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Investigating surface drainage problem of roads in Khartoum state

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Poor drainage contributes immensely to pavement deterioration and subsequently causing increased annual repair expenditure. The investigation is conducted to provide extensive diagnosis to point out the causes of roads problems associated with poor surface drainage and provides possible mitigation measures to overcome the problem in Khartoum state. Some cases of existing roads in different regions in Khartoum state, suffered from severe distresses and damages due to poor drainage were studied. The method used to assess the existing drainage system of the studied roads is field survey. Based on field observations, the drainage structures suffered from blockage with dumping wastes, inadequate inlets and outlet channels, failure of side walls and bed erosion. This critical situation of drainage, leads to severe distresses and damages of the investigated roads. The results revealed that the causes of drainage problem were found mainly linked to poor design, construction, and maintenance of drainage structures as well as negative attitude of residents. Finally, based on the investigation results, some recommendations are provided to design and construct adequate drainage system and apply proper maintenance in order to enhance pavement performance and life time.
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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 7, Issue 3, MayJune 2016, pp. 91103, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_009
Available online at
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=7&IType=3
Journal Impact Factor (2016): 9.7820 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication
INVESTIGATING SURFACE DRAINAGE
PROBLEM OF ROADS IN KHARTOUM
STATE
Magdi M. E. Zumrawi
Civil Engineering Department, University of Khartoum,
Khartoum, Sudan
ABSTRACT
Poor drainage contributes immensely to pavement deterioration and
subsequently causing increased annual repair expenditure. The investigation
is conducted to provide extensive diagnosis to point out the causes of roads
problems associated with poor surface drainage and provides possible
mitigation measures to overcome the problem in Khartoum state. Some cases
of existing roads in different regions in Khartoum state, suffered from severe
distresses and damages due to poor drainage were studied. The method used
to assess the existing drainage system of the studied roads is field survey.
Based on field observations, the drainage structures suffered from blockage
with dumping wastes, inadequate inlets and outlet channels, failure of side
walls and bed erosion. This critical situation of drainage, leads to severe
distresses and damages of the investigated roads. The results revealed that the
causes of drainage problem were found mainly linked to poor design,
construction, and maintenance of drainage structures as well as negative
attitude of residents. Finally, based on the investigation results, some
recommendations are provided to design and construct adequate drainage
system and apply proper maintenance in order to enhance pavement
performance and life time.
Key words: Adequate Drainage, Deterioration, Distresses, Drainage Problem.
Cite this Article: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Investigating Surface Drainage
Problem of Roads In Khartoum State, International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp. 91103.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=7&IType=3
1. INTRODUCTION
Drainage is very essential in design of roads since it affects the roads serviceability
and life time. Drainage design involves providing facilities that collect, transport and
remove runoff water from road pavement. There are two major road drainage systems,
surface drainage and subsurface drainage. It is essential that adequate drainage
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systems provisions are made for road surface to ensure that a road pavement performs
satisfactorily. Thus, a drainage system which includes the pavement and the water
handling system must be properly designed, built, and maintained.
Though water is very essential for all life on earth, it can also cause disasters
through erosion and flooding. In fact, the surface runoff water is greatly increased in
urban areas as a result of the development of infrastructures. The presence of water in
pavement is mainly due to infiltration through pavement surfaces and shoulders,
capillary action, and seasonal changes in the water table. Thus, the water need to be
drained from road surface and safely disposed to rivers or outlet channels and thereby
avoid the damages which might occur to the road and property [1]. Moreover,
providing adequate drainage in urban areas has been proven as a necessary component
in maintaining the general health, safety, welfare, and economic well-being of the
residents of the region [2].
Poor drainage poses serious challenges in urban and suburban areas worldwide.
The drainage problems in roads can cause early distresses and lead to structural or
functional failures of pavement, if counter measures are not undertaken. Excessive
water on road surface can cause one or more forms of pavement deteriorations such as
reduction of subgrade and base/subbase strength, differential swelling in expansive
subgrade soils, and stripping of asphalt in flexible pavements [3].
1.1. Problem Statement
Khartoum state is the capital of Sudan with high population and increased rate of
transportation needs. The road network in Khartoum state has to sustain more traffic
load than any other states in Sudan. In fact, poor drainage in most of the roads in
Khartoum state greatly accelerates deterioration of pavements. Recently, Khartoum is
facing very serious drainage problem during the rainy season (July to September).
The state area has been experiencing drainage congestion and water logging for the
last few years which cause serious problems. Increased urban development’s without
providing sufficient drainage facilities results in water logging leaving parts of the
state area inundated for several days. The logged water becomes polluted with solid
waste, soil and contaminants, leading to unhealthy environment and spreading serious
diseases. Thus, this problem becomes a burden for the residents and the public
authorities in Sudan and in particular in Khartoum state.
In the last year, heavy rains caused potential and severe damages in many roads in
Khartoum. Consequently damage of properties as well as residents' injuries occurred.
Moreover, traffic flow was completely ceased for a period due to inaccessible roads.
Even a single closed road has an impact on transport system and can also affect other
social activities. As can be seen in Fig.1, flooded roads create problems to vehicles
and pedestrians. The main reason of these problems and challenges faced the residents
is the inadequate drainage system of roads in Khartoum state. Therefore, the purpose
of this study is supposed to assess the current situation of drainage structures and road
conditions and to find out probable causes of drainage problem in Khartoum roads.
Moreover, it is supposed to minimize the possible damages of pavement through
proper drainage structure provisions.
Investigating Surface Drainage Problem of Roads In Khartoum State
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Figure 1 Flooded roads create problems to vehicles and pedestrians manover
1.2. The Study Scope and Objectives
The scope of this study is concerned on road surface drainage and the integration
between the drainage structures and the road network in Khartoum state. The study
focuses specifically on the current situation of roads and drainage facilities and
identifies causes of drainage problem of roads in Khartoum state.
The general objective of the study is to investigate and identify the causes of road
problems associated with poor drainage and its integration challenges in Khartoum
state. The specific objectives of the research as outlined below:
To evaluate the existing condition of roads and drainage structures,
To examine the problems experienced concerning drainage system of Khartoum
roads.
To explore the impacts of poor drainage on road performance and life time,
To identify the reasons behind drainage problem in roads focusing on current
situation of Khartoum main roads, and
To suggest technical improvements for the existing drainage facilities.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Drainage is simply defined as the natural or artificial removal of surface and
subsurface water from a catchment area. The surface drainage in roads is defined as a
process of removing runoff water from road surface and directing it towards a drain to
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be disposed away from road in a water course or open area [4]. O’Flaherty [4] stated
that drainage system is an integral component of road pavement and therefore its
design cannot be undertaken in isolation from the road geometric design. Croke et al
[5] found that road network complements natural drainage network and therefore
modifies the path of runoff water flow within the slope and accelerates the water
cycle. Thus, surface water flows as a result of adequate sloped road cross section that
removes water from surface and then directed to drainage channels in the system.
According to Finn et al [6], the main functions of a road drainage system are to
prevent flooding of the road and ponding on the pavement surface, to protect the
bearing capacity of the pavement and the subgrade soils, and to avoid the erosion of
side slopes.
2.1. Adequate Road Surface Drainage
It is an essential consideration that adequate provision is made for road drainage to
ensure a road pavement performs satisfactorily [4]. Collier [7] in his study
emphasized that a rainwater drainage system should be designed to collect and convey
runoff water generated within a catchment area during and after rainfall events, for
safe discharge into a receiving watercourse. Collier [7] found that the magnitude of
peak flows that have to be accommodated depends primarily on the intensity of
rainfall, topography, soil type, configuration and land use of the catchment area. Finn
et al [6] stated that drains are normally located and shaped to minimize the potential
traffic hazards and accommodate the anticipated surface water flows. Drainage inlets
are often provided to prevent water ponding and limit the spread of water into traffic
lanes.
Proper design of the surface drainage system is an essential part of economic road
design [4]. The surface drainage system collects and diverts runoff water from the
road surface and surrounding areas to avoid flooding. Road ditches decrease the
possibility of water infiltrating into pavement layers and thus help retain the road’s
bearing capability. The road surface and cross-fall conduct water to surface drains,
which take care of the runoff water [8]. The majority of ditches normally have a V-
shaped cross section. Roadside ditches and culverts carry flow from the area around
the road, especially during peak discharge events. This flow can be directed to
streams by either ditches or culverts [9]. Suitable drainage dimensioning always
contributes to the bearing capacity of the pavement and to road lifetime [8].
The effective road geometric factors on drainage are road cross-sectional width,
traverse and longitudinal slopes, and slope of shoulders or sidewalks. A typical road
drainage system is shown in Fig. 2. According to Finn et al [6] and O’Flaherty [4],
drainage is a basic consideration in the establishment of road geometry and in general
this means that: (a) cross falls should be a minimum of 2.5% on carriageways, with
increased cross falls of up to 5.0% on hard shoulders draining to filter drains; (b)
longitudinal gradients should not be less than 0.5% on kerbed roads; (c) flat areas
should be avoided and consideration of surface water drainage is particularly
important at rollovers, roundabouts and junctions; (d) outfall levels must be
achievable; (e) the spacing of road gullies should be sufficient to remove surface
water whilst achieving an acceptable width of channel flow. One gully for every 200
m2 of paved surface is generally found to be satisfactory.
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Figure 2 Typical road drainage system (source [10])
2.2. Drainage Problems
Successful drainage depends on early detection of problems before conditions require
major action. Signs of drainage problems requiring attention include: puddles on the
surface area, poor surface flow, slope erosion, clogged ditches, pavement edge
raveling, preliminary cracking, pavement pumping, and surface settlement [11]. These
signs indicate the start of failures which occur as soil particles are gradually washed
away and as excess water seeps into the roadway reducing the load carrying ability of
the subgrade. Major failures caused by poor drainage conditions include washouts,
slides, slip outs, road and pavement breakup and flood damage [11].
Water is the biggest enemy of roads and most experts believe that most of
pavement distresses and damages are due to poor drainage [12]. According to Ireri
[13], eighty percent of existing road way problems can be traced to the presence of
water from poor drainage either in or on the road pavement. Excessive water content
in the pavement layers such as base, subbase, and subgrade soils can cause early
distresses and lead to structural or functional failure of road, unless counter measures
are undertaken.
On his study, Anisha and Hossain [14] investigated the problem of water logging
in Bangladesh. Anisha and Hossain [14] found that there is a lack of planned and
adequate drainage network system in the Teknaf, a small urban area of southern part
of Bangladesh beside the Bay of Bengal. They proposed a new drainage network
composed of tertiary drains and cross drainage works (box and pipe culverts). The
negative effects of water on road as softening and reducing the load carrying ability of
subgrades and shoulders; increasing the disintegration of pavements and gravel
surfaces; eroding roadside surfaces; depositing sediment and debris in ditches, pipes,
catch basins and waterways; creating driving hazards for motorists and damaging
adjacent property [14].
Floods and high water flows significantly affect the performance of drainage
infrastructure. The anticipated pattern of flooding occasions will influence the number
of incidents such as landslides, landslips, roads being washed away, submerged and
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inundated bridge supports, and road closures [15]. Many culverts, trenches, and other
drainage facilities lack the capacity to deal with the current frequency of extreme
flows. Increases in rainfall and severe weather events can affect the demand for
emergency responses.
Froehlich and Słupik [10] proved that during a flood event the road network
delivers catchment area 60% of rainfall water and the specific flow on the road is
higher than those observed in the river channel. Higher stream density allows the
landscape to drain more efficiently. More efficient drainage means that water moves
into streams faster, causing peak flows to be larger and to occur sooner [16]. As a
result of this floods occur more frequently and are more severe - turning into flash
floods.
The drainage problems can directly cause or contribute to crashes. As an example,
drainage features that fail to remove runoff water because they are too small or are
clogged and pond water on the roadway can cause hydroplaning or force drivers to
leave their lane. Additionally, other drainage features which do not have anything to
do with causing a crash can significantly contribute to the severity of the crash, such
as an errant vehicle striking a culvert headwall [10].
It is important to identify these potentially hazardous situations as soon as
possible. Some of these conditions may have been in existence for quite some time,
while others may have recently developed as a result of flooding or change in weather
conditions. Drainage problem locations can be identified in several ways such as
residents' complains, local police, crash data and field review.
3. CASE STUDY
The current study aims to identify the causes of drainage problems that have led to
pavement distresses and failures. In order to achieve this objective, it is required to
survey and evaluate the existing condition of road surface and drainage facilities.
Thus, the study was carried out on selected three major roads in Khartoum state as
case study.
3.1. Project Description
Three major roads in Khartoum state were selected for the study. The three roads
were selected based on their different locations and different current drainage
conditions. The selected roads are Alferdos road in Khartoum, Alazhari university
road in Khartoum North, and Alarbeen road in Omdurman. These roads are located in
the most crowded areas in Khartoum state. They were subjected to maintenance
several times within the last ten years and still severing from severe distresses and
failures.
These roads are greatly suffered from poor drainage and have exhibited pavement
distresses and damages. The investigation consisted of field survey of the existing
condition of pavement and drainage facilities to identify the possible reasons of
drainage problem.
3.2. Data Collection
Two types of data were collected for the study, recorded data and field survey.
Documents review was employed to collect data related to the geometric design,
construction and maintenance records of the studied roads. This data was collected
from the reports and manuals of the Road Corporation of Infrastructure Ministry in
Khartoum state. Photographs were taken directly from the road sites during the field
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survey to illustrate the existing condition and related obstacles in the drainage
structures and the road pavement.
3.3. Field Survey
A comprehensive field survey of the existing condition of drainage structures and
pavements was conducted in this study. The existing carriageway geometric data such
as length, width, longitudinal and cross falls slopes were measured using surveying
equipments. The visual inspection of the pavement surface was carried out by a car
driving at slow speed on the shoulders along the distresses locations. Frequently stops
were made near locations where severe distresses were witnessed. Drainage structures
intergraded with the studied roads were surveyed to identify the drainage problems. In
addition, photographs of the failed pavements and drainage structures were taken at
these locations. The details of the field survey of distresses for the three roads and the
drainage situations are given in the sections below.
3.3.1. Alferdos Road
Alferdos road starts from Alsteen road towards obeid Khatim road. The road is
categorized as collector road with relatively high traffic volume. The road is a single
carriageway of 1.8 km length and 7 m width. The longitudinal profile is almost flat
with some depressions. The slopes of cross falls measured for most sections of the
road are less than 1.5%, which is below the required minimum slope for adequate
drainage. This critical situation of road geometry leads to significant water pools on
the road surface.
From the field survey, it was observed that the road surface experienced potholes,
cracking, edge damages and accumulation of soil on a large area of road surface as
shown in Fig. 3. The existing drain is located on north side of the road. It is open and
earth drain with 1m width and 0.5 to 1 depth. The condition of this drain is very bad.
It was full with soil accumulation and refuse dumps. The drain and box culvert were
blocked with soil, debris, vegetation and solid waste as shown in Fig. 4.
Figure 3 Significant potholes and soil accumulation on Alferdos road
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Figure 4 Existing drain and culvert of Alferdos road
3.3.2. Alazhari University Road
This road connects Almaona road and Alsayid Ali road in Khartoum North. The road
is a single carriageway of 1.0 km length and 7.5 m width. In this road, the cross falls
slopes are totally less than one percent and there is no uniform longitudinal slope with
some depressions.
From the field inspection, edge cracking and damages has been seen on the road
surface. Fig. 5 shows clearly severe and large potholes, edge failures and partial
removal of asphalt surface. It was observed soils accumulated on the road sides to a
level higher than the asphalt surface.
Figure 5 Large potholes with sever edge damages on Alazhari university road
Alazhari university road has drains on two sides, north and south sides. The north
side drain is located far from the asphalt at a distance of 4 to 6m. It is a covered drain
of small cross section, 1m width and 0.5 to 0.8 m depth. The drain is built and
covered with reinforced concrete and small manholes without covers are distributed at
5 m intervals. The south side is a small open earth drain; about 50 m length is located
adjacent to the asphalt layer. From Fig. 6, it can be seen that the drains are in a very
bad condition. The open and earth drain was completely blocked with rubbish and
solid waste. The covered drain suffered from debris and waste water at the locations
of the manholes without covers. Also, the drains blocked with soils accumulated on
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top at location of inlets and manholes, and over and above the drain outlets are
blocked with grasses and rubbish (see Fig. 6).
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 6 The side drains of Alazhari university road (a) south side drain (b&c) north side
drain
3.3.3. Alarbeen Road
This road is located in the eastern part of Omdurman town. The road connects the
most crowded areas in Omdurman. The road has two carriageways and four lanes, 15
m width and 2 km length. The road longitudinal and cross section slopes are almost
flat with some deformations. The damage pavement was observed mainly in the
middle portion of the road length, particularly in the edge lane of the eastern carriage.
The majority of the damage was moderate to severe edge cracking and raveling. The
severe raveling has lead to potholes and depression areas where the top surface has
delaminated from the road pavement as clearly shown in the photographs of Fig. 7.
Figure 7 Severe raveling and potholes on Alarbeen road
It was observed that the eastern carriageway of the road is connected with a side
drain. Most of the drain is covered with concrete slab and damage manhole covers.
The drain has small cross section of 1m width and not more than 1m depth. The
condition of the drain and its structures is very poor and rapidly deteriorated. The
drain suffered from low capacity, soil accumulation, absence of inlets, lack of proper
maintenance and disposal of solid waste into the drain and the crossing culverts. The
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drain blocked with silt and sand accumulation, debris and vegetation as shown in Fig.
8.
Figure 8 The side drains of Alarbeen road
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the field survey, to measure the existing slopes of the longitudinal and
cross falls of the studied roads showed almost flat with some depressions levels. This
non-uniform surface level of the roads may cause significant water logging on the
road surface. This problem probably affects the drainage system of the road. To avoid
accumulation of water on the road surface, it is suggested to redesign the geometry of
the three roads. This can be attained by changing the road surface slopes in the
traverse and longitudinal directions. Providing the road profile with a gentle
longitudinal gradient (1:1000) improves the road surface drainage. This slope
facilitates the discharge of water from sections of the road surface with limited cross-
slope. For roads with asphalt surface, the camber is normally 2% to 3%, because
water will easily flow off a asphalt surface.
The field observations for the three roads showed different defects and damages
on pavements. Figs. 3, 5, and 7 show the photos of pavements having severe potholes,
cracking and edge failures appeared at the middle and side edges of the carriageway.
Moreover, it can be observed that the roads suffered from soil accumulation and the
defected areas are almost adjacent to the side drains which show significant
depressions. These distresses and deformations on pavement results in non uniform
surface which may fail to remove runoff water from the pavement surface and direct it
to the side drains.
The drainage structures connected to the investigated roads are shown in Figs. 4,
6, and 8. From figures, it can be seen the drains and culverts suffered from serious
problems. Drains were blocked with soil and debris accumulation in drains and it may
reduce the drain capacity. It is clear that the drains being converted to dumpy places
and subsequently obstructed the water flow. The existence of erosion on drain side
slopes and earth bed is a common problem. Most of covered drains have no inlets,
manholes without covers, indefinite outlets. This critical situation of the drainage
mainly causes severe flooding which creates damages and problems to the road
pavement.
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In the three cases studied, the factors which contribute to poor drainage and
pavement failures in Khartoum state are: poor design and construction, lack of
maintenance, and negative attitude of residents.
In general, most of the side drains in Khartoum state are open earth drains. Some
drains built from bricks, stones or concrete. Others built drains are covered with
concrete slabs or blocks. Failure of built drains like collapse of side walls, beds and/or
covers caused by improper design and construction.
One of the main problems of drainage in Khartoum state is lack of maintenance.
As seen in the photographs taken from the drains sites, the drainage structures were
left to deteriorate. The drains and culverts are rarely maintained and whenever
maintenance is attempted it is done haphazardly.
The field survey observations as clearly seen in photographs shows the negative
attitudes of residents which have converted the drains and the culverts into refuse
dump places. As a result, blockage of drains will reduce the capacity and obstruct
water flow.
5. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1. Conclusion
This paper focuses on surface drainage problem of roads in Khartoum state. Based on
the study results, the following conclusions are drawn.
The drainage problem is highly compounded in Khartoum state because of inadequate
drainage system thereby result in damages of pavements and leading to unhealthy
environment. Thus, this problem will become a burden for the residents and public
authorities unless counter measures are undertaken. .
The drainage infrastructures built in most roads in Khartoum state cannot flush out
rain water. Moreover, the surface drains and culverts usually remain clogged due to
the dumping of garbage of all sorts by residents. Thus, stagnant rain water causes
severe damage to the road pavements.
Poor drainage conditions especially during rainy seasons, force the water to enter the
pavement from the sides as well as from the top surface. In case of open graded
bituminous layer, this phenomenon becomes more dangerous and the top layer gets
detached from the lower layers.
The most common causes of road drainage problem were found related to improper
road geometry, insufficient capacity of drainage structures, poor construction, and
lack of proper maintenance.
5.2. Recommendations
Proper road geometry needs to be maintained to provide required crown and
longitudinal slopes. This will reduce the drainage path lengths of the water flowing
over the pavement and will prevent flow build-up.
Provision of proper connections or integrations between the road network and
drainage network systems is required with regular maintenance.
Deficiencies in road drainage should be identified and ranked in order of priority as
part of the normal maintenance program. Where remedial treatments to road
pavements are being carried out any deficiencies in road drainage must be addressed
prior to or in conjunction with the pavement improvement works.
Road authorities should consider providing a specific budget on an annual basis for
both drainage maintenance works, drainage improvement works and for the
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maintenance/repair of culverts and bridges. They should also aim to employ drainage
inspectors who would monitor and report on required drainage maintenance works.
A program for cleaning out the surface drainage system is essential. Need to clean out
open drains and culverts by using manpower or machine. Also existing inlets and
outlets of drains need to be cleaned and maintained.
Developing the skills of using software programs for planning, analysis and design,
maintenance of road surface drainage system in urban areas and monitoring the
drainage infrastructures.
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... Increased urban developments without providing sufficient drainage facilities result in waterlogging. The logged water becomes polluted with solid waste, soil, and contaminants, leading to an unhealthy environment and spreading severe diseases (Zumrawi 2016). In urban areas, one sign of inefficiency of the drainage system is the continuous flooding of streets, sometimes even with low-intensity rainfall (Ochoa-Iturbe 2011). ...
... The causes of drainage problems are linked to poor design, construction, and maintenance of drainage structures as well as the negative attitude of residents. Signs of drainage problems requiring attention include puddles on the surface area, slope erosion, clogged drains, pavement edge raveling, preliminary cracking, pavement pumping, and surface settlements (Zumrawi 2016). In poorly drained areas, urban runoff mixes with sewage from overflowing latrines and sewers, causing pollution and a wide range of problems associated with waterborne diseases. ...
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A drainage system is one of the essential elements for a sustainable environment system in a locality. In this study, Rajshahi City Corporation (RCC) area is considered for proper investigation of drainage facility. This study aims to concentrate on the present scenario of the drainage system in RCC and the effect of human activity on solid waste management. A field survey was conducted to assess the drainage condition by measuring depth, width, amount of sludge, and wastewater with a measuring rod and scale. Polythene and food waste cover much of the sludge, which is about 80% of the overall waste. Among different categories of drains, the condition of secondary and tertiary drains is worse than primary drains. It was found that various human interventions disrupted the natural flow of drain. At the end of the study, several steps have been recommended to improve the existing condition of the drainage system in RCC.
... Improving local flooding and drainage works: Floods and high-water levels can considerably affect environmental activities of end-user stakeholder of any developing community such as the prescribed project area (Zumrawi, 2016). This action encourages road closures due to landslides, landslips, submerged and inundated bridge supports. ...
... Upgrading infrastructure facilities like roads causes some temporary changes in drainage systems during construction phase. This happens when drainage path, culverts among others are yet to be replaced or installed (Zumrawi, 2016). Roadway floods can be induced by some social (human related effects) or natural (rainfall) or other related factor predominantly heavy rainstorm (Ou-Yang et al., 2014). ...
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Significant infrastructure such as roads, prisons, schools, rail tracks and train systems, among others are currently developed through the involvement of Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements which have been acknowledged internationally in recent time. The poor management of end-user stakeholder during PPP projects in developing nation like Nigeria has been established as one of the major factor affecting the successful growth and development of PPP projects. Due to the paucity in research on end-user stakeholder management on PPP projects in Nigeria, informs this study aim to expose the main strategic factors that can accommodate end-user stakeholder’s management in any PPP road project in Nigeria. The professionals that have worked on the project cum the end-user of the project area were used as targeted respondents for the adopted case study and survey strategies method approach. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the eighteen (18) interviews that were conducted having completed and analysed total number of 282 questionnaires using reliability and factor analysis approach. Seven valid underlying factors were revealed from 28 variables that were left on the questionnaire data with the aid of factor analysis which were used later as factors affecting end-user stakeholders’ management in PPP road project in Nigeria. A proposed framework was created with the seven underlying factors as a template for any successful PPP road project in developing country like Nigeria. These will quench the agitation o f enduser stakeholders’ quarrels on PPP toll road projects.
... According to Siddhartha et al. [6], a properly designed and maintained road drainage facility is essential to ensure the quick discharge of runoff to minimize disruption to road users and enhance safety, minimize the environmental impact of flooding and to maximize the durability properties of the road and associated infrastructures. The research assessment findings conducted by several researchers on the remedy to pavement failures as a result of dysfunctional drainage facility in recent times are: to avoid inlets and outlets (discharge points) blockage by soil accumulation [7][8][9], proper maintenance, avoidance of solid waste disposal into the crossing culverts and drain [10] and dimensional expansion of drainage to improve water discharge through the drain thereby preventing increased runoff [11][12][13][14]. Also, Zbigniew et al. [15] studied the condition of local roads drainage facilities in Poland. ...
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Drainage system is an important facility in the road which aids the road pavement to withstand and absorb storm water and environmental stresses. When it is inadequate, the roadway suffers premature failure due to increase in moisture content of the pavement materials. For technical emphasis of the hazardous effects of dysfunctional drainage facilities on road, a case study of a failed highway, connecting Anambra state and Imo state Nigeria, was investigated. Site observation, samples collections and experimental methods were carried out in this study with the aim of investigating the drainage challenges which resulted to the failure. Soil classification and determination of the general subgrade soil properties were carried out through experimental methods. The soil was classified as A-6 by AASHTO with 32% liquid limit, 17% plastic limit, 15% plasticity index, 18% of OMC, 1.97 g/m3 of MDD, SG of 2.6 and 20% CBR-value which indicated high swelling potentials unsuitable for road construction. The asphalt concrete properties results showed averaged stability, BCT, flow, voids in total mix and voids filled results of 4.5%, 3200 N, 1.88 mm, 12% and 55% respectively, which failed to meet the FMW specifications. The road drainage facility which was observed as the primary cause of the deterioration was systematically assessed using FAHP and AHP multi-criteria technique in decision making to ascertain the cause of inefficient pavement drainage facility leading to rapid road failure. Through experimental results obtained and relevant literatures, ranking values were properly assigned to generate the PwCM used for determination of the criteria weights. The computed priority vector showed a result of 4.52% for slope stability problems, 57.28% for inadequate drainage/culvert capacity, 11.68% for drainage discontinuity and 26.52% for material related problems. The generated results were validated using student’s t test statistical analysis at 95% confidence level to obtain P(T < = t) two-tail, Pearson correlation and t Critical value of 0.99992, 0.99983 and 3.182, respectively, which indicates that no significant difference exist between the two results. Topography study, rainfall intensity evaluation and re-designing of the highway drainage system were recommended with reconstruction of the failed road using standard materials.
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This study is carried out to review various research works carried out by researchers on the effects of poor drainage on road pavement. Poor drainage causes early pavement distresses leading to driving problems and structural failures of road as pointed out by researchers. To prevent or minimize premature pavement failures and to enhance the road performance, it is imperative to provide adequate drainage. The review covered: importance of highway drainage system in road construction, requirements of highway drainage system, and effects of bad drainage system on roads. The research pointed out areas of concern for drainage designers and road engineers that are of great importance during road construction to ensure that, the constructed road is put to use without failure before the actual design life. The review concluded that effect of poor drainage condition on a road is very adverse. It causes the failure of road in different ways and as well economic hardship on inhabitants of affected communities with devastating effect of sicknesses as a result of breeding of mosquito especially on streets in towns with poor drainage capacity. Proper drainage system provided to the road increases the life of roads. But the improper drainage system causes the failure of the road at its early edge. Therefore effective engineering practices should be considered necessary during design, construction and management of roads and drainage channels.
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This article presents findings on effect of poor road pavement condition on activities of academic staff of tertiary institutions, a survey was conducted using well-structured questionnaires, main responsibilities of teaching staff were considered and questions set in the scope of their responsibilities, result showed that road pavement condition has very minimal or no impact on the activities of academic staff in tertiary institutions. From the research, it was seen that about 69% of respondents could not change their jobs as a result of poor road condition /riding quality, 75% do not skip their lectures, 71% could not change career path, 60% do not have the quality of their lectures affected, 62 % of the respondents prefer the use of busses, 48% do not have their daily schedules affected due to road condition, 48% do not have the quality of their lectures affected, 64% said road condition does not affect them in development of new methods of teaching, It does not affect their personal research works, mentor /mentee relationship while 63% said it does not affect checking and assessment of students' works. These results have been presented in form of pie charts for easy understanding. INTRODUCTION Many factors are responsible for the performance of academic staff in tertiary institutions, among the many factors which may actually be numerous ranging from financial, academic, physical, psychological considerations and many more, the research was geared towards the effect of poor road condition in which academic staff travel on continuously at least six days in a week. It was thought that possibly the road condition in which academic staff travel on could be of some effect on their efficacy, thus the need to explore if road condition does really affect their primary responsibilities as academic staff of tertiary citadels of learning.
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This research aims to point out how academic activities of students are affected as a result of poor pavement condition, it seeks to understand how their daily academic activities are influenced by poor road network, their semester and overall academic performance was investigated. The method employed was through development of questionnaires' and distributing among University undergraduates who usually travel on a very poor road condition to and fro University for their academic activities. The result shows that the specific academic performance of students due to poor road condition is significantly affected and the general academic activities of students is affected by poor pavement condition.
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This article presents findings on effect of poor road pavement condition on activities of academic staff of tertiary institutions, a survey was conducted using well-structured questionnaires, main responsibilities of teaching staff were considered and questions set in the scope of their responsibilities, result showed that road pavement condition has very minimal or no impact on the activities of academic staff in tertiary institutions. From the research, it was seen that about 69% of respondents could not change their jobs as a result of poor road condition /riding quality, 75% do not skip their lectures, 71% could not change career path, 60% do not have the quality of their lectures affected, 62 % of the respondents prefer the use of busses, 48% do not have their daily schedules affected due to road condition, 48% do not have the quality of their lectures affected, 64% said road condition does not affect them in development of new methods of teaching, It does not affect their personal research works, mentor /mentee relationship while 63% said it does not affect checking and assessment of students’ works. These results have been presented in form of pie charts for easy understanding
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This study is carried out to review various research works carried out by researchers on the effects of poor drainage on road pavement. Poor drainage causes early pavement distresses leading to driving problems and structural failures of road as pointed out by researchers. To prevent or minimize premature pavement failures and to enhance the road performance, it is imperative to provide adequate drainage. The review covered: importance of highway drainage system in road construction, requirements of highway drainage system, and effects of bad drainage system on roads. The research pointed out areas of concern for drainage designers and road engineers that are of great importance during road construction to ensure that, the constructed road is put to use without failure before the actual design life. The review concluded that effect of poor drainage condition on a road is very adverse. It causes the failure of road in different ways and as well economic hardship on inhabitants of affected communities with devastating effect of sicknesses as a result of breeding of mosquito especially on streets in towns with poor drainage capacity. Proper drainage system provided to the road increases the life of roads. But the improper drainage system causes the failure of the road at its early edge. Therefore effective engineering practices should be considered necessary during design, construction and management of roads and drainage channels.
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Full-text available
This study is carried out to review various research works carried out by researchers on the effects of poor drainage on road pavement. Poor drainage causes early pavement distresses leading to driving problems and structural failures of road as pointed out by researchers. To prevent or minimize premature pavement failures and to enhance the road performance, it is imperative to provide adequate drainage. The review covered: importance of highway drainage system in road construction, requirements of highway drainage system, and effects of bad drainage system on roads. The research pointed out areas of concern for drainage designers and road engineers that are of great importance during road construction to ensure that, the constructed road is put to use without failure before the actual design life. The review concluded that effect of poor drainage condition on a road is very adverse. It causes the failure of road in different ways and as well economic hardship on inhabitants of affected communities with devastating effect of sicknesses as a result of breeding of mosquito especially on streets in towns with poor drainage capacity. Proper drainage system provided to the road increases the life of roads. But the improper drainage system causes the failure of the road at its early edge. Therefore effective engineering practices should be considered necessary during design, construction and management of roads and drainage channels.
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The bearing strength of foundation soil is a major design criteria for civil engineering structures. This study aims to estimate the bearing strength, namely California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and ultimate bearing capacity, from simple and easy measured soil index properties. Comprehensive literature concerning bearing strength characteristics and their prediction equations proposed by previous researchers were reviewed. Laboratory investigation was conducted on two different soils compacted at various placement conditions (i.e. moisture content and dry density) and tested using CBR and triaxial tests. Based on test results, linear relationships of unsoaked CBR and ultimate bearing capacity with the consistency factor which is formed by combining placement conditions and soil intrinsic parameters had been developed. To verify the validity of the developed linear relationship, data reported by some previous researchers were analyzed. The results revealed that the proposed relationships could predict unsoaked CBR and ultimate bearing capacity precisely with a coefficient of linearity (R2) more than 0.9. This result confirms that the proposed equations are reliable and useful to predict bearing strength parameters for different soils.
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It is quite essential to investigate the causes of pavement deterioration in order to select the proper maintenance technique. The objective of this study was to identify factors cause deterioration of recently constructed roads in Khartoum state. A comprehensive literature concerning the factors of road deterioration, common road defects and their causes were reviewed. Three major road projects with different deterioration reasons were selected for this study. The investigation involved field survey and laboratory testing on those projects to examine the existing pavement conditions. The results revealed that the roads investigated experienced severe failures in the forms of cracks, potholes and rutting in the wheel path. The causes of those failures were found mainly linked to poor drainage, traffic overloading, expansive subgrade soils and the use of low quality materials in construction. Based on the results, recommendations were provided to help highway engineers in selecting the most effective repair techniques for specific kinds of distresses.
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Based on field surveys and analysis of road networks using a geographic information system (GIS), we assessed the hydrologic integration of an extensive logging-road network with the stream network in two adjacent 62 and 119 km2 basins in the western Cascades of Oregon. Detailed surveys of road drainage for 20 percent of the 350 km road network revealed two hydrologic flow paths that link roads to stream channels: roadside ditches draining to streams (35 percent of the 436 culverts examined), and roadside ditches draining to culverts with gullies incised below their outlets (23 percent of culverts). Gully incision is significantly more likely below culverts on steep (< 40 percent) slopes with longer than average contributing ditch length. Fifty-seven percent of the surveyed road length is connected to the stream network by these surface flowpaths, increasing drainage density by 21 to 50 percent, depending on which road segments are assumed to be connected to streams. We propose a conceptual model to describe the hydrologic function of roads based on two effects: (1) a volumetric effect, increasing the volume of water available for quickflow and (2) a timing effect, altering flow-routing efficiency through extensions to the drainage network. This study examines the second of these two effects. Future work must quantify discharge along road segments connected to the stream network in order to more fully explain road impacts on basin hydrology.
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Drainage is one of the most important factors to be considered in the road design, construction and maintenance projects. It is generally accepted that road structures work well and last longer to give the desired service. When a road fails, whether it is concrete, asphalt or gravel, inadequate drainage is often a major factor to be considered. Researchers have shown that poor drainage is often the main cause of road damages and problems with long term road serviceability. Though provision of proper road surface drainage systems have such a great importance for the urban road to give the intended use and thereby contribute to the overall development of a nation, in particular in road sector, the practice of the construction of proper integrated drainage structures did not get due attention in our country in general and Jimma town in particular for many years. Therefore the problems and achievements on the design, construction and maintenance of surface road drainage systems need to be assessed to provide remedial measures for the better performance of the road infrastructure. The objective of this study was to assess road surface water drainage problems and its net-work integration systems in Ginjo Guduru Kebele of Jimma town. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ginjo Guduru Kebele of Jimma town from January to August 2014.The data collected was then be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively, and the result of the study thus presented in tables and in themes. From the study made, generally it was observed that the road surface drainage found to be inadequate due insufficient road profile, insufficient drainage structures provision, improper maintenance and lack of proper interconnections between the road and drainage infrastructures thereby resulting damages to road surface material and flooding in the area.
Chapter
This chapter sets out the requirements, possible problems concerning surface and subsurface water flow for pavements and offers some technical solutions to control these waters. It presents the general principles for the design and choice of a drainage system, the measures to adopt during construction and maintenance phases and considers the control of surface and subsurface water contamination, in order to minimize the possible detrimental effect to existing aquifers and habitats. This is achieved by a thorough review of available drainage measures, including many illustrations.
Article
Hydrological connectivity is a term often used to describe the internal linkages between runoff and sediment generation in upper parts of catchments and the receiving waters. In this paper, we identify two types of connectivity: direct connectivity via new channels or gullies, and diffuse connectivity as surface runoff reaches the stream network via overland flow pathways. Using a forest road network as an example of a landscape element with a high runoff source strength, we demonstrate the spatial distribution of these two types of linkages in a 57 km2 catchment in southeastern Australia. Field surveys and empirical modelling indicate that direct connectivity occurs primarily due to gully development at road culverts, where the average sediment transport distance is 89 m below the road outlet. The majority of road outlets were characterised by dispersive flow pathways where the maximum potential sediment transport distance is measured as the available hillslope length below the road outlet. This length has a mean value of 120 m for this catchment. Reductions in sediment concentration in runoff plumes from both pathways are modelled using an exponential decay function and data derived from large rainfall simulator experiments in the catchment. The concept of the volume to breakthrough is used to model the potential delivery of runoff from dispersive pathways. Of the surveyed road drains (n=218), only 11 are predicted to deliver runoff to a stream and the greatest contributor of runoff occurs at a stream crossing where a road segment discharges directly into the stream. The methodology described here can be used to assess the spatial distribution and likely impact of dispersive and gullied pathways on in-stream water quality.
Drainage Services Department, 43/F Revenue Tower
  • J Collier
  • Manual Stormwater Drainage
  • Hong Wanchi
  • Kong
J. Collier, Stormwater Drainage Manual Wanchi, Hong Kong: Drainage Services Department, 43/F Revenue Tower, Sgloucester Road, 2000. [8]
Guidelines for Road Drainage, Technical Document, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government
  • G Finn
  • D Buckley
  • K Kelly
  • J Mcdaid
  • D Mullaney
  • J Power
G. Finn, D. Buckley, K. Kelly, J. McDaid, D. Mullaney, J. Power, Guidelines for Road Drainage, Technical Document, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, 2004.