Chapter

Green Coffee Bean

Authors:
  • UP Veterinary University (DUVASU) Matura
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Abstract

Researchers have unraveled the nutritive value and other beneficial effects of coffee on human health, especially prevention of lifestyle diseases of the modern world. Therefore, it is being considered as a nutraceutical to prevent and combat diseases of modern society. This chapter describes historical perspectives of green coffee bean, its source, processing, global production scenario, major phytoconstituents, pharmacokinetic attributes, major pharmacological activities, promising potential as a nutraceutical, and some of the possible adverse effects. Its promising antioxidant and weight-reducing potential, ability to check type 2 diabetes and hypertension, ability to prevent cardiovascular and other diseases like cancer and hepatic and neurodegenerative disorders, along with their possible mechanism(s) of action, strongly favor its consideration as a promising nutraceutical and food supplement. However, detailed research work following long-term exposure is warranted to assess the efficacy and safety of coffee.

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Chapter
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Chapter
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In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of chlorogenic acid against bacteria were assessed. The data from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values showed that chlorogenic acid effectively inhibited the growth of all tested bacterial pathogens, and the MIC values were ranging from 20 to 80 μg/mL. An investigation into action mode of chlorogenic acid against the pathogen indicated that chlorogenic acid significantly increased the outer and plasma membrane permeability, resulting in the loss of the barrier function, even inducing slight leakage of nucleotide. The leakage of cytoplasmic contents was also observed by electron micrographs. These results supported our hypothesis that chlorogenic acid bound to the outer membrane, disrupted the membrane, exhausted the intracellular potential, and released cytoplasm macromolecules, which led to cell death.
Article
The effects of regular daily coffee consumption on liver enzymes were studied in a large number of subjects from the general population. In coffee drinkers, liver enzymes (gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine-amino transferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and serum bilirubin were lower than in non-coffee-drinking subjects or in those consuming less than 3 cups daily. The hypothesis proposed is that liver enzymes are a target for caffeine contained in coffee.
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We have studied the perfusion of the jejunum and ileum in an isolated rat intestine model with flavonoids and hydroxycinnamates and the influence of glycosylation on the subsequent metabolism. Flavone and flavonol glucosides and their corresponding aglycones are glucuronidated during transfer across the rat jejunum and ileum and this glucuronidation occurs without the need for gut microflora. Furthermore, this suggests the presence of glycosidases as well as UDP-glucuronyl transferase in the jejunum. In contrast, quercetin-3-glucoside and rutin are mainly absorbed unmetabolised. The results suggest that the more highly reducing phenolics are absorbed predominantly as glucuronides (96.5%+/-4.6) of the amount absorbed, whereas monophenolic hydroxycinnamates and monophenolic B-ring flavonoids are less predisposed to glucuronidation and higher levels of aglycone (88.1%+/-10.1) are detected on absorption through both the jejunum and ileum.
Article
The potential inverse association between coffee intake and serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) was examined in a cross-sectional study involving 1353 Japanese male office workers aged 35-59 years in Osaka, Japan. Those who had serum aminotransferases exceeding the normal range and/or who had been administered medical care for, or had a past history of, liver disease were excluded. Multiple linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance were used to control for confounding variables (age, body mass index, alcohol use, and cigarette smoking) and to examine possible interactions. From the linear regression analysis, coffee intake was inversely related to serum GGT levels independently of age, body mass index, alcohol intake, and cigarette smoking. All of the latter variables were also independently and positively associated with serum GGT levels. When the interactions between coffee and each of four covariates on serum GGT were evaluated by adding each interaction term to the above regression model, significant negative interactions were observed for age and cigarette smoking. From the analysis of covariance, lower levels of serum GGT associated with coffee consumption were more evident in the older age group and at the higher levels of cigarette smoking. These findings suggest that coffee consumption is inversely related to serum GGT and that coffee may inhibit the inducing effects of aging and possibly of smoking on serum GGT in the liver.
Article
To analyse the incidence, prevalence, aetiology, risk factors and prognosis of hospitalizations for atrial fibrillation. A random population sample of 7495 men aged 47-55 years was first examined in 1970-73. During follow-up until 1996 (mean 25.2 years) 754 men were hospitalized with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. In the age groups of 55-64, 65-74 and 75-79 years, the incidence rate was 2.0, 5.8 and 17.3 per 1000 person years, and the prevalence 1.2, 4.2 and 8.0%, respectively. Definite or possible coronary heart disease was diagnosed in 46.0%, heart failure in further 20.2% and valvular heart disease or cardiomyopathy in 4.5%. In bivariate analysis adjusted for age, the following factors were significantly associated with future hospitalization for fibrillation: a family history of myocardial infarction, stroke in mother, dyspnoea at entry, alcohol abuse, high body stature and body weight, high blood pressure but not diabetes, high serum cholesterol, high heart rate, smoking, coffee consumption or psychological stress. Significant risk factors in multivariate analysis were age, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] -1.11 (1.07, 1.16) per year, hospitalization for coronary heart disease or heart failure -6.77 (5.17, 8.87), stroke in mother - 1.49 (1.15, 1.93), high body stature -1.04 (1.03, 1.06) per cm, high body mass index (BMI) -1.07 (1.04, 1.10) per kg m(-2), as well as hypertension -1.33 (1.07, 1.65). After a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, mortality was increased by 3.3 times. In spite of a clinical association with coronary heart disease, risk factors for atrial fibrillation were only partly the same. Prevention includes avoidance of weight gain and control of blood pressure as well as prevention of myocardial infarction and heart failure.
Article
The coffee components kahweol and cafestol (K/C) have been reported to protect the colon and other organs of the rat against the formation of DNA adducts by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP) and aflatoxin B1. PhIP is a cooked-food mutagen to which significant human exposure and a role in colon cancer etiology are attributed, and, interestingly, such cancers appear to develop at a lower rate in consumers of coffees with high amounts of K/C. Earlier studies in rodent liver have shown that a key role in the chemopreventive effect of K/C is likely to be due to the potential of these compounds to induce the detoxification of xenobiotics by glutathione transferase (GST) and to enhance the synthesis of the corresponding co-factor glutathione. However, mutagens like PhIP may also be detoxified by UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) for which data are lacking regarding a potential effect of K/C. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effect of K/C on UDPGT and, concomitantly, we studied overall GST and the pattern of individual GST classes, particularly GST-theta;, which was not included in earlier experiments. In addition, we analyzed the organ-dependence of these potentially chemopreventive effects. K/C was fed to male F344 rats at 0.122% in the chow for 10 days. Enzyme activities in liver, kidney, lung, colon, salivary gland, pancreas, testis, heart and spleen were quantified using five characteristic substrates and the hepatic protein pattern of GST classes alpha, mu, and pi was studied with affinity chromatography/HPLC. Our study showed that K/C is not only capable of increasing overall GST and GST classes alpha, mu, and pi but also of enhancing UDGPT and GST-theta. All investigated K/C effects were strongest in liver and kidney, and some response was seen in lung and colon but none in the other organs. In summary, our results show that K/C treatment leads to a wide spectrum of increases in phase II detoxification enzymes. Notably, these effects occurred preferentially in the well perfused organs liver and kidney, which may thus not only contribute to local protection but also to anti-carcinogenesis in distant, less stimulated organs such as the colon.
Article
It has been suggested that a high caffeine intake in pregnancy may be a risk factor for fetal growth retardation. We have tested this hypothesis in a population-based case-control study. Caffeine intake among 111 mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants (56 boys, 55 girls) was compared with the intake among 747 mothers of non-SGA infants (368 boys, 379 girls). Food records for 3 days were collected in the second (week 17-20) and in the third (week 33) trimester, and caffeine intake from coffee, tea, soft drinks and chocolate was calculated and dichotomised as low or high, based upon the median value. Mothers of SGA infants had higher mean intake of caffeine [281 +/- 210 (SD) mg/day] in the third trimester than mothers of non-SGA infants (212 +/- 150 mg/day; P < 0.001). The risk of SGA birth was nearly doubled if the mother had a high rather than a low caffeine intake in the third trimester [odds ratio (OR) 1.8; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.2, 2.5]. The increased risk was mainly found in boys (OR 2.8; 95% CI 1.5, 5.2), and not in girls (OR 1.2; 95% CI 0.7, 2.1). The increased risk for boys persisted after adjustment for cigarette smoking alone, or for smoking and various other SGA risk factors together. Our results suggest that a high caffeine intake in the third trimester may be a risk factor for fetal growth retardation, in particular if the fetus is a boy.
Article
Evidence for a harmful effect of caffeine intake on risk of miscarriage (spontaneous abortion) is inconsistent and nausea during pregnancy has been claimed to explain any association seen. The objective of this analysis was to determine whether caffeine consumption both before and during pregnancy influenced the risk of miscarriage in a group of pregnant women in the UK. We examined the association with maternal caffeine intake in a case-control study of 474 nulliparous women. Participants were recruited during the years 1987-89 from the Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading and from a large group practice situated within the hospital's catchment area. Cases were 160 women with a clinically diagnosed miscarriage and controls were 314 pregnant women attending for antenatal care. Information on coffee/tea/cola consumption and potential confounders was collected by interview and caffeine content was assigned to individual drinks according to published data on caffeine content of beverages. Compared with a maternal caffeine intake of < 151 mg/day, we found evidence that caffeine consumption > 300 mg/day doubled the risk of miscarriage. Adjusted odds ratios were 1.94 [95% CI 1.04, 3.63] for 301-500 mg/day and 2.18 [95% CI 1.08, 4.40] for > 500 mg/day. This effect could not be explained by nausea in pregnancy. Nausea appeared to be strongly independently associated with a reduced risk of miscarriage (test for trend P < 0.0001). There was no evidence that prepregnancy caffeine consumption affected the risk. Our results indicate that high caffeine consumption during pregnancy (>300 mg/day), in particular coffee consumption, is an independent risk factor for increased risk and nausea is an independent protective factor for a lower risk of miscarriage.
Article
Studies evaluating the relationships between coffee, tea and caffeine and ovarian cancer risk have given inconsistent results. We have examined these associations using data from an Australian population-based case-control study. Women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) (n = 696) and control women selected from the Electoral Roll (n = 786) provided comprehensive reproductive and lifestyle data and completed a food frequency questionnaire. Increasing coffee consumption was associated with a decreased risk of invasive EOC ( p trend = 0.009) with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.51 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-0.80) for consumption of >/=4 cups of coffee per day compared to non-drinkers. The association was significant only for serous and endometrioid/clear cell histological subtypes. There was no association with borderline tumours (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.58-2.47). An inverse relationship was also seen between caffeine intake and EOC but tea consumption was not related to EOC (OR: 1.10 95% CI: 0.76-1.61 for >/=4 cups/day versus none). As tea contributed significantly to caffeine intake in this population we conclude that the association we observed with coffee is not due to caffeine, but to other components within coffee. We suggest future studies consider the type as well as the amount of each beverage consumed.
Article
The association between coffee consumption, type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance was examined. In addition, indicators of insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function according to homeostasis model assessment were studied in relation to coffee consumption. Population-based cross-sectional study. The study comprised 7949 healthy Swedish subjects aged 35-56 years residing within five municipalities of Stockholm. An oral glucose tolerance test identified 55 men and 52 women with previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and 172 men and 167 women with impaired glucose tolerance. Information about coffee consumption and other factors was obtained by questionnaire. The relative risks (adjusted for potential confounders) of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance when drinking >/=5 cups of coffee per day compared with </=2 cups per day in men were 0.45 [95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.22-0.92] and 0.63 (CI: 0.41-0.97), respectively, and in women 0.27 (CI: 0.11-0.66) and 0.47 (CI: 0.29-0.76) respectively. In subjects with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance, high coffee consumption (>/=5 cups day(-1)) was inversely associated with insulin resistance. In addition, in those with type 2 diabetes and in women (not in men) with impaired glucose tolerance high coffee consumption was inversely associated with low beta-cell function. In women, but not obviously in men, with normal glucose tolerance, coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of insulin resistance. The results of this study indicated that high consumers of coffee have a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. The beneficial effects may involve both improved insulin sensitivity and enhanced insulin response.
Article
The literature from 1990 to 2003 on the relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea and colorectal cancer risk has been reviewed. For the relation with coffee, three cohort (517 total cases) and nine case-control studies (7555 cases) analysed colon cancer; three cohort (307 cases) and four case-control studies (2704 cases) rectal cancer; six case-control studies (854 cases) colorectal cancer. For colon cancer most case-control studies found risk estimates below unity; the results are less clear for cohort studies. No relation emerged for rectal cancer. A meta-analysis, including five cohort and twelve case-control studies, reported a pooled relative risk of 0.76 (significant). Any methodological artefact is unlikely to account for the consistent inverse association in different countries and settings. Plausible biological explanations include coffee-related reductions of cholesterol, bile acids and neutral sterol secretion in the colon; antimutagenic properties of selected coffee components; increased colonic motility. Decaffeinated coffee was not related to either colon or rectal cancer in three case-control studies. No overall association between tea and either colon or rectal cancer risk emerged in seven cohort (1756 total cases of colon, 759 of rectal and 60 of colorectal cancer) and 12 case-control studies (8058 cases of colon, 4865 of rectal, 604 of colorectal cancer).
Article
Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.
Article
According to epidemiologic studies, dietary phenolic antioxidants, such as chlorogenic acid (CQA), could prevent coronary heart diseases and some cancers. Coffee is the main source of CQA in the human diet. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of usual coffee consumption conditions, such as the addition of milk, on CQA bioavailability. Interactions between CQA and milk proteins were shown, using an ultrafiltration technique. These interactions proved to be slightly disrupted during an in vitro digestion process. CQA absorption and bioavailability were then studied in vitro using a Caco-2 cell model coupled with an in vitro digestion process, and in vivo, in a chronic supplementation study in which rats were fed daily coffee or coffee and milk for 3 weeks. Both experiments showed that CQA absorption under its native form is weak, but unmodified by the addition of milk proteins, and slightly reduced by the addition of Maillard reaction products. These data show that there are some interactions between coffee phenolics and milk proteins, but these have no significant effect on CQA bioavailability from coffee in the rat. CQA is poorly absorbed under its native form in the body, when ingested in a realistic food matrix.
Article
Coffee has become a popular beverage worldwide. Caffeine, a major ingredient of coffee, has been proposed to have a favorable affect on the modulation of circulating estrogen levels and therefore may be of importance in developments on hormone-related cancers. However, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the relationship between intake of coffee and hormone-related cancer risk among Japanese women using data from the hospital-based epidemiological research program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC). In total, 2122 breast, 229 endometrial and 166 ovarian cancer cases were included, and 12 425 women, confirmed as free of cancer, were recruited as the control group. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. A statistically significant inverse association between risk of endometrial cancer and coffee consumption was noted in Japanese women, with no clear association evident for breast and ovarian cancer risk. Compared to non-drinker, the OR of daily drinking of 1-2 cups and 3 or more cups per day for endometrial cancer were 0.64 (95% CI: 0.43-0.94) and 0.41 (95% CI: 0.19-0.87), respectively, and the linear trend was also statistically significant (P < 0.01). However, there was no statistically significant association between caffeine intake and endometrial cancer. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that coffee consumption reduces the risk of endometrial cancer in Japanese subjects. Given the scarcity of studies of coffee intake and endometrial cancer and other hormone-dependent cancer risk, additional investigations are warranted.
Article
The effects of chlorogenic acid (CA) on hepatic glucose output, blood glucose levels and on glucose tolerance were analysed. Hepatic uptake of CA and its effects on hepatic catabolism of L-alanine and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) activity were also evaluated. CA (1 mM) inhibited about 40% of G-6-Pase activity (p < 0.05) in the microsomal fraction of hepatocytes, but no effect was observed on production of glucose from gluconeogenesis or on L-alanine catabolism, at various concentrations of CA (0.33, 0.5 and 1 mM), in liver perfusion experiments. Since there were indications of a lack of uptake of CA by the liver, it is possible that this compound did not reach sufficiently high intracellular levels to inhibit the target enzyme. Accordingly, intravenous administration of CA also failed to provoke a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, CA did promote a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the plasma glucose peak at 10 and 15 min during the oral glucose tolerance test, probably by attenuating intestinal glucose absorption, suggesting a possible role for it as a glycaemic index lowering agent and highlighting it as a compound of interest for reducing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.