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On the Evolution of BPMN 2.0 Support and Implementation

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... Typically, application portability is bound to standardization and conformance of implementations to these standards [314]. However, there are also reasons against standardization, and in the past, software standards have failed to achieve portability in various ways [60,114,323]. IT is advancing at a fast pace and vendors as well as users often oppose standards as inhibitors of innovation. This is a double-edged challenge for portability: standardizing enough functionality for technological stability while ensuring that innovation 1.1. ...
... Furthermore, the existence of a standard alone does not guarantee portability between implementations and software standards have failed to attain portability in various ways in the past [60]. Examples are a lack of conformance to existing standards or differing interpretations of standardization documents [114,323]. Especially in disruptive technologies like the cloud, a balance between innovation (nonportability) and standardization (portability) is vital [314]. Standardizing too early entails the risk of committing to an approach or technology that does not meet real-world needs, whereof several early cloud standards have suffered from [230,271,314]. ...
... Yet, we can see that vendors already have competing ideas and approaches for standardization. In the past, software standards have failed to achieve portability in various ways [60,114,323]. For the cloud, especially the lack of acceptance by industry leaders prevents adoption. ...
Thesis
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In recent years, the cloud hype has led to a multitude of different offerings across the entire cloud market, from Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) to Platform as a Service (PaaS) to Software as a Service (SaaS). Despite the high popularity, there are still several problems and deficiencies. Especially for PaaS, the heterogeneous provider landscape is an obstacle for the assessment and feasibility of application portability. Thus, the thesis deals with the analysis and improvement of application portability in PaaS environments. In the course of this, obstacles over the typical life cycle of an application - from the selection of a suitable cloud provider, through the deployment of the application, to the operation of the application - are considered. To that end, the thesis presents a decision support system for the selection of cloud platforms based on an improved delimitation and conceptualization of PaaS. With this system, users can identify offerings that enable application portability. For validation, a case study with a real-world application is conducted that is migrated to different cloud platforms. In this context, an assessment framework for measuring migration efforts is developed, which allows making the differences between compatible providers quantifiable. Despite semantically identical use cases, the application management interface of the providers is identified as a central effort factor of the migration. To reduce the effort in this area, the thesis presents a unified interface for application deployment and management. In summary, the work provides evidence of application portability problems in PaaS environments and presents a framework for early detection and avoidance. In addition, the results of the work contribute to a reduction of lock-in effects by proposing a suitable standard for management interfaces.
... Parts of this chapter have been taken from [81,84,94,97,100,150]. ...
... However, there are reasons why it was not possible to integrate more. Regarding BPMN, the reason is that the other engines do not fulfill the Aptitude Test (P8) [81,84,85]. Only three out of the evaluated 47 BPMN engines fulfill the criteria to be integrated into this API. ...
... The engine camunda BPM 7.0 is an actual fork 45 of Activiti, starting with Activiti 5.12.0 in March 2013. However, since 2013, both camunda BPM and Activiti have diverged in their capabilities [81,84,85]. This shows that despite having shared code at some point in time, they have evolved separately, and have resulted in different engines. ...
Thesis
Business processes have become ubiquitous in industry today. They form the main ingredient of business process management. The two most prominent standardized languages to model business processes are Web Services Business Process Execution Language 2.0 (BPEL) and Business Process Model and Notation 2.0 (BPMN). Business process engines allow for automatic execution of business processes. There is a plethora of business process engines available, and thus, one has the agony of choice: which process engine fits the demands the best? The lack of objective, reproducible, and ascertained information about the quality of such process engines makes rational choices very difficult. This can lead to baseless and premature decisions that may result in higher long term costs. This work provides an effective and efficient benchmarking solution to reveal the necessary information to allow making rational decisions. The foundation comprises an abstraction layer for process engines that provides a uniform API to interact with any engine similarly and a benchmark language for process engines to represent benchmarks in a concise, self-contained, and interpretable domain-specific language. A benchmark framework for process engines performs benchmarks represented in this language on engines implementing the abstraction layer. The produced benchmark results are visualized and made available for decision makers via a public interactive dashboard. On top of that, the efficient benchmark framework uses virtual machines to improve test isolation and reduce “time to result” by snapshot restoration accepting a management overhead. Based on the gained experience, eight challenges faced in process engine benchmarking are identified, resulting in 21 process engine benchmarking. Results show that this approach is both effective and efficient. Effective because it covers four BPEL-based and another four BPMN-based benchmarks which cover half of the quality characteristics defined by the ISO/IEC 25010 product quality model. Efficient because it fully automates the benchmarking of process engines and can leverage virtualization for an even higher execution efficiency. With this approach, the barrier for creating good benchmarks is significantly lowered. This allows decision makers to consistently evaluate process engines and, thus, makes rational decisions for the corresponding selection possible.
... Schematic outline of BPEL language support-dashed ellipses represent different subsets of language elements, e.g., the sets of elements supported by particular engines. Overlaps between the sets constitute subsets of elements that are supported by a higher amount of engines situation is rather different, as demonstrated in recent benchmarks [11,12,20,21]. There, each runtime typically supports a specific subset of the language elements. ...
... For that reason, we address BPEL instead of XPDL. BPMN does provide an XML serialization format and addresses execution semantics of process definitions in its current revision 2.0, but many vendors do not yet use it for direct execution [12]. Instead, it is common to visualize a process in BPMN and map the visualization to another language for execution [51]. ...
... This maturity makes the observation of portability problems, which despite the time still exist, more valuable. Nevertheless, we are currently working on benchmarking the standard conformance of several BPMN runtimes [11,12] and aim to reproduce the portability metrics computation presented in this paper for BPMN processes. ...
Article
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A key promise of process languages based on open standards, such as the Web Services Business Process Execution Language, is the avoidance of vendor lock-in through the portability of processes among runtime environments. Despite the fact that today various runtimes claim to support this language, every runtime implements a different subset, thus hampering portability and locking in their users. It is our intention to improve this situation by enabling the measurement of the portability of executable service-oriented processes. This helps developers to assess their implementations and to decide if it is feasible to invest in the effort of porting a process to another runtime. In this paper, we define several software quality metrics that quantify the degree of portability of an executable, service-oriented process from different viewpoints. When integrated into a development environment, such metrics can help to improve the portability of the outcome. We validate the metrics theoretically with respect to measurement theory and construct validity using two validation frameworks. The validation is complemented with an empirical evaluation of the metrics using a large set of processes coming from several process libraries.
... The resulting process graph reflects also the chronological order of execution. BPMN has been initially released on 2007 and the current official release is version 2.0.2 that has been published in January 2014 (Geiger et al., 2016;OMG, 2007). The officially stated goal of the standard is to provide a method for visualizing in a strict and formal, yet intuitive and approachable way business processes so that they can be developed from both technical and non-technical stakeholders. ...
... For the BPMN 2.0 specification, Geiger et al (2016) performed an analysis of the evolution of the standard, while Falcone et al. (2017) focus on the potential of the model that originates from its appealing graphical presentation and attempt to integrate it with other modelling and simulation systems. ...
Conference Paper
The last decade marked undeniably the leading role of web services and the establishment of service-oriented architectures. Indeed, it is nowadays hard to find a contemporary software application that does not use at least one third-party web service. The main driver for this paradigm shift, lies in the benefits that decoupled, cloud-based services bring to software development, operation and maintenance as well as at the seamless deployment, integration and scalability features those modern public clouds provide.
... The API is documented using the built-in capabilities of StrongLoop's API Explorer 5 which exposes the API documentation as a browseable hypertext markup language (HTML) document. The intended use of a business process management and notation (BPMN)-based system as a controller is to utilize existing BPMS [20] (e. g., Camunda BPM 6 or jBPM 7 ). The purpose of this decision is twofold: firstly, the use of BPMN can enable the involvement and understanding of persons not accustomed to classical programming (e. g., stakeholders from management or machine operations) as it provides a more intuitive and graphical approach to composing a program or procedure. ...
... The prototype builds upon the LoopBack framework. This framework is based on Node.js and allows for rapid development and deployment of RESTful APIs by utilizing AngularJS on the client side, providing persistent storage through a number of services like MySQL, MongoDB, or other REST services and providing a backend using StrongLoop PM. 20 Through these architectural decisions, the implementation satisfies the requirements of scalability, reliability, and ease of deployment. ...
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With this research, an implementation of an overlay and abstracting RESTful API (application programming interface) for 3D printers is proposed to expose these resources to the Internet for utilization within and for cloud services. This is to abstract the underlying communication structure and means for accessing and controlling a 3D printer resource in one of three ways. The first way is a proprietary protocol or a 3D printer driver in Microsoft Windows. The second way is the control via a USB-serial connection between a controlling computer and the printer resource. This protocol can either be in a proprietary format or based on open standards like G-Code (ISO 6983-1:2009). The third way of control is based on physical storage devices attached to the printer with machining instructions stored on them. This research excludes the communication and control means involving proprietary protocols or drivers due complexity restrictions within the implementation. The approach is designed with extensibility in mind so that future access to proprietary protocols can be added to the control API. 3D printer resources with only the third control method available are also excluded from this research due to their lack of remote controllability. This work describes the design and implementation of an abstraction API layer between varying software and hardware components with an extensible architecture for future hardware and software components for within the domain of additive manufacturing (AM). With this research, the connection to further cloud services as 3D printing resources as well as a cloud printing service for usage and control of this API is demonstrated. This enables the use of AM machinery within cloud or business process-oriented architectures as the AM machinery and the associated software are exposed in an abstract and unified way and usable as services.
... At this point in time, however, support for RAM snapshots of containers is not existing, but HDD snapshots are available. Example This pattern is used in both, betsy [8] and BenchFlow [4]. Execution Trace Evaluation (P14) and Engine API Evaluation (P15) are alternatives. ...
Chapter
Workflow engines are frequently used in the service-oriented and cloud computing domains. Since engines have significant impact on the quality of service provided by hosted applications, it is desirable to compare and select the most appropriate engine for a given task. To enable such a comparison, approaches for benchmarking workflow engines have emerged. Although these approaches deal with different quality properties, such as performance or standard conformance, they face many reoccurring problems during the design and implementation phase, which they solve in similar ways. In this paper, we describe such common solutions to reoccurring problems in the area of workflow engine benchmarking as patterns. Our aim is to present pattern candidates that help benchmark authors to design and implement proper and valid workflow engine benchmarks and benchmarking tools.
... Thus, we say, in our example of a library, "issued UNTIL end semester"; "issued UNTIL returned"; "issued UNTIL 10 days". In information systems/software engineering, a number of proposals exist that include a clock in the system [17], [18]. This enables the modeler to treat time as a state of the clock and we obtain the notion of a temporal state. ...
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The Business Rules Group has highlighted the importance of the ownership of business rules by business people. This calls for a business oriented view of business rules. Accordingly, we propose to introduce a Business Layer on top of the CIM layer of business rules that considers the essential nature of business rules, their properties and structure as well as inter-relationships between business rules. We propose a model that inhabits the business layer. This model provides (a) flat and hierarchical business rules, (b) business rules that operate on the state of an enterprise and cause state changes (c) temporal constraints and specification of long running and instantaneous business rules. Further, we develop a Business Rule Management system(BRMS) that, besides basic CRUD capability, allows construction of business rules from given ones. Our proposals are exemplified with a subset of the business rules of a Library.
... (1) Betsy uses this pattern for BPEL conformance benchmarking at several levels to limit the execution time that a benchmark consumes [Harrer et al. 2012] (2) In the same fashion, Betsy uses this pattern to optimize the execution times of BPMN conformance benchmarks [Geiger et al. 2016b] (3) In BenchFlow, timeouts for the response times were calibrated to make sure that engines had enough time to respond [Skouradaki et al. 2016]. ...
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Workflow engines are frequently used in the domains of business process management, service orchestration, and cloud computing, where they serve as middleware platforms for integrated business applications. Engines have a significant impact on the quality of service provided by hosted applications. Therefore, it is desirable to compare them and to select the most appropriate engine for a given task. To enable such a comparison, approaches for benchmarking workflow engines have emerged. Although these approaches deal with different quality attributes, i.e., performance or standard conformance, they face many reoccurring design and implementation problems, which have been solved in similar ways. In this paper, we present a pattern language that captures such common solutions to reoccurring problems (e.g., from test identification, benchmarking procedure validation, automatic engine interaction, and workflow execution observation) in the area of workflow engine conformance and performance benchmarking. Our aim is to help future benchmark authors with the pattern language presented in this paper to benefit from our experience with the design and implementation of workflow engine benchmarks and benchmarking tools.
... Yet, we can see that vendors already have competing ideas and approaches in this area. In the past, software standards have failed for achieving portability in various ways [16]- [18]. For the cloud, especially the lack of acceptance by industry leaders prevents adoption and the market is also still too fragmented and evolving at the moment. ...
Conference Paper
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Platform as a Service is the major productivity enabler in the cloud computing stack. By providing managed and highly automated application environments, it enhances developer productivity and reduces developer operations and maintenance efforts. The market, however, is fast-changing and offerings are differing conceptually as well as in their supported technological ecosystem. Therefore, provider selection is an important but currently not well supported step for companies trying to benefit from the technology. Influenced by the diversity of service offerings and the absence of applied standards this is a tedious task, especially for ensuring application portability. In this paper, we present a multi-criteria selection approach for cloud platforms based on a field-tested ontology and a comprehensive data set. The methodology is enhanced by semantic algorithms and mappings to reduce hidden query and data biases. This allows not only the exact matching of requirements but also the evaluation of possible alternatives that can be adapted to fit the defined requirements. We validate our approach by contrasting real user queries against the results of our semantically enhanced algorithms.
... Dimension process engine capability: For BPEL 2.0 engines, betsy already covers a large variety of engine capabilities [9][10][11][12][13]18]. With the emergence of BPMN 2.0, we have started to benchmark the feature conformance and expressiveness of BPMN 2.0 engines as well [7,8]. Our current goal is to fill in open gaps by benchmarking BPMN 2.0 engines for the same set of capabilities as for BPEL 2.0 engines. ...
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Business process management and automation has been the focus of intense research for a long time. Today, a plethora of process languages for specifying and implementing process models have evolved. Examples for such languages are established international standards, such as BPEL 2.0 or, more recently, BPMN 2.0. Implementations of these standards which are able to execute models, so called process engines, differ in their quality of service, e.g., in performance or usability, but also in the degree to which they actually implement a given standard. Selecting the “best” engine for a particular use case is hard, as none of the existing process standards features an objective certification process to assess the quality of its implementations. To fill this gap, we present the current achievements in process engine benchmarking and point out future directions.
Thesis
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De nos jours, la modélisation et la simulation (M&S) jouent un rôle central dans le dimensionnement des processus métiers de l’industrie en raison d’une augmentation significative des composants qui y participent. La combinaison des composants produit un système complexe et induit une augmentation proportionnelle des risques inhérents aux projets. En conséquence, il est nécessaire de caractériser et maîtriser ces derniers dans les modèles et la simulation. De plus, le système étant l’association de différents domaines , les acteurs doivent pouvoir effectuer des simulations intégrant des composants spécifiques, indépendants, hétérogènes et distribués. Plusieurs standards de co-simulation proposent des mécanismes pour orchestrer des composants distribués. Parmi eux, deux standards: High Level Architecture (HLA) et Functional Mock-up Interface (FMI) permettent l’association de composants hétérogènes et possèdent respectivement des atouts d’expression des comportement et de gestion du temps. Cependant leur mise en œuvre reste compliquée avec des outils de gestion des processus et un besoin de compatibilité est toujours attendu. De plus, les implémentations conjointes des deux standards présentent des problèmes d’alignement des concepts et méthodes pour une orchestration globales des deux standards.Dans ce travail de recherche, nous proposons le développement d’une plateforme de modélisation et de simulation dans le but d’appréhender de façon plus formalisée la complexité du contexte industriel. Notre objectif est de proposer une méthode et un outil modulaire capable de résoudre différentes problématiques industrielles. Chaque thématique de recherche présentée ici sera traitée par une extension de la plateforme ayant pour rôle de répondre à une problématique en lien avec une complexité différente :-Modélisation et simulation des risques inhérents à un contexte industriel :Nous proposons une extension capable d’externaliser la définition de risques contextuels hors d’un modèle de simulation, afin de faciliter le développement et la simulation de ces derniers.-Intégration et interaction entre deux normes de cosimulation (HLA et FMI) :Nous proposons l’adaptation de notre plateforme de M&S au pilotage, et à la communication des deux standards de cosimulation.-Modélisation et orchestration d’une simulation distribuée :Nous proposons l’utilisation d’un langage graphique intégré à la plateforme pour le pilotage d’une simulation distribuée HLA.Ces contributions sont operationalisées et expérimentées dans le domaine de la production d’usines mobiles à énergies solaires par l’entreprise ALSOLENTECH. En effet, cette société a exprimé des besoins s’intégrant bien dans nos problématiques de recherches, elle nous fournit un cas d’étude et d’application et exploite nos travaux depuis les concepts jusqu’à l’exploitation des solutions proposées.
Chapter
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Chapter
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In this paper we examine the suitability of the Business Process Modelling Notation (BPMN) for business process modelling, using the Workflow Patterns as an evaluation framework. The Workflow Patterns are a collection of patterns developed for assessing control-flow, data and resource capabilities in the area of Process Aware Information Systems (PAISs). In doing so, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of the capabilities of BPMN, and its strengths and weaknesses when utilised for business process modelling. The analysis provided for BPMN is part of a larger effort aiming at an unbiased and vendor-independent survey of the suitability and the expressive power of some mainstream process modelling languages. It is a sequel to previous work in which languages including BPEL and UML Activity Diagrams were evaluated.
Conference Paper
BPMN 2.0 is a standard for business processes modeling. Besides praise for this notation, there is definitely some criticism. With a practical case study it is analyzed whether positive and negative associations with BPMN play a role in actual practical use. With the help of a group of students a practical case study is carried out, analyzing various BPMN products. This paper summarizes the results and findings from this case study.
Chapter
This chapter is intended to provide an overview and introduction to the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). We will describe BPMN and its historic development. In addition, we will provide the general context and usage of BPMN, layered upon the technical details defined in the BPMN 2.0 Specification. The basics of the BPMN notation will be described—that is, the types of graphical shapes, their purpose, and how they work together as part of a Business Process Model/Diagram. Also discussed will be the different uses of BPMN diagram types, including how levels of precision affect what a modeler will include in a diagram. Finally, the value in using BPMN as a standard notation will be defined.
Book
In this chapter we present an Abstract State Machine (ASM) ground model designed to rigorously specify the semantics of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) Process Diagrams, based on the BPMN 2.0 standard [95]. However, we deviate from the standard in several points, having identified several inconsistencies as well as ambiguities there. Moreover, we are not convinced that every construct in the standard is really helpful. We discuss these issues in detail.
Conference Paper
Today, process languages are frequently used for implementing service-oriented systems and a variety of specifications for this task exist. These specifications strive for the portability of processes among different runtime environments, i.e., process engines. However, direct portability, especially of executable processes, is seldom achieved. If processes cannot be ported directly among engines, an option is to adapt them. Such an adaptation is nontrivial and hence automated support is desirable. A first step in this direction is the quantification of the design-time adaptability of a process. This quantification is the goal of this paper. We formally define software metrics for measuring the design-time adaptability of processes and validate them theoretically with respect to measurement theory and construct validity using two validation frameworks. Moreover, we implement the metrics computation for Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) processes and demonstrate their practical applicability with an evaluation of a large set of open source processes.
Conference Paper
Service-oriented systems are increasingly implemented in a process-based fashion. Multiple languages for building process-based systems are available today, but the Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is becoming ubiquitous. With BPMN 2.0 released in 2011, execution semantics were introduced, supporting the definition of executable processes. Nowadays, more and more process engines directly support the execution of BPMN processes. However, the BPMN specification is lengthy and complex. As there are no official tests and no certification authority, it is very likely that engines a) implement only a subset of the language features and b) implement language features differently. In other words, we suspect that engines do not conform to the standard, despite the fact that they claim support for it. This prohibits the porting of processes between different BPMN vendors, which is an acclaimed goal of the language. In this paper, we investigate the standard conformance of open source BPMN engines to provide a clear picture of the current state of the implementation of BPMN. We develop a testing approach that allows us to build fully BPMN-compliant tests and automatically execute these tests on different engines. The results demonstrate that state-of-the-art BPMN engines only support a subset of the language. Moreover, they indicate that porting BPMN processes is only feasible when using basic language constructs.
Conference Paper
More than five years have passed since the final release of the long-desired OASIS standard of a process language for Web Services orchestration, the Web Services Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). The aim of this standard was to establish a universally accepted Web Services orchestration language that forms a core part of service-oriented architectures and, because of standardization, avoids vendor lock-in. By now, several fully conformant engines should have arrived in the market. It is our aim to shed light on this situation and to provide a comprehensive picture of the current state of BPEL support. We present an evaluation of the standard conformance of five open source BPEL engines. To obtain these results we have developed betsy, a tool that allows for a fully-automatic standard conformance testing of BPEL engines. The results demonstrate that full standard conformance in contemporary engines is still far from given.
Article
We investigate three approaches describing models of business processes: the OMG standard BPMN in its recent version 2.0, the workflow patterns of the Workflow Pattern Initiative and their reference implementation YAWL. We show how the three approaches fail to provide practitioners with a suitable means precisely and faithfully to capture business scenarios and to analyze, communicate and manage the resulting models. On the positive side, we distill from the discussion six criteria which can help to recognize practical and reliable tool-supported business process description and modeling systems. KeywordsBusiness process modeling–BPMN–Workflow patterns–YAWL
Conference Paper
Today, most approaches for inter-organizational busi- ness processes start bottom-up from the interfaces and the workflows of each partner described on the IT layer. Al- ternatively, one may start from the commitments and agree- ments between business partners to reach their complemen- tary business goals. The latter approach is target of the UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM), which mod- els a global choreography. In a model driven approach the UMM artifacts must be further elaborated towards an IT solution for each participating business partner. For this purpose we have developed a UML profile to model a local choreography or an orchestration that respects the agree- ments made in the global choreography. In order to execute the local choreography / orchestration in the local IT, the processes must be machine-readable. For this purpose we demonstrate a transformation to the business process exe- cution language (WS-BPEL).
Conference Paper
Applying choreography and orchestration technology has become a popular method of attacking Business-2-Business integration (B2Bi) challenges like agreement and communication among integration partners, compatibility of interacting processes and distributed computing. ebXML BPSS (ebBP) as dedicated B2Bi choreography standard and WS-BPEL as number one Web service orchestration language are particularly promising technologies. While ebBP can be used as means for agreement and communication among integration partners WS-BPEL and Web services can be used to solve distributed computing issues. The CHORCH approach applies model driven development to the ebBP-BPEL tool chain in order to further foster conformance of WS-BPEL orchestrations to ebBP choreographies, compatibility of interacting WS-BPEL processes and efficient software development cycles. This paper introduces 10 requirements for applying choreography and orchestration technology to B2Bi and shows how these are reflected in the CHORCH approach by applying three different types of ebBP modeling flavors.
Article
The Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is the de-facto standard for representing in a very expressive graphical way the processes occurring in virtually every kind of organization one can think of, from cuisine recipes to the Nobel Prize assignment process, incident management, e-mail voting systems, travel booking procedures, to name a few. In this work, we give an overview of BPMN and we present what are the links with other well-known machineries such as BPEL and XPDL. We give an assessment of how the OMG's BPMN standard is perceived and used by practitioners in everyday business process modeling chores.
Using Docker to Support Reproducible Research
  • R Chamberlain
  • J Schommer
R. Chamberlain and J. Schommer, "Using Docker to Support Reproducible Research," Invenshure, LLC, Tech. Rep., 2014.
A Pitfall with BPMN Execution
  • C Gutschier
  • R Hoch
  • H Kaindl
  • R Popp
C. Gutschier, R. Hoch, H. Kaindl, and R. Popp, "A Pitfall with BPMN Execution," in WEB, 2014, pp. 7-13.
On the Road to Benchmarking BPMN 2.0 Workflow Engines
  • M Skouradaki
  • D H Roller
  • F Leymann
  • V Ferme
  • C Pautasso
Opportunities for Business Process semantization in opensource process execution environments
  • K Kluza
  • K Kaczor
  • G J Nalepa
  • M Slazynski
K. Kluza, K. Kaczor, G. J. Nalepa, and M. Slazynski, "Opportunities for Business Process semantization in opensource process execution environments," in FedCSIS. IEEE, 2015, pp. 1307-1314.