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Editorial
Selecting
healthy
edible
oil
in
the
Indian
context
Coronary
heart
disease
(CHD)
is
the
leading
cause
of
mortality
all
over
the
world;
its
incidence
is
rising
rapidly,
especially
in
developing
countries,
including
India.
Dietary
factors,
particularly
the
edible
oils,
play
an
important
role
in
the
causation,
treatment,
management,
and
prevention
of
CHD.
Cooking
oils
form
an
integral
part
of
Indian
diets;
however,
one
is
confronted
with
an
array
of
commonly
marketed
edible
oils
asserting
host
of
health
claims.
Therefore,
right
selection
of
edible
oil
is
extremely
important,
especially
in
the
Indian
context,
where
cooking
methods
are
different
then
in
the
west.
Numerous
clinical
trials
and
observa-
tional/metabolic
studies
among
diverse
populations
indicate
a
consistent
association
between
quality/quantity
of
fat
intake
and
the
CHD
risk.
1,2
The
effect
of
dietary
fats
on
plasma
lipids
constitutes
a
key
link
in
the
causal
pathway
that
connects
diet
to
CVD.
Edible
oils
have
several
fatty
acids,
which
can
be
grouped
into
three
classes–saturated
fatty
acids
(SFA)
(which
have
3
groups,
short-chain,
medium-chain,
and
long-chain
SFA),
monosaturated
(MUFA),
and
polyunsaturated
(PUFA)
(further
subdivided
into
linolenic
(LC
or
n6),
alpha-linolenic
(ALNA
or
n3)
acid,
and
transfatty
acids
(TFA)),
which
are
produced
by
hydrogenation
of
vegetable
oils
(Vanaspati
ghee)
or
marine
oils.
Table
1
shows
the
approximate
fatty
acid
composition
of
various
edible
oils.
In
addition,
edible
oils
contain
several
antioxidants
(like
tocopherols,
oryzanol,
carotenes,
tocotrienols,
etc.),
phytosterols,
and
micronutrients.
SFA
have
been
considered
harmful,
as
they
can
increase
total
cholesterol
(Tc)
and
LDL
cholesterol
a
risk
factor
for
atheroscle-
rosis.
2
A
meta-analysis
of
randomized
trials
suggested
a
17%
reduction
in
risk
of
CHD
in
studies
that
reduced
SFA
from
about
17%
to
about
9%
of
energy
(RR
0.83,
95%
CI
0.72–0.98).
3
However,
short-
and
medium-chain
SFA
are
not
harmful,
as
they
do
not
affect
the
serum
lipids.
4
A
randomized
study
in
this
issue
of
the
journal
has
also
indicated
that
even
after
2
years
of
follow-up,
serum
lipids
were
not
altered
by
coconut
oil
(which
is
rich
in
SFA)
as
compared
to
sunflower
oil.
5
A
recent
systemic
review
also
suggests
that
SFA
may
not
be
harmful
as
considered
earlier.
6
PUFA
and
MUFA
are
other
types
of
fatty
acids
that
can
lower
LDLc
and
are
cardioprotective.
2
Jakobsen
et
al.
7
have
reported
that
substitution
of
SFA
with
PUFA
can
significantly
reduce
the
CHD
risk
in
a
pooled
analysis
of
11
cohort
studies.
N6
(linolenic
acid)
and
N3
(alpha-
linolenic
acid)
are
essential
fatty
acids
required
for
proper
functioning
of
the
body.
N6
PUFA
lowers
not
only
LDLc
but
can
also
decreases
HDL,
whereas
N3
PUFA
may
lower
triglycerides,
blood
pressure,
inflammation,
improve
vascular
function,
and
sudden
death.
8,9
N6
and
N3
PUFA
should
be
present
in
adequate
and
balanced
proportion
in
the
body
because
both
compete
for
the
enzymes
that
convert
them
into
more
active
compounds.
Several
dietary
recommendations
suggest
that
the
ratio
of
n6:n3
PUFA
should
be
5–10:1
or
lower
to
prevent
heart
disease.
10,11
There
is
evidence
that
in
humans
when
omega-6
intake
is
kept
low,
plant-
based
omega-3
can
be
converted
to
long-chain
n3
fatty
acids
as
found
in
fish
oils
(eicosapentaenoic
acid)
in
limited
amounts.
On
the
other
hand,
transfatty
acids
(TFA)
produced
by
hydrogenation
of
vegetable
fat
(Vanaspati
ghee)
due
to
the
undesirable
effects
on
serum
lipids
are
associated
with
an
elevated
risk
of
CHD
and
are
considered
even
worse
than
the
saturated
fats.
12,13
Several
reviews
have
demonstrated
that
high
intake
of
TFA
was
associated
with
increased
CHD
events
and
mortality
and
also
possibly
other
chronic
diseases
like
Alzhiemer’s
disease,
cancer,
diabetes,
obesity,
inflammation,
depression,
etc.
Antioxidants
present
in
several
oils
(like
tocotrienols,
tocopherols,
oryzanol,
and
phytosteroles)
have
favorable
effects
on
lipids
and
oxidative
stress
and
can
prevent
heart
disease.
14–16
Studies
indicate
that
olive
oil
intake
can
confer
various
health
benefits
in
addition
to
reduced
CHD
risk.
17
A
randomized
controlled
intervention
by
Covas
et
al.
18
has
demonstrated
that
in
olive
oil,
apart
from
monounsaturated
fatty
acids,
its
polyphe-
nolic
compounds
confer
beneficial
effects
on
plasma
lipid
concentrations
and
bring
about
linear
reduction
in
oxidative
stress
markers.
However,
the
main
limitation
is
that
olive
oil
does
not
have
ideal
N6
N3
ratio
and
may
not
be
suitable
for
Indian
cooking.
Mustard
oil
is
considered
healthy
edible
oil
because
it
is
low
in
SFA,
high
in
MUFA
and
PUFA,
specially
alpha-linolenic
acid,
and
a
good
n6:n3
ratio
(6:5).
It
is
also
available
in
nonrefined
(cold
compressed)
form
and
is
relatively
stable
during
cooking
at
high
temperatures.
Several
studies
also
suggest
that
mustard
oil
may
be
associated
with
lower
CHD
risk
as
compared
to
other
oils.
A
multicentre
epidemiologic
study
by
Rastogi
et
al.
19
reported
71%
reduction
in
CHD
risk
among
individuals
using
mustard
oil
for
frying
as
compared
to
sunflower
oil
(RR
0.29,
95%
CI
0.13–0.64).
Another
double-blind
RCT
has
demonstrated
that
in
acute
MI
patients
using
mustard
oil,
there
was
reduction
in
arrhythmias,
heart
failure,
and
angina.
20
Based
on
earlier
studies
in
rats,
there
was
a
concern
regarding
high
erucic
acid
content
of
mustard
oil
21
;
however,
later
studies
showed
that
in
rats
there
is
an
inefficient
activation
of
erucic
acid
to
erucyl-CoA
coupled
with
lowered
activity
of
triglyceride
lipase
and
enzymes
associated
with
b
-
oxidation
of
erucic
acid,
which
possibly
contribute
to
the
accumulation
and
retention
of
cardiac
lipids.
Other
species,
including
humans,
have
not
demonstrated
to
have
such
toxic
effects.
Low
erucic
acid
rapeseed
oil
(canola),
by
virtue
of
its
ideal
Indian
Heart
Journal
68
(2016)
447–449
Contents
lists
available
at
ScienceDirect
Indian
Heart
Journal
jo
u
rn
al
h
om
epag
e:
ww
w.els
evier.c
o
m/lo
cat
e/ihj
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2016.05.004
0019-4832/ß
2016
Published
by
Elsevier
B.V.
on
behalf
of
Cardiological
Society
of
India.
This
is
an
open
access
article
under
the
CC
BY-NC-ND
license
(http://
creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
LA/ALNA
ratio,
has
also
been
found
to
exert
cardioprotective
effects.
22
Flaxseed
oil,
though
a
rich
source
of
ALNA,
is
not
commonly
consumed;
however,
blending
it
with
other
edible
oils
is
a
good
strategy
to
increase
ALNA
intakes.
1.
Indian
cooking
conditions
Indian
cooking
conditions
subject
oil
to
very
high
temperatures,
like
in
deep
frying
during
which
the
oil
temperatures
can
go
above
170
8C.
It
has
been
demonstrated
that
certain
oils,
especially
refined
oils
with
high
PUFA,
can
degrade
easily
to
toxic
components
like
free
radicals,
transfats,
melondialdehyde
(MDA),
etc.,
which
are
potentially
mutagenic
and
atherogenic.
23
Repeated
frying
of
the
oil
can
further
damage
the
oil
and
produce
more
toxic
components
that
are
highly
harmful
to
the
heart.
An
Indian
study
has
demonstrated
that
TFA
content
of
oil
samples
drawn
for
the
halwais,
who
use
same
oil
for
repeated
frying,
have
high
TFA.
24
It
is
also
preferable
to
avoid
refined
oils
and
use
cold-pressed
or
extra
virgin
oils.
Refined
oils
are
purified
oils
from
oil
cakes
using
highly
intense
mechanical
and
chemical
(solvent
extraction)
processes
to
extract
the
oil
from
the
seeds
and
vegetables
products.
The
crushed
seeds
are
heated
repeatedly
to
high
temperatures
up
to
270
8C
in
a
steam
bath
for
deodorization
and
to
start
the
oil
extraction
process.
These
high
temperatures
can
result
in
loss
of
antioxidants
(like
tocopherols)
and
sterols,
produce
free
radicals
and
TFA,
and
polymeric
components,
which
are
potentially
atherogenic
and
mutagenic.
Oils
high
in
saturated
fats
like
ghee/coconut
are
ideal
for
deep-frying,
as
they
are
more
stable.
Blending
of
oils
combines
the
potency
of
two/more
edible
oils;
it
offers
a
balance
of
fatty
acids
and
antioxidants,
and
this
approach
is
used
to
enhance
the
oxidative
and
thermal
stability
of
oils.
A
blend
of
rice
bran
oil
and
safflower
oil
(70:30)
with
added
antioxidants
reportedly
improved
several
lipid
parameters
and
certain
inflammatory
markers.
25
Study
by
Gillingham
et
al.
26
has
indicated
that
canola,
or
in
blend
with
flaxseed
oil,
effectively
reduced
serum
TC
and
LDL-c.
Moreover,
the
canola–flaxseed
oil
blend
further
reduced
plasma
E-selectin
by
targeting
the
inflammation
and
atherogenic
pathways.
Therefore,
replacement
of
commonly
consumed
fats
with
canola–flaxseed
oil
or
similar
blends
is
a
viable
option
to
achieve
dietary
recommendations,
as
well
as
target
the
CVD
risk
factors.
2.
Conclusions
In
the
global
context,
Indian
cooking
conditions
differ
greatly,
since
the
oils
are
often
subjected
to
rather
high
temperatures,
as
stir-frying
is
a
routine
process
in
every
curry
or
other
similar
preparations.
As
a
result,
exposure
to
high
temperatures
not
only
destroys
antioxidants
like
vitamin
E
and
b
-carotene
but
also
produces
toxic
compounds
that
may
potentially
be
mutagenic
and
atherogenic.
It
is
advisable
to
avoid
refined
oils,
since
during
the
refining
process,
oils
are
heated
to
high
temperatures
resulting
in
their
degradation
and
generation
of
toxic
substances.
Refined
oils,
particularly
high
in
PUFAs,
degrade
easily
and
therefore,
should
be
avoided
for
frying.
On
the
contrary,
oils
high
in
saturated
fats
(like
ghee/coconut
oil)
can
be
used
for
Indian
cooking,
as
they
are
comparatively
stable
during
frying.
Earlier,
oils
high
in
SFA
were
considered
harmful
since
they
increase
LDL-c
but
recent
studies
indicate
that
oils
high
in
short/medium-
chain
SFA
(like
coconut
oil)
have
not
demonstrated
adverse
health
effects.
Mustard
and
rapeseed
oils
due
to
their
favorable
LA/ALA
ratio,
low
SFA,
and
high
MUFA
content
along
with
their
relative
stability
during
cooking
can
be
a
preferred
choice,
particularly
mustard
oil
in
its
nonrefined
(cold-pressed)
form.
In
fact
epidemiologic
studies
among
Indians
do
suggest
that
mustard
oil
consumption
can
reduce
the
risk
of
CHD.
Further,
appropriate
blending
of
edible
oils
(such
as
rice
bran
and
safflower
oil;
coconut
and
sesame
oil;
canola
and
flaxseed
oil)
also
appears
to
be
a
good
option
to
reduce
the
plasma
lipids,
inflammation
and,
thus,
the
CHD
risk.
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Laxmi
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Table
1
Approximate
fatty
acid
composition
of
visible
fats
(g/100
g).
SFA
MUFA
LA
ALNA
LA/ALNA
Short
chain
Medium
chain
Long
chain
Coconut
14
63
12
7
2
<0.5
4
Palm
kernel
7
65
10
15
2
<0.5
4
a
Ghee
10
15
40
32
2
0.5
4
b
Vanaspati
nd
1
23
19
3
<0.5
6
Red
palm
(raw)
nd
1
49
40
9
<0.5
18
Palm
nd
1
44
44
10
<0.5
20
Olive
nd
nd
13
76
10
<0.5
20
Groundnut
nd
1
23
50
25
<0.5
50
Rapeseed/mustard
nd
nd
8
70
12
10
1
Sesame
nd
nd
15
42
42
1
42
Rice
bran
nd
nd
22
41
35
1.5
23
Cotton
seed
nd
nd
21
25
52
1
52
Corn
nd
nd
12
32
55
1
55
Sunflower
nd
nd
13
27
60
<0.5
120
Safflower
nd
nd
13
17
70
<0.5
140
Soyabean
nd
nd
15
27
53
5
11
nd,
not
detected;
SFA,
saturated
fatty
acids;
MUFA,
mono
saturated
fatty
acid;
LA,
linolenic
acid;
ALNA,
alpha
linolenic
acid.
a
Transfatty
acids
(ghee
2%,
vanaspati
53%).
b
Modified
from
Ghafoorunissa.
1
Editorial
/
Indian
Heart
Journal
68
(2016)
447–449
448
18.
Covas
MI,
Nyyssonen
K,
Poulsen
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olive
oil
on
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disease
risk
factors:
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333–341.
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T,
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KS,
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M,
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heart
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Am
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Clin
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20.
Singh
RB,
Niaz
MA,
Sharma
JP,
et
al.
Randomized,
double-blind,
placebo-controlled
trial
of
fish
oil
and
mustard
oil
in
patients
with
suspected
acute
myocardial
infarction:
the
Indian
experiment
of
infarct
survival-4.
Cardiovasc
Drugs
Ther.
1997;11(3):485–491.
21.
Chariton
KM,
Corner
AH,
Davey
K,
et
al.
Cardiac
lesions
in
rats
fed
rapeseed
oils.
Can
J
Comp
Med.
1975;39:261–269.
22.
Lin
L,
Allemekinders
H,
Dansby
A,
et
al.
Evidence
of
health
benefits
of
canola
oil.
Nutr
Rev.
2013;71(6):370–385.
23.
Fullana
A,
Carbonell-Barrachina
AA,
Sidhu
S.
Volatile
aldehyde
emissions
from
heated
cooking
oils.
J
Sci
Food
Agric.
2004;84:2015–2021.
24.
Jain
A,
Passi
SJ,
Pant
KK.
Estimation
of
trans-fatty
acid
content
of
fat/oil
samples
in
use
for
frying
the
food
items:
a
study
in
an
urban
slum
of
Delhi.
J
Prev
Cardiol.
2015;4(3):706–715.
25.
Upadya
H,
Devaraju
CJ,
Joshi
SR.
Anti-inflammatory
properties
of
blended
edible
oil
with
synergistic
antioxidants.
Indian
J
Endocrinol
Metab.
2015;19(4):511–519.
26.
Gillingham
LG,
Gustafson
JA,
Han
SY,
Jassal
DS,
Jones
PJH.
High-oleic
rapeseed
(canola)
and
flaxseed
oils
modulate
serum
lipids
and
inflammatory
biomarkers
in
hypercholesterolaemic
subjects.
Br
J
Nutr.
2011;105:417–427.
S.C.
Manchanda*
Senior
Consultant
Cardiologist,
Sir
Ganga
Ram
Hospital,
New
Delhi,
India
Santosh
Jain
Passi
Public
Health
Nutrition
Consultant;
Former
Director,
Institute
of
Home
Economics,
University
of
Delhi,
India
*Corresponding
author
E-mail
address:
doctormanchanda@yahoo.com
(S.C.
Manchanda).
Available
online
19
May
2016
Editorial
/
Indian
Heart
Journal
68
(2016)
447–449
449
... The hot oil extraction process is relatively recent and uses high temperatures and chemical solvents which result in the degrading of certain essential nutrients and bioactive compounds. Once the oil is extracted from the seeds in this technique, it is further refined by degumming, neutralisation, bleaching and deodorisation (Manchanda and Passi 2016) as shown in Figure 1. In contrast, the cold press technique, which is essentially a mechanical process, retains antioxidants, Vitamin E, bioactive phytochemicals and other essential nutrients (Ananth et al. 2019). ...
... Another habit, probably caused due to the price of edible oil, is the reusing of oil for frying. When temperatures are very high, certain oils have been known to break down to form free radicals, transfats and other toxic compounds that have the potential to cause cell mutations or build up fatty deposits in blood vessels (Manchanda and Passi 2016). This is further exacerbated by repeated frying. ...
... Ideally, cold pressed oils should be avoided for deep frying purposes (Times of India 2021a) as they have a low smoking point. Smoking point is the temperature at which oils break down resulting in degradation of flavour and nutrition and the release of bluish smoke (Manchanda and Passi 2016). ...
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Vicia faba L. has a major role in the traditional diet and medicinal system of different countries. V. faba is a natural source of the precursor of dopamine (Levodopa) which is used treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The objective of the study is to investigate the in vitro antioxidant capacity, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and docking of V. faba against Parkinson’s disease. The values indicated that acetone and aqueous extract exhibited a higher value of total phenolic and flavonoid contents respectively. The results of the 2, 2- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay displayed that aqueous extract had better radical scavenging activity. In the 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical scavenging assay, ethanolic extract showed a lower Inhibitory Concentration50 value. In silico analysis indicated that the phyto-compounds present in V. faba has a higher binding affinity to the dopamine1 receptor. The results suggested that V. faba has good antioxidant properties and can be used as a dopamine agonist for the dopamine1 receptor which may be useful in combating Parkinson’s disease.
... Edible oils are the most abundant source of dietary lipids and fatty acids, which are required for human body development. Additionally, edible oils contain many antioxidants (tocopherol, oryzanol, carotenes, and tocotrienols), phytosterols, and minerals (Manchanda and Passi, 2016) [21] . Olive oil, avocado oil, pumpkin seed oil, walnut oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, and many other plant-based edible oils are produced from vegetables. ...
... Edible oils are the most abundant source of dietary lipids and fatty acids, which are required for human body development. Additionally, edible oils contain many antioxidants (tocopherol, oryzanol, carotenes, and tocotrienols), phytosterols, and minerals (Manchanda and Passi, 2016) [21] . Olive oil, avocado oil, pumpkin seed oil, walnut oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, and many other plant-based edible oils are produced from vegetables. ...
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Substantiation of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is crucial for consumer protection. Using physical factors in conjunction with multiple linear regression models, an investigation was carried out to distinguished VCO from coconut oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and liquid paraffin. Various oil blends of VCO:PO, VCO:CO (both in 10% increments), VCO:CO:PO, VCO: liquid paraffin, and CO: liquid paraffin were created. The physical qualities of oil blends were tested, and the data was statistically analysed. Physical qualities such as colour, refractive index, smoke point, turbidity, and viscosity were persuasive in distinguishing the oil samples at different levels of adulteration. Even with as little as 10% adulteration, samples could be categorised. Multiple regression analysis produced predictive equation models with a high coefficient of determination (R 2) which could aid in the quantification of adulteration. As a result, this investigation revealed the usefulness of assessing physical features and their efficiency in discerning VCO from probable adulterants such as PO, CO, and liquid paraffin.
... Edible oils are the most abundant source of dietary lipids and fatty acids, which are required for human body development. Additionally, edible oils contain many antioxidants (tocopherol, oryzanol, carotenes, and tocotrienols), phytosterols, and minerals (Manchanda and Passi, 2016) [21] . Olive oil, avocado oil, pumpkin seed oil, walnut oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, and many other plant-based edible oils are produced from vegetables. ...
... Edible oils are the most abundant source of dietary lipids and fatty acids, which are required for human body development. Additionally, edible oils contain many antioxidants (tocopherol, oryzanol, carotenes, and tocotrienols), phytosterols, and minerals (Manchanda and Passi, 2016) [21] . Olive oil, avocado oil, pumpkin seed oil, walnut oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, sunflower seed oil, coconut oil, and many other plant-based edible oils are produced from vegetables. ...
Article
Full-text available
Substantiation of virgin coconut oil (VCO) is crucial for consumer protection. Using physical factors in conjunction with multiple linear regression models, an investigation was carried out to distinguished VCO from coconut oil (CO), palm oil (PO), and liquid paraffin. Various oil blends of VCO:PO, VCO:CO (both in 10% increments), VCO:CO:PO, VCO: liquid paraffin, and CO: liquid paraffin were created. The physical qualities of oil blends were tested, and the data was statistically analysed. Physical qualities such as colour, refractive index, smoke point, turbidity, and viscosity were persuasive in distinguishing the oil samples at different levels of adulteration. Even with as little as 10% adulteration, samples could be categorised. Multiple regression analysis produced predictive equation models with a high coefficient of determination (R 2) which could aid in the quantification of adulteration. As a result, this investigation revealed the usefulness of assessing physical features and their efficiency in discerning VCO from probable adulterants such as PO, CO, and liquid paraffin.
... Currently, there is a high demand for the edible oil that have been extracted from various plants seeds. [1] Seeds of Wild plants have been recently explored as key source of unusual oils. [2] Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oils significantly exhibit the nutritive, industrial and therapeutic values. ...
... Risk of heart diseases, cholesterol elevating effect and the presence of carcinogenic chemicals were mainly considered as the health effects in the survey. Edible oil is considered as one of the prominent factors in the causation, management and prevention of cardiovascular diseases (Manchanda and Passi, 2016). Generation of Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) which is a carcinogen is another significant health issue in smoking of copra (Wijeratne et al., 1996). ...
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Issues such as rising fuel prices, fuel costs, and lowering reserves highlight the importance of research into sustainable fuels derived from biological sources. This study is focused on experiments on a CI engine using ethanol and propanol-based ternary blends. Palm biodiesel is kept constant at 40% volumetric concentration, while diesel and ethanol/propanol are varied in different batches. The results obtained with ternary blends were compared with reference fuel diesel, pure palm biodiesel, and a palm biodiesel–diesel binary blend. The ternary blends exhibit lower brake thermal efficiency and higher brake specific energy consumption than diesel and binary blends due to their lower calorific value. Despite in-fuel oxygen presence, lower brake specific oxides of nitrogen and smoke opacity were observed for engine operation with a ternary blend due to the predominant role of higher latent heat of vaporization and volatility of alcohols, but unburned hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions increased due to the interactive effect of a lower cetane number, higher latent heat of vaporization, and lower kinematic viscosity of alcohols when compared to reference fuels. Among the tested fuels, in-cylinder pressure was observed to decrease with ternary blends due to their lower calorific value, but a raised heat release rate was attributed to lower viscosity and faster burning of alcohols.
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Introduction Kahudi and Kharoli are unique naturally fermented mustard seed products prepared and consumed in the northeastern region of India. The pre-fermentation processing of mustard seeds (soaking, pan-frying, mixing with alkaline or acidic additives, airtight packaging) renders a stringent fermentation environment. The metabolic activities of fermenting bacterial populations yield a myriad of glucosinolate-derived bioactive components which have not been described earlier. Methods This present study employed integrated 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and LC-MS-based metabolomics to elucidate the bacterial diversity and metabolome of the two fermented mustard seed food products. Results and Discussion Univariate and multivariate analyses of metabolomics data revealed differential abundances of a few therapeutically-important metabolites viz. , sinapine, indole-3-carbinol, γ-linolenic acid in Kahudi , and metabolites viz. , β-sitosterol acetate, 3-butylene glucosinolate, erucic acid in Kharoli . A metagenomic investigation involving the 16S rRNA (V3–V4) amplicon sequencing showed the dominance of Firmicutes (99.1 ± 0.18%) in Kahudi , and Firmicutes (79.6 ± 1.92%) and Proteobacteria (20.37 ± 1.94%) in Kharoli . The most abundant genera were Bacillus (88.7 ± 1.67% in Kahudi ; 12.5 ± 1.75% in Kharoli ) followed by Lysinibacillus (67.1 ± 2.37% in Kharoli ; 10.4 ± 1.74% in Kahudi ). Members of both these genera are well known for proteolytic and endospore-forming abilities which could have helped in colonizing and thriving in the stringent fermentation environments.
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This article argues that the repeal of the farm laws and even meeting the demand of the protestors to reduce corporatisation of agriculture and enhance the role of the state through expansion of guaranteed procurement is unlikely to bring significant positive transformation for farmers or consumers. Indian agriculture was remade through an industrial logic by harnessing science and technology, not by corporations but by the might of the state in the 1960s during the Green Revolution. Beyond its well-known negative environmental and livelihood impacts, I show how this logic also transformed diets and damaged the health of people. Challenging the tropes of food security, modernisation, efficiency and quality that have been used to justify the perpetuation of this logic, I argue that only by tracing the relationships that have led to the present, can we begin to unravel them and reimagine a healthier and more sustainable agrarian future.
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is obtained by processing mature coconut cores with mechanical or natural methods. In recent years, VCO has been widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries because of its excellent functional activities. VCO has biological functions such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral, and also has potential therapeutic effects on many chronic degenerative diseases. Among these functions, the antioxidant is the most basic and important function, which is mainly determined by phenolic compounds and medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). This review aims to elucidate the antioxidant functions of each phenolic compound in VCO, and discuss the antioxidant mechanisms of VCO in terms of the role of phenolic compounds with fat, intestinal microorganisms, and various organs. Besides, the composition of VCO and its application in various industries are summarized, and the biological functions of VCO are generalized, which should lay a foundation for further research on the antioxidant activity of VCO and provide a theoretical basis for the development of food additives with antioxidant activity.
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Background and rationale: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. Design and methods: In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Results: Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Conclusion: Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care.
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Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliographies of retrieved articles and previous reviews. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. Multivariable relative risks were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Potential publication bias was assessed and subgroup analyses were undertaken. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate quality of evidence and certainty of conclusions. Results For saturated fat, three to 12 prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (five to 17 comparisons with 90 501-339 090 participants). Saturated fat intake was not associated with all cause mortality (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.09), CVD mortality (0.97, 0.84 to 1.12), total CHD (1.06, 0.95 to 1.17), ischemic stroke (1.02, 0.90 to 1.15), or type 2 diabetes (0.95, 0.88 to 1.03). There was no convincing lack of association between saturated fat and CHD mortality (1.15, 0.97 to 1.36; P=0.10). For trans fats, one to six prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (two to seven comparisons with 12 942-230 135 participants). Total trans fat intake was associated with all cause mortality (1.34, 1.16 to 1.56), CHD mortality (1.28, 1.09 to 1.50), and total CHD (1.21, 1.10 to 1.33) but not ischemic stroke (1.07, 0.88 to 1.28) or type 2 diabetes (1.10, 0.95 to 1.27). Industrial, but not ruminant, trans fats were associated with CHD mortality (1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) v 1.01 (0.71 to 1.43)) and CHD (1.42 (1.05 to 1.92) v 0.93 (0.73 to 1.18)). Ruminant trans-palmitoleic acid was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (0.58, 0.46 to 0.74). The certainty of associations between saturated fat and all outcomes was “very low.” The certainty of associations of trans fat with CHD outcomes was “moderate” and “very low” to “low” for other associations. Conclusions Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations. Trans fats are associated with all cause mortality, total CHD, and CHD mortality, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats. Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats.
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Reducing saturated fat reduces serum cholesterol, but effects on other intermediate outcomes may be less clear. Additionally it is unclear whether the energy from saturated fats that are lost in the diet are more helpfully replaced by polyunsaturated fats, monounsaturated fats, carbohydrate or protein. This review is part of a series split from and updating an overarching review. To assess the effect of reducing saturated fat intake and replacing it with carbohydrate (CHO), polyunsaturated (PUFA) or monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and/or protein on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity, using all available randomised clinical trials. We updated our searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid) and EMBASE (Ovid) on 5 March 2014. We also checked references of included studies and reviews. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised with appropriate control group; 2) intention to reduce saturated fat intake OR intention to alter dietary fats and achieving a reduction in saturated fat; 3) not multifactorial; 4) adult humans with or without cardiovascular disease (but not acutely ill, pregnant or breastfeeding); 5) intervention at least 24 months; 6) mortality or cardiovascular morbidity data available. Two review authors working independently extracted participant numbers experiencing health outcomes in each arm, and we performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity analyses and funnel plots. We include 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (17 comparisons, ˜59,000 participants), which used a variety of interventions from providing all food to advice on how to reduce saturated fat. The included long-term trials suggested that reducing dietary saturated fat reduced the risk of cardiovascular events by 17% (risk ratio (RR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72 to 0.96, 13 comparisons, 53,300 participants of whom 8% had a cardiovascular event, I² 65%, GRADE moderate quality of evidence), but effects on all-cause mortality (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.05; 12 trials, 55,858 participants) and cardiovascular mortality (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.12, 12 trials, 53,421 participants) were less clear (both GRADE moderate quality of evidence). There was some evidence that reducing saturated fats reduced the risk of myocardial infarction (fatal and non-fatal, RR 0.90; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.01; 11 trials, 53,167 participants), but evidence for non-fatal myocardial infarction (RR 0.95; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.13; 9 trials, 52,834 participants) was unclear and there were no clear effects on stroke (any stroke, RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.89 to 1.12; 8 trials, 50,952 participants). These relationships did not alter with sensitivity analysis. Subgrouping suggested that the reduction in cardiovascular events was seen in studies that primarily replaced saturated fat calories with polyunsaturated fat, and no effects were seen in studies replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate or protein, but effects in studies replacing with monounsaturated fats were unclear (as we located only one small trial). Subgrouping and meta-regression suggested that the degree of reduction in cardiovascular events was related to the degree of reduction of serum total cholesterol, and there were suggestions of greater protection with greater saturated fat reduction or greater increase in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. There was no evidence of harmful effects of reducing saturated fat intakes on cancer mortality, cancer diagnoses or blood pressure, while there was some evidence of improvements in weight and BMI. The findings of this updated review are suggestive of a small but potentially important reduction in cardiovascular risk on reduction of saturated fat intake. Replacing the energy from saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat appears to be a useful strategy, and replacement with carbohydrate appears less useful, but effects of replacement with monounsaturated fat were unclear due to inclusion of only one small trial. This effect did not appear to alter by study duration, sex or baseline level of cardiovascular risk. Lifestyle advice to all those at risk of cardiovascular disease and to lower risk population groups should continue to include permanent reduction of dietary saturated fat and partial replacement by unsaturated fats. The ideal type of unsaturated fat is unclear.
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Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are necessary for overall health. Two PUFAs families, n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, are physiologically and metabolically distinct. The proportion of PUFAs in serum and erythrocyte phospholipids, which depends on endogenous metabolism controlled by genetic polymorphisms and dietary intake, is an important determinant of both health and disease. Both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are processed to powerful promoters of eicosanoids synthesis at the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase level. Evidence from observational and intervention studies suggest that n-3 PUFAs are cardioprotective, perhaps through their anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, lipid-lowering and antihypertensive effects. In contrast, dietary n-6 PUFAs have proinflammatory effects. Low n-3 and elevated n-6 PUFAs levels were found in patients with cancer on different sites. The present review focuses on current knowledge related to PUFAs intake and status in health and disease, with reference to the Serbian population.
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Canola oil-based diets have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in comparison with diets containing higher levels of saturated fatty acids. Consumption of canola oil also influences biological functions that affect various other biomarkers of disease risk. Previous reviews have focused on the health effects of individual components of canola oil. Here, the objective is to address the health effects of intact canola oil, as this has immediate practical implications for consumers, nutritionists, and others deciding which oil to consume or recommend. A literature search was conducted to examine the effects of canola oil consumption on coronary heart disease, insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, energy metabolism, and cancer cell growth. Data reveal substantial reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as other positive actions, including increased tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with consumption of other dietary fat sources. In summary, growing scientific evidence supports the use of canola oil, beyond its beneficial actions on circulating lipid levels, as a health-promoting component of the diet.
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Low molecular weight aldehydes (LMWAs) formed during the heating of frying media (triglycerides) were adsorbed onto tenax and analyzed by GC-MS after thermal desorption. Six alkanals (C5 to C10), seven 2-alkenals (C5 to C11) and 3 alkadienals (C7, C9 and C10) were found in the fumes of canola oil (control), extra virgin olive oil, and refined olive oil, heated at 180 and 240 °C. The emission rates of these aldehydes depended on the heating temperature. Frying in any type of olive oil, independently of its commercial category, will effectively decrease the emission of volatile aldehydes at temperatures below the smoking point. Thus, using the cheaper olive oil for deep-frying purposes will not affect aldehyde emissions. This is important since olive oil is usually used for deep-frying operations while extra virgin olive oil is used as salad dressing in Spain. The mixture of refined olive oil with some virgin olive oil is the most acceptable type of olive oil in non-Mediterranean countries due to its milder flavor. However, if higher temperatures are needed the use of canola oil is more advisable due to its higher smoke point. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry