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To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

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... Site specific loading patterns of the upper limbs in combat sports have been shown to be associated with improvements in bone health resulting in changes to bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone geometry (Bolam, Skinner, Sax, Adlard, & Taaffe, 2016;Fong et al., 2017;Tenforde & Fredericson, 2011;Yoon, Song, & Kim, 2019). In addition to skeletal improvements, research has also highlighted positive muscle and strength adaptations resulting from mechanical forces and loadings distinctive to impacts and movements associated with individual sports participation (Agostinete et al., 2016;DeLang, Kondratek, DiPace, & Hew-Butler, 2017;Sone et al., 2006;Voigt & Klausen, 1990;Weatherholt & Warden, 2016). ...
... In addition to skeletal improvements, research has also highlighted positive muscle and strength adaptations resulting from mechanical forces and loadings distinctive to impacts and movements associated with individual sports participation (Agostinete et al., 2016;DeLang, Kondratek, DiPace, & Hew-Butler, 2017;Sone et al., 2006;Voigt & Klausen, 1990;Weatherholt & Warden, 2016). Musculoskeletal adaptations in combat sports and combat conditioning vary depending on training background, duration and type of physical conditioning and between amature and elite professional participants (Bolam et al., 2016;Fong et al., 2017;James, Haff, Kelly, & Beckman, 2016). Further complicating adaptations for combat athletes is the natural stance that is adopted which will impact the loading of the upper body and lower body dominant and non-dominant limbs (Stanton et al., 2015;Szafranski & Boguszewski, 2015). ...
... Bone mineral density changes are likely indicative of the high impact loading differences from striking signalling functional adaptations to the bone of the dominant upper limb (Clerke & Clerke, 2001;Lima et al., 2017). Research by Bolam and colleagues (Bolam et al., 2016) reported similar findings to the present study with strong associations identified between lean mass and bone health of the upper limbs in male boxers (r = 0.60) and recreationally active males (r = 0.76). Previous research has also identified positive relationships between the distribution of limb mass and BMD, which may result in increased mechanical loading (Ho-Pham et al., 2014). ...
BACKRGOUND: Previous research highlighted positive musculoskeletal adaptations resulting from mechanical forces and loadings distinctive to impacts and movements with sports participation. However, little is known about these adaptations in combat athletes. The aim of this study was to quantify bone mineral density (BMD), lean muscle mass (LMM) and punching and kicking power in amateur male combat athletes. METHODS: Thirteen male combat athletes (lightweight and middleweight) volunteered all physiological tests including dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density (BMD) segmental body composition (lean muscle mass, LMM), muscle strength and striking power, sedentary controls (n=15) were used for selected DXA outcome variables. RESULTS: There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between combat groups for lumbar spine (+5.0%), dominant arm (+4.4%) BMD, and dominant and non-dominant leg LM (+21.8% and +22.6%). Controls had significantly (p<0.05) high adiposity (+36.8% relative), VAT mass (+69.7%), VAT area (+69.5%), lower total body BMD (-8.4%) and lumbar spine BMD (-13.8%) than controls. No differences in lower limb BMD were seen in combat groups. Arm lean mass differences (dominant vs non-dominant) were significantly different between combat groups (p<0.05, 4.2% vs 7.3%). There were no differences in punch/kick power (absolute or relative) between combat groups. 5RM strength (bench and squat) correlated significantly with upper limb striking power (r=.57), dominant and non-dominant leg BMD (r=.67, r=.70, respectively) and total body BMD (r=.59). CONCLUSIONS: BMD and LMM appear to be particularly important to discriminate between dominant and non-dominant upper limbs and less so for lower limb dominance in recreational combat athletes.
... Based on the traditional impedance measurement method, the excitation voltage signal is applied to the series measurement circuit, the voltage of the standard resistance or the measurement resistance is monitored, and the relationship between the measured voltage and the excitation voltage is compared [26,27]. Finally, the measured resistance is calculated by comparing the amplitude ratio and phase difference between the excitation signal and the voltage across the standard resistance [28]. Based on the constant frequency characteristics that satisfy the input and output, the excitation and measurement signals can be assumed as follows: ...
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With the popularity of Wing Chun film and television themes in recent years, Wing Chun has gradually received more and more attention, but the impact of Japanese punching boxing is rarely involved. The purpose of this article is to study the impact of Wing Chun Day Punch Boxing based on embedded microprocessor, to understand the actual effect of Wing Chun Day Punch Boxing through the analysis of the beat effect, and to provide reference and help for the research of traditional Chinese martial arts. In this paper, experimental methods and mathematical statistics combined with embedded microprocessors are used to research and analyze the punching effect of Wing Chun word punching. And it calculates the speed, angle, angular velocity, angular acceleration, muscle discharge sequence, and other data of various parts of the body during the process of Wing Chun force release to reveal the hitting effect of Wing Chun day word punching. Five Wing Chun practitioners with different training times are selected for Wing Chun day punch training, using engineering dummies for experiments, relying on acceleration sensors, position sensors, and force sensors. Starting from the direction of dynamics and kinematics, it collects the effective data of the Japanese word punch, then analyzes the experimental results through the embedded microprocessor, and obtains the hitting effect of the Wing Chun Japanese word punch. Experiments show that, through the analysis of the force angle and characteristics of the Japanese punch, the subjects’ elbow joint angle changes significantly when doing the Japanese punch. In the experiment on the force measurement engineering dummy, when the subjects punched, the measurement results of the vibration acceleration of the internal organs of different subjects were p > 0.01 , and there was no significant difference. However, in the case of elbow joint 150° preparation, the midline punch is significantly larger than the punch directly in front of the shoulder, and the difference is statistically significant (significant level p < 0.01 ).
... Muscle strength and bone mass are closely linked throughout lifetime, and previous studies have reported a link between parameters of bone and lean body mass (Khawaja et al., 2019). However, cross-sectional studies showed that athletes involved in sports with high muscular contraction or ground-reaction forces on the skeleton, such as weight lifting (Nasri et al., 2015) and gymnastics (Bolam, Skinner, Sax, Adlard, & Taaffe, 2016;Nasri et al., 2015), have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip and lumbar spine compared to non-athletes. Thus, it is well established that exercise may play an important role in improving bone health as a result, it is suggested that exercise interventions involving resistance training or multicomponent exercise are the most beneficial to improve BMD (Bolam, van Uffelen, & Taaffe, 2013;Gomez-Cabello, Ara, Gonzalez-Aguero, Casajus, & Vicente-Rodriguez, 2012;Guadalupe-Grau, Fuentes, Guerra, & Calbet, 2009). ...
Background The objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between bone mineral density, the level of anaerobic capacity and muscle strength in Korean national amateur male boxers. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional population-based study where fifty-six Korean national amateur male boxers were enrolled. The participants’ whole-body bone and regional mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as the main outcome. The anaerobic capacity was assessed using the Upper and lower Wingate test, and muscle strength was assessed using Isokinetic muscle strength and Maximal strength. Results Of the fifty-six boxer, 37.5% were classified as LWC, 32.1% as MWC, and 30.3% as HWC. Linear regression analyses showed that the severity of bone variable was associated with upper and lower-body anaerobic capacity. Isokinetic muscle strength and Maximal strength were positively associated with bone variables. Conclusions Within athletes of Korean national amateur male boxers, anaerobic capacity, and muscle strength measurements were positively associated with bone variables. Further research is needed to elucidate mechanisms underlying this positive association that is, undertaking studies involving effective exercise and nutrition supplements treatments, and developing the study designs to facilitate analysis of this relationship.
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