Book

The Economics and Organization of Brazilian Agriculture: Recent Evolution and Productivity Gains

Authors:

Abstract

The Economics and Organization of Brazilian Agriculture: Recent Evolution and Productivity Gains presents insights on Brazilian agriculture and its impressive gains in productivity and international competitiveness, also providing insightful examples for global policymakers. In Brazil, as in many countries, many economists and policymakers believe that agriculture is a traditional, low-tech sector that crowds out the development of other economic sectors and the country. This book shows that this anti-agriculture bias is ill-informed, and with population growth, rising incomes, urbanization and diet changes - especially in developing countries like China and India - on the rise, the demand for food is expected to double in the next 40 years. Brazil has the natural resources, technology and management systems in place to benefit from this expected growth in food consumption and trade. Through real-world examples, the book shows how other low-latitude countries with tropical climate and soils like Brazil - especially in sub-Saharan Africa - can benefit from the agricultural technology, production, and management systems developed in Brazil. Case studies in each of three key categories, including technology, resource management, and effective government programs provide valuable insights into effective decision-making to maximize the effect of each. Provides important and practical insights into achievable agricultural options via case studies Addresses the use of natural resources, technological advances, and management systems to create viable, adaptive economic growth Applies lessons learned in Brazil to improving both economic and ecological resource-sustainable agriculture for other regions and countries.
... Furthermore, a valuable strength of the case study research methodology is that it affords a rich context for answering 'how' and 'why' questions (Yin, 2009). The empirical case analyzed in this study comes from the agricultural context in Brazil, referred to variously as a developing or emerging country (since it is high-middle income but with high disparities), where agri-food sectors have undergone remarkable transformative processes in recent decades (Boddey et al., 2003;Brooks, 2017;Chaddad, 2016). We focus on how boundary infrastructure development influenced BPPS to evolve the spot market setting to the international standards setting. ...
... Four reasons underpin this choice. First, BPPS has been one of Brazil's most transformative agri-food systems in the last six decades (Chaddad, 2016), evolving from an artisanal and fragmented activity to a well-structured agri-food sector (Talamini et al., 2014). Second, interfaces between science, policy, and practice played an essential role in its development (Guimarães et al., 2017;Sebrae & ABCS, 2016). ...
... However, changes in the Brazilian economy and society (such as introducing vegetable oils, domestic refrigerators spreading, and the new Brazilian urban family profile, in which 16.5% of Brazilian women got employed outside their homes) pushed pig production to focus on processed pork productse. g., sausages, ham (Brito, 2006;Chaddad, 2016). Thus, the setting where rustic animals rich in fat were raised, industrialized, and commercialized became outdated. ...
Full-text available
Article
Scholars have often applied the concept of boundary work and its conceptual progeny to explain how science, policy, and practice collaborate to introduce change into agrifood systems. However, previous studies focused primarily on specific boundary elements (i.e., boundary spanners, boundary organizations, and boundary objects) or particular innovation processes (in terms of scope or timescale) within broad transformative change. This study aims to deepen the understanding of long-term transformative processes in agri-food systems by looking at how boundary infrastructures influenced the evolution of the Brazilian pig production system from a setting in which it mainly produced pork lard for a domestic market to a setting of being integrated in global supply chains and following international standards. Mainly, we add to the extant literature by highlighting that boundary infrastructures influenced the longterm transformative process experienced by BPPS by establishing a space where science-policy-practice interactions legitimized particular visions and values and instilled responsibility and accountability to spur various joint actions in support of innovation. We also contribute to the extant literature by showing that boundary infrastructures evolution in BPPS was incremental, long-term, multi-site, and with intertwined leverage. Boundary infrastructures provide structuration to system transformation and are also (re)structured while transitions unfold. Since boundary infrastructures have a certain directionality and may become hegemonic and exclusionary, this requires sensitiveness to the need to reorient a hegemonic boundary infrastructure or create a parallel one. Our study deepens the understanding of how coordination unfolds in long-term transformative processes, a topic deemed of interest given current debates on promoting agri-food systems transformation. We argue that better awareness of boundary infrastructures in which science-policy-practice interactions occur can help guide the direction of innovation to support sustainability transitions in agri-food systems.
... For example, non-family farms control more than 75 percent of the agricultural land in Brazil (Graeub et al., 2016). In highly dynamic agricultural frontiers, such as the Brazilian Matopiba region, large-scale corporate farms harvested around one-third of the total area used in production in 2013 (Chaddad, 2016). ...
... Examples of structural heterogeneity in the farming sector abound. When it comes to large-scale farms, the case of the "mega farms" found in the Brazilian cerrado that combine a "factory-style" organizational setup with family ownership can be considered (see Chaddad, 2016;Chaddad and Valentinov, 2017). In Eastern Europe, several agroholdingssome of them being family-owned firms that adopt a corporate legal formcongregate a broad set of stakeholders that include the State and external investors (see Hermans et al., 2017). ...
... In Argentina, family-owned firms such as Los Grobo have attracted external investments to harvest enormous areas without retaining ownership rights over the farmland or most of the resources used in production (Bell and Scott, 2010;Senesi et al., 2017). Across the globe, family-owned farms have adopted corporate forms and implemented the principles of corporate managementfor example the separation of ownership and control and the professionalization of managementin order to attract investments or to guarantee a peaceful succession (see Chaddad, 2016;Gagalyuk, 2017). Family farms also provide several examples of structural heterogeneity. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide a multidimensional framework for the identification, description and comparative analysis of alternative farm structures and their properties for economic development. Design/methodology/approach Integrating previous typologies and considering a large set of examples, the authors identify six attributes that are necessary to characterize and compare farm structures: size; strategy; organizational form; legal form; who the owners are; and degree of separation of ownership and control. They also discuss potential complementarities between those organizational attributes and specific features of the institutions of developing and emerging countries, such as contract enforcement and property rights protection regime, and developed capital markets and corporate law. Findings Conceptually and empirically, effective farm structures can deviate from the templates traditionally considered – “small family-owned farm” or “large factory-like corporate farm,” combining structural attributes in diverse ways. The dimensionalization of farm structures also helps in revealing complementary institutional traits at the regional or larger system level that may foster development processes. Research limitations/implications The paper is limited to theory building and case-based evidence. Nevertheless, it provides dimensions that can be measured on a larger scale and by quantitative studies. Originality/value This paper sheds light on organizational diversity in agriculture and on a wider set of feasible development paths.
... Economic and organizational problems in farm activities were examined in the works of Nakajima (1986), Buckett (2013), Chaddad (2015), and Muimba-Kankolongo (2018). The anthropological aspect of farm labor problem was the subject of research in the works of Barlett (1984), Taylor and Charlton (2018). ...
... For a number of countries agriculture is a traditional, nontechnological sector, which displaces the development of other sectors of the economy and the country (Chaddad, 2015). The peasant farming in the conditions of the agricultural economy innovative development in Russia will be connected with the development of organic agriculture. ...
Full-text available
Article
The objectives of the study are to determine the legal problems of peasant farm enterprises setting up, their activities and status. In the research process, legal, economic, mathematical and statistical methods were used. The article uses the comparative legal method, the method of analysis of legal norms, the method of interpretation of legal norms and the practice of judicial enforcement in conjunction with economic, mathematical and statistical methods. The authors point out the problem of dualism of peasant farms enterprises’ legal status; highlight the specific character of this legal form, which must be taken into account when adopting agricultural legislation.
... Para Chaddad (2016), a definição brasileira de fazenda familiar é baseada no tamanho da propriedade e no emprego de mão de obra não familiar, o que exclui a maioria dos produtores comerciais. Em seu livro sobre os fundamentos econômicos e organizacionais da agricultura brasileira, o autor prefere adotar a conceituação do USDA, que, como visto, define como fazenda familiar aquela na qual o principal responsável pelo negócio é o dono da propriedade, não importando qual seja seu tamanho. ...
... A tecnologia disponível atualmente permite maiores ganhos de escala e redução dos custos produtivos, o que favorece o surgimento de fazendas maiores, administradas à maneira de empreendimentos industriais. De fato, isso é o que tem ocorrido em diversos países importantes no setor, como os Estados Unidos, a Argentina e o Brasil (MacDonald, 2014;Chaddad, 2016). ...
Full-text available
Article
As fazendas familiares-pequenas, médias ou grandes-continuam sendo a unidade de produção largamente predominante na agricultura mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar o processo de sucessão nesses empreendimentos, por meio do qual os conhecimentos acumulados na gestão e os ativos do negócio são transmitidos de geração a geração. Discute-se o entrelaçamen-to dos objetivos da família aos objetivos do negócio e destaca-se o caráter processual da transição geracional. São apontados aspectos críticos para seu transcorrer, como a importância da análise da viabilidade econômico-financeira do negócio e a comunicação acerca de temas como a distribui-ção justa ou equânime dos ativos.
... Para Chaddad (2016), a definição brasileira de fazenda familiar é baseada no tamanho da propriedade e no emprego de mão de obra não familiar, o que exclui a maioria dos produtores comerciais. Em seu livro sobre os fundamentos econômicos e organizacionais da agricultura brasileira, o autor prefere adotar a conceituação do USDA, que, como visto, define como fazenda familiar aquela na qual o principal responsável pelo negócio é o dono da propriedade, não importando qual seja seu tamanho. ...
... A tecnologia disponível atualmente permite maiores ganhos de escala e redução dos custos produtivos, o que favorece o surgimento de fazendas maiores, administradas à maneira de empreendimentos industriais. De fato, isso é o que tem ocorrido em diversos países importantes no setor, como os Estados Unidos, a Argentina e o Brasil (MacDonald, 2014;Chaddad, 2016). ...
Article
As fazendas familiares-pequenas, médias ou grandes-continuam sendo a unidade de produção largamente predominante na agricultura mundial. O objetivo deste trabalho é examinar o processo de sucessão nesses empreendimentos, por meio do qual os conhecimentos acumulados na gestão e os ativos do negócio são transmitidos de geração a geração. Discute-se o entrelaçamen-to dos objetivos da família aos objetivos do negócio e destaca-se o caráter processual da transição geracional. São apontados aspectos críticos para seu transcorrer, como a importância da análise da viabilidade econômico-financeira do negócio e a comunicação acerca de temas como a distribui-ção justa ou equânime dos ativos.
... Para além das condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis, os investimentos públicos e privados em atividades de ciência, tecnologia e inovação fortaleceram o crescimento da produção e da produtividade agropecuária no Brasil (BUAINAIN et al. 2014). Não menos relevante, Chaddad (2015) destaca a vocação pelo empreendedorismo dos agricultores brasileiros como uma variável determinante do desenvolvimento vivenciado nas últimas décadas. Em conjunto, tais fatores têm proporcionado ao país ganhos de competitividade no mercado internacional de diversos produtos agropecuários. ...
Article
The article analyzes the international competitiveness in the garlic market in the last two decades. In particular, the work investigates the behavior of Brazilian imports of this product. The Herfindal-Hirschmann index (HHI) and the Vollrath index of revealed comparative advantage (RACV) were calculated to identify the concentration and competitiveness of garlic exporting countries in the period 2007-2017. The objective of the work is to evaluate the dynamics of Brazilian garlic imports. For this, the Vollrath index of revealed comparative advantage in the Brazilian imports of garlic (RACVImpBR) in the period 2008-2019 was calculated. Adapted from RACV, the RACVImpBR expresses the performance of countries in the market formed by Brazilian imports of garlic. It was found that, in the recent period, Spain gained competitiveness in Brazilian purchases of garlic, to the detriment of China. Concerning global exports, China remained the most competitive country.
... Moreover, the Brazilian corn ethanol process uses eucalyptus biomass to heat its steam boilers, instead of natural gas. In addition, most of the corn production in Brazil is from the Second Crop with soybean, which contributes to crop rotation and to the fixation of carbon in the soil (Chaddad 2016). For these reasons, the carbon footprint of Brazilian corn ethanol is one of the smallest in the world (Moreira et al. 2020). ...
Full-text available
Article
An imminent change in the world energy matrix makes it necessary to increase the production of renewable fuels. The United States and Brazil are the world's largest producers, but their production methods are very different, using different raw materials, ground corn and sugarcane juice, respectively. In recent years, strong investments have been made to expand the use of corn in Brazilian ethanol production. The combination of the sugar cane and corn ethanol industries has generated innovations in the sector, such as the "flex" mills, which are traditional sugar cane mills adapted to produce corn ethanol in the sugar cane off-season. Brazil has a portfolio of robust industrial yeasts for sugarcane ethanol production, naturally evolved and selected over the past 50 years. In this work, we analyze for the first time the performance of Brazilian industrial strains (BG-1, CAT-1, PE-2 and SA-1, widely used in sugarcane ethanol production) in corn ethanol production using different stress conditions. Ethanol Red yeast, traditionally used in corn ethanol plants around the world, was used as a control. In terms of tolerance to temperature (35 °C), strains BG-1 and SA-1 stood out. In fermentations with high solids concentration (35%), strain BG-1 reached ethanol contents higher than 19% w/v and had a productivity gain of 5.8% compared to fermentation at 30%. This was the first time that these industrial strains were evaluated using the high solids concentration of 35% and the results point to ways to improve the corn ethanol production process. Graphical Abstract
... applied on ethanol and the fuel tax applied on gasoline. Sugarcane is one of the most important inputs in ethanol production, accounting for approximately 70% of ethanol production costs (Chaddad 2015). Prices of sugar influence the decision of mixed plant owners on the ratios of ethanol and sugar to produce. ...
Article
Concerns about energy security, rural development and the environment have driven biofuel expansion. Different policy and market drivers, such as designated areas for biofuel feedstock production and blend mandates, have played an important role in biofuel expansion in different countries. Understanding how policy and market drivers influence biofuel supply and demand can provide guidelines for countries seeking to expand biofuel production into new regions. The case of Brazil serves as an important example. In just over 10 years, the Cerrado region of Brazil, specifically the states of Goias and Mato Grosso do Sul, experienced a six-fold expansion in ethanol production, becoming the second largest production region in Brazil. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of policies and market drivers on ethanol expansion in the Cerrado region using a market equilibrium modeling approach. Results elucidate the role that market and policy drivers, including area designated for sugarcane production, blend mandates and energy taxes, play in influencing ethanol expansion into an already intensive agricultural region of the country. The findings from this study have implications for sustainable biofuel production in other regions of the world.
... The empirical case analyzed in this study comes from the Brazilian agricultural context, a world leader in meat production, and because of that, a country where animal welfare issues became crucial recently (Molento 2005;Chaddad 2016). Animal welfare has been a sensitive issue in the Brazilian national commercial pig production system. ...
Full-text available
Article
International agreements have been adopted in recent years to disseminate animal welfare standards worldwide, similar to the situation for environmental and social sustainability standards. Scholars who have analyzed such initiatives argue that this calls for contextualized strategies for a successful implementation of international animal welfare standards in specific settings, also emphasizing the relevance of individuals and institutions who function as intermediaries in these complex situations of change. However, previous studies do not provide empirical insights into how different intermediaries work in relation to international animal welfare standards implementation in national contexts. Focusing empirically on the implementation of EU animal welfare directives in Brazilian pig production, this paper aims to connect the standards implementation and intermediation literatures to deepen the understanding of how a network of intermediaries formed and acted as an 'ecology of intermediaries' to facilitate the implementation process for international animal welfare standards. The paper aims to enrich debates on how to develop contextualized strategies that can translate recognized international regulations into practical animal welfare improvements. Our findings provide evidence that collective inter-mediation efforts are pivotal in addressing demands (such as translation, adaptation, regulation) that emerge from the complex situation of change provoked by the implementation of international animal welfare standards in national contexts. The main implication of our study for theory on standards implementation is that the operationalization of a contextualized strategy linked to international animal welfare standards implementation is composed of a normative dimension and a technological dimension and that, to achieve their desired outcome, contextualized strategies also rely on connected and complementary intermediation actions.
... The Atlantic Forest also provides food and other agricultural products. Brazil has three main regions for the development of agriculture, two of which encompass areas of the Atlantic Forest biome: one in the southeastern region, characterized by crops for exportation and vertically integrated agribusiness; and other in the south, with diversified agriculture, like cooperatives and contract agriculture (Chaddad, 2015). ...
Full-text available
Article
Global agricultural production is expected to double by 2050 due to both global population increase and changes in diets as a consequence of growing incomes. This also means more pressure on water resources, as agriculture accounts for 70 % of global water withdrawal and for energy production as the entire food supply chain accounts for about 30 % of total global energy consumption. Although there are ongoing discussions related to the sustainability of food, water, and energy sectors, integrating these sectors is still rare and challenging. We investigated the effects of agricultural practices on the Food, Water and Energy (F-W-E) nexus security systems by evaluating the results reported in scientific literature. Focusing on the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome as a study case, our main goals were 1) to elucidate the impacts of rural conservation practices on food, water, and energy production based on literature analysis, 2) to propose F-W-E attributes and evaluate how they are addressed by rural practices. Our findings demonstrated, in general, a positive impact of agricultural conservation practices on F-W-E security attributes. Indeed, 76 % of the combination between a conservational practice with a F-W-E attribute was positive. Some agricultural practices, such as no tillage are very well documented (45 % of all combinations), especially regarding their effects on soil quality parameters. We found few results connecting agricultural practice and energy aspects. These results are key elements that corroborate with the agriculture multifunctionality approach, and the results can better guide the planning of strategies in the agricultural sector and subsidize decision making. Key words: soil functions; multifunctional agriculture; food security; water security; energy security
... The Atlantic Forest also provides food and other agricultural products. Brazil has three main regions for the development of agriculture, two of which encompass areas of the Atlantic Forest biome: one in the southeastern region, characterized by crops for exportation and vertically integrated agribusiness; and other in the south, with diversified agriculture, like cooperatives and contract agriculture (Chaddad, 2015). ...
Full-text available
Article
ABSTRACT Global agricultural production is expected to double by 2050 due to both global population increase and changes in diets as a consequence of growing incomes. This also means more pressure on water resources, as agriculture accounts for 70 % of global water withdrawal and for energy production as the entire food supply chain accounts for about 30 % of total global energy consumption. Although there are ongoing discussions related to the sustainability of food, water, and energy sectors, integrating these sectors is still rare and challenging. We investigated the effects of agricultural practices on the Food, Water and Energy (F-W-E) nexus security systems by evaluating the results reported in scientific literature. Focusing on the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome as a study case, our main goals were 1) to elucidate the impacts of rural conservation practices on food, water, and energy production based on literature analysis, 2) to propose F-W-E attributes and evaluate how they are addressed by rural practices. Our findings demonstrated, in general, a positive impact of agricultural conservation practices on F-W-E security attributes. Indeed, 76 % of the combination between a conservational practice with a F-W-E attribute was positive. Some agricultural practices, such as no tillage are very well documented (45 % of all combinations), especially regarding their effects on soil quality parameters. We found few results connecting agricultural practice and energy aspects. These results are key elements that corroborate with the agriculture multifunctionality approach, and the results can better guide the planning of strategies in the agricultural sector and subsidize decision making.
... As cadeias produtivas de frangos de corte e de suínos têm sido expoentes das grandes transformações que levaram o Brasil a uma posição de destaque no mundo como produtor de alimentos (Chaddad, 2016). Além de contribuírem de maneira significativa para a melhoria da qualidade de vida no País pela disponibilização de proteína animal de qualidade e com preço acessível, as duas cadeias contribuíram para questões de interesse como a da preservação do solo (ABPA..., 2020; Embrapa Suínos e Aves, 2021). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Na pecuária de corte brasileira, a intensificação sustentável visa otimizar o uso da terra, fazendo com que as áreas utilizadas atinjam, do ponto de vista econômico-ambiental, seu ponto ideal de produção, exercendo o efeito conhecido como poupa-terra. Para tanto, existem várias tecnologias empregadas na produção de carne bovina que, comprovadamente, levam a um aumento substancial em diversos índices zootécnicos, que são os melhores indicadores de melhoria da eficiência dos sistemas de produção de carne. Vale destacar que, independentemente do tipo específico de sistema de produção e das tecnologias adotadas, o uso e incremento dessas é sempre positivo em termos de efeito poupa-terra e, consequentemente, de aumento da sustentabilidade dos sistemas de produção, o que nos leva a crer que o Brasil pode até dobrar sua produção total de carne bovina nas próximas décadas sem a necessidade técnica de se abrir novas áreas.
... As cadeias produtivas de frangos de corte e de suínos têm sido expoentes das grandes transformações que levaram o Brasil a uma posição de destaque no mundo como produtor de alimentos (Chaddad, 2016). Além de contribuírem de maneira significativa para a melhoria da qualidade de vida no País pela disponibilização de proteína animal de qualidade e com preço acessível, as duas cadeias contribuíram para questões de interesse como a da preservação do solo (ABPA..., 2020; Embrapa Suínos e Aves, 2021). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Projeções da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) para a década de 2050 indicam claramente que, nos próximos 30 anos, a humanidade necessitará aumentar sua produção em 70% para alimentar o planeta. O agronegócio brasileiro, fundamental nesse processo, vem, entretanto, sofrendo críticas que desacreditam a sua sustentabilidade. Nesse contexto, com o objetivo de colaborar para desmistificar a afirmação de que a agricultura brasileira não é sustentável, produzimos este documento evidenciando que a agricultura brasileira é construída sobre bases científicas. A adoção de um considerável número de tecnologias em várias frentes do processo produtivo tem permitido produzir altos volumes, com alta qualidade, de forma sustentável sob todos os aspectos, além de permitir que as florestas do País sejam protegidas tanto nas propriedades agropecuárias quanto em áreas nativas. A capacidade tecnológica para fazer gestão territorial, manejo integrado de pragas e doenças, utilizar sistemas integrados de produção que prolongam a vida dos solos, entre outros aspectos são os fatores garantidores do sucesso da agricultura brasileira. Assim, com as informações contidas neste documento, fica evidente que, devido à adoção de tecnologias desenvolvidas pela Embrapa e parceiros, garante-se à agricultura um efeito Poupa-Terra nas mais diversas cadeias do agro brasileiro. Os dados aqui apresentados são de grande valor, já que foram obtidos ao longo de décadas, o que trás robustez aos resultados divulgados neste documento. Esperamos que as informações aqui disponibilizadas possam contribuir para desmistificar equívocos e, de forma ampla e objetiva, evidenciar que, devido ao uso da ciência em suporte à agricultura brasileira, o País é e será sustentável de forma ambiental, social e econômica, além de um dos principais atores da agropecuária mundial para as próximas décadas. Download público do livro: http://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/222905/1/28-04-2021-POUPA-TERRA-menor-tamanho-arquivo-1.pdf
... As reported by the latest census, family-based agriculture is conducted by about 80% of rural households; however, this represents only 24% of the total agricultural area (IBGE, 2006). According to Chaddad (2015), the census results illustrate the contrast with the reality of the three major hubs of commercial agriculture, including the South-East (export-oriented crops; vertically integrated agribusiness), Centre-West/Mapitoba (grazing, grain and fibre production; commercial and corporate farms; large-scale, industrialised farms), and South (mostly small-holders; diversified agriculture; cooperatives and contract farming). ...
... As reported by the latest census, family-based agriculture is conducted by about 80% of rural households; however, this represents only 24% of the total agricultural area (IBGE, 2006). According to Chaddad (2015), the census results illustrate the contrast with the reality of the three major hubs of commercial agriculture, including the South-East (export-oriented crops; vertically integrated agribusiness), Centre-West/Mapitoba (grazing, grain and fibre production; commercial and corporate farms; large-scale, industrialised farms), and South (mostly small-holders; diversified agriculture; cooperatives and contract farming). ...
... Alternatively, some farmers do not have enough capital for an additional vermifilter so they can use the biochar as a filter instead. Additionally, family farmers are often limited in their investment capabilities [1,100]. It is thus unlikely they can invest in multiple units at once. ...
Article
Family farmers in Brazil could diversify their sources of income source and improve agriculture practices by adopting circular economy principles on their farms. Closed-loop technological systems can be used to manage organic waste and produce fertilizer and biogas thereby generating revenue. Anaerobic digestion is a proven technology that can produce digestate (i.e. fertilizer) and biogas from organic waste, although digestate application in soil and crops without treatment can have adverse effects. However, in practice, there is a lack of knowledge about the benefits of recycling organic waste in farming communities in Brazil. Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to provide conceptual design configurations of closed-loop systems that manage organic waste and generate revenue for small farms in Brazil. A literature review of selected technologies and interviews with Brazilian family farmers were used to inform the components of the proposed conceptual designs. The proposed designs are based on circular economy principles, incorporating anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis for biochar, hydroponics and vermifiltration in various configurations. A complete closed-loop system consisting of a 7.5 m³ digester, pyrolysis unit, a combined hydroponic and vermifilter unit and a shredder is estimated to cost around USD$1600 (R$ 6600). The flexibility of the proposed systems has the potential to increase resilience and income for small-scale farmers, whist encouraging good practices for waste management. The conceptual designs can be used as a basis for further research and development of small-scale organic waste management solutions in Brazil.
... Following significant productivity gains achieved in agriculture and livestock production over the last three decades, Brazilian firms in every segment of agriculture are facing the challenges of growing in a somewhat highly uncertain and budget-constrained scenario that may continue in the coming years (Chaddad, 2016), and have had significant impact on both business models and corporate strategies (Phillips, et al., 2013). In response to this, state and federal public agencies are promoting financing schemes for the upskill of workers, tax deductions for firms conducting Research and Development (R&D) or acquiring capital goods, and sunk cost funds for joint translational research with universities and firms (Matos, et al., 2017). ...
Full-text available
Article
Companies develop strategies to describe where they want to go and how they will reach their destination. Business strategies are useful but may not be sufficiently detailed for areas of high importance, such as technology and innovation. In this paper we examined the effort of building a technology roadmap with an early growth stage company located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Roadmaps are easy to design yet flexible tools that can allow decision makers to explore a myriad of possible strategies. However, the challenges ahead for new companies facing uncertain growth scenarios demand that framework conditions be adequately addressed, and that innovation culture and technology management tools are integrated with the technology roadmapping strategy. Based on the empirical evidence collected from the startup studied, along with the literature and interviews with key stakeholders, this paper developed a pathway to support technology and innovation plans for startups going through similar growth stages and provides directions for future research in the area, given the scarcity of evidence available of new high-tech companies' efforts in planning and developing new products
... While similar large-scale types of farming have a long history in countries such as Argentina (Senesi et al., 2016), Australia (Plunkett et al., 2016) and Brazil (Chaddad, 2016), the rise of agroholdings in Eastern Europe or former Soviet Union countries, including the Czech Republic, East Germany, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Russia and Ukraine, is remarkable. As recently as in 2007, agroholdings farmed only 8% of Ukraine's agricultural land operated by corporate farms. ...
Article
With the emergence of large, horizontally integrated farm enterprises especially in Eastern European countries, the question arises whether these agroholdings exercise market power in (local) land markets. Using a theoretical framework of spatial competition that accounts for the presence of multi-farm agroholdings, we derive equilibrium prices under alternative spatial competition settings. Based on the investigation of Ukrainian farms, we provide theoretical explanations and empirical support for farms affiliated with an agroholding possessing (ceteris paribus) more land and setting higher land rental prices compared to independent farms. The results indicate that agroholdings may act as price leaders in local land markets.
... Brazil has progressively emerged as a major agricultural powerhouse. The country ranks among the world's five largest agricultural producers and exporters [4]. However, during the processing of agricultural products, many by-products are generated. ...
Full-text available
Article
Amylases are enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, generating the most diverse products, such as maltose, glucose and dextrins. This work aimed the study of the production of amylolytic enzymes via solid-state fermentation (SSF) using “crueira”, an essentially starchy cassava residue, as substrate-support and Bacillus sp. as microorganism. For the implementation of the experimental part, a Central Composite Design (CCD) with three variables (initial moisture, pH and temperature) was made. Each test was examined at 24, 48 and 72 hours by the method of starch dextrinizing activity. The optimum production conditions were 60% initial moisture, pH 6 and 37 °C. The maximum yield was 437.76 U/g in 72 hours of fermentation. The optimum temperature of enzyme performance was 65 °C. The pH optimum range was 4 to 6. The Co2 +, Ca2 + and K+ ions positively influenced the activity of enzymes and the Fe2+ ion had no effect on enzymatic activity. On the other hand, the ions Hg2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+ adversely influenced enzymatic activity. Therefore, producing amylases from Bacillus sp. and using crueira as a substrate is possible.
... In the 1970s it was a net importer of food commodities, with an average international trade deficit of US$1.8 billion per year (MDIC and Brasil, 2018). To address this imbalance, the Federal Government implemented a structured, long term plan including subsidies for rural credit; investments in agricultural research through the creation of Embrapa; a national plan for Amazon integration; and infrastructure projects to enable transportation of agricultural goods (Chaddad, 2015). Fifty years later, Brazil is a leading exporter of agricultural products such as soy, sugar, chicken, coffee and beef. ...
Full-text available
Article
Brazil has become an agricultural powerhouse, producing roughly 30 % of the world's soy and 15 % of its beef by 2013-yet historically much of that growth has come at the expense of its native ecosystems. Since 1985, pastures and croplands have replaced nearly 65 Mha of forests and savannas in the legal Amazon. A growing body of work suggests that this paradigm of horizontal expansion of agriculture over ecosystems is outdated and brings negative social and environmental outcomes. Here we propose four strategies that can reduce deforestation , while increasing production and social wellbeing. First, eliminate land grabbing and land speculation through designation of public forests. This would clarify land tenure and limit the pool of land available for uncontrolled expansion of agriculture and ranching. Second, reduce deforestation on private properties by implementing existing mechanisms in Brazil's Forest Code to facilitate payments for environmental services, with support from market initiatives for sustainable sourcing of agricultural products. Third, incentivize increased productivity on medium and large properties through targeted investments. By stimulating adoption of proven technologies for sustainable intensification, this would help meet Brazil's production targets and growing international demand for agricultural products, without expanding into new production areas. Finally, foster economic, environmental and social improvements through technical assistance to small farmers. Small farmers occupy a large swath of the Amazon and often lack access to technical assistance, production technology, and markets. Providing quality technical assistance to small farmers could help them better align production practices with local opportunities; increase household income and improve livelihoods; and reduce deforestation pressure. By implementing these four strategies in a coordinated effort between public and private agents, Brazil can show the world how to reduce deforestation while increasing agricultural output, reestablishing its leadership in managing natural resources and mitigating climate change.
Full-text available
Chapter
Digitalization is an important agriculture tool for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in marginalized and remote communities. There is a scarcity of data linking digitalization, sustainable agriculture production, marginalized and remote communities in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study reviews digitalization for sustainable agriculture production in marginalized and remote communities of Sub-Saharan Africa. A total of 150 published papers from 2000-2022 were retrieved, and all those outside Africa were removed to leave a total of 125 papers. Results obtained indicate that digital technology transforms agriculture by promoting precision agriculture in marginalized rural communities in a more efficient approach by integrating different processes. Econet Wireless Zimbabwe is offering various bundle options which come through small messages (SMS) and call centers such as Eco-Farmer. Governments should invest in and make policies to improve digitalization in marginalized communities as it ultimately solves challenges such as nutrition, food insecurity, and climate change.
Book
Представлены результаты научных исследований, включающие теоретико-методологические и практические аспекты формирования институциональной среды, организации и управления производственной деятельностью в АПК в современных условиях.
Full-text available
Technical Report
Déforestation associée à l’importation de soja sur les marchés français et européen : état des lieux. Pour le compte de l'IDDRI, le GRET et l'AFD, dans le cadre du Groupe National Forêts Tropicales et du Conseil Scientifique et Technique Forêts, analyse du jeu des acteurs économiques de la filière soja en réponse aux pressions internationales sur la déforestation.
Article
O surgimento do Brasil como grande produtor agrícola mundial no final do século XX é um dos desenvolvimentos mais importantes da história moderna. Desde 1960, o Brasil deixou de ser um importador de alimentos, concentrado na exportação de apenas um produto, para se tornar o maior exportador líquido de alimentos do mundo e o terceiro maior produtor e exportador agrícola depois dos Estados Unidos e da União Europeia. O país situa-se entre os cinco maiores produtores mundiais de 36 produtos agrícolas e é o principal exportador mundial de soja, suco de laranja, açúcar, carnes, café, tabaco e etanol. Além disso, é segundo maior exportador de milho e o terceiro de algodão. Na segunda década do século XXI, vendeu quase 300 produtos agrícolas para mais de 200 países
Full-text available
Chapter
Este trabalho tem como objetivo geral analisar o perfil dos cursos de Bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo nas Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES) do estado do Paraná de acordo com as matrizes curriculares e o enfoque da formação aplicada em cada curso. Para tanto, os procedimentos metodológicos adotados nesta pesquisa partem da delimitação da natureza do estudo, classificado como uma pesquisa aplicada, de abordagem fundamentalmente qualitativa (PRODANOVI; FREITAS, 2013). Com relação aos objetivos-macro, a pesquisa pode ser classificada como exploratória e descritiva. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da investigação e análise de dados secundários referentes às matrizes curriculares dos cursos de Bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo de 8 Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES - do Paraná. Os métodos de análise dos dados utilizam-se de estatística descritiva e análise de conteúdo. Ao todo foram encontradas 11 IES que ofertam o curso de Bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo. No entanto, apenas 8 disponibilizam as matrizes curriculares nos respectivos sites. Assim, para esta pesquisa, foram consideradas 8 IES no estado do Paraná que ofertam o curso de Bacharelado em Secretariado Executivo. Dos 8 cursos analisados, constatou-se que um (IES A) apresenta a maioria das suas disciplinas voltadas para a área Secretarial (53%, de um total de 34 disciplinas). Um dos cursos (IES D) tem enfoque maior em Comunicação (45% de um total de 31 disciplinas). Já os seis demais têm ênfase na área de Gestão de Empresas, conforme segue: IES F possui 53% das 72 disciplinas do curso; IES B possui 45% de 29 disciplinas do curso; IES e possui 41% das 46 disciplinas do curso; IES G possui 36% das 42 disciplinas do curso; IES H possui 36% das 33 disciplinas do curso; e IES C possui 33% das 51 disciplinas do curso na área de Gestão de Empresas. Com base nestes dados, verifica-se que a formação em Secretariado Executivo no estado do Paraná apresenta disciplinas e conteúdos advindos de várias áreas do saber, o que corrobora a ideia de a área secretarial ser multi e interdisciplinar, conforme já discutido por Sabino e Marchelli (2009), ao mesmo tempo em que permite identificar uma forte presença de disciplinas relacionadas com a gestão de empresas e com as áreas de comunicação, seja por meio de disciplinas de língua portuguesa ou de idiomas estrangeiros. Ainda, as disciplinas voltadas para a prática secretarial complementam a formação e dão o tom dos cursos em cada uma das IES, as quais buscam o atendimento às demandas locais de cada região, respeitando a legislação e as normativas vigentes e contribuindo para a formação de profissionais com amplo domínio das técnicas secretariais, das metodologias de gestão e das ferramentas de comunicação necessárias ao exercício da profissão.
Full-text available
Article
Agricultural intensification, and particularly double cropping, has been suggested as a practical strategy to reconcile biofuel feedstock production with other land-use priorities. Here we assess ethanol production under conditions representative of current practice in the west central region of Brazil: maize grown as a second crop with soybean on land that formerly grew a single soybean crop, and energy processed from a combined heat and power plant using plantation-grown eucalyptus chips. For maize ethanol thus produced we find large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions compared to gasoline, and considerable economic and employment benefits at both local and national levels. We also calculate reduced land-use emissions with maize ethanol production compared to the situation without it. Our study thus documents an example of how the complex linkages of bioenergy to food production and security, environment and economic development can be—and indeed appear to be—managed for positive outcomes using current technology. Double cropping can increase production from a given area of land. This study finds that maize ethanol produced from a second crop with soybeans in west central Brazil can reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with gasoline and also have economic and employment benefits.
Article
The article analyzes how Brazil has become an increasingly active voice for liberalization within global spheres of agricultural governance. With the focus on domestic institutional developments, we identify the gradual materialization of an agro-export policy network consisting of public and private actors. We conduct a periodization of the overarching phases of the policy network's development, from its incipient formation during the Uruguay Round to a high degree of organizational refinement in the new millennium. Through analysis of its external linkages, internal structure, and the distribution of resources, we examine how this network became an absolutely central factor in spurring the offensive orientation and assertive engagement of Brazil within the global agricultural policy arena. We thereby provide a domestically rooted explanation for the rise of Brazil as a central agricultural ‘player’, with the focus on the collective agency capacity of public and private stakeholders.
Article
Industrial policy programs are frequently used by governments to stimulate economic activity in particular sectors of the economy. This study explores how an industrial policy program can affect the creation and evolution of an industry and, ultimately, the long-term performance of firms. We examine the history of the Brazilian bioethanol industry, focusing on the industrial policy program implemented by the Brazilian government in the 1970s to develop the industry. We put together a novel data set containing detailed information about the history of bioethanol producers. Our findings show that plants founded during the industrial policy program tend to be, in the long run, more productive than those founded before the program was in place. Based on additional analyses and complementary fieldwork, we infer that the wave of acquisitions that occurred after the end of the industrial policy program had an important effect on the performance of the plants founded when the program was in place. Industrial policy, especially in conjunction with a competitive post-industrial policy business landscape, can succeed in nurturing competitive firms.