Romantic Relationships and Relationship Satisfaction Among Adults
With Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism
Sandra Strunz,1Constanze Schermuck,1Sarah Ballerstein,1Christoph J. Ahlers,2
Isabel Dziobek,1,3 and Stefan Roepke1, 3
2Institute for Sexual Psychology Berlin
Objective: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience difﬁculties in maintain-
ing romantic relationships. In this study high-functioning adults with ASD were examined concerning
their romantic relationship interest and experience. Method: Participants, 31 recruited via an outpa-
tient clinic and 198 via an online survey, were asked to answer a number of self-report questionnaires.
The total sample comprised 229 high-functioning adults with ASD (40% males, average age: 35 years).
Results: Of the total sample, 73% indicated romantic relationship experience and only 7% had no
desire to be in a romantic relationship. ASD individuals whose partner was also on the autism spectrum
were signiﬁcantly more satisﬁed with their relationship than those with neurotypical partners. Severity
of autism, schizoid symptoms, empathy skills, and need for social support were not correlated with re-
lationship status. Conclusion: Our ﬁndings indicate that the vast majority of high-functioning adults
with ASD are interested in romantic relationships. C2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Clin. Psychol.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; Asperger syndrome; romantic relationship; partnership, sexuality
Romantic relationship experience among high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) is a relevant yet understudied area of research. Because social interaction and commu-
nication skills and the ability to take the perspective of others are important for initiating and
maintaining intimate relationships (Byers, Nichols, & Voyer, 2013), ASD individuals, who may
have deﬁcits in these abilities, often experience difﬁculties in developing and understanding
romantic relationships. Speciﬁcally, adults with ASD without accompanying intellectual im-
pairments often achieve lower levels of socially adaptive functioning than would be expected
from their cognitive and language skills (Renty & Roeyers, 2007; Howlin, 2000). The failure to
interpret nonverbal cues such as eye contact or facial expressions together with difﬁculties in
theory of mind skills make social judgments difﬁcult for ASD individuals.
In addition, limited experiences with friendship due to lack of contact with peers prevent
those with ASD from learning important relationship skills (Prendeville, Prelock, & Unwin,
2006). Difﬁculties in decision making, lack of ﬂexibility, self-absorption, emotional dysregula-
tion, and sensory sensitivities further impede ASD individuals’ attempts to establish romantic
relationships (Urbano, Hartmann, Deutsch, Bondi Polychronopoulos, & Dorbin, 2013). Given
the above-mentioned impairments, social relationships are nevertheless seen as an essential do-
main of quality of life for people with as well as without disabilities (Verdugo, Navas, G´
& Schalock, 2012), and social participation is seen as an important aspect of quality of life for
ASD individuals (Orsmond et al., 2013).
Isabel Dziobekand Stefan Roepke contributed equally.
Isabel Dziobek is now at Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt Universit¨
at Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Please address correspondence to: Sandra Strunz, Department of Psychiatry, Charit´
Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Hindenburgdamm 30, 12203 Berlin, Germany. E-mail:
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 00(0), 1–13 (2016) C2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com/journal/jclp). DOI: 10.1002/jclp.22319
2 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
Research on ASD and Romantic Relationships
A meta-analysis of follow-up studies examining outcomes of ASD individuals revealed that,
compared to the general population, many of them lagged behind their typically developing
cohort regarding employment, physical and mental health, and social relationships. On average
only 14% of the individuals included in the reviewed studies were married or have a long-
term, intimate relationship (Howlin, 2012). However, the studies included in the meta-analysis
examined very heterogeneous samples. Many of them included ASD individuals with intellectual
impairment, which makes it difﬁcult to ascertain whether the difference in groupsis due to autistic
symptoms or intellectual impairment.
Studies that analyze outcomes exclusively for ASD adults without intellectual impairment
are rare. Available studies of this population report varying results on romantic relationship
outcome measures. Engstr¨
om, and Emilsson (2003) recruited previous patients with
an ASD diagnosis from four psychiatric clinics in Sweden. They reported that 5 (31%) of 16
adults with ASD had”some form of relation with a partner.” Hofvander et al. (2009) analyzed
data from 122 participants who had been referred to outpatient clinics for autism diagnosis.
They found that 19 (16%) of all participants had lived in a long-term relationship.
Renty and Roeyers (2006) recruited, via newsletter advertisements, 58 ASD adults as well as
ASD adults who had previously participated in their research studies. They reported that at the
time of the study 19% of 58 ASD adults had a romantic relationship and 8.6% were married or
living with a partner. Cederlund, Hagberg, Billstedt, Gillberg, and Gillberg (2008) conducted a
follow-up study of male individuals (aged 16–36 years) who had been diagnosed with Asperger
syndrome at least 5 years before. They reported about 76 male ASD individuals and analyzed
that at the time of the study, three (4%) of them were living in a long-term romantic relationship
and 10 (13%) had had romantic relationships in the past.
Byers et al. (Byers, Nichols, Voyer, & Reilly, 2012; Byers et al., 2013) published results of
two studies examining ASD participants recruited for an internet study about the sexual well-
being of ASD adults without accompanying intellectual impairment. In the ﬁrst of their studies
(Byers et al., 2012), they examined only ASD adults with relationship experience. Of the 141
adults with romantic relationship experience, 85 were currently in a romantic relationship (60%)
and 56 had been in one 3 months or longer in the past (40%). In their second publication
(Byers et al., 2013), they compared a group of 53 ASD individuals who had never been in a
romantic relationship for 3 months or longer with a group of 76 ASD individuals who were not
currently in a romantic relationship but had been in at least one in the past. Because their studies
exclude either participants with no romantic relationship experience (study 1) or participants
with current relationship experience (study 2), no total number of participants with romantic
relationship experience compared to those without relationship experience could be calculated.
From the available data cited above, it is difﬁcult to ascertain how many ASD adults with-
out intellectual impairment have romantic relationship experience. Some studies reported only
current romantic relationships but not relationships in the past (Engstr¨
om et al., 2003; Renty &
Roeyers, 2006) or vice versa (Hofvander et al., 2009). In addition, one study (Cederlund et al.,
2008) included only male ASD individuals. Still, the results of these studies suggest that the
occurrence of romantic relationships among ASD individuals is not that rare.
To the best of our knowledge, only one study has investigated the needs of ASD individuals in
romantic relationships. In a sample of 24 high-functioning male adults with ASD institutional-
ized in residential care, 10 individuals (42%) reported a need for a close affective and/or sexual
relationship (Hellemans, Colson, Verbraeken, Vermeiren, & Deboutte, 2007). Because the sam-
ple size was small, these results cannot be generalized to the total population of ASD individuals
without intellectual impairment. Also, the fact that the subjects lived in residential care suggests
that although they did not have intellectual impairment, their overall level of intellectual and
psychosocial functioning was at the lower end of the normal range.
None of the above-cited studies advanced knowledge on the quality of ASD individuals’
relationships. Considering the deﬁcits in social interaction skills of individuals with ASD,
both relationship partners probably have to adapt to a number of unique difﬁculties that such
a relationship brings. Problems in relationships with one neurotypical partner and one autistic
Romantic Relationships Among Autistic Adults 3
partner are often due to a mismatch of needs and expectations. Therefore, individuals with ASD
whose partners are also on the autistic spectrum might have higher relationship satisfaction. On
the other hand, individuals with ASD might prefer to be with nonautistic partners because these
partners can help them with difﬁculties they experience in everyday life.
To the best of our knowledge, only one study to date has examined relationship satisfaction
among ASD individuals with ASD partners compared to ASD individuals with nonautistic part-
ners. Lau and Peterson (2011) compared global marriage satisfaction, measured using Norton’s
Quality of Marriage index (Norton, 1983), among nonautistic couples with an autistic child,
autistic couples with an autistic child, and a nonclinical control group with no family member
with an ASD diagnosis. Marital satisfaction was similarly high, irrespective of the presence
versus absence of an ASD diagnosis in the family.
Aim of the Study
The overall aim of the study was to examine whether individuals with ASD or high-functioning
autism are interested in engaging in and motivated to engage in romantic relationships and
whether there are factors predicting relationship status (currently, previously, or never been in a
relationship). In addition, we aimed to examine how experienced and satisﬁed high-functioning
ASD individuals are with romantic relationships. We sought to speciﬁcally answer the following
questions: To what degree do high-functioning adults on the autistic spectrum wish to be involved
in a romantic relationship? Which factors have an inﬂuence on whether an individual with ASD
or high-functioning autism has romantic partnership experience? Are high-functioning ASD
individuals who are in a romantic relationship with a partner who is also on the autistic spectrum
more satisﬁed with their relationship? Do individuals with ASD or high-functioning autism who
are currently not in a romanticrelationship lack the skills to get involved with a romantic partner?
If so, what makes engaging in a romantic relationship difﬁcult for high-functioning adults with
This study examined a large sample of ASD individualsconcerning their romantic relationship
interest and experience for the ﬁrst time. In contrast to other studies, only high-functioning adults
with ASD were included.
Participants and Procedure
A subsample of the participants in this study was recruited via an outpatient clinic for adults
with ASD. A total of 78 patients who were registered at this outpatient clinic and had been
diagnosed with ASD were contacted and asked to participate in a study about interest in
romantic relationships, romantic relationship satisfaction, and sexuality of adults with ASD. Of
those 78 patients, 35 participants agreed to take part. After being informed about the study, they
received a code and a link to a website with the questionnaires. Three of the 35 participants did
not give written consent authorizing the use of their data for the study and one only ﬁlled out the
ﬁrst few questions of the questionnaire; thus, 31 participants from our outpatient clinic remained
in the ﬁnal sample: 27 (87%) patients with ASD, 3 (10%) patients with high-functioning autism,
and one (3%) patient with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise speciﬁed.
In this document, we use the term ASD to collectively refer to these different groups. By
including patients who had been diagnosed in the outpatient clinic, we obtained a sample of
participants, whose diagnosis had been assured by experienced psychiatrists and psychologists
using gold standard diagnostic instruments for autism, i.e., the Autism Diagnostic Observation
Schedule (Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 2002) and–if the patient agreed and parents were not
yet deceased–the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R: Lord, Rutter, & Le Couteur,
1994). In addition, a semistructured clinical interview, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association
[APA], 2000) ASD criteria, was used (see Dziobek et al., 2006, 2008).
4 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
Clinical Characteristics of ASD Individuals Without Intellectual Impairment (Comparison
Between Online and Outpatient Sample, Controlled for Gender)
AQ-k 2.239 1 0.136
Online sample 198 27.7 3.6
Outpatient sample 31 26.5 5.1
SCID-Screening schizoid PD 0.293 1 0.589
Online sample 198 4.4 1.4
Outpatient sample 31 4.2 1.3
DAS-total score 0.267 1 0.607
Online sample 81 103.6 23.0
Outpatient sample 15 105.1 23.7
MSP (CEEQ) 0.386 1 0.535
Online sample 198 7.2 5.8
Outpatient sample 31 6.6 4.8
Personal Distress (IRI) 0.464 1 0.496
Online sample 198 15.6 3.4
Outpatient sample 31 15.0 3.4
BSSS 0.261 1 0.610
Online sample 198 8.6 3.0
Outpatient sample 31 8.8 2.9
Note. M=mean; SD =standard deviation; df =degree of freedom; ASD =autism spectrum disorder;
AQ-k =Autism Spectrum Quotient – short version; SCID =Structured Clinical Interview for DSM
disorders; DAS =Dyadic Adjustment Scale; MSP =Mental State Perception; CEEQ =Cognitive and
Emotional Empathy Questionnaire; IRI =Interpersonal Reactivity Index; BSSS =Berlin Social Support
To enlarge the sample, an additional 603 participants were recruited between July 2012 and
March 2013 via German Internet forums that were frequented by the autistic community.
Interested participants were directed via a link to informational text about the study and its
investigators and then asked to complete the same online questionnaires as the outpatient
clinic participants. Throughout the whole process, all participants recruited via Internet forums
Of these 603 participants, individuals were included only if they scored above the cutoff
score of 17 points on the short version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ-k; Freitag,
Retz-Junginger, Retz, R ¨
osler, & von Gontard, 2007; see the Measures section for details), were
at least 18 years old, and had graduated from school. After exclusion using the above-cited
criteria, 257 participants remained in the study. An additional 38 participants were excluded
because they had not received an ofﬁcial ASD diagnosis from a professional (i.e., psychiatrist,
psychologist, general practitioner, or a professional working in a special outpatient clinic for
autism diagnostics). Of the remaining 219 participants, 21 were excluded because information
about relationship experiences was not provided. Therefore, the ﬁnal number of participants
additionally recruited was 198; together with the 31 patients from the outpatient clinic, the ﬁnal
sample comprised 229 participants.
There were no signiﬁcant differencesbetween the outpatient clinic sample (mean [M]=33) and
the online sample (M=35) regarding age, t(227) =0.897, p=0.370, and whether individuals were
currently in a romantic relationship, χ²(1) =0.325, p=0.569. There were, however, signiﬁcantly
more males in the outpatient clinic sample (61%) than in the online sample (37%), χ²(1) =6.651,
p=0.01. We therefore controlled for gender when comparing the means of the questionnaire
scales between the outpatient clinic sample and the online sample but did not ﬁnd any signiﬁcant
effects (see Table 1). Hence, we report results for the entire sample.
Of the entire sample (outpatient clinic sample and online sample), 92 (40%) were male. The
mean age ranged from 18 to 58 years (M=34.9, standard deviation [SD]=10.3). Two hundred
Romantic Relationships Among Autistic Adults 5
and three (88%) participants had been diagnosed with ASD (AS), 22 (10%) with autism, two (1%)
with “other autism spectrum diagnosis,”and one (0.4%) with atypical autism. Of the participants,
158 (69%) had superior school education (general qualiﬁcation for university entrance) and 71
(31%) had a basic school diploma (9 years). One patient from the outpatient clinic had no
educational qualiﬁcation but was intellectually unimpaired. Based on the level of education, it
can be assumed that none of the participants was intellectually impaired: 70 (31%) participants
held a university degree and an additional 84 (37%) had completed vocational training. At the
time of the study, 91 (40%) were employed, 61 (27%) were studying at a university or engaged in
vocational training, 39 (17%) were unemployed, and 38 (16%) received disability beneﬁts. Of all
229 participants, 159 (69%) self-identiﬁed as heterosexual, 17 (7%) as homosexual, 22 (10%) as
bisexual, and 31 (14%) were not able to indicate their sexual orientation.
We measured the degree of autistic symptoms and traits with the self-report instrument AQ
(Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, & Clubley 2001), which is used as a screening
instrument in clinical settings. For this study, we applied the short version of the AQ (AQ-
k) because it contains the most powerful items (Freitag et al., 2007). The AQ-k comprises
33 items assessing social skills, attention shifting, attention to details, communication, and
imagination and responses are rated on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from “deﬁnitely
agree” to “deﬁnitely disagree”. Freitag et al. (2007) suggested a total score of 17 as a cutoff
score for the diagnosis autistic disorder and found high sensitivity (89%) and speciﬁcity (92%)
when using the instrument for different samples (healthy controls, forensic patients, and autistic
Despite high levels of sensitivity and speciﬁcity, a diagnosis should not be based solely on
the AQ-k; rather, it should always be conﬁrmed using standardized diagnostic instruments,
for example, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (Lord et al., 2002) and the ADI-R
(Freitag et al., 2007). A main component analysis of the AQ-k showed a three-factor structure
with internal consistencies between α=.65 and α=.87. Retest reliability (rtt =.79) and external
validity are satisfactory. The authors of the AQ regard the AQ-k as a good alternative (Hoekstra
et al., 2011).
To estimate the extent of schizoid symptoms, we applied the items of the schizoid personality
disorder screening questionnaire of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV personality
disorders (SCID-II; First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1997). These are seven dichotomous
(yes/no) items that screen for the presence of a schizoid personality disorder as classiﬁed in the
DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000).
We used the Need for Social Support subscale of the Berlin Social Support Scales (Schulz
& Schwarzer, 2003, 2004), which measures both cognitive and behavioral aspects of social
support. The Need for Social Support subscale assesses whether the need for support plays a
role in committing to romantic relationships. This subscale contains four items (“When I’m
down, I need someone to boost my spirits”; “It is important for me to always have someone who
listens to me”; “Before making any important decisions, I absolutely need a second opinion”; “I
get along best without any outside help”) that are rated on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging
from “strongly disagree (1)” to “strongly agree (4)”. Internal consistency for this subscale is α=
0.63 and validity has been demonstrated (Schulz & Schwarzer, 2003, 2004).
We used the Personal Distress subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis,
1980) to measure affective aspects of empathy, especially feelings of agitation and discomfort in
close interpersonal contexts. Participants respond to each item using a 5-point Likert-type scale
ranging from “does not describe me well (A)” to “describes me well (E)”. The IRI comprises
four seven-item scales, two assessing cognitive empathy and two assessing affective empathy.
Each scale has been shown to measure a discrete component of empathy, including the Personal
Distress subscale. The IRI has good internal consistency, with alpha coefﬁcients ranging from
α=0.63 to α=0.79 (Christopher, Owens, & Stecker, 1993; Davis, 1980). Construct validity has
been demonstrated by correlating the IRI with other measures of empathy (Davis, 1980).
To quantify mental state perception, we used the Mental State Perception (MSP) subscale
of the Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Questionnaire (CEEQ; Savage, Dziobek, Teague &
6 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
Borod, 2010). The MSP subscale captures cognitive empathy in terms of the ability to identify
mental states and emotions in others and comprises eight items rated on a 5-point Likert-type
scale ranging from “not true at all” (0) to “very true” (4). Various communication tools for
the identiﬁcation of emotions are considered: facial expressions, prosody, gestures, and body
language. Internal consistency is α=.84. Validity has been documented through correlation
with other measures of empathy (Savage, Dziobek, Teague & Borod, 2010).
The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; Spanier, 1976) is a well-established self-report measure
of relationship adjustment and determines the degree of dissatisfaction that couples are expe-
riencing. The DAS contains 32 items rated on a 6-point Likert-type scale ranging from “all
the time (0)” to “never (5)”, capturing relationship satisfaction in terms of dyadic consensus,
dyadic satisfaction, affectional expression, and dyadic cohesion. Internal consistency is α=.96
(Spanier, 1976). A total score of 100 was identiﬁed by Spanier (1976) as a cutoff distinguishing
distressed from nondistressed couples.
Because no appropriate questionnaires existed, original questionnaire items that assessed the
desire for romantic relationships and the reasons for not being in a romantic relationship were
included. Reasons for not being in a relationship were drafted on the basis of the authors’
extensive clinical experience with ASD individuals. The self-drafted questions are as follows:
r“How much do you desire a romantic relationship?” Item is rated on a 5-point Likert scale
ranging from 1 (not at all)to5(very much).
r“How distressed are you about not being in a romantic relationship?” Item is rated on a
5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all)to5(very much).
r“What prevents you from entering into a romantic relationship?”
Participants chose from the following true or false answers:
“Contact with others is too exhausting for me”
“I haven’t yet met anybody with whom I could imagine having a romantic relationship”
“I am afraid of not fulﬁlling my partner’s expectations”
“I don’t know how to meet a potential partner”
“I don’t know how a romantic relationship works or how to behave in a romantic rela-
“I don’t like the physical contact a romantic relationship brings with it”
“Sexual activities are unpleasant for me”
“I simply don’t feel the need for a romantic relationship”
“Other reasons” (open response question)
Experience With Romantic Relationships and Relationship Status
A total of 166 (73%) of the 229 participants endorsed currently being in a romantic relationship
or having a history of being in a relationship; 100 (44%) reported current involvement in a
romantic relationship; 66 (29%) endorsed that they were currently single but have a history of
involvement in a romantic relationship; and 63 (27%) participants did not have any experience
with romantic relationships. Table 2 shows relationship status by gender.
Participants without any romantic relationship experience were signiﬁcantly more likely to be
male, c2(1) =8.55, p=0.01; Cramer’s V =0.19. They were on average younger than participants
with romantic relationship experience: M=30.2 (SD =9.2) versus M=36.7 (SD =10.2),
t(227) =−4.436, p=0.00.
Factors Predicting Relationship Status
The severity of autistic symptoms measured using the AQ-k did not signiﬁcantly predict rela-
tionship status group (currently, previously, and never in a relationship), F(2, 228) =1.241,
p=0.291. Similarly, the total score of schizoid symptoms, measured by the SCID-screening
Romantic Relationships Among Autistic Adults 7
Romantic Relationship Status Analysed by Gender in ASD Participants Without Intellectual
Male Female Total
Romantic relationship experience
Never in a relationship 35 (38%) 28 (21%) 63 (27%)
Previous relationship 23 (25%) 43 (31%) 66 (29%)
Current relationship 34 (37%) 66 (48%) 100 (44%)
Total 92 (100%) 137 (100%) 229 (100%)
Note. ASD =autism spectrum disorder.
questionnaire, failed to signiﬁcantly predict relationship status group, F(2, 228) =2.901,
There were no signiﬁcant differences between the three relationship status groups (currently,
previously, and never in a relationship) in terms of their need for social support, F(2, 228) =
1.481, p=0.23. In addition, the three relationship status groups (currently, previously, and never
in a relationship) did not differ signiﬁcantly on cognitive empathy, measured with the CEEQ’s
MSP subscale, F(2, 228) =0.190, p=0.827, or emotional empathy, measured with the IRI’s
Personal Distress subscale, F(2, 228) =0.001, p=0.999.
Desire for a Romantic Relationship
Only 17 (13%) of the 129 participants who were not currently involved in a romantic relationship
reported that they had no desire at all to be in a relationship, which represents 7% of the total
sample. On the other hand, 37 (29%) of the 129 participants who were single stated that they
were not distressed at all about not being in a romantic relationship (5-point Likert-type scale;
see the Measures section).
On a ﬁve-point Likert-type scale, single males (M=3.43, SD =1.3) had a greater desire
to be in a romantic relationship than single females (M=2.75, SD =1.3), t(127) =−2.954,
p=0.04. Accordingly, more males (M=3.09, SD =1.5) than females (M=2.35, SD =1.3)
reported that they were distressed about not being in a romantic relationship, t(127) =−2.928,
p=0.04. There was no signiﬁcant effect of romantic relationship experience on the desire to be
in a romantic relationship, F(1, 128) =3.203, p=0.08.
Relationship adjustment, measured with the DAS, is deﬁned as obtaining a total score of at
least 100 points on the DAS (Spanier, 1976). ASD individuals who were currently in a romantic
relationship with a partner who was also on the autistic spectrum were signiﬁcantly more satisﬁed
with their relationship (M=119, SD =10.6) than were those whose partners were not autistic
(M=100, SD =23.7), t(96) =−3.519, p=0.00.
According to participants’ self-report, one ﬁfth (20%) of the 100 participants who were
currently involved in a romantic relationship were with an ASD partner. As stated by the
participants, 17 (85%) of these partners were diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, one partner
had been diagnosed with atypical autism, and two partners selected “other ASD” on the online
questionnaire. None of the participants who were currently single but had been involved in a
romantic relationship in the past had been in a relationship with a partner who was on the
Reasons for Not Being in a Romantic Relationship
Of the participants who were currently single, 65% said that contact with another person was
too exhausting for them, 61% were afraid that they would not be able to fulﬁl the expectations of
8 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
Reason Given by Single ASD Participants (N =129) for Not Being in a Romantic
Relationship (Multiple Answers Possible)
Contact with others is too exhausting for me 84 65
I am afraid of not fulﬁlling my partner’s expectations 78 61
I don’t know how to meet a potential partner 74 57
I don’t know how a romantic relationship works or how to
behave in a romantic relationship
I haven’t yet met anybody with whom I could imagine having a
Sexual activities are unpleasant for me 38 30
I don’t like the physical contact a romantic relationship brings
I simply don’t feel the need for a romantic relationship 24 19
Other reasons 35 27
Note. ASD =autism spectrum disorder.
a romantic partner, and 57% said that they did not know how they could ﬁnd and get involved
with a partner; and 50% stated that they did not know how a romantic relationship works or
how they would be expected to behave in a romantic relationship (see Table 3).
Our ﬁndings provide evidence that a high number of high-functioning adults with ASD have
experiences with romantic relationships. Nearly half of the sample (44%) was currently involved
in a romantic relationship. An additional 29% had romantic relationships in the past, so that
a total of 73% of our sample had experience with romantic relationships. This percentage is
higher than the results of previous studies, which often had the limitation of reporting results for
very heterogeneous samples of individuals with and without intellectual impairments (Howlin,
2012) or samples of institutionalized individuals (Hellemans et al., 2007) with low levels of
However, previous studies that exclusively examined adults with ASD without intellectual
impairment reported lower levels of romantic relationship experience than the current study,
with numbers varying between 16% and 31% (Engstr¨
om et al., 2003; Hofvander et al., 2009;
Renty & Roeyers, 2006; Cederlund et al., 2008). Although one study (Cederlund et al., 2008)
reported on current as well as previous romantic relationship experience, it had the limitation of
including only male participants. Regarding high-functioning ASD individuals, our data argue
that male gender is related to less romantic relationship experience compared to females.
Another important difference might be that some of the previous studies reported on ASD
individuals with lower levels of psychosocial functioning, although participants were not intel-
lectually impaired. For example, Cederlund et al. (2008) mention that some of their participants,
although living independently, were still dependent upon their parents for support. Engstr¨
et al. (2003) recruited their sample from previous psychiatry patients, which also suggests more
impaired functioning than in the current study.
The results of our study can be best compared with the results of Hofvander et al. (2009)
and Renty and Roeyers (2006): They selected their samples (patients from outpatient clinic,
from previous research studies, or recruited via advertisements in newspapers) using methods
that are comparable to ours. Hofvander et al. (2009) found that 16% of their participants have
had romantic relationship experience in the past, compared to 29% in our sample; and Renty
and Roeyers (2006) report that 28% of their participants were either married or engaged in a
romantic relationship at the time of their study, compared to 44% in our study. Because these
studies found results that are comparable to ours, their samples probably had similar high levels
of psychosocial functioning as ours.
Romantic Relationships Among Autistic Adults 9
Compared to typically developed individuals the percentage of ASD individuals with a ro-
mantic relationship partner is relatively low (Weimann, 2010). In the group aged 27–59 years,
68% of German males live together with a partner, 27% are single, and 5% still live with their
parents. In the same age group, 73% of all females live with a partner, 26% live on their own, and
2% still live with their parents. Couples not living together were not considered in this statistic
Since the ASD individuals of our sample achieved high levels of education, one can assume
that their level of overall psychosocial functioning was high. All but one of the participants
had graduated from school, 37% had completed vocational training, and 31% participants held
a university degree. Also, participants from our outpatient clinic had all been diagnosed with
ASD in adulthood, which probably indicates that their social dysfunction in childhood was
mild enough to go unnoticed by caregivers or professionals. Lehnhardt et al. (2013) report that
individuals with a late diagnosis of ASD have relatively “mild” manifestations of autism and
possess highly effective social and cognitive compensation skills. The authors argue that they
achieve a comparatively high level of psychosocial functioning because of their high verbal com-
petence and introspective ability. Because our online sample achieved statistically comparable
mean scores for the questionnaires (see Table 1), the online participants probably possessed
equally high levels of psychosocial functioning as the outpatient clinic participants.
Another explanation for the high number of ASD individuals with romantic relationship
experience might be the fact that a high percentage of females (60%) participated in our study.
Our results show that ASD individuals without any romantic relationship experience were
signiﬁcantly more likely to be male. Similarly, Byers et al. (2013) report that ASD individuals who
had not had romantic relationship experience were signiﬁcantly more likely to be male, whereas
ASD individuals with relationship experience were signiﬁcantly more likely to be female. Byers
et al. (2013) argue that men are traditionally expected to be more active in initiating an intimate
relationship than women, whose traditional role is to react to advances instead. For males with
ASD, it might therefore be more difﬁcult to initiate and develop a romantic relationship. As
our results show, it is not the case that male ASD individuals do not feel a need for romantic
relationships. In fact, the contrary is true. Single males had a greater desire to be in a romantic
relationship than single females, and males were more distressed than females about not being
in a romantic relationship.
Interest in Romantic Relationships
Our results suggest that a majority of high-functioning individuals on the autistic spectrum
are both interested and engage in romantic relationships. We found no evidence for a schizoid
subgroup without any interest in romantic relationships among ASD adults without intellectual
impairment. In total, only 13% of those participants who were not currently involved in a
romantic relationship reported that they had no desire at all to be in a relationship. This indicates
that most ASD adults or adults with high-functioning autism consider romantic relationships to
be desirable. Not all of those without a romantic partner, however, were distressed about being
alone—28% of the single participants in our group stated that they were not at all distressed
about being single. However, that leaves 72% of our single participants who experience at least
some degree of distress related to not having a romantic partner.
Factors Inﬂuencing Romantic Relationship Status
The severity of autistic symptoms or the need for social support did not have an inﬂuence
on whether someone was currently, had previously been, or had never been in a romantic
relationship. The participants from these three relationship status groups also did not differ
with regard to cognitive and emotional empathy skills. These ﬁndings are in line with the
results of Byers et al. (2013), who did not ﬁnd any differences in terms of psychological factors
and/or skill deﬁcits between a group of ASD participants without any relationship experience
and a second group with relationship experience. Byers et al. (2013) conclude that a lack of
relationship experience might be a developmental issue rather than the consequence of a skills
10 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
deﬁcit. However, the high amount of approval of our questions assessing reasons for being single
reveals that deﬁcits in social skills do play a role.
More than half of the participants without a romantic partner agreed that they were afraid of
not fulﬁlling a partner’s demands, did not know how to ﬁnd a partner, and/or did not know how
a relationship works. The reason single participants (65%) endorsed most often, though, was
that they found contact with others too exhausting. This indicates that a romantic relationship,
even if desired, might overextend what ASD individuals are able to cope with. Close social
contact might cause sensory overload.
Also, familiar routines cannot be followed as much as when being alone. Not being ﬂexible
enough to react to a partner’s needs or not being socially skilled enough to know what is expected
from oneself in a romantic relationship probably also explains why contact to a romantic partner
is exhausting for ASD individuals. Stress reduction training might be a useful therapeutic inter-
vention in these cases. Moreover, communication training might be another helpful therapeutic
intervention. For example, ASD individuals could learn how to communicate to their romantic
partner that withdrawal from social interactions is an important and urgent need for them.
Being with a partner who is also on the autism spectrum might reduce a lot of these issues. For
example, if both partners have a strong need for social withdrawal and wish to spend a lot of time
on their own, it is likely that neither partner will feel rejected. Our ﬁndings showed that being
with a partner who also has an ASD diagnosis makes a romantic relationship more satisfying
for ASD individuals. None of the participants, who had been with a partner in the past but then
separated, had been together with an ASD partner. This might indicate that once a person with
ASD has found a partner who is also on the spectrum, a relationship might be very stable and
long lasting. Self-help groups or other leisure activities for ASD individuals might be a good
opportunity to meet others with an ASD diagnosis. It might be useful to encourage individuals
who are diagnosed with ASD to take advantage of these opportunities.
On average, respondents with a nonautistic partner also obtained relationship satisfaction
scores that exceeded the DAS cutoff for satisfaction. This means that on average those with
nonautistic partners are not unsatisﬁed with their relationships. Future research could ask both
the ASD individuals and their nonautistic partners about their relationship satisfaction. It is
possible that nonautistic partners experience the relationship as less satisfactory. According to
Myhill and Jekel (2008), it is primarily the nonautistic partner who seeks out self-help groups
because of partnership issues. On the other hand, despite the deﬁcits in social interaction skills,
ASD individuals have a number of characteristics that can promote the successfulness of a
romantic relationship such as reliability, steadiness, and loyalty (Myhill & Jekel, 2008).
Of our ASD sample, 10% reported being bisexual, 7% identiﬁed as homosexual, and 14% were
not able to label their sexual orientation using the provided categories. These rates are higher
than those published for the German population, in which 93% of males are heterosexual, 2%
bisexual, and 3% homosexual; and 95% of German females are heterosexual, 2% bisexual, and
1% homosexual (Schmidt et al., 1998, cited in Beier, Bosinski, & Loewit, 2005, p. 84). Other
studies have also found increased rates of homosexuality and bisexuality among adults with
ASD (Hellemans et al., 2007; Byers et al., 2012), and in Bejerot and Eriksson (2014), women
with ASD report bisexuality four times more frequently than female controls.
Sexual identity is inﬂuenced by, and usually develops in the context of, societal expec-
tations. One explanation for increased homosexuality and bisexuality rates might be that
ASD individuals are not aware of the heterosexual norm or the concept of sexual orienta-
tion in our society. Impaired social learning, which has been identiﬁed in autistic individuals
(Bushwick, 2001), might play a role here. Alternatively, increased bisexuality in ASD could be
a sign of independence toward social norms (Bejerot & Eriksson, 2014). Deﬁcits in developing
and ﬁnding one’s own identity, including sexual identity, might be another reason. A different
explanation could be that ASD individuals tend to answer in a less socially desirable way. A
Romantic Relationships Among Autistic Adults 11
study assessing personality traits of ASD found that ASD individuals scored signiﬁcantly higher
on straightforwardness (frankness in expression) than other patient groups and clinical controls
(Strunz et al., 2015). Hence, their answers on homosexuality and bisexuality might reﬂect more
the actual numbers in the general population.
A limitation of our study is that a majority of our sample was an online sample recruited
via Internet forums. However, compared to other Internet studies (Byers et al., 2012, 2013), a
subsample comprised previous patients from our outpatient clinic, whose ASD diagnosis had
been assured by experienced psychiatrists and psychologists using gold standard diagnostic
instruments for autism. There were no statistically signiﬁcant differences in any of our outcome
measures between the outpatient clinic sample and the online sample (see Table 1). In addition,
we analyzed all data separately for the online sample and the outpatient clinic sample and no
major differences between the results of the two samples were found.
Another limitation was that we were not able to compare our ﬁndings to a neurotypical sample
because we did not include a matched nonclinical control group. Also, comorbid psychiatric
disorders and psychopharmacological medication status in the participants from the online
sample were not explored. Depression and anxiety disorders, which have been found to be
increased in ASD individuals (Hofvander et al., 2009, Lugnegard, Hallerb¨
ack, & Gillberg,
2011, Strunz, Dziobek, & Roepke, 2014), are likely to have an inﬂuence on relationships and
It is possible that individuals who already have relationship experience were particularly in-
terested in participating in a study about this subject. If such a selection bias exists, then those
who are not interested in romantic relationships might be underrepresented in our sample. In
addition, the large proportion of females (60%) in our study makes our results less comparable
to previous studies. However, the DSM-V (APA, 2013) states that “girls [with ASD] without ac-
companying intellectual impairments or language delays may go unrecognized, perhaps because
of subtler manifestation of social and communication difﬁculties” (p. 57).
It is likely that females with ASD might be diagnosed only late in life and might therefore
have been underrepresented in previous studies. Lai, Lombardo, Auyeung, Chakrabarti, and
Baron-Cohen (2015) argue that “the longstanding underrepresentation of females in research
and clinical practice may have generated a male-biased understanding of autism” (p.11). More
recent research on adults with ASD (Byers et al., 2012, 2013; Hofvander, 2009; Lugnegard et al.,
2011) report percentages of female participants between 33% and 60%. ASD in females might
be diagnosed late in life if they have more adaptation skills and their more subtle symptoms of
autism are therefore not detected by the traditionally used diagnostic instruments (Lai et al.,
This study relied exclusively on self-report instruments, which, especially if measuring com-
plex concepts like empathy, have limited ecological validity. ASD individuals particularly have
problems with introspection and abstraction, both of which are needed to respond validly to
such questionnaires (Dziobek et al., 2008). In addition, no exact deﬁnition for romantic rela-
tionship, for example, in form of a time frame, was given. Some ASD individuals might have
needed guidance to correctly identify whether they are or were in a romantic relationship. Rea-
sons for not being in a relationship were drafted on the basis of our extensive clinical experience
with ASD individuals. In future research, an open-ended question might generate more diverse
A vast majority of high-functioning adults with ASD are interested in romantic relationships.
The predominant reasons ASD individuals cite for being single are having difﬁculty with
initiating and maintaining romantic relationships, rather than a lack of interest, which keeps
them from being romantically involved. In other words, although people with ASD are social at
heart, they do not have the social skills to realize their social needs. These ﬁndings help to better
12 Journal of Clinical Psychology, xxxx 2016
understand the needs of adults with ASD and thereby inform the provision of better therapy
and health services for these individuals.
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