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Investigation on Effects of Self-Esteem on High School Students' Academic Achievement

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to investigate the Effects of self-esteem on academic achievement of high school. This study is correlational; the research population consisted of 2150 male and female students in high school in Samalghan and Mane town. Totally 350 students were selected Using systematic cluster sampling as the sample. To test self-esteem Cooper Smith's questionnaire (58 questions) was used and for statistical analysis of data the Pearson correlation coefficient in the .0.0 was used. Our findings suggest that the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of high school students is direct, positive and significant. The degree of Pearson correlation between family environment and parental behavior and academic achievement is 00623 and between classroom environment and teachers and academic achievement 0/576and between their perceptions of themselves and academic progress is Pearson 0.602. According to statistical data, survey results showed that there is a high correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement and those with higher self-esteem have higher standard of educational condition compared to those with low self-esteem.
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International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research. Vol., 3 (SP), 312-315, 2014
Available online at http://www.isicenter.org
ISSN 2147-3749 ©2014
Investigation on Effects of Self-Esteem on High School Students' Academic
Achievement
Amin Amani1*, Zahra Shakarami2, Hamid Khezri 3, Mohamad Reza Hadi3
1PhD student of Sport Management, Shomal University, Amol, Iran
2PhD student of Sport Management, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Sport Management, Payam Noor University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
*Corresponding Author Email: amani.amin311@yahoo.com
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the Effects of self-esteem on academic achievement
of high school. This study is correlational; the research population consisted of 2150 male
and female students in high school in Samalghan and Mane town. Totally 350 students
were selected Using systematic cluster sampling as the sample. To test self-esteem
Cooper Smith's questionnaire (58 questions) was used and for statistical analysis of data
the Pearson correlation coefficient in the  was used. Our findings suggest that the
relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of high school students is
direct, positive and significant. The degree of Pearson correlation between family
environment and parental behavior and academic achievement is 0623 and between
classroom environment and teachers and academic achievement 0/576and between their
perceptions of themselves and academic progress is Pearson 0.602. According to
statistical data, survey results showed that there is a high correlation between self-esteem
and academic achievement and those with higher self-esteem have higher standard of
educational condition compared to those with low self-esteem.
Keywords: Self-esteem, Educational achievement, High school.
Introduction
The educational institution is one of the earliest institutions which there have been in all known societies throughout
history, and also there will be in the future. Although the institutional structure in light of technological advances may change
over time but its function is still transferring skills and knowledge culture to the next generation (Wickline, 2006). One of the most
effective systems in the today and the future world is the education system of every country. Educational achievement is the
outputs of schools, universities and other educational centers which is an important indicator of achievement to the business
goals (Ansari, 2006). However the educational functions is not limited to this clear and this institutions have potential functions
like increase or decrease in self-esteem. One of the common problems of the educational system in many countries is the
phenomenon of school failure which results in scientific, cultural, and economic loss for government and families. Many attempts
have done to identify important factors in academic achievement and present strategies and measures to reduce the educational
damage (Keup, 2006). Student engagement and interaction is one of the keys to meaningful learning. The second key is that
information and knowledge should be provided in a structure and format to the pupil that is tangible to him (Wang, 2004).
Mackie and Smith (2002) regarding self-esteem express that: Your self-esteem is one of the determinants of human
behavior. In fact perceptions and judgments that people have from selves determine how to deal with different issues. One who
has low self-esteem and do not respect to himself, may suffer from isolation, withdrawal, or aggression and anti-social behavior.
Self-esteem can be thought as a collection of thoughts, feelings, emotions and experiences which forms throughout the social
life. Thousands of perception, assessment and experience that a person has of him, makes him to feel good about himself, or
vice versa (Mackie, 2002). In other words, the purpose of self-esteem is how people think about themselves, how he feels
himself socially and academically and how much is the level of organization and how it is close to ideal and real self (Hosseini,
2007). Maslow described self-esteem as a requirement and states that all people in our community need to self-esteem or self-
respect or respect for others (MadadiZavareh & Kamkar, 2007). Cooper- Smith (Cooer Smith) finds himself a key factor in
creating the kind of behavior; He believes that self-esteem comes into existence by needs to positive opinion to self
(Hasanzadeh & Imaneifar, 2003). Self-esteem as a critical asset is the most important factor in the development and flourishing
Intl. J. Basic. Sci. Appl. Res. Vol., 3 (SP), 312-315, 2014
313
of talent and creativity which in recent decades, as one of the most important factors has attracted the attention of many
researchers and psychologists in the growth and prosperity of mankind (Valizadeh & Emamipoor, 2007).
In this context, a successful program in the education system is one that occurs through the active participation of students
and their direct involvement. Students' spontaneity and access to self-direction and self-discovery capabilities is possible when
we provide preliminary of flourishing talent and the coach instead of being an agent, take the leading role and indirect care
(Keup, 2006). Since educational motivation is directly related to the amount of learning among learners it is necessary to create
a dynamic learning system that gets more attention to this case. Inattention to children's problems undoubtedly leads to the
congestion of troubles and make the troubles to tie together and causing psychological and educational unorganization for them.
Such ignorance causes the waste of human resources on the one hand and plague of staffing on the other hand (Brunstein &
Mayer, 2005). Programs in the late twentieth century, which was used to increase self-esteem, yields little and showed no
significant effect on the academic achievement and some researchers find direct link between self-esteem and academic
achievement only for male students before puberty (Wickline, 2006).
Sanveny et al (2007) in a study of mental health of athlete found that self-esteem has a relationship with a positive quality
such as social adjustment, coping with stress and health-related behavior (Sonwany & Sharma, 2007). To compare the
relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement in different societies, different ethnicities, cultures, subcultures,
and educational level also should be noted. Wickine (2006) in his meta-analysis study, have investigated the broad challenges of
this matter. For instance, the correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement in elementary schools r = 0/16, in
secondary r = 0/15 and in high school, r = 0/21 have increased, but in college r = 0/09 was reduced and it can be concluded that
academic achievement is more important for young than for adults. Finally, the results from this study may be a reflection of bias
or conflict between cultures (Wickline, 2006).
Among the main concerns of teachers, education officials and university students' families, is the academic achievement
and prevention from academic failure (Tamannaifar et al., 2010). Motivation is considered a prerequisite to learning and a factor
that gives the intensity and direction to the behavior and helps the learner in maintaining continuity of learning and gives him
energy and directs his activities (Baykal et al., 2005). Students, who have higher self-confidence and self-esteem, are more
successful in homework and academic achievement and have more involvement in school and the community (12.4).
Researchers believe that the self-esteem which is the determinants of human behavior, at different stages of life is affected by
how he communicates with others (Heydarpour et al., 2008). So conducting a comprehensive study of academic achievement is
undoubtedly necessary and thus the variables affecting this concept is also important.
Methodology
This study is correlational; the research population consisted of 2150 male and female students in high school in
Samalghan and Mane town. Totally 350 students were selected Using systematic cluster sampling as the sample. To test self-
esteem Cooper Smith's questionnaire (58 questions) was used. Self Esteem Scale is an assessment tool which is codified and
provided based on the 1966 revision of the scale Rogers and Dymound (1945). The questionnaire is consists of three subscales
(general self-esteem and self-study courses parent family). This scale consists of 58 articles which 8 of them; the numbers 6, 13,
20, 27, 34, 41, 46, 48, and 55 is polygraph which has a neutral effect on the correction list. If the respondent mentioned more
than 4 point out of 8 Article it means that the connection of test is low and the subject has tried to appear himself better than
what he is. The range of responses of the subjects is Yes, No. Each person will choose one of the options which suit his
situation. In questions: (2, 4, 5, 10, 11, 14, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 28, 29, 30, 32, 36, 45, 47, 58) yes answer has one score and to
the answer no zero score is awarded.
Regarding the total grade, level of self-esteem of each individual, is determined. Obviously, each person could get a
minimum score of zero and maximum score of 50. Also the students' average scores were used as measures of academic
achievement. In the Shushtary and Shekarshekan study, Coopers' test reliability coefficients were was reported as 90/0 and 93/0
respectively. Also the internal consistency and reliability coefficients of this scale were reported as 0.92 by Soghra Ebrahimi
ghavam on a group of students. This indicates that the scale is stable, reproducible and accurate. After collecting the
questionnaires to analyze the survey data, two methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. In descriptive
statistics, using tables and the frequency charts, the Respondents' social situation is described. Then, using the inferential
statistics, link between self-esteem and academic achievement were tested. For this purpose, the Pearson correlation coefficient
at a significance level (0.05) was used.
Results
First hypothesis: the family environment and parental behavior has an impact on academic achievement.
Table 1. The frequency distribution in terms of correlation between academic achievement and Family environment and parental
behavior.
Family environment and parental behavior
academic achievement
Pearson correlation
0.623
The minimum level of Sig.
0.000
N
350
Intl. J. Basic. Sci. Appl. Res. Vol., 3 (SP), 312-315, 2014
314
According to the data mentioned in the table the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.623 and because the significance level of
test is smaller than 5% (5% <0.000) the null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is confirmed with 95% certainty.
Given the positive correlation coefficient it can be argued that there is a positive, direct and significant relationship between the
family environment and parental behavior on academic achievement.
Second hypothesis
Classroom environment and teachers have effect on academic achievement?.
Table 2. The frequency distribution in terms of correlation between academic achievement and Classroom environment and
teachers.
Classroom environment and teachers
academic achievement
Pearson correlation
0.576
The minimum level of Sig.
0.000
N
350
According to the data mentioned in the table the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.576 and because the significance level of
test is smaller than 5% (5% <0.000) the null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is confirmed with 95% certainty.
Given the positive correlation coefficient it can be argued that there is a positive, direct and significant relationship between the
classroom and the teacher's on academic achievement.
Third hypothesis
One's perceptions of him have impact on academic achievement?
Table 3. The frequency distribution in terms of correlation between academic achievement and Rate of one's perceptions of him.
Rate of one's perceptions of him
academic achievement
Pearson correlation
0.602
The minimum level of Sig.
0.000
N
350
According to the data mentioned in the table the Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.602 and because the significance level of
test is smaller than 5% (5% <0.000) the null hypothesis is rejected and the research hypothesis is confirmed with 95% certainty.
Given the positive correlation coefficient it can be argued that there is a positive, direct and significant relationship between one's
perceptions of him and on academic achievement.
Discussion and Conclusion
One of the most effective systems in the today and the future world is the education system of each country. Educational
achievement is of outputs schools, universities and other educational establishments, which is an important indicator of goals
attainments (Ansari & Oskrochi, 2006). This study examined the effects of self-esteem on academic achievement of high school
students. The findings suggest that the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement of high school students is
direct, positive and significant. The degree of correlation between family environment and parental behavior and academic
achievement is Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.623 and between classroom environment and teachers and academic
achievement Pearson correlation coefficient is 0.576 and between individual's perceptions of them and academic progress
Pearson correlation coefficient is 0. 602. In this study, a significant and positive correlation between the three levels of self-
esteem and academic achievement existed (p <0/05); it means that, by increasing general, family and school self-esteem
scores, educational achievement increases.
The results of the research hypotheses shows that the research findings is consistent with Biabangard's (2003) research in
which he showed that There is a significant correlation between locus of control, self-esteem and academic achievement. The
study of Hassanzadeh et al (2007) a correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement was observed which is aligned
with the present study. In the study of Tamanaeifar et al (2010) the correlation between self-esteem and academic achievement
of students unlike the present study has not been found. In a study by Pourshafy (2000) about self-esteem and academic
achievement the findings confirmed that there is a correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. In another
study, several factors have been associated with academic achievement. For example, social support which leads to the
development of self-esteem. However, the relationship between self-esteem and academic success is confirmed, but factors
such as family support, school, teachers, society, culture and lifestyle also could be associated with academic success that
require further investigation (Lopez Stewart, 2002). People who have higher self-esteem, compared to those with low self-
esteem, have better academic status and there is a positive correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem.
Therefore, it is recommended that programming be according to boosting self-esteem to promote educational achievement.
Intl. J. Basic. Sci. Appl. Res. Vol., 3 (SP), 312-315, 2014
315
Further studies should be done to evaluate the role of self-esteem and other factors associated with academic achievement.
Also some programs should be provided to teach social skills and to increase self-esteem.
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