A simultaneous equation modelling framework is then implemented to investigate the link between UF, TA, socio-demographics, and travel GHGs, taking into account the well known “self-selection” issue. The potential impact of land use and transit supply strategies with emerging green technological scenarios is then compared. Our findings are consistent with the literature, more specifically we have found that the built environment (BE) attributes are statistically significant (10% increase in density, transit accessibility and land-use mix, results in 3.5%, 5.8% and 2.5% reduction in GHG respectively), number of workers and retirees at the household level play an important role in the contribution to GHG emissions (102% increase by adding one worker and 51% decrease by adding a retiree to the household). Moreover, neighbourhood types represented by the combined effects of UF and TS have important effects on GHGs. Also it is found that by replacing transit fleet by electric trains and hybrid buses, the share of transit GHGs would decrease by 32%. With respect to the private motor-vehicle fleet, if current trends persist, the constant improvement of car fuel consumption economy would reduce car GHGs by 7%. According to our results, the two most efficient strategies to reduce GHGs at the regional and household level seem to be the continuous fuel-efficiency improvement of the private motor-vehicle fleet and the increase of transit accessibility.
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Increasing the number of people cycling to work brings a number of benefits: it can lead to reductions in air pollution and traffic jams, and increases people’s physical activity levels. We investigated the extent to which work-related factors influence (1) whether an individual decides to cycle to work, and (2) whether an individual cycles to work every day. It is anticipated that the office culture and colleagues’ and employers’ attitudes would significantly influence both decisions. These factors are expected to impact the provision of cycling facilities and financial compensation schemes in the workplace. We conducted an Internet survey in 4 Dutch municipalities, gathering data from over 4,000 respondents. The results suggest that the following factors increase the likelihood of being a commuter cyclist: having a positive attitude towards cycling; colleagues’ expectations that an individual will cycle to work; the presence of bicycle storage inside; having access to clothes changing facilities; and needing a bicycle during office hours. The presence of facilities for other transport modes, an increase in the commute distance, and the need to transport goods, in turn, reduces the chance that an individual will cycle. Cycling frequency is negatively affected, meanwhile, by an increase in commute distance, a free public transport pass or car parking provided by the employer. These results indicate that an individual’s working situation affects the commuting cycling behaviour. The findings also indicate that (partly) different variables influence an individual’s decision to cycle to work, and their decision to cycle every day.
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Bogotá, Colombia, is well known for its sustainable urban transport systems, including an extensive network of bike lanes and set-aside street space for recreational cyclists and pedestrians on Sundays and holidays, called Ciclovia (cycleway). This paper examines how such facilities along with other attributes of the built environmenturban densities, land-use mixes, accessibility, and proximity to transitare associated with walking and cycling behavior as well as Ciclovia participation. We find that whereas road facility designs, like street density, connectivity, and proximity to Ciclovia lanes, are associated with physical activity, other attributes of the built environment, like density and land-use mixtures, are not. This is likely because most neighborhoods in built-up sections of Bogota evolved during a time when non-automobile travel reigned supreme, meaning they are uniformly compact, mixed in their land-use composition, and have comparable levels of transport accessibility. Thus facility designs are what sway nonmotorized travel, not generic land-use attributes of neighborhoods.
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An ordered-response model is used in this research to evaluate the factors that affect frequency of bicycle use for a person's commute to and from work. Data used were gathered during an original survey effort conducted over the Internet in 2002. Empirical results are presented, and policy implications of these results for urban planning are discussed. In addition, deterrents and facilitators of bicycle commuting as reported by respondents in the survey are descriptively analyzed. Several findings from this research contribute to the state of the knowledge in bicycle commuting. First, the availability of showers or clothing lockers at the workplace does not appear to inspire bicycle commuters to commute by bicycle more frequently. Second, using a bicycle for nonwork trip purposes increases an individual's frequency of commuting by bicycle to work. Other important results indicate that nonbicycle commuters either have misconceptions about the dangers of bicycling or else they lack convenient, safe route options for bicycling to work. Practitioners can use the ordered-response model to estimate an individual bicycle commuter's frequency of commuting by bicycle. The results can also help practitioners estimate the effects on nonmotorized mode share of programs that compete for funds to provide bicycling safety education, bicycle parking, and promotion of bicycling.
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A large number of studies have investigated the association between the built environment and travel behavior. However, most studies did not explicitly quantify the contribution of residential self-selection to the connection. Using the 2006 data collected from a regional travel diary in Raleigh, NC, this study applies propensity score matching to explore the effects of the regional location of individuals' residences on their vehicle miles driven. We found that residential location plays a more important role in affecting driving behavior than residential self-selection; and that the self-selection effect is non-trivial when we compare driving behavior between urban residents and people living in other areas. Therefore, for such comparisons, the observed influence of residential locations on driving should be appropriately discounted when we evaluate the causal impacts of the built environment on travel behavior.
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This paper presents an examination of the significance of residential sorting or self selection effects in understanding the impacts of the built environment on travel choices. Land use and transportation system attributes are often treated as exogenous variables in models of travel behavior. Such models ignore the potential self selection processes that may be at play wherein households and individuals choose to locate in areas or built environments that are consistent with their lifestyle and transportation preferences, attitudes, and values. In this paper, a simultaneous model of residential location choice and commute mode choice that accounts for both observed and unobserved taste variations that may contribute to residential self selection is estimated on a survey sample extracted from the 2000 San Francisco Bay Area household travel survey. Model results show that both observed and unobserved residential self selection effects do exist; however, even after accounting for these effects, it is found that built environment attributes can indeed significantly impact commute mode choice behavior. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the model findings for policy planning.
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A growing body of evidence links the built environment to physical activity levels, health outcomes, and transportation behaviors. However, little of this research has focused on cycling, a sustainable transportation option with great potential for growth in North America. This study examines associations between decisions to bicycle (versus drive) and the built environment, with explicit consideration of three different spatial zones that may be relevant in travel behavior: trip origins, trip destinations, and along the route between. We analyzed 3,280 utilitarian bicycle and car trips in Metro Vancouver, Canada made by 1,902 adults, including both current and potential cyclists. Objective measures were developed for built environment characteristics related to the physical environment, land use patterns, the road network, and bicycle-specific facilities. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the likelihood that a trip was made by bicycle, adjusting for trip distance and personal demographics. Separate models were constructed for each spatial zone, and a global model examined the relative influence of the three zones. In total, 31% (1,023 out of 3,280) of trips were made by bicycle. Increased odds of bicycling were associated with less hilliness; higher intersection density; less highways and arterials; presence of bicycle signage, traffic calming, and cyclist-activated traffic lights; more neighborhood commercial, educational, and industrial land uses; greater land use mix; and higher population density. Different factors were important within each spatial zone. Overall, the characteristics of routes were more influential than origin or destination characteristics. These findings indicate that the built environment has a significant influence on healthy travel decisions, and spatial context is important. Future research should explicitly consider relevant spatial zones when investigating the relationship between physical activity and urban form.
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Some claim that car-dependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel. We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Built-environment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables. Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against car-dependent sprawl.
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A model is presented that relates the proportion of bicycle journeys to work for English and Welsh electoral wards to relevant socio-economic, transport and physical variables. A number of previous studies have exploited existing disaggregate data sets. This study uses UK 2001 census data, is based on a logistic regression model and provides complementary evidence based on aggregate data for the determinants of cycle choice. It suggests a saturation level for bicycle use of 43%. Smaller proportions cycle in wards with more females and higher car ownership. The physical condition of the highway, rainfall and temperature each have an effect on the proportion that cycles to work, but the most significant physical variable is hilliness. The proportion of bicycle route that is off-road is shown to be significant, although it displays a low elasticity (+0.049) and this contrasts with more significant changes usually forecast by models constructed from stated preference based data. Forecasting shows the trend in car ownership has a significant effect on cycle use and offsets the positive effect of the provision of off-road routes for cycle traffic but only in districts that are moderately hilly or hilly. The provision of infrastructure alone appears insufficient to engender higher levels of cycling.
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Over the past two decades, the number of bicycle trips in the United States has doubled. Since 48% of trips by all modes in American cities are shorter than three miles, the potential for further growth in bicycling seems enormous. So far, efforts to promote bicycling have focused on building bike paths and bike lanes. Although necessary, separate cycling facilities must be complemented by a comprehensive program to make all roads bikeable, through both physical adaptations and enforcement of cyclists' right to use the road. It seems likely that cycling will continue to grow in North America, but that its mode share will remain far lower than levels in northern Europe. Bicycling in Canada and especially the United States is impeded by the lack of a tradition of cycling for utilitarian purposes and by the marginal legal, cultural and infrastructure status of cyclists in both countries' automobile-based transport systems. As long as car use remains cheap and transportation policy remains...
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This paper aims to investigate the impact of the built environment (BE) and emerging transit and car technologies on household transport-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) across three urban regions. Trip-level GHG emissions are first estimated by combining different data sources such as origin–destination (OD) surveys, vehicle fleet fuel consumption rates, and transit ridership data. BE indicators for the different urban regions are generated for each household and the impact of neighborhood typologies is derived based on these indicators. A traditional ordinary least square (OLS) regression approach is then used to investigate the direct association between the BE indicators, socio-demographics, and household GHGs. The effect of neighborhood typologies on GHGs is explored using both OLS and a simultaneous equation modeling approach. Once the best models are determined for each urban region, the potential impact of BE is determined through elasticities and compared with the impact of technological improvements. For this, various fuel efficiency scenarios are formulated and the reductions on household GHGs are determined. Once the potential impact of green transit and car technologies is determined, the results are compared to those related to BE initiatives. Among other results, it is found that BE attributes have a statistically significant effect on GHGs. However, the elasticities are very small, as reported in several previous studies. For instance, a 10 % increase in population density will result in 3.5, 1.5 and 1.4 % reduction in Montreal, Quebec and Sherbrooke, respectively. It is also important to highlight the significant variation of household GHGs among neighborhoods in the same city, variation which is much greater than among cities. In the short term, improvements on the private passenger vehicle fleet are expected to be much more significant than BE and green transit technologies. However, the combined effect of BE strategies and private-motor vehicle technological improvement would result in more significant GHGs reductions in the long term.
Article
This work examines the temporal–spatial variations of daily automobile distance traveled and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and their association with built environment attributes and household socio-demographics. A GHGs household inventory is determined using link-level average speeds for a large and representative sample of households in three origin–destination surveys (1998, 2003 and 2008) in Montreal, Canada. For the emission inventories, different sources of data are combined including link-level average speeds in the network, vehicle occupancy levels and fuel consumption characteristics of the vehicle fleet. Urban form indicators over time such as population density, land use mix and transit accessibility are generated for each household in each of the three waves. A latent class (LC) regression modeling framework is then implemented to investigate the association of built environment and socio-demographics with GHGs and automobile distance traveled. Among other results, it is found that population density, transit accessibility and land-use mix have small but statistically significant negative impact on GHGs and car usage. Despite that this is in accordance with past studies, the estimated elasticities are greater than those reported in the literature for North American cities. Moreover, different household subpopulations are identified in which the effect of built environment varies significantly. Also, a reduction of the average GHGs at the household level is observed over time. According to our estimates, households produced 15% and 10% more GHGs in 1998 and 2003 respectively, compared to 2008. This reduction can be associated to the improvement of the fuel economy of vehicle fleet and the decrease of motor-vehicle usage – e.g., a decrease of 4% is observed for fuel efficiency rates and 12% for distance according to the raw average estimates from 1998 with respect to 2008. A strong link is also observed between socio-demographics and the two travel outcomes. While number of workers is positively associated with car distance and GHGs, low and medium income households pollute less than high-income households.
Article
Problem: Localities and states are turning to land planning and urban design for help in reducing automobile use and related social and environmental costs. The effects of such strategies on travel demand have not been generalized in recent years from the multitude of available studies.Purpose: We conducted a meta-analysis of the built environment-travel literature existing at the end of 2009 in order to draw generalizable conclusions for practice. We aimed to quantify effect sizes, update earlier work, include additional outcome measures, and address the methodological issue of self-selection.Methods: We computed elasticities for individual studies and pooled them to produce weighted averages.Results and conclusions: Travel variables are generally inelastic with respect to change in measures of the built environment. Of the environmental variables considered here, none has a weighted average travel elasticity of absolute magnitude greater than 0.39, and most are much less. Still, the combined effect of several such variables on travel could be quite large. Consistent with prior work, we find that vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is most strongly related to measures of accessibility to destinations and secondarily to street network design variables. Walking is most strongly related to measures of land use diversity, intersection density, and the number of destinations within walking distance. Bus and train use are equally related to proximity to transit and street network design variables, with land use diversity a secondary factor. Surprisingly, we find population and job densities to be only weakly associated with travel behavior once these other variables are controlled.Takeaway for practice: The elasticities we derived in this meta-analysis may be used to adjust outputs of travel or activity models that are otherwise insensitive to variation in the built environment, or be used in sketch planning applications ranging from climate action plans to health impact assessments. However, because sample sizes are small, and very few studies control for residential preferences and attitudes, we cannot say that planners should generalize broadly from our results. While these elasticities are as accurate as currently possible, they should be understood to contain unknown error and have unknown confidence intervals. They provide a base, and as more built-environment/travel studies appear in the planning literature, these elasticities should be updated and refined.Research support: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Article
A greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory is estimated at the household level from disaggregated trip data considering all emitting modes. Trip-level GHG emissions are estimated by combining data sources (e.g., origin destination surveys, vehicle fleet characteristics, transit ridership data) and by using modeling tools (traffic assignment and GHG models) developed for Montreal, Quebec, Canada. A simultaneous equation model framework is implemented to investigate links between urban form, transit supply, sociodemographics, and travel GHGs, taking into account the issue of residential self-selection. The potential impacts of land use and transit supply strategies with emerging green technology scenarios are then compared with each other. Findings are consistent with the literature; built environment attributes are statistically significant (10% increase in density, transit accessibility, and land use mix results in 3.5%, 5.8%, and 2.5% GHG reductions, respectively), and the number of workers and retirees make important contributions to GHG emissions at the household level (102% increase from adding one worker and 51% decrease from adding one retiree). Also, if the current transit fleet were replaced with electric trains and hybrid buses, transit GHGs would decrease by 32%. If current trends persist in the private motor vehicle fleet, continued improvements in car fuel economy are estimated to reduce car GHGs 7% by 2020. The two most effective strategies for reducing regional and household GHGs appear to be to improve the fuel efficiency of the private motor vehicle fleet and to increase transit accessibility.
Article
Metropolitan regions around the world are looking for sustainable strategies to reduce motor-vehicle traffic congestion, energy consumption, and emissions. These strategies include land-use policies as well as improvements to public transit services. This empirical work aims at studying the potential impact of land use (LU), public transit supply (PT), and parking pricing strategies on the mode choice of commuters living in the commuter rail line catchments in the Montreal (Canada) region. It makes use of an econometric modeling approach with both transportation mode choice and neighborhood type choice as simultaneous decisions, in order to take into account the endogeneity of these choices. The neighborhood choices are represented by neighborhood typologies derived from a cluster analysis using land use and transit supply indicators (population density, land use mix, and bus transit supply). As part of the outcomes of this study, the elasticities of mode choice with respect to commuter-transit fees, travel time reductions, and hourly parking costs are estimated. From the results, it is observed that a reduction of 10 percent in the transit fee or relative travel time would increase mode split by 10 percent and 3 percent respectively. The effect of age on both mode choice and neighborhood choice is also estimated. The individual and household structure factors associated with mode choice and/or residential neighborhood choice are also identified. Commuter age affects both outcomes. Income and gender affect mode choice while car ownership and the presence of children are linked to neighborhood choice. © 2012 Seyed Amir H Zahabi, Luis. F. Miranda-Moreno, Zachary Patterson, Philippe Barla.
Article
In the past few decades much research has been conducted on the increasing numbers of commuters taking up cycling to work. This modal shift has been encouraged by pro-cycling policies to increase the attractiveness of cycling and the construction of new cycling infrastructure. In Dublin, several policies have been applied such as a bike rental scheme, bicycle-purchasing schemes, reducing speed limits and the construction of segregated cycle lanes to promote cycling. This paper seeks to examine what, if any, impact these policies have had on cycling rates in Dublin. This paper compares census data from 2006 and 2011 to determine how cycling rates have changed and if the demographics of cyclists have changed in the city. The results presented in the paper show that cycling rates have increased in Dublin and that a greater percentage of females, those in higher age and socio-economic groups are cycling to work on a regular basis. The analysis presented in this paper identifies groups of individuals that have recently shifted to cycling to work, by identifying who these people are, policymakers can tailor strategies to target these groups to encourage others in these groups to take up cycling.
Article
Policy seeks to support cycling as a form of sustainable and active travel, yet, cycling levels in the UK remain low and evidence about interventions mixed. Data from a qualitative sociological study is used here to explore the difference that cultural meanings make to cycling practices in four different English urban areas. Specifically, we discuss differences between places with established cycling cultures and those with newer cycling cultures. Drawing on concepts from practice theory we discuss the role that cultures of cycling play within the four places, and suggest how the meanings of cycling, including its association with other social identities, are connected to the materials and competences seen as necessary for cycling. Our research highlights the embedding of transport in local as well as national cultures, and the associated need for policy-makers to take culture seriously in considering how to shift transport practices.
Conference Paper
The potential to moderate travel demand through changes in the built environment is the subject of more than 50 recent empirical studies. The majority of recent studies are summarized. Elasticities of travel demand with respect to density, diversity, design, and regional accessibility are then derived from selected studies. These elasticity values may be useful in travel forecasting and sketch planning and have already been incorporated into one sketch planning tool, the Environmental Protection Agency's Smart Growth Index model. In weighing the evidence, what can be said, with a degree of certainty, about the effects of built environments on key transportation "outcome" variables: trip frequency, trip length, mode choice, and composite measures of travel demand, vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and vehicle hours traveled (VHT)? Trip frequencies have attracted considerable academic interest of late. They appear to be primarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics of travelers and secondarily a function of the built environment. Trip lengths have received relatively little attention, which may account for the various degrees of importance attributed to the built environment in recent studies. Trip lengths are primarily a function of the built environment and secondarily a function of socioeconomic characteristics. Mode choices have received the most intensive study over the decades. Mode choices depend on both the built environment and socioeconomics (although they probably depend more on the latter). Studies of overall VMT or VHT find the built environment to be much more significant, a product of the differential trip lengths that factor into calculations of VMT and VHT.
Article
This study examines the personal factors that influence cycling facility usage and how specific facility types and their spatial characteristics affect route choice. This study is based on an online survey of 2917 cyclists from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Respondent's most frequent home-based trips are modeled using a geographic information system. Several statistical models are used to measure the cycling patterns associated with different types of utilitarian cyclists. Experienced cyclists are less likely to use cycling facilities compared to other kinds of cyclists. Overall, cyclists add greater distance to their trips for facilities that are segregated from vehicle traffic, however, this additional diversion distance is best explained by facility length and supply of nearby facilities.
Article
The levels of bicycling in the United States, particularly for nonrecreation purposes and among adults, are low. Only about 1% of the trips that people make in the United States are on bicycles, and less than 5% of trips under 1/2 mi are made on bicycles. Factors influencing the rates of cycling include demographics and environmental factors. Environmental factors can be measured both objectively (e.g., number of miles of bike lanes, average temperature, and street connectivity) and subjectively (e.g., people's ratings or perceptions of the bicycling environment). People's attitudes about travel and mobility likely play a role. This paper uses the results from a random phone survey of adults in the Portland, Oregon, region to explore the relationships between levels of cycling and demographics, objective environmental factors, perceptions of the environment, and attitudes. The survey revealed several significant differences, although additional analysis is necessary. Objective measures of proximity to off-street trails and bike lanes was not associated with higher levels of cycling. However, positive perceptions of the availability of bike lanes was associated with more cycling and the desire to cycle more. Higher levels of street connectivity were associated with more cycling for utilitarian trips.
Article
The built environment is thought to influence travel demand along three principal dimensions —density, diversity, and design. This paper tests this proposition by examining how the ‘3Ds’ affect trip rates and mode choice of residents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Using 1990 travel diary data and land-use records obtained from the U.S. census, regional inventories, and field surveys, models are estimated that relate features of the built environment to variations in vehicle miles traveled per household and mode choice, mainly for non-work trips. Factor analysis is used to linearly combine variables into the density and design dimensions of the built environment. The research finds that density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-auto travel in statistically significant ways, though their influences appear to be fairly marginal. Elasticities between variables and factors that capture the 3Ds and various measures of travel demand are generally in the 0.06 to 0.18 range, expressed in absolute terms. Compact development was found to exert the strongest influence on personal business trips. Within-neighborhood retail shops, on the other hand, were most strongly associated with mode choice for work trips. And while a factor capturing ‘walking quality’ was only moderately related to mode choice for non-work trips, those living in neighborhoods with grid-iron street designs and restricted commercial parking were nonetheless found to average significantly less vehicle miles of travel and rely less on single-occupant vehicles for non-work trips. Overall, this research shows that the elasticities between each dimension of the built environment and travel demand are modest to moderate, though certainly not inconsequential. Thus it supports the contention of new urbanists and others that creating more compact, diverse, and pedestrian-orientated neighborhoods, in combination, can meaningfully influence how Americans travel.
Article
This disaggregate cross-sectional study uses primary data on the cycling behavior of 608 randomly sampled respondents in urbanized King County, Washington, and objective parcel-level GIS measures of land use and infrastructure conditions. Binary logit model findings provide new insights on who bicycles, and on perceived and actual built environmental conditions associated with the likelihood of cycling in neighborhoods, controlling for socio-demographic variables. A high 21% of the respondents report cycling at least once a week in their neighborhood, more often for recreation or exercise than for transportation. Cycling is more popular among male, younger adults, transit users, and those who are physically active and in good health. Both perceived and objective environmental conditions contribute to the likelihood of cycling. Proximity to trails and the presence of agglomerations of offices, clinics/hospitals, and fast food restaurants, measured objectively, are significant environmental variables. Previously researched correlates of cycling, such as the presence of bicycle lanes, traffic speed and volume, slope, block size, and the presence of parks, are found insignificant when objectively measured. A non-linear relationship is found between the odds of cycling and the perception of traffic problems and automobile-oriented facilities. Overall, cycling is only moderately associated with the neighborhood environment. It appears to be an individual choice that is independent from environmental support. This finding likely reflects the limited bicycle infrastructure in the sample frame—an unfortunate condition found in most US metropolitan regions. Policy and intervention programs could increase cycling by improving both actual and perceived environmental conditions.
Article
Non-motorized forms of commuting include bicycling, walking to work and working at home and have the potential for reducing environmental damage. These non-motorized modes are analyzed empirically using US journey to work data. Higher salary income and more expensive housing are associated with greater propensity to work at home, but lower propensity to walk or bicycle. College education is in several cases associated with greater propensity to use non-motorized modes. There are sharp differences in the likelihood of using non-motorized modes across the sub-regions within the metropolitan area. Car ownership, race, gender, and various locational and neighborhood features are shown to affect modal choices regarding non-motorized alternatives, in comparison with car commuting.
Article
This paper describes the development of a mode choice model for the journey to work with special emphasis on the propensity to cycle. The model combines revealed preference (RP) and stated preference (SP) data to form a very large and comprehensive model. RP data from the National Travel Survey was combined with a specially commissioned RP survey. A number of SP surveys were also undertaken to examine the effects of different types of en-route and trip end cycle facilities and financial measures to encourage cycling. The development of the model is described in detail. The model was used to forecast trends in urban commuting shares over time and to predict the impacts of different measures to encourage cycling. Of the en-route cycle facilities, a completely segregated cycleway was forecast to have the greatest impact, but even the unfeasible scenario of universal provision of such facilities would only result in a 55% increase in cycling and a slight reduction in car commuting. Payments for cycling to work were found to be highly effective with a £2 daily payment almost doubling the level of cycling. The most effective policy would combine improvements in en-route facilities, a daily payment to cycle to work and comprehensive trip end facilities and this would also have a significant impact on car commuting.
Article
Housing units with closer access to public transportation enjoy a higher market value than those with similar characteristics but poorer access. This difference can be explained by the lower cost of transport to the main workplaces and shopping areas in town. For this reason, investments in public transport infrastructure, such as building a new metro line, are capitalised totally or partially into land and housing prices. Copyright (c) 2008 The Authors Journal compilation (c) Institute for Fiscal Studies, 2008.
Article
In spite of their colder climate, Canadians cycle about three times more than Americans. The main reasons for this difference are Canada's higher urban densities and mixed-use development, shorter trip distances, lower incomes, higher costs of owning, driving and parking a car, safer cycling conditions, and more extensive cycling infrastructure and training programs. Most of these factors result from differences between Canada and the United States in their transport and land-use policies, and not from intrinsic differences in history, culture or resource availability. That is good news, since it suggests the possibility of significantly increasing cycling levels in the United States by adopting some of the Canadian policies that have so effectively promoted cycling and enhanced its safety.
Article
We study the use of bicycles as an alternative mode of transport in Santiago. We consider the incorporation of a dense network of cycle-ways, fully segregated from motorised traffic, and the inclusion of adequate bicycle shelter facilities at Metro, suburban train and selected segregated bus-way stations. We designed and applied a methodology which included: (i) a review of national and international experience;