Article

Tomato Consumption in the United States and Its Relationship to the US Department of Agriculture Food Pattern: Results From What We Eat in America 2005–2010

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Abstract

Notmany vegetables rank as a "favorite" among Americans, but tomatoes can fit that description. Consumption of tomatoes in the United States is second only to potatoes. Because of their nutrient density and widespread consumption, tomatoes were highlighted in the 2010 US Department of Agriculture Food Pattern's red and orange vegetable subgroup, with the goal of making vegetable intake more achievable. Whether tomatoes can make vegetable intake more achievable has not been shown empirically, but examination of tomato consumption in the What We Eat in America diet survey can help describe the forms and recipes reported by those who consume the most tomatoes and show whether higher tomato intake is related to higher vegetable intake. The objectives of this report are to (1) describe the tomato forms (tomato products or raw) consumed by US adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey What We Eat in America survey (2005-2010) and (2) describe the relationship between tomato intake and the US Department of Agriculture Food Pattern/MyPlate recommendations. The results showed that most tomatoes were consumed as tomato products and that heavy tomato consumers ate a greater share of tomatoes as tomato products (68%) than did typical tomato consumers (57%). The primary recipe that contributed to tomato consumption was pasta with sauce, accounting for 21% of total tomato intake by heavy consumers. Heavy tomato consumers achieved a mean total vegetable intake of 2.47 cups per day, approximating the 2.5 cup equivalent MyPlate vegetable target amount at the 2000 kcal level. These findings can inform strategies of dietitians, educators, and consumers in the ongoing challenge to increase vegetable intake among Americans.

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... In recent years, heirloom tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) have gained popularity in the U.S. market, as more consumers turn to local, organic, and authentic food experiences [1]. Furthermore, consumers are buying more "superfoods," which are perceived to have health benefits [2][3][4]. Especially, foods with a high content of antioxidants are receiving increased attention due to the well-established relationship between these compounds and the reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases [5][6][7][8][9]. Antioxidants prevent disease by scavenging free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) [10][11][12]. ...
... Consumers are increasingly interested in produce that is grown locally and year-round and contains significant nutritional value [2][3][4]. Likewise, foods with a high content of antioxidants are receiving increased attention from consumers, due to the well-established relationship between these compounds and a reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases [47]. ...
... Although grafting onto productive and disease-resistant rootstock may provide increased growth and higher yield, little is known about the effects of these production and cultivation methods on the antioxidative properties of heirloom tomatoes. As consumers are becoming more aware of the health properties of food [2][3][4], the antioxidant capacity of heirloom tomatoes also becomes relevant to producers. ...
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Heirloom tomato varieties are in demand by consumers due to high antioxidant levels. However, these varieties are difficult to produce and are prone to disease. To overcome these problems, heirloom tomatoes may be cultivated in hydroponic systems and grafted onto disease-resistant rootstocks. However, it is unknown if the antioxidant content and capacity are affected by grafting. In this study, heirloom (Black Krim and Green Zebra) and standard (Big Beef) varieties were grafted onto wild type (WT) or productive rootstocks (Arnold and Supernatural). The tomatoes were harvested at maturity, freeze-dried, and ground into a powder. Lycopene was extracted using hexane, and the content was determined spectrophotometrically at 503 nm. The antioxidant capacity of methanol extracts was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-di[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonsyr]sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, whereas the phenolic content was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu assay. Interestingly, the grafting of Big Beef and Green Zebra onto Supernatural rootstock resulted in an increased antioxidant capacity, as determined by the DPPH assay. Moreover, the phenolic content was changed for Big Beef grafted onto Arnold, and Big Beef and Green Zebra grafted onto Supernatural. Taken together, these results indicate that certain combinations of standard and heirloom tomato varieties and productive rootstocks may influence the antioxidant capacity and phenolic content. These results may be used to guide producers when choosing rootstocks for cultivating hydroponic tomatoes.
... This undesirable situation is even more serious, especially in developing countries, where crop losses are estimated at more than 35% due to a lack of suitable transportation or improper storage (Kitinoja et al. 2019). Tomatoes are considered a phytonutrient source as they are consumed fresh, canned (processed), or cooked (Reimers and Keast 2016). However, it is susceptible to infection by a group of fungal pathogens such as Alternaria alternata (A. ...
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Article
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... Tomato is the second most consumed vegetable crop in the United States after potatoes (Reimers and Keast, 2016), and the United States is the second largest producer of tomatoes after China (Guan et al., 2017). In 2018, the United States produced %1.09 million tons of fresh market tomatoes and 12.8 million tons of processing tomatoes on 321,900 acres with a total value of about $1.85 billion (Cornell University, 2018). ...
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Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most extensively cultivated horticultural crops in the world. Factors such as yield, size, taste, and lycopene content are important criteria that may impact the selection of tomato cultivars for different production systems. The aim of the current study was to evaluate different slicer and cherry tomato cultivars for production under greenhouse and open field conditions. Three cultivars of slicer (BHN 964, Trust, and Geronimo) and cherry (BHN 268, Favorita, and Sakura) tomatoes were tested using randomized complete block design in 2019 and 2020. Results showed that the performance of tested cultivars differed under greenhouse verses open field conditions. Among cherry tomato cultivars in 2020, BHN 268 and Sakura produced significantly greater yield under open field conditions, while under greenhouse conditions yield of BHN 268 was the lowest. Similarly, cherry tomato fruit size from 'BHN 268' and 'Sakura' was also significantly greater than 'Favorita' under field conditions, whereas under greenhouse conditions, the fruit size of 'Sakura' was significantly greater than both 'BHN 268' and 'Favorita'. Among slicer tomato cul-tivars, BHN 964 produced significantly greater yield and had a greater average fruit size than the other two cultivars under greenhouse conditions in 2020 while, Geronimo produced significantly similar or larger yield and had a similar average fruit size compared with BHN 964 under open field conditions. Tomatoes produced under open field conditions were rated significantly greater for taste compared with those produced under greenhouse conditions. Lycopene content in both slicer and cherry tomato culti-vars was influenced by the interaction of production type, cultivars, and harvest time. Therefore, it can be concluded that BHN 964 and Geronimo were the highest in lyco-pene among slicer tomato cultivars for greenhouse and open field production, respectively. Among cherry tomato cultivars, BHN 268 was the highest in lycopene for open field production and Sakura for greenhouse production. Additionally, open field-produced tomatoes taste better than greenhouse-produced tomatoes, but lycopene content may be constrained for mid-and late-season fruits due to high temperature conditions under open field conditions.
... Also [35] reported that total fruit yield of tomato reduced by 11% upon each unit increase in the salinity of the irrigation water. Reduction in total fruit yield (49.7%) of tomato has also been observed at higher salinity levels (12 dS m -1 ) in comparison with the control (1.2 dS m -1 ), while a moderate salinity level (2.4 dS m -1 ) of irrigation water had no significant effect in this regard [36]. ...
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Water is an important constituent of cell and plays an important role in almost all biochemical processes. High salt concentration in the root zone impedes the water movement from soil to aerial parts of the plant by reducing the available water for plant uptake. Salinity is among the major limitations for plant growth and productivity all around the globe and the damage caused by high salinity is witnessed as either loss of plant productivity or plant death. Soil salinization is the result of different soluble salts accumulation in the root zone. soil salinization is increasing at a rate of 10% annually and more than 50% of the arable land would be salinized by the year 2050. Approximately 4.5 million acres of cropland in California have been reported to be affected by saline soils or saline irrigation water. The scenario in Pakistan is also alarming where 1.89 out of 19.43 Mha irrigated cropland is salt affected. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse at the University of California, Riverside. Tomato was used as the study plant and the experiment included nine treatments representing different combinations of three irrigation water salinity levels and three nitrogen fertilization rates. High salinity stress causes the stress on plant growth and productivity due to the effective increment in the osmotic stress, ion toxicity , and alterations in soil physical and chemical properties.
... It is estimated that, in 2018, Saudi Arabia (2018) produced about 312,343 tonnes of tomatoes on an area of 13,428 hectares (FAOSTAT, 2020). Tomatoes are loaded with phytonutrients and are mostly consumed in their fresh (raw), processed or cooked form (Reimers and Keast, 2016). ...
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The aim of this study was to assess Annona muricata L. fruit extracts as an alternative to synthetic fungicide against Alternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler, the causative agent of black spots of tomato fruit. Antifungal activities of A. muricata pulp and seed extracts were tested both in vitro and in vivo. The seed extracts were more potent at inhibiting A. alternata than the pulp extracts. The in vitro assay showed maximum inhibition of radial mycelial growth of A. alternata (90%) by methanol seed extracts, at the highest concentration of 6%. Similarly, the in vivo assay showed marked reduction in lesion diameter (2.1 mm) and consequent disease inhibition (84%) on the tomato fruit treated with methanol seed extracts. Scanning electron microscopy showed that A. muricata extracts significantly damaged the morphology of hyphae and conidial structures. The FT-IR spectrum obtained from methanol extracts showed bands representing important bioactive compounds that possess antifungal activity. Based on our findings, Annona muricata fruit extracts can be further explored as a potential, excellent alternative approach to control the postharvest Alternaria spots of tomato fruit.
... Tomato consumption in the US ranks only second to the potato (Solanum tuberosum), with 43% from raw consumption [50]. Because of this, the average US citizen receives a large amount of dietary AsA, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds through tomato consumption [51]. ...
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(1) Background: We assessed the impact of high tunnel coverings and harvest maturity (breaker and light red) on antioxidant capacity, ascorbic acid (AsA), lycopene, β–carotene, and phenolic compound (flavonoid and phenolic acid) accumulation in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) at harvest and postharvest. (2) Methods: The two-year study in Olathe, KS, included six different coverings: a standard polyethylene (standard poly), diffuse poly (diffuse), clear poly (clear), UV-A/UV-B blocking poly (block), 55% shade cloth + standard poly (shade), and removal of standard poly two weeks prior to harvest (movable). (3) Results: Antioxidant capacity increased in fruit grown under the clear covering, compared to the shade covering (p < 0.05); similarly, AsA accumulation increased under the standard and clear coverings, relative to the movable and shade coverings (p < 0.001). Postharvest, at the point of consumption (POC), rutin increased in fruit harvested at light red stage versus breaker stage (p < 0.001), and chlorogenic acid increased in light red harvested fruit by 60% under movable, 55% under shade, and 43% under block covering than breaker harvested fruit (p < 0.01). (4) Conclusions: Based on these results, we conclude that both high tunnel covering and postharvest maturation alter antioxidant capacity, AsA, lycopene, and phenolic compound accumulation profiles by the POC.
... It was reported that between 2005 and 2010, tomatoes were primarily consumed in processed form in the United States, accounting for 57%-68% of the total tomato consumption (Reimers and Keast 2016). In addition, the same authors also presented that 89% of tomatoes cultivated in the United States are grown for canning purposes. ...
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. A link between diet and CVD is well established, with dietary modification a foundational component of CVD prevention and management. With the discovery of bioactive components beyond the essential nutrients of foods, a new era of nutritional, medical, botanical, physiologic, and analytical sciences has unfolded. The ability to identify, isolate, purify, and deliver single components has expanded the dietary supplement business and health opportunity for consumers. Lycopene is an example of a food component that has attracted attention from scientists as well as food, agriculture, and dietary supplement industries. A major question, however, is whether delivering lycopene through a supplement source is as effective as or more effective than consuming lycopene through whole food sources, specifically the tomato, which is the richest source of lycopene in the Western diet. In this review, we examined clinical trials comparing the efficacy of lycopene supplements with tomato products on intermediate CVD risk factors including oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial function, blood pressure, and lipid metabolism. Overall, the present review highlights the need for more targeted research; however, at present, the available clinical research supports consuming tomato-based foods as a first-line approach to cardiovascular health. With the exception of blood pressure management where lycopene supplementation was favored, tomato intake provided more favorable results on cardiovascular risk endpoints than did lycopene supplementation. Indeed, future research that is well designed, clinically focused, mechanistically revealing, and relevant to human intake will undoubtedly add to the growing body of knowledge unveiling the promise of tomatoes and/or lycopene supplementation as an integral component of a heart-healthy diet.
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The susceptibility of predominant tomato carotenoids to thermal isomerisation during typical food preparation is reported for five varieties with distinctively different carotenoid distribution. The tomato varieties used contain distinct amounts of the following predominant carotenoids: all-trans lycopene, all-trans β-carotene, all-trans δ-carotene, all-trans lutein and the poly-cis geometrical isomer of lycopene, prolycopene. The tomatoes were subjected to thermal treatments and unit operations similar to those during food preparation: boiling, addition of vegetable cooking oil, chopping and agitation. The results indicated that, during typical cooking of tomatoes, common factors such as genotypic differences in overall carotenoid composition, the presence of oil and physical changes to tomato tissues did not result in the thermal isomerisation of all-trans lycopene, all-trans δ-carotene, all-trans γ-carotene or prolycopene. Significant amounts of all-trans β-carotene and all-trans lutein, however, were converted to the cis configurations. The presence of vegetable cooking oil did not alter the thermal stability of any carotenoids being evaluated. Examination of samples by electron microscopy indicated that heat treatment imparted changes to the physical ultrastructure of the tomato tissue, such as cell wall and organelle deformation. The observed differences in these carotenoids' relative susceptibility to thermally induced isomerisation reactions might be attributable to their differences in physical state and cellular localisation. Thus, while thermal processing reportedly alters the bioavailability of carotenoids, its effect on the geometrical isomer distribution is selective and limited. These findings are important considerations in our overall effort to gain a better understanding of carotenoid metabolism in vivo and of the physical chemistry of lycopene in vitro.© 2001 Society of Chemical Industry
Article
Lycopene is a naturally present carotenoid in tomatoes. Among the carotenoids, lycopene is a major component found in the serum. High levels of lycopene have also been found in the testes, adrenal glands, prostate. Several recent studies including cell culture, animal and epidemiological investigations have indicated the effect of dietary lycopene in reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. Although, the antioxidant properties of lycopene are thought to be primarily responsible for its beneficial properties, evidence is accumulating to suggest other mechanisms such as intercellular gap junction communication, hormonal and immune system modulation and metabolic pathways may also be involved. This review summarizes the background information about lycopene and presents the most current knowledge with respect to its role in human health.
Article
Increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is hypothesized to be causally associated with increasing risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In recent epidemiological studies, tissue and serum levels of lycopene, a carotenoid available from tomatoes, have been found to be inversely related to risk of coronary heart disease. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of lycopene on LDL oxidation in 19 healthy human subjects. Dietary lycopene was provided using tomato juice, spaghetti sauce, and tomato oleoresin for a period of 1 wk each. Blood samples were collected at the end of each treatment. Serum lycopene was extracted and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography using an absorbance detector. Serum LDL was isolated by precipitation with buffered heparin, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured to estimate LDL oxidation. Both methods, to measure LDL oxidation LDL-TBARS and LDL-CD, were in good agreement with each other. Dietary supplementation of lycopene significantly increased serum lycopene levels by at least twofold. Although there was no change in serum cholesterol levels (total, LDL, or high-density lipoprotein), serum lipid peroxidation and LDL oxidation were significantly decreased. These results may have relevance for decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease.
Article
Because of their antioxidant properties, carotenoids may have beneficial effects in preventing cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, in humans consuming carotenoid-rich vegetables, data concerning the antioxidant effects of carotenoids are rather scarce. A human intervention trial was conducted, therefore, to determine whether a moderately increased consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables would influence the antioxidant status in 23 healthy men. This short-term feeding study lasted 8 wk during which the men consumed a low carotenoid diet. A 2-wk low carotenoid period was followed by daily consumption of 330 mL tomato juice, then by 330 mL carrot juice and then by 10 g of spinach powder, each for 2 wk. Antioxidant status [water-soluble antioxidants in serum, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and antioxidant enzyme activities] and lipid peroxidation (plasma malondialdehyde and ex vivo oxidation of LDL) were determined. In a subgroup of 10 men, lipoprotein carotenoids were measured. The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables significantly increased selected carotenoids in lipoproteins but had only minor effects on their relative distribution pattern. Tomato juice consumption reduced plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 12% (P: < 0.05) and lipoprotein oxidizability in terms of an increased lag time (18%, P: < 0.05). Carrot juice and spinach powder had no effect on lipid peroxidation. Water-soluble antioxidants, FRAP, glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities did not change during any study period. In evaluating the low carotenoid diet, we conclude that the additional consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetable products enhanced lipoprotein carotenoid concentrations, but only tomato juice reduced LDL oxidation in healthy men.
Article
Some data, including our findings from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) from 1986 through January 31, 1992, suggest that frequent intake of tomato products or lycopene, a carotenoid from tomatoes, is associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer. Overall, however, the data are inconclusive. We evaluated additional data from the HPFS to determine if the association would persist. We ascertained prostate cancer cases from 1986 through January 31, 1998, among 47 365 HPFS participants who completed dietary questionnaires in 1986, 1990, and 1994. We used pooled logistic regression to compute multivariate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided. From 1986 through January 31, 1998, 2481 men in the study developed prostate cancer. Results for the period from 1992 through 1998 confirmed our previous findings---that frequent tomato or lycopene intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Similarly, for the entire period of 1986 through 1998, using the cumulative average of the three dietary questionnaires, lycopene intake was associated with reduced risk of prostate cancer (RR for high versus low quintiles = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.96; P(trend) =.003); intake of tomato sauce, the primary source of bioavailable lycopene, was associated with an even greater reduction in prostate cancer risk (RR for 2+ servings/week versus <1 serving/month = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.90; P(trend)<.001), especially for extraprostatic cancers (RR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.99). These associations persisted in analyses controlling for fruit and vegetable consumption and for olive oil use (a marker for Mediterranean diet) and were observed separately in men of Southern European or other Caucasian ancestry. Frequent consumption of tomato products is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. The magnitude of the association was moderate enough that it could be missed in a small study or one with substantial errors in measurement or based on a single dietary assessment.
Article
Results from observational studies suggest that the oxidative stress and hyperlipidemic status, which prevails in hypertension, plays an important role in causation of secondary complications. So the aim of the present study is to evaluate the beneficial effect of tomatoes, which are a rich source of lycopene, a relatively new carotenoid known to play an important role in human health and disease. In this study lipid peroxidation rate was measured by estimating malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of plasma enzymes involved in antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH), and serum lipid profile which includes total cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated in a grade I hypertensive group (n = 40) and an age-matched control group (n = 50). Significantly lower plasma antioxidant enzyme activity, very high lipid peroxidation rate and very high serum total cholesterol, triglycerides in the grade I hypertensive group was observed when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Sixty days of tomato supplementation in the hypertensive group (n = 30) showed a significant improvement in the levels of serum enzymes involved in antioxidant activities and decreased lipid peroxidation rate (F value highly significant), but there were no significant changes in lipid profile (F value insignificant). These findings suggest that tomato lycopene may have considerable natural therapeutic potential as an antioxidant but may not be used as a hypolipidemic agent in hypertension.
Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study
Agarwal S, Rao AV. Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. Lipids. 1998;33(10):981Y984.