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Herbs and spices inclusion as feedstuff or additive in growing rabbit diets and as additive in rabbit meat: A review

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... The use of several natural feed additives has already been reviewed in rabbit breeding [10,[12][13][14][15]. The positive effects of probiotics and their antibacterial products-bacteriocins on health, growth performance, nutrient utilization and metabolism changes, microbial composition [14,[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35], blood serum biochemistry, oxidative stress, immune response, intestinal morphology [21,24,[28][29][30][31]34,[36][37][38] and meat quality of rabbits [32,34,[39][40][41][42][43] was described. ...
... The stable microbial fermentation is essential for rabbit health, and only small dietary and environmental changes can lead to increased morbidity and/or mortality via microbial dysbiosis and digestive disturbances. Natural substances applications could prevent those disturbances [12][13][14]. The concentrations of VFA are usually measured in the cecal content of rabbits [21,[28][29][30]38,78]; in our first experiment we decided to follow the VFA and organic acids concentrations in feces (it was a model experiment with a low number of rabbits in the experimental groups). ...
... Previously there have been many studies/reviews concerning rabbit meat, including its production, quality, physicochemical properties and composition [1,2]. A lot of them dealing with the effects of dietary supplementation with functional compounds, mainly probiotics, prebiotics, fatty and organic acids, vitamins, selenium and antioxidants and their combinations on rabbit carcass quality [12][13][14]31,33,40,[87][88][89]. In general, there is a lack of studies testing the beneficial microbiota and/or their antimicrobial substances (bacteriocins) on rabbit meat quality and composition, including fatty acids, amino acids and minerals [31,[41][42][43][44][45]. ...
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The present review evaluates and compares the effects achieved after application of rabbit-derived bacteriocin-producing strain Enterococcus faecium CCM7420 with probiotic properties and its bacteriocin Ent7420. The experiments included varying duration of application (14 and 21 days), form of application (fresh culture and lyophilized form), combination with herbal extract and application of the partially purified enterocin—Ent7420, produced by this strain. Results from these studies showed that E. faecium CCM7420 strain was able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract (caecum) of rabbits (in the range < 1.0–6.7 log cycle, respectively 3.66 log cycle on average), to change the composition of intestinal microbiota (increased lactic acid bacteria, reduced counts of coliforms, clostridia and staphylococci), to modulate the immunity (significant increase of phagocytic activity), morphometry (enlargement absorption surface in jejunum, higher villi height:crypt depth (VH:CD) ratio), physiological (serum biochemistry; altered total proteins, glucose and triglycerides levels) and parasitological (Eimeria sp. oocysts) parameters and to improve weight gains (in the range 4.8–22.0%, respectively 11.2% on average), feed conversion ratio and meat quality (physicochemical traits and mineral content).
... Herbs can be a perfect supplement in the animal diet. In the literature on various animal species, it has been shown that the active substances they contain, such as: alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, coumarins and essential oils, have antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antiparasitic properties [2][3][4][5]. In addition, they improve the functioning of the immune system, regulate the appetite and feed intake of animals, regulate the functioning of the digestive system, stimulate the metabolism of the body as well as quality parameters of meat [4]. ...
... In the literature on various animal species, it has been shown that the active substances they contain, such as: alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, saponins, tannins, coumarins and essential oils, have antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antiparasitic properties [2][3][4][5]. In addition, they improve the functioning of the immune system, regulate the appetite and feed intake of animals, regulate the functioning of the digestive system, stimulate the metabolism of the body as well as quality parameters of meat [4]. These properties mean that herbs are increasingly being introduced into granulated fodders for fattening rabbits. ...
... The quality of rabbit meat, its structure, chemical composition, as well as colour and taste are influenced by many factors, including gender, age, body weight before slaughter, as well as breed and, importantly, nutrition [15]. Properly selected feed phytoadditives have a positive effect on the smell and palatability of the feed, as well as improving the appetite of animals, which is conducive to increasing feed intake: this, in turn, may translate into production parameters [4]. Due to the structure of their digestive tract and the specificity of digestion, rabbits are very sensitive to changes in the feed used, hence the importance of carefully examining the impact of herbal feed additives on their health, welfare, and also on the quality of the final product, in this case rabbit meat. ...
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The purpose of the study was to analyse the effect of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds as additives to fodder in order to improve post-slaughter traits and quality parameters of Termond White rabbit meat (n = 60; 30 , 30 ). Three experimental groups were created. The control group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) was fed ad libitum feed containing corn, bran, wheat, dried alfalfa, soybean meal, sunflower meal, dicalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate and vitamin-mineral premix. The animals from the first experimental group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) were fed a complete mixture added with 1% of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves. Rabbits from the second group (n = 20; 10 and 10 ) were fed with a complete mixture added with 1% of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds. Rabbits fed with pellets with the addition of nettle were characterized by a higher slaughter weight, higher weight of hot and cold carcasses, lungs, kidneys and head as well as a higher weight of the fore, middle and hind part of the carcass compared to the other two groups. The carcasses of animals fed with fenugreek and nettle had a higher percentage of the fore and hind parts compared to the carcasses of the animals from the control group. The female carcasses were characterized by a significantly higher percentage of the middle part compared to the male carcasses. For most colour measurement traits, the differences depending on the feeding regime were significant. The effect of gender on meat colour was non significant. The effect of feeding regime and of gender on texture traits such as shear force, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness were non significant. Feeding had no effect on muscle fibre diameter, but it affected the muscle fibre type I percentage. Thus, the group fed with pellets containing nettle leaves had higher percentage of type I muscle fibres than the control group. The effect of gender on muscle fibre traits was non significant.
... This causes some problems related to global farm efficiency [4,5]. In rabbit farming several diseases occur; digestive disorders are the main problem, affecting antibiotics consumption [6]. ...
... Several studies reported that dietary integration with plant extracts containing polyphenols in rabbit improves health, increases nutrient digestibility and growth performances and enhances meat quality parameters [9,10]. Plant extracts offer a considerable range of activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral and antimicrobial effects, positively influencing feed digestibility and microbial ecology [6]. ...
... An enhancement of nutrient digestibility was also observed in several animal species fed seaweed [12]. The present data are in line with studies in rabbit showing that natural extract dietary supplementation positively affected rabbit's growth performances [6,10]. ...
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The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of dam and offspring dietary supplementation with a natural feed additive on the growth performance and meat quality parameters of growing rabbits. The growing rabbits are selected from lactating does receiving a control diet (C) or diets supplemented with 0.3% (SP1) and 0.6% (SP2) of feed additive containing brown seaweeds (Laminaria spp.) and plant extracts. In the postweaning phase, the growing rabbits remained in the treatment group defined by their does and the trial lasted 42 days. The average daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were improved in the rabbit fed 0.6% of the natural feed additive. The cholesterol content tended to be lower in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle and decrease in Semimembranosus (SM) muscle (in SP2 −41.36% than controls). The α tocopherol and retinol content were enhanced in both muscles of rabbit fed the natural mixture (SP1 and SP2 groups). An improvement of sensory attributes of texture was observed in both muscles from rabbit fed natural mixture. In conclusion, long term supplementation of both lactating does and offspring with the high dosage of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols improves growth performance and enhances meat nutritional and sensory parameters.
... Recently, great attention is being paid to the retrieval of bioactive components from a variety of plant materials and industrial by-products including seeds, grain, leaves, pulp, peels, culls, hulls, rinds, malts, barriers, marc, pits, press, cakes, hops, husks, wood, spent, among others [26]. Herbs synthesize chemical compounds during regular metabolic activities [27,28]. Such compounds can be categorized into primary (sugars and oils) or secondary compounds (phytochemicals) and when administered, influence the wellbeing of animals [28]. ...
... Herbs synthesize chemical compounds during regular metabolic activities [27,28]. Such compounds can be categorized into primary (sugars and oils) or secondary compounds (phytochemicals) and when administered, influence the wellbeing of animals [28]. Phytochemicals comprise medicinal herbs which are valued for their flavour and medicinal properties and may be further categorized according to their healing properties or according to their mode of preparation (decoction infusion tincture, maceration, syrup and inhalation) [28]. ...
... Such compounds can be categorized into primary (sugars and oils) or secondary compounds (phytochemicals) and when administered, influence the wellbeing of animals [28]. Phytochemicals comprise medicinal herbs which are valued for their flavour and medicinal properties and may be further categorized according to their healing properties or according to their mode of preparation (decoction infusion tincture, maceration, syrup and inhalation) [28]. Different animals are treated with herbal remedies worldwide (31% cattle, 14% horses, 17% sheep, 17% goats, 7% pigs, 9.1% poultry, 5.3% dogs, and 4.3% rabbits) mainly due to their efficacy against pests and diseases [28]. ...
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Background: Misuse of synthetic antibiotics in livestock leads to the transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens into humans and deposits toxic residues in meat and milk. There is therefore an urgent need for safe and viable alternative approaches to improve the nutrition and wellbeing of farm animals. An alternative source that has been widely exploited is Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM). These herbs contain several but less toxic bioactive compounds which are generally regarded as biodegradable. Recently, advances in the knowledge of the importance of TCHM have led to a rapid increase in its production and hence, increasing the amount of by-products generated. Such by-products have become a serious environmental challenge because producers regard them as industrial waste and discard them directly. This review summarizes scientific findings on the bioactive compounds in TCHM and TCHM by-products, discusses functional dietary patterns and outlines challenges that may hinder full utilization of TCHM by-products in animal production. Methods: Information for this review was obtained through scientific databases and websites such as Pubmed and Google scholar from 2004 to 2017 using experimental studies on bioactive compounds in TCHM and their effects in animal production. Results: Studies have shown that TCHM by-products contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which confer several nutritional and health benefits to animals and thus could be incorporated as feed additives. Conclusion: The findings for this review indicate that TCHM by-products apart from being a good alternative for synthetic antibiotics could also minimize the current environmental challenges associated with its disposal.
... propiedades antioxidantes o antimicrobianas (1,2) . La suplementación dietética con orujo de mora azul se utilizó como estrategia alimenticia para producir un desempeño nutricional favorable y cambios en los ácidos grasos contenidos en la carne de conejo (3) . ...
... Ruta graveolens es una planta utilizada en la medicina tradicional en todo el mundo, recibe diferentes nombres, como ruda, hierba de la gracia, entre otros (6) . Esta planta es reconocida por sus propiedades antimicrobianas (7,8,9) y antioxidantes (1,2) . Ruta graveolens es una planta con un alto contenido de metabolitos secundarios, como cumarinas, alcaloides, aceites volátiles, flavonoides y ácidos fenólicos, los cuales son responsables de diversos efectos biológicos (6) . ...
... El destete es un periodo crítico para los conejos, durante esta edad se observa un incremento en los problemas digestivos, probablemente debido a la susceptibilidad a diversos patógenos causada por elevadas tasas de estrés. La enteropatía epizoótica del conejo se caracteriza por la presencia de diarrea, meteorismo y distensión de la cavidad intestinal; esta enfermedad tiene altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad (2) . Debido a sus propiedades antimicrobianas y antioxidantes, Ruta graveolens se podría utilizar como un suplemento alimenticio para incrementar los parámetros productivos y obtener canales y carne de mejor calidad. ...
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Ruta graveolens is a weed that can be used to feed rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine growth performance, carcass and meat quality of rabbits after their dietary supplementation with Ruta graveolens. Sixty (60) weaned rabbits were randomly assigned to five treatments; control diet (C) or diets supplemented either with leaves (25RL or 50RL) or complete plant of Ruta graveolens (25CP or 50CP). The use of Ruta graveolens has a similar (P>0.05) growth performance to the control group and feed conversion rate. Carcass quality was different (P<0.05) among treatments in empty body weight, empty gastrointestinal tract and fat. The pH decreased when Ruta graveolens was used to feed growing rabbits, but meat produced better texture parameters than control group. The results obtained in the present study suggest that Ruta graveolens can be considered as an alternative feed source in the diets of rabbits.
... For these reasons, preventing post-weaning alimentary disturbances, maintaining the rabbits' health, and stabilizing the economy of breeding is still a hot topic. To achieve better production in rabbit husbandries, one possible way is the use of natural compounds, such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, bacteriocins, organic and fatty acids, and plant extracts, which can improve the health status of animals [1][2][3][4]. There are many reviews presenting their beneficial effects, mostly of probiotic applications to rabbits, with emphasis on reduction of pathogens and parasites in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), stimulation of immunity, better growth performance, metabolism and nutrient utilization, and improved meat quality [5][6][7]. ...
... There is also growing interest in sage plants, seeds, and extracts used in animal feeding due to their oil content, which is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (linoleic and αlinolenic acid). Dietary administration of sage, its extracts and/or by-products could also improve the PUFA content of animal products (eggs, meat [1]), and so there is growing effort and interest to continuously complement these studies in rabbit farms. ...
... The dietary inclusion of EntM elevated the TPs, while sage extract improved the lipid metabolism, reducing HDL and LDL cholesterol, and the LDL/HDL ratio. Antihyperlipidemic or hypocholesterolaemic effects of plants have also been reported [1]. Although the majority of studies mostly present the antioxidant effect of sage, extracts from sage species were also able to reduce plasma cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides in lipidemic rats [47], similarly to our findings. ...
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The present study investigated the effects of enterocin (Ent) M and sage extract alone and also in combination on the gut microflora, phagocytic activity, blood biochemistry, and morphometry of rabbits. Sixty-four rabbits (aged five weeks, M91 meatline, both sexes) were divided into three experimental groups: E (EntM; 50 µL/animal/day), S (sage; 10 µL/animal/day), and E + S (EntM + sage) groups and control group (C). The additives were administered in drinking water for a period of 21 days. Dietary supplementation of EntM and sage significantly reduced the coliforms (E: p < 0.001; S: p < 0.001; E + S: p < 0.001) in feces, while simultaneous addition of EntM and sage decreased enterococci (E + S: p < 0.0001), lactic acid bacteria (E + S: p < 0.01), and coagulase-positive staphylococci (E + S: p < 0.0001) in the appendix. Sage addition reduced HDL (S: p < 0.001) and LDL cholesterol (S: p < 0.001; E + S: p < 0.001), LDL/HDL ratio (S: p < 0.001; E + S: p < 0.01), and increased urea (S: p < 0.01; E + S: p < 0.001) and creatinine (S: p < 0.001; E + S: p < 0.001) in serum. EntM and sage application, alone or in combination, improve the jejunal morphometry (p < 0.0001) in rabbits.
... During the last decades, studies on rabbit meat properties have been focused mainly on its chemical composition, pH, color, and also on several technical aspects-chilling and cooking loss, meat tenderness measuring of rabbit meat. The influence of probiotics, prebiotics, fatty acids, vitamins, selenium, antioxidants, and their combinations on rabbit carcass quality has been already presented in many research papers [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Concerning the rabbit meat nutritional composition and quality, FAs content of rabbit meat is also documented in many studies [1,[11][12][13][14], etc.]. ...
... There is also a growing interest in sage plants, seeds, and extract use in animal feeding due to their oil content, which is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA-linoleic and α-linolenic acid). Dietary administration with sage, its extracts, and/or by-products could improve the PUFA content of animal products (eggs, meat [9]). Although the administration of herbal extracts to rabbits and their effects on rabbit meat properties have been investigated by many researchers [4,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][24][25][26], only a few of them have presented results concerning rabbit meat quality and composition after sage extract dietary inclusion [4,6,11,25]. ...
... Dietary administration with sage, its extracts, and/or by-products could improve the PUFA content of animal products (eggs, meat [9]). Although the administration of herbal extracts to rabbits and their effects on rabbit meat properties have been investigated by many researchers [4,[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][24][25][26], only a few of them have presented results concerning rabbit meat quality and composition after sage extract dietary inclusion [4,6,11,25]. In recent years, except herbs and their extracts, other naturally occuring antimicrobial compounds-bacteriocins-have been preferred in animal feeding as well as in animal products for their potential safety, health benefits, and improvement of products' quality compared to synthetic preservatives. ...
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Higher rabbit meat consumption can be ensured by increasing of its quality due to its improved nutritional properties. The effect of enterocin M (EntM) and sage on growth performance, physico-chemical properties, fatty acid (FA), amino acid (AA), and mineral concentrations of rabbit meat was evaluated. Sixty-four rabbits (M91 meatline, both sexes) were divided into three experimental: E (EntM), S (sage), E + S (EntM + sage) groups and control group (C). The additives were administrated in drinking water during 21 days. Lower pH (E, S: P < 0.05; E + S: P < 0.001) and decrease in water content were noted in all experimental groups compared with controls (C). Higher values of lightness (L*), yellowness (b*), and redness (a*; except group E) were measured. The sage administration increased the fat and protein contents (P < 0.05), the meat energy value (S vs. C: P < 0.01; S vs. E and E + S: P < 0.05), the concentrations of arachidonic (P < 0.05), eicosapentaeonic (P < 0.05), and oleic acids (P < 0.01), magnesium (P < 0.05), and potassium (P < 0.01) content. The additives did not influence the rabbit meat AA composition. The sage diet inclusion could improve the quality of rabbit meat due to its higher protein, fat, and energy contents and enhance the PUFA and mineral content of rabbit meat. Moreover, the effect of EntM on meat color parameters, FA and AA composition, has not been tested in rabbits previously.
... Rabbit meat is lean meat of high nutritive value, because it is rich in essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), vitamins, minerals [1,2], low in cholesterol contents, and does not contain uric acid compared with other meats [1][2][3]. The profitability of rabbit farms is partly depending on the effectiveness of weaned rabbits to grow healthy and to protect them from high mortality rates during the fattening period. ...
... The profitability of rabbit farms is partly depending on the effectiveness of weaned rabbits to grow healthy and to protect them from high mortality rates during the fattening period. Antibiotics are frequently used in the diets of growing rabbits because digestive disturbances are the main reason for morbidity and mortality in the rabbit industry [3]. ...
... As a consequence of the European ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) and increased consumer awareness about the consumption of healthy and safer animal products, researchers and feed companies have encouraged to seek new animal feeding approaches to substitute AGPs and synthetic antioxidants [3]. Phytogenic feed additives and/or their extracts are being progressively used in animal nutrition due to their beneficial phytochemical compounds. ...
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Moringa oleifera leaves (MOL) have gained great interest as a non-traditional feed ingredient due to their unique nutritional value. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of graded dietary supplementation levels with MOL on performance, carcass characteristics, antioxidant capacity, blood biochemical constituents, meat quality, and fatty acids profile of growing rabbits. A total of 120 weaned New Zealand white rabbits (6 weeks old) were randomly allotted into 4 dietary groups with 5 replicates each (n = 6), which were fed for 42 days with a basal diet as control or 3 experimental diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 g/kg MOL. The results showed that, compared to the control group, the dietary inclusion of MOL at a level of 10 and 15 g/kg DM linearly increased (p < 0.01) final live weight (2403.3 and 2498.2 vs. 2166.6) and average daily weight gain (36.5 and 35.51 g/d vs. 28.72 g/d), and enhanced feed conversion ratio (2.49 and 2.50 vs. 3.14). The dietary supplementation with MOL linearly increased dressing out percentage, spleen index, intestinal length, and decreased abdominal fat index (p < 0.01). Greater serum levels of total protein and globulin, but lower alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were observed in the MOL-fed rabbits (p < 0.01). Serum levels of total triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.05) were decreased linearly and quadratically in the MOL groups compared with the control. Glutathione peroxidase activity increased (p < 0.01), whereas malondialdehyde decreased (p < 0.01) linearly and quadratically in both serum and meat, in response to dietary MOL supplementation. Dietary MOL supplementation increased the meat crude protein content but lowered the relative content of ether extract in the meat (p < 0.05). The relative content of the meat n-3 PUFA was increased by about 33.71%, 29.46%, and 24.36% for the MOL0.5%, MOL1%, and MOL1.5% groups compared to control. In conclusion, MOL could be used at a level of 1.5g/kg of the growing rabbits’ diets with beneficial impacts on performance, antioxidant capacity, and the nutritional value of the meat.
... In recent years, herbs and spices containing polyphenols have been investigated as feed supplements to improve rabbit health and meat quality parameters, due to their effects on the digestive function and growth performance and their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Dalle Zotte, Celia, & Szendrő, 2016). In this context, seaweeds are also potentially important in animal nutrition due to their high content of bioactive molecules (Makkar et al., 2016). ...
... The high degree of unsaturation of fatty acids makes this meat particularly susceptible to oxidative processes during storage, with negative effects on sensory parameters and nutritional value (Dal Bosco et al., 2014). Previous studies have reported that in rabbit meat lipid oxidation can be prevented using vitamin E or natural extract supplements, which are good sources of dietary antioxidants (Corino, Pastorelli, Pantaleo, Oriani, & Salvatori, 1999;Dal Bosco et al., 2014;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016;Vizzarri, Palazzo, D'Alessandro, & Casamassima, 2017). ...
... There is a growing interest in the use of natural supplements in rabbit nutrition to enhance productive performance, thus improving rabbit health and meat quality parameters (Hassan, Mahrose, & Basyony, 2016). Dalle Zotte et al. (2016) reported that several herbs and spices containing polyphenols have shown positive effects such as being growth promoters, antimicrobials and antioxidants in rabbit species. Makkar et al. (2016) reported that dietary supplementation with brown seaweed in rabbit has different effects: Laminaria spp. ...
Article
Growth performances, carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters from growing rabbit fed with two levels of dietary brown seaweed (Laminaria spp) and plant polyphenols were investigated. One hundred and forty-four New Zealand White rabbits were allotted into three dietary treatments containing 0 (C), 0.3% (T1), and 0.6% (T2) of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols mixture for 42 days. Growth performances and carcass weight were improved in T1 group. Vitamin A and E content in Longissimus thoracis and lumborum (LTL) and Semimembranosus (SM) muscle were enhanced in the treated groups. In the SM muscle, the oxidative stability was improved in rabbit fed with both dosages of dietary supplement, and the cholesterol content tended to be lower in T1 than in T2 and C groups. The LTL and SM muscle sensory characteristics were improved. In conclusion , dietary integration with a low dosage of brown seaweed and plant polyphenols is a valid strategy for enhance growth performance and produce healthier rabbit meat.
... Only enterocin (Ent) A (produced by the Enterococcus faecium EK13/CCM7419 strain) was in vivo tested in Japanese quails [10]. Rabbits are also a significant part of animal food production, and mostly probiotics and herbal extracts are studied as potential feed additives in their nutrition [11][12][13][14]. To extend the knowledge regarding bacteriocin applications in rabbit farms, nisin, gallidermin, and enterocins 4231, 7420, EF55, A/P and M were supplemented to the rabbits' diet alone or in combination with phyto-additives [15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. ...
... There is also a growing interest in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants, seeds and extracts for use in animal feeding due to their oil content, which is a source of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-linoleic and α-linolenic acid). Dietary administration with sage and its extracts/by-products could increase the PUFA content of animal products (eggs, meat [14]). Several previous studies demonstrated that a combined application of enterocins and sage extract did not have a negative influence on the characteristics of rabbit carcasses [25,27]. ...
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Rabbit meat has outstanding nutritional characteristics—it is a lean meat with low fat, cholesterol and sodium content, with high-biological-value proteins, potassium, phosphorus, selenium, iron and vitamin B12 level. The dietary inclusion of natural bioactive compounds can improve the quality of rabbit meat. The present study evaluated the effect of enterocin 7420 (Ent 7420) and sage (Salvia officinalis) extract on the quality and mineral content of rabbit meat. A total of 96 Hyla rabbits (aged 35 days) were divided into E (Ent 7420; 50 µL/animal/d), S (sage extract; 10 µL/animal/d), E + S (Ent 7420 and sage in combination) and control (C) groups. Additives were administrated in drinking water for 21 days. A significant increase in meat iron (p < 0.01) content was noted; phosphorus and zinc levels were also elevated in experimental groups, compared with control data. Ent 7420 and sage treatment reduced the calcium and manganese (p < 0.01) contents. The physico-chemical traits of rabbit meat were not negatively influenced by treatment. Based on these results, diet supplementation, mostly with Ent 7420 but also in combination with sage, could enhance the quality of rabbit meat mineral, with a focus on its iron, phosphorus and zinc contents.
... The active molecules in herbs, spices or their oils can activate immune function, improve the digestive enzyme secretion and stimulate feed intake, as well as promote antioxidant, antiviral, anthelmintic and antibacterial activities (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) comes from fruits of the capsicum family and is used as dried powder or seed oil. ...
... However, a significant increase was reported in the plasma albumin and total protein as a response to RPO supplementation which may be due to its bioactive components (Abdelnour et al., 2018). Herbs and spices inclusion as an additive did not affect the immune response or blood constituents (total protein, globulin and albumin) of animals (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). ...
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Plant-derived additives are used to maintain the health and growth performance of livestock. The use of red pepper oil (RPO) has recently attracted considerable scientific interest mainly due to its potential benefits for animals and humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with RPO on growth performance, carcass measurements, antioxidant status and immunity of growing quails between 1 and 5 weeks of age. A total of 240 growing quails (1-week old) were distributed into 5 equal groups consisting of 48 birds (4 replicates of 12 birds each). The first group was fed a basal diet without RPO (0 g/kg diet), and the second, third, fourth and fifth groups received diets containing RPO (0.4, 0.8, 1.2, 1.6 g/kg diet, respectively). The experiment lasted for 5 weeks. At age of 5 weeks, quails were slaughtered for carcass examinations, microbiological analysis of intestine and to determine blood constituents. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Quails fed with 0.8 g RPO/kg diet showed 12.14%, 14.4% and 15% improvement in live BW, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively, compared with the control group. Quails that received diets with 1.2 g RPO consumed more feed than the others during the total period (1 to 5 weeks). Plasma globulin levels were significantly decreased (P = 0.0102), but albumin/globulin ratio was significantly increased (P = 0.0009) in birds fed diets containing RPO (0.4 and 1.2 g/kg) compared with those in the control group. Activity of liver enzymes in the plasma was nonsignificantly decreased in quails supplemented with 0.8 g RPO/kg diet compared with those in the control group. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione and catalase) in the group fed on diets supplemented with RPO (0.8 g/kg) were significantly higher than those in the control group. The inclusion of RPO (0.8 g/kg diet) in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile and also decreased pH of the caecal content (P = 0.0280) compared with those in the control group. The caecal bacterial population, Salmonella spp., coliform and Escherichia coli, were lowered (P < 0.05) in the groups treated with RPO (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g/kg) compared with those in the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of RPO (0.8 g/kg) can enhance the performance and antioxidant indices and decrease intestinal pathogens and thus improve the health status of Japanese quail.
... Additionally, phytogenic compounds are not only used to control pathogenesis, but also they have been reported to improve appetite, intestinal microflora, immune functions, oxidative status, growth and carcass traits when included in animal diets [3]. Considering the affordability of these plant materials, they could be widely used as growth promoters in the livestock sector worldwide [4]. ...
... Each part of this plant has been reported to contain considerable biologically active phytochemicals particularly glucosinolates [9], and thus promising therapeutic properties [10,11]. As recently reviewed by [3] the potential biological effects of different combinations of phytochemicals on growth performance, antioxidant and antibacterial activities and blood metabolites in rabbits are not fully scrutinized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequence of adding some natural feed additives i.e. turmeric, ginger, fenugreek and dried lemon to rabbit diets at the levels of 0.5, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.0% respectively, on antioxidant enzymes and total immunoglobulins and their fractions of growing rabbits. ...
... This enables them to be potentially antimicrobial candidates with multiple mechanisms of action (Peric et al., 2009). Additionally, phytogenic compounds are not only used to control pathogenesis, but also they have been reported to improve appetite, intestinal microflora, immune func tions, oxidative status, growth and carcass traits when included in animal diets (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). Considering the affordability of these plant materials, they could be widely used as growth promoters in the livestock sector worldwide (Upadhyay et al., 2014). ...
... As recently reviewed by Dalle Zotte et al. (2016) the potential biological effects of different combinations of phytochemicals on growth performance, antioxidant and antibacterial activities and blood metabolites in rabbits are not fully investigated. ...
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The potential contribution of two phytogenic feed additives compared with vitamin E to act as growth promoters was investigated. A total of 150, five weeks, V-line rabbits were fed basal diet supplemented with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (VE), 150 or 300 mg/kg propolis (LP or HP), 150 or 300 mg/kg moringa roots (LM or HM) or not (Con, no additives) for five weeks. Both LM and HM increased (P < .05) percentage of lymphocytes, while decreased (P < .05) ratio of neutrophil to lymphocyte compared to the other groups. Concentration of plasma glucose was higher (P < .05) in the HP-group than in the control, but it recorded intermediate values in the other groups. Compared to control, all dietary supplements improved (P < .05) plasma total antioxidant capacity. Concentrations of plasma low density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde were decreased (P < .05) in VE, LP and HP-groups, but were intermediate in the LM and HM−groups. Live body weights of rabbits were higher (P < .05) in the VE, LP and HP-groups than in the Con-group, whereas were intermediate in the LM and HM−groups. The lowest feed conversion ratios were in the VE and LP-groups. All dietary supplementations did not affect most of the carcass traits, but decreased (P < .05) the abdominal fat percentage. The results indicated the potential of VE and LP for improving growth and antioxidant status of growing rabbits.
... The European ban on the non-therapeutic use of antibiotic growth promoters and limits on the use of other drugs have increased digestive disorders and mortality in growing rabbits. In addition, consumers demand natural products, and therefore synthetic active compounds should be replaced by natural ones (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). ...
... Also, Dalle Zotte et al., (2016) noted that plants (whole plants, leaves or seeds, mainly used as feedstuffs) and their extracts (considered as additives) are being increasingly used in animal nutrition as appetisers, digestive and physiological stimulants, colorants, and antioxidants, and for the prevention and treatment of certain pathological conditions. ...
Article
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This work carried out to investigate the impact of adding natural bioactive mixture juice composed of lemon, onion and garlic (LOG) juice on growth performance, mortality rate, carcass characteristics, some blood constituents, ceacum parameters and microbial activity. A total number of three hundred Rex rabbits aged 4 to 5 weeks (772±22 g) were divided into four equal comparable experimental groups (75 in each). Feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks (56 days) and the first experimental group rabbits received the basal diet that formulated to cover the requirements of growing rabbits and considered as (control group), meanwhile, drinking water was offered ad libtum without containing any additives (Zero LOG). On the other hand, the 2 nd ; 3 rd and 4 th groups were also fed the basal diet; meanwhile drinking water was added at levels 10, 20 and 30 ml LOG/ liter of drinking water for the 2 nd ; 3 rd and 4 th groups, respectively. The results showed that inclusion LOG at different levels significantly (P<0.05) increased average daily gain (ADG) compared to control. This increasing reaching to 13.7, 24.6 and 22.2% for 10, 20 and 30 ml LOG, respectively in comparison with control. Daily dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected by adding LOG at different levels, the average daily DMI was varied from 94 to 98 g/head/day among the different experimental group rabbits. Feed conversion that significantly (P<0.05) improved with adding LOG at different levels and through out the 2 nd week, 4 th week, 6 th week and 8 th week compared to control. Mortality rate was decreased with increasing the level of LOG addition. Inclusion LOG at different level significantly increased both carcass weight (CW) and Dressing percentages (DP). Increasing level of LOG increased values of red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, total protein, Albumin, globulin and albumin: globulin ratio were significantly (P<0.05) increased. Meanwhile it significantly (P<0.05) decreased values of blood NH3, blood urea, GOT, GPT, total lipids, phospholipids, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. Caecal pH insignificantly decreased with adding LOG in drinking water up to 20 ml LOG/ liter drinking water. Meanwhile, adding LOG at different levels significantly (P<0.05) decreased total volatile fatty acids (TVFA's) concentration and fungi counts comparing to the control. Total bacteria counts was significantly (P<0.05) increased with increasing the level adding of LOG. On the other hand, inclusion LOG at different levels had no significant effect on both actinomyces and cellulolytic bacteria counts. Adding LOG decreased total aerobic bacterial counts (TABC), total Coliform counts (TCC), feacal coliform counts (FCC), total fungi counts (TFC) and total entero bacteriacea counts (TEBC), meanwhile, total yeast count (TYC) was increased. It can be mentioned that adding nature bioactive mixture (LOG) in drinking water of Rex rabbits occurred an improving in their growth Badr et al., Nutritional impact of inclusions natural bioactive mixture in drinking water Bioscience Research, 2019 volume 16(2):1808-1823 1809 performance, decreasing mortality rate, decreasing both blood total cholesterol and blood triglyceride. Also, it had no adverse effect on carcass characteristics or ceacum parameters and improves the microbial activity. The best levels of adding from LOG was 20 ml LOG/ liter dinking water
... The limits on the use of some chemical drugs and growth promoters have increased digestive disorders and mortality in growing rabbits. Many herbs have been recognized to possess anticoccidial and antioxidant effects, and their use is recommended to reduce the use of some chemical drugs in rabbits [2]. ...
... To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the effect of E. stiedae on the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and on CD4+/CD8+ ratios in the peripheral blood. Further investigations aim to evaluate the efficacy of this herbal product (Herba Cox®) on rabbits infected by coccidia are required, it is also recommended to include the evaluation of their therapeutic dose, toxicity and mechanisms of action [2]. In the present study, the livers of untreated E. stiedae infected rabbits showed massive histopathological alterations, while such alterations were markedly attenuated in the Herba Cox®-treated group. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Herba Cox®, a commercial herbal compound containing extracts from Bombax malabaricum, Aegle marmelos, Anethum foeniculum, Resina salvia, Ferula asafoetida and Papaver somniferum, for the treatment of rabbit hepatic coccidiosis. Thirty rabbits were allocated into three groups (10 × 3), the G1 group served as a negative control group, G2 group (positive control group) was infected with 5 × 104 sporulated E. stiedaeoocysts and served as infected-untreated group, and G3 group was infected with 5 × 104 sporulated E. stiedaeoocysts and treated with Herba Cox®, 1 ml/liter of drinking water, starting 7 days before infection and continuing for 4 weeks post-infection. When compared to the infected group (G2), body weight and weight gain were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased, the feed conversion rate was improved and no mortality was detected in infected treated group (G3) and similar to negative control group (G1). In addition, faecal oocyst output and liver enzymes were significantly decreased. Malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione concentrations observed in G3 were similar to those in G1. In infected-untreated rabbits (G2), the haemoglobin, lymphocytes, and CD4+/ CD8+ ratio were significantly decreased, while the total leukocyte count, percentage of heterophils, and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio were increased. Significantly more severe histopathological hepatic lesions were observed in G2 when compared to G1 and G3. In conclusion, the obtained results showed that Herba Cox® should be considered a safe and novel effective compound for the treatment of E. stiedae infection in rabbits.
... seeds, leaves), to retard lipid oxidation and flavour deterioration in meat has stimulated broad interest within the meat industry. The attention towards natural antioxidants is heightened by the recent global trend to reduce synthetic food additives usually utilised in the food chain (Dal Bosco et al., 2014;Dalle Zotte, Celia, & Szendrő, 2016;Mattioli et al., 2017). Existing and potential natural antioxidant technologies applied to meat for the protection of shelf life are focused on plant-derived compounds that primarily target fresh or freshly-prepared meat (Karre, Lopez, & Getty, 2013;Kumar, Yadav, Ahmad, & Narsaiah, 2015;Shah, Bosco, & Mir, 2014). ...
Article
The present research studied the effect of liquorice extract (in feed and/or directly in burgers) on the shelf-life of rabbit meat. Before weaning, 28 individually caged rabbit does with their litters were divided in two dietary groups: Control, receiving a commercial diet, and Liquorice, receiving the Control diet supplemented with 6 g liquorice extract/kg (L). At 12 weeks of age, 15 fattened rabbits/treatment (one rabbit/cage) were slaughtered and their hindlegs dissected. Hindleg meat was trimmed, individually minced and divided into two parts: one of them was mixed with 0.25% (w/w) L. Storage time significantly reduced the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the burger, to a different magnitude depending on the unsaturation level, experimental group and storage time. The α-tocopherol content showed higher levels during storage in the burgers from the Liquorice group. Also TBARs values showed a significant positive effect of dietary liquorice and a progressive increase at days 3 and 6 of storage.
... The fear of using antibiotics in animal nutrition has been leading to increased requests on using natural and safe feeding additives with better production ensuring at the same time (Frankič et al., 2009). The prohibition of feeding antibiotics, except of medical purposes, led to digestive disturbances and deaths in fattening rabbits (Zotte et al., 2016). According to Wenk (2003) plant extracts have increased the ration palatability, stimulate digestion and physiological functions, increase feed intake and weight gains or antimicrobial and coccidiostatic effects have been noticed. ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this study was to prove the harmlessness or positive effects of phytogenic additives on health parameters in rabbits. Experimental feed mixture contained 2.5% of the phytogenic additives premix. The phytogenic additives premix was composed of dehydrated herbs such as dandelion leaves (Taraxacum officinale), nettle leaves (Urtica diotica), dandelion and daisy blooms (Bellis perennis), yarrow leaves (Achillea millefolium L.), plantain leaves (Plantago lanceolata L.), sage leaves (Salvia officinalis), wild strawberry leaves (Fragaria vesca) and mint leaves (Mentha aquatica). The experiment was performed with five crossbreeds of Californian and New Zealand rabbit weighting about 3.5 kilograms at 4 months of age. The rabbits were being fed with experimental feeding mixture for three weeks. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, where liver and kidney biochemical profile were evaluated and nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism as well. Control and experimental blood samples were compared. In addition, the results of both control and experimental blood samples were compared with reference range of blood parameters in rabbits. A significant difference was not proved in the most of results between control and experimental samples (P > 0.05). However, decreased enzyme activity of gamma glutamyl transferase was demonstrated (P < 0.05). According to this result we can say that the phytogenic additives could have a positive effect on the liver profile. The influence on the kidney function, nitrogen or carbohydrate metabolisms was not noticed.
... The use of nutritional antioxidants in livestock systems is considered the key to improve rabbit production (Elwan et al., 2019). Several healthy plants have been used for feeding fattening rabbits, as they are a source of phytochemicals used as antioxidants or antimicrobials (Zeng et al., 2015;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). Bilberry pomace was used as a feeding strategy to improve fatty acid content in rabbit meat (Dabbou et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to use different parts of the Tithonia tubaeformis plant in feed for fattening rabbits and then observe the effects on carcass and meat quality. Forty-eight weaned rabbits (35 days of age) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 12 by treatment). Animals were fed ad libitum a control diet as well as three experimental diets, with addition of Tithonia tubaeformis leaves, whole plant, and stems. Rabbits were slaughtered after 63 days of age without fasting. Results indicate that live weight (0.917), skin (0.79), feet (6.679), and lumbar circumference of the carcass (0.707) have higher positive correlations with hot carcass. There were no significant differences between treatments for all variables measured, except for kidneys and kidney fat. pH and color values were different among treatments. The results indicate that Tithonia tubaeformis leaves or the whole plant could be added to feed for growing rabbits.
... Control of the microbiota could therefore improve digestive efficiency, and consequently also the immune status and digestive health. One of the ways of preventing those disturbances is the supplementation of the rabbits' diet with natural substances: probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, enterocins and herbal extracts [5][6][7][8][9][10]. Despite many studies demonstrating the beneficial results of the application of these substances in rabbits, there is a need to extend the existing knowledge as well as to find new possibilities concerning the improvement of the caecal environment and rabbit health. ...
Article
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The effects of enterocin (Ent) M and sage extract applied separately and in combination were investigated. EntM (E 50 μL/animal/day in water) and sage extract (S 10 μL/animal/day in water) were applied individually and in combination (E+S) to rabbits during 21 days of treatment. The rabbits’ growth was not significantly influenced by the additives. Lower feed conversion (FC) was noted in the experimental groups compared with controls, with the lowest data detected in E. The antimicrobial activity of EntM was noted (in E+S: lactic acid bacteria—P < 0.01; in E, E+S: enterococci, enterobacteria—P > 0.05; in E: clostridia—P > 0.05). The most significant changes in fermentation between weaned and older rabbits were noted in amylolytic activity at day 21 (E P < 0.05; E + S P < 0.05); prolonged reduction effect of sage extract on amylolytic activity was observed. The activity of cellulase, pectinase and xylanase was higher in older than in younger animals. Decrease in lactic acid and volatile fatty acids was noted during EntM administration, with significant effect on propionic acid concentration (E P < 0.05; E+S P < 0.001). The sage extract reduced propionic acid (S P < 0.001) and butyric acid levels (S P < 0.05) and increased the concentrations of butyric, iso-valeric, valeric, caproic acids and lactic acid (P < 0.001). It seems to be that EntM and sage supplementation may improve the economy of rabbit farms (increased FC) and the health status of rabbits (reduction of spoilage microbiota, enhanced enzymatic activities in caecum).
... Rabbit meat is considered as a lean meat that has a different nutritional profile from other meats, and is characterized by its easy digestion, low concentrations of fat, cholesterol and sodium (Para et al., 2015). Additionally, studies have shown it also contains several physicochemical characteristics superior to other meats, such as pH, water holding capacity, color and texture (Chodová & Tumová, 2013;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Rabbit meat usage in processed products is low. However, rabbit meat raw sausage can be an alternative to increase this meat’s market share. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of blending textured soybean protein and rabbit meat on the texture profile analysis and sensory properties of the chorizo. Five treatments were designed, one control and another four using blends of rabbit meat and textured soybean in ratios of 10, 20, 30 and 40%. Measurements were water activity, texture profile analysis, and color, while a sensory test was conducted at the end of experiments for four treatments. The main results indicate that Aw and pH values decreased (p< 0.05), while b* value increased with storage time (p<0.05). L* value decreased after 7 d vacuum packing, but then increased after 14 d. Treatment with 20% of textured soybean results in less hardness and more springiness. Sensory analysis indicates that there is not significant difference in odor global appearance in all treatments (p>0.05), but color, hardness and taste were different (p<0.05). In conclusion, textured soybean protein can be blended with rabbit meat for processing chorizo. The meat product obtained has sensorial characteristics, a texture profile, Aw and color acceptable for this kind of raw sausage, especially in blends with 20 and 30% of textured soybean protein. Moreover, the blend of these two meat ingredients improved nutritional properties and could therefore be offering as a functional meat product.
... The scientific researchers and the meat industry have increasingly focused their attention on phenolic compounds present in plant extracts, herbs and essential oils (EO) for their potential antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral activities (Dalle Zotte, Celia, & Szendrő, 2016;López de Dicastillo et al., 2017). These properties are exhibited by many plant components like flavonoids, proanthocyanidins (cranberry), quercetin (onions), carvacrol and thymol (essential oils from herbs), anthocyanins (berries), etc. ...
Article
The present work evaluated the effects of feed supplementation with plant extracts (onion, cranberry) and a commercial essential oil product (Xtract™) on rabbit meat quality. Five groups of 48 weaned Grimaud female rabbits each received a control ration (C) or a diet supplemented with onion extract (500 or 1000 ppm), cranberry extracts (500 ppm) and essential oil product (100 ppm) alone or in combination. Microbiological quality was evaluated on whole hind legs stored under aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 4 °C. Growth performances, feed intake and both meat composition and quality were similar amongst the experimental groups. Anyhow, meat total phenolic content was significantly higher in all supplemented ones (P < 0.001). Diet supplementation effect was observed (P < 0.05) and microbial control was improved more importantly under anaerobic conditions, notably for Total Aerobic Mesophilic counts, presumptive Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.03). Overall, supplementation with onion extract (500 ppm) suppressed microbial growth more effectively.
... One of the alternatives of natural active ingredients are herbs, spices and their extracts as a substitute. Their effects were tested primarily on humans, but also on laboratory animals (Zotte et al., 2016). Numerous studies have documented antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of species that may be associated with the prevention and treatment of some diseases (Zheng et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Hazardous (heavy) metals are widely spreaded in our environment, which is endangered by these hazardous metals that infiltrate water, air, soil, plants and subsequently in the food chain. This has a major impact on human health and animal health, because these metals can cause serious health problems. For this reason, it is very important to control the occurrence of heavy metals in the environment, water, air and soil, and then eliminate them to the permissible limit values. Spices have been used in the past as natural flavors, used to highlight or create flavor. Nowadays, spices are commonly found in different trade chains and different brands. Consumer information is a very important decision-making factor when purchasing, but there are not always, on the packaging, all the information on harmful substances. For this reason, it is important to clarify the content of the risk metals, as it can prevent health problems and difficulties, and consumers can choose a healthy food (spice). Regarding this fact, the aim of this study was to closely determine the amount of hazardous (heavy) metals in selected kinds of spices (basil, black pepper, marjoram, sweet red paprika) that can cause serious health issues, if the limited levels of these heavy metals described in the Codex Alimentarius of Slovak republic are overstepped. The analyzed spices were purchased from three local markets. The amount of lead (5.59 mg.kg⁻¹) and cadmium (1.38 mg.kg⁻¹) were exceeding the highest acceptable limits stated in the Codex Alimentarius SR (Cd 0,50 mg.kg⁻¹, Pb 5 mg.kg⁻¹) in all three samples of basil. The content of cuprum and zinc was under the highest acceptable limits stated in the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic. According to these findings, we would recommend more inspections focused on the level of heavy metals in spices.
... It has been reported that plants such as oregano can improve carcass quality in rabbits (Cardinali et al., 2015). Dalle et al., (2016), summarizes the effect of various plants or plant extracts on the effect they have as a growth promoter, ...
Article
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The present work was carried out in order to determine the effect of chamomile and rue inclusion, in the feeding process of fattening rabbits on the quality of the carcass and meat. For that reason, 24 rabbits were used at weaning and fattened for four weeks until reaching an average of 63 d of age. The rabbits were sacrificed and the quality of the carcass and meat was evaluated, morphometric measurements were taken, in addition to carrying out the dissection of the carcass. The main results indicate significant differences (P <0.05) in the length of the carcass, the weight of hot and cold carcass, middle part, meat and pH of the meat, having better results in the treatment with rue. That is why it is concluded that this plant has the potential to be used as an improvement of the quality of carcass in fattening rabbits.
... This increase in serum TP and albumin may be due to the bioactive components in RPO and BPO. On the contrary, Dabbou et al. [7] and Kovitvadhi et al. [45] mentioned that dietary phytogenic supplementation did not affect the blood parameters (TP, globulin, and albumin) or humoral immune responses in growing rabbits. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to examine the impacts of the supplementation of red or black pepper oils to rabbit diet as growth promoters on New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits. One hundred and forty weaned NZW rabbits were divided randomly into seven groups in a completely randomized experiment using different quantities of red pepper oil (RPO; 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg diet) or black pepper oil (BPO; 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg diet), in addition to the control group. Compared to the control, values of live body weight (LBW) for rabbits fed either RPO or BPO enriched diets were greater. The concentrations of serum triglycerides and cholesterol were lower (p < 0.01) in the RPO- and BPO-treated groups than in the control. Immunity parameters and antioxidant indices were improved in treated groups in comparison to the control. Dietary RPO or BPO can affect some growth traits, improve immunity parameters and the antioxidant activity, and decrease the lipid profile and lipid peroxidation. The use of 0.5 g RPO/kg diet as a dietary supplement had a larger effect on growth parameters than the other treatment groups.
... To control the oxidative susceptibility of rabbit meat when its content in unsaturated fatty acids has been enhanced, the dietary incorporation of natural antioxidant compounds has been a widely studied strategy to ensure rabbit meat shelf-life (Dalle Zotte , Celia, & Szendrő, 2016). ...
Article
Since the 1970s, in some European countries rabbit meat production has progressively become a highly specialized industry, which has made Europe the second (after China) largest rabbit meat producer in the world. However, the industry is currently facing a critical period due to structural weaknesses, progressive and constant reductions in consumption, and raising criticism related to welfare conditions and other ethical issues. This trend is questioning the future of the rabbit meat industry, which could lead to the loss of knowledge and technical expertise acquired over decades of major investments and research efforts (a valuable cultural and professional heritage for future generations). In the present review, we provide an overview of the rabbit meat industry, market and value chain, we depict consumer's attitude towards rabbit meat, highlighting strengths and weaknesses, and factors driving their current purchase behavior. Finally, we will attempt to outline possible strategies to ensure a sustainable future for the production of rabbits for commercial meat purposes.
... Nevertheless, the use of antioxidants as additives in animal feed has improved the shelf life of meat products, mainly decreasing lipid oxidation (Qwele et al., 2013), and natural sources of antioxidants should be used to offer healthier meat products (Kumar et al., 2015). Bioactive compounds produced by plants have antibacterial or antioxidant properties (Hashemi & Davoodi, 2011), and it is for this reason that several plants, either in their complete form or as extracts, have been used to feed rabbits (Dalle-Zotte et al., 2016). The use of natural resources is a good alternative for feeding animals and producing meat products (Kumar et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Plants with high levels of antioxidant compounds have been used to feed animals and increase stability of their meat and meat products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides infusion on carcass, meat and burger quality. Rabbits were assigned to each treatment (0, 5 or 10 g.L-1 of Chenopodium ambrosioides). Animals were slaughtered after 28 days of fattening, after which carcass and meat quality was measured, and the meat obtained was processed into burgers. Results indicate that all variables measured were not significant, except for dissectible fat, pH, adhesiveness, L* value, and initial total plate counts in burgers. It is concluded that Chenopodium ambrosioides infusion could be used to feed rabbits, acquire meat, and use the meat for processing burgers, which have low bacterial growth and low oxidation development.
... Moreover, Dalle Zotte et al. (2014a reported that supplementation of thyme at 30 g/kg decreased scapular fat content of growing rabbits which is in accordance with our results. Dalle Zotte et al. (2016) recently reviewed the potential biological effects of different combinations of phytochemicals on growth performance, carcass criteria, antioxidant and antibacterial activities in rabbits and stated that these are not fully investigated. It appears that lack of quantitative data of active components also limit progress relative to carcass characteristics. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the impact of thyme essential oil supplementation in rabbit rations on performance, carcass criteria, and meat quality under hot environmental conditions. A total of 75, 4-week-old Californian male rabbits were assigned to 5 dietary treatments until 12 weeks of age. The rabbits were reared in an open house system (38 ºC average ambient temperature and 26% to 35% relative humidity). Treatments were as follows: unsupplemented standard ration, negative control (CON); standard ration supplemented with 1.50 g/kg olive oil as carrier, positive control (POS); POS + 50 mg/kg thyme oil (TO1); POS + 100 mg/kg thyme oil (TO2); and POS + 150 mg/kg thyme oil (TO3). Dietary thyme oil up to 150 mg/kg improved (P < 0.001) feed intake and growth performance in comparison to CON. The highest average daily gain and most efficient feed conversion ratio (linear, P < 0.001 and quadratic, P < 0.001) were found for TO1 rabbits followed by TO2, TO3 and POS, respectively. The incorporation of thyme oil improved (P < 0.001) carcass criteria and decreased (P < 0.001) perirenal and scapular fat without any side effects on internal organs. Notably, the water holding capacity of rabbit meat was greater (P < 0.001), and the lipid oxidation was lower (P < 0.01) in rabbits fed treated rations compared with CON. Differences were also recorded in oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin contents in rabbit meat among treatments. In conclusion, thyme oil of a specified composition and added to a rabbit ration up to 100 mg/kg using 1.50 g/kg olive oil as a carrier can be used as an efficient feed additive for improving productive performance of rabbits under hot environmental conditions.
... According to (Rotolo et al., 2013), the growth performances of animals fed diets supplemented with aromatic plants like OEO were higher than those of animals in the control group, with the OEO supplemented group achieving the highest final body weight. Our findings are also in consistent with those of (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). On the other hand, (Botsoglou et al., 2004;Soultos et al., 2009) found that dietary oregano essential oil addition at concentrations of 0, 100, or 200 mg kg-1 diet had no significant effects on all rabbit performance parameters. ...
... Plant derivates used as feed additives may act as immunostimulants or antimicrobial agents, and represent valuable alternatives to antibiotics and other chemical drugs (Galindo-Villegas and Hosokawa, 2004). Several studies have reported the use of plant essential oils (EO) or their purified constituents (e.g., thymol, carvacrol, resveratrol, curcumin, hydroxytyrosol) in the diets of large and small animals (Dalle Zotte et al., 2016;Frankič et al., 2009). Due to its heterogeneous composition, the biological effects of EO may be the result of synergistic effects among different molecules (Sutili et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This study provided a preliminary framework for the effects of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (EO) on sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) health status over a 60-day feeding trial. Fish were fed twice a day until apparent satiety with three different diets: a control diet (CD), and two experimental diets supplemented with 100 (D100) and 200 (D200) ppm of oregano EO. No mortality was observed in each treatment. Feeding on D100 diet resulted in high growth performances and better food conversion and protein efficiency ratios. Additionally, the supplementation of 100 ppm EO diet also improved (P < 0.05) hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, compared both to control and D200 diets. EO feeding positively affected (P < 0.05) several serum biochemical indices (amylase activity and total proteins, glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels). Focusing on the antioxidant potential of blood, D100 led to the highest (P < 0.05) ferric reducing antioxidant power values and the lowest (P < 0.05) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels in blood.
... [2] This feeding strategies has improved the antioxidant quality of rabbit meat, that is one of the principal problem on the rabbit meat commerce, . [94] One way to increase the functional food properties in plants, by increasing the specialized metabolites, is the Controlled elicitation. This technique promote the secondary metabolism and the activation of the defense mechanism of plants; for example, the applications, in stevia, of salicylic acid at 0.1 mM improved the steviol glycosides content . ...
Article
Functional Food (FF) refers to a food that besides of impact on the animals and human nutrition, also help on the reduction risk of some illness and even on their control. Nutraceutical Food (NF) refers to products derived usually from FF and are presented commonly as drugs to prevent or reduce some illness. These kinds of foods are not widely used animals and specifically in rabbits. The aim of this review was to describe and analyse benefits of FF in rabbits and to propose practices that increase the use of these kinds of foods on the rabbit meat production.
... There have been many publications on the use of herbs and spices (i.e., nettle and fenugreek) in rabbit nutrition and their effect on growth, health, and meat quality [6][7][8]. Nettle leaves are a source of easily digestible minerals, such as calcium (853-1050 mg/100 g dry weight), phosphorus (50-265 mg/100 g dry weight), iron (2-200 mg/100 g dry weight), sulfur (400 mg/100 g DM), potassium (532-613 mg/100 g DM), and sodium (16-58 mg/100 g DM). In addition, they contain vitamin C (20-60 mg/100 g dry weight), vitamin K (0.16-0.64 mg/100 g dry weight), and B vitamins [9,10]. ...
Article
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The literature on herbal additives for rabbit feed offers little information on the use of nettle and fenugreek. Both of these herbs are valuable sources of vitamins and minerals. These herbs affect the growth, health, and meat quality of rabbits. They regulate the digestive system, stimulate the appetite, have a positive effect on the functioning of the immune system, and exhibit antibacterial activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) leaves or fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) seeds in the feed on the content of selected heavy metals in the liver and meat of the rabbit. The rabbits were divided into three groups: group C (n = 20; 10 ♂ and 10 ♀) was fed ad libitum with a complete feed, N group (n = 20; 10 ♂ and 10 ♀) was fed a complete mixture with 1% added nettle, and group F (n = 20; 10 ♂ and 10 ♀) was fed with a complete mixture with 1% added fenugreek. The experiment lasted 7 weeks (from the 35th to the 84th day of the rabbits’ lives). All the rabbits were slaughtered on the 84th day of age, with a body weight of about 2.6 kg. The concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn, Fe, Pb, Cd) was determined by the atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The additives to the feed significantly affected the content of elements in both the liver and the meat of rabbits (p < 0.05). The highest level of the heavy metals, regardless of the used diet, was recorded in the liver (p < 0.05). The meat (m. longissimus lumborum) and the liver of rabbits fed with herbal fodder contained less tested metals than in animals fed with fodder without additives (p < 0.05). Moreover, more essential metals were found in the liver of rabbits fed with fenugreek than rabbits fed with nettle. In the meat and liver of rabbits, the permissible content of cadmium and lead was not exceeded. Additionally, male livers had a significantly higher content of copper and manganese compared to female livers (p < 0.05). It is important to study the content of heavy metals in the used animal herbal feed additives and their interaction with each other, as they affect the distribution of elements in tissues and organs.
... In cuniculture, a very important health problem exists after animals are weaned, they show digestive disturbances that can cause infections; these disturbances are perhaps caused by dietary changes and the stress of weaning . Various medicinal plants have been investigated as potential dietary sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant or antimicrobial activity or as nutritional additives or supplements (Zeng et al., 2015;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016). These plants include ginger (Bhandari et al., 1988;Ibrahim et al., 2011;Mancini et al., 2018;Abdel-Gabbar et al., 2019), epazote (García-Vázquez et al., 2020), Tithonia tubaeformis (Zepeda-Bastida et al., 2019), bilberry pomace (Dabbou et al., 2017), oregano, rosemary (which contains vitamin E; Cardinali et al., 2015), onion, bilberry, and strawberry and their extracts (Kone et al., 2016). ...
Article
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ginger as an additive in the diet of fattening rabbits. Sixty weaned rabbits (35 days old) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15). Animals were fed ad libitum with a control diet or one of three experimental diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, and 2 g of ginger per 100 g of feed during 28 d. Weight gain in the final week of the experiment was significantly greater in rabbits fed ginger at 0.5 g/100 g of feed than in those fed ginger at 1 and 2 g/100 g of feed or the control diet. No significant differences in morphometric measurements were observed among the treatments, but higher values of live weight, carcass length, and carcass circumference were observed in rabbits treated with ginger than in those fed the control diet. Regarding carcass quality parameters involving the kidneys and empty gastrointestinal tract, we found that rabbits treated with ginger at 0.5 g/100 g of feed showed significant differences from those treated with ginger at 1 and 2 g/100 g of feed or the control diet. pH, water holding capacity, L*, and a* did not significantly differ among the treatments, although greater water holding capacity was observed in rabbits treated with ginger than in control rabbits. Parameter b* was significantly higher in rabbits fed ginger at 2 g/100 g of feed than in those fed at 0.5 and 1 g/100 g of feed and in the control. The results found suggest that ginger can be used as an additive in diets of fattening rabbits.
... Although numerous in vitro studies have shown the antioxidant properties of thyme extracts (14,16), respective experimental in vivo evidence is still limited, particularly in the case of rabbits. A series of trials using dietary thyme or its extract have been carried out to study its efficacy in stabilizing lipid oxidation and improving the quality of rabbit meat (17,18). Placha et al. (19) showed that dietary inclusion of thyme essential oil may improve antioxidant status as well as the intestinal integrity of rabbits. ...
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This study was aimed at determining the impact of organic zinc (Zn) and thyme extract (TE) administration, given alone or together for 6 weeks, on the antioxidant and mineral status (Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn) in the plasma and tissues of growing rabbits. A total of 96 rabbits of age 35 days were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: a control group (C), a Zn group supplemented with dietary zinc (50 mg/kg), a TE group receiving thyme extract applied in drinking water (1 ml/L), and a Zn + TE group treated with both additives. Lipid peroxidation in the plasma was influenced by Zn intake and in the kidney was affected by both the Zn and TE treatment (P < 0.05). Zn supplementation led to a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase activity (P = 0.017), total antioxidant capacity (P = 0.009) and total thiol groups level (P = 0.047) in the kidney, with the highest values occurring in rabbits receiving the combination Zn + TE. Administration of TE influenced Zn content in the kidney (P < 0.001), while zinc intake decreased Cu concentration in muscle (P = 0.021). In conclusion, the simultaneous administration of organic Zn and TE positively affected the antioxidant response of kidneys and can be used for improving the antioxidant status of growing rabbits.
... A carne é um alimento rico em água o que está relacionada com as suas caracteristicas como a suculência, cor e a textura são fatores que influenciam diretamentemente na qualidade da carne. Alguns fatores são responsavéis pela qualidade final da carne e o teor protéico como a idade do animal, a raça e as condições de abate (RIBEIRO et al 2018) De acordo ainda com Ribeiroet, al (2018)A gordura está atrelada aos aspectos sensoriais e de palatabilidade da carne, o percentual de gordura é o substrato para o desenvolvimento do processo oxidativo em produtos cárneos. ...
Chapter
Em 2021, ainda em meio a crise social gerada pela pandemia causada pelo Coronavírus, que levou a população a manter um distanciamento social, o CIAGRO foi planejado, conduzido e vivenciado dentro do cenário crescente de temas que envolvem a agroindústria mundial. Com o tema norteador “Inovação Gestão e Sustentabilidade na Agroindústria” o CIAGRO 2021 contemplou o que há de mais moderno para a agroindústria na atualidade. O Congresso Internacional da Agroindústria - CIAGRO 2021 é um evento, concebido no âmbito das atividades desenvolvidas no Programa Internacional Despertando Vocações para as Ciências Agrárias (PDVAgro) e realizado pelo Instituto Internacional Despertando Vocações (IIDV) que tem compromisso com a democratização do conhecimento e com uma educação de qualidade. O e-book volume 02 do CIAGRO 2021, está dividido em 31 capítulos que enfatiza os diversos elos da agroindústria, evidenciando alternativas para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas, desafios e expectativas para a cadeia produtiva dos alimentos, dividindo experiências nas áreas de Controle de qualidade e segurança dos alimentos e Análises sensoriais, físico-químicas e microbiológicas de alimentos. O CIAGRO 2021 teve como objetivo discutir os caminhos e visões referentes à aplicabilidade de toda a cadeia produtiva do alimento, no cenário nacional e internacional, e além disso trouxe a divulgação de conteúdos e resultados de pesquisas; estabelecendo trocas de experiências entre indivíduos do Brasil, de diferentes instituições, e do exterior; estimulando a geração de novas redes de cooperação multicêntricas entre a indústria e a área acadêmica e de pesquisa, contribuindo com o enriquecimento na formação de estudantes e profissionais, que atuam nos diferentes setores da agroindústria em diferentes países.
... However, 2 g kg −1 had reduced beneficial effects on different performance variables Orzuna-Orzuna et al., 2019). This could indicate that the concentration of plant metabolites, such as terpenes, phenols, polyphenols, carotenoids, oligosaccharides, and vitamins, must be precise to obtain benefits from these phytogenic growth promoters (Cardinali et al., 2015;Dalle et al., 2016). Nevertheless, Jouany and Morgavi (2007) concluded that these metabolites in greater amounts could cause negative or toxic effects in the organism (Jouany & Morgavi, 2007). ...
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The objective was to characterize the effects of a supplemental Herbal Antibiotics Source (HAnS) on performance, blood chemistry, blood cells, and antibody counts of Holstein calves. Forty calves (initial BW 45.8 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to treatments: 0, 3, 4, and 5 g d HAnS. The additive improved hip height and thoracic girth. The reduction of starter diet intake among individuals varied greatly, while milk replacer intake increased. HAnS at intermediate doses reduced the cases of pneumonia. It also linearly reduced the blood serum glucose and B-OH butyrate. Urea and monocytes showed a quadratic response, and basophils decreased. HAnS improves calf development at intermediate doses and reduces the incidence of diseases.
... Although rabbit meat is healthy and delicious meat, offering excellent nutritive and dietetic properties in itself, its dietary fortification with bioactive compounds helps to obtain rabbit meat considered as functional food (Dalle Zotte & Szendrő, 2011). The most often tested bioactive compounds are probiotics, prebiotics, herbal extracts, antioxidants, organic and fatty acids, with ability to improve rabbit meat fatty acid (FA) profile, minerals and vitamins content; these results are documented in many research papers (Dalle Zotte, Celia, & Szendrő, 2016;Pogány Simonová, Chrastinová, & Lauková, 2020b). However, rabbit meat amino acid (AA) content and its influence during natural feed additives supplementation have been presented only in few studies (Dalle Zotte, 2002;Matuševiciuš et al., 2006;Mohamed, Mahmoud, Abbas, & Sobhy, 2016;Pogány Simonová et al., 2008;Pogány Simonová et al., 2010), especially concerning the bacteriocins effect on AA level (Chrastinová et al., 2018;Chrastinová et al., 2020;Pogány Simonová et al., 2020a). ...
Article
The effect of enterocin (Ent)7420 and sage on rabbit meat carcass quality and amino acid (AA) conetnt was evaluated. Ninty-six Hyla male rabbits (35 days aged) were divided into experimental: E (Ent7420), S (sage), E + S (Ent7420 + sage) and control (C) groups. The additives were administrated in drinking water during 21 days. Time and time and treatment interaction effect were noted on carcass traits. The highest protein level was noted in rabbits LTL receiving Ent7420 in combination with sage. Essential (EAA) and non-essential amino acid (NEAA) levels increased in all experimental groups, with the highest EAAs in group E + S (E + S vs. E, S: P < 0.01; E + S, E, S vs. C: P < 0.001) and NEAAs in group E (E vs. S, E + S, C: P < 0.001). The dietary inclusion of Ent7420 alone and in combination with sage can improve the rabbit meat quality due to its higher protein, EAAs and NEAAs profile.
... WRSA, UPV, 2003 in various animal species. There are several studies/reviews dealing with the use and beneficial effects of bioactive compounds and/or their combinations in rabbits (Falcão-e- Cunha et al., 2007;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016;Kalma et al., 2016;Bhatt et al., 2017). The positive effects of these additives on the control of pathogens and parasites, nutrient utilisation, metabolism changes, oxidative stress, immunomodulation and growth performance have also been demonstrated in several studies (Pogány Simonová et al., 2009;Bhatt et al., 2017;Cunha et al., 2017). ...
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p>Forty-eight rabbits aged five weeks (Hycole breed, both sexes) were divided into experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups, 24 animals in each, and fed a commercial diet with access to water ad libitum . Rabbits in EG had Enterococcus faecium EF9a probiotic strain added to their drinking water (1.0×10<sup>9</sup> colony forming units/mL 500 μL/d/animal) for 28 d (between 35 and 63 d). The experiment lasted for 42 d. The animals remained in good health condition throughout the experiment, and no morbidity and mortality was noted. There was a higher live weight at 63 d of age (+34 g; P <0.0001), final live weight at 77 d of age (+158 g; P =0.0483), and average daily weight gain between 63 and 77 d of age in the EG group rabbits than in CG group rabbits (+8 g/d; P <0.0001). No significant changes in caecal lactic acid and total volatile fatty acid concentrations, jejunal morphological parameters and phagocytic activity were noted during the treatment. The tested serum parameters were within the range of the reference values. EF9a strain sufficiently established itself in the rabbit’s gastrointestinal tract. At 63 d of age, a significant decrease in coliforms ( P <0.05), coagulase-positive staphylococci ( P <0.01), pseudomonads ( P <0.01) and coagulasenegative staphylococci (CoNS, P <0.001) was noted in the faeces of the EG group rabbits compared to the CG rabbits. Antimicrobial effects of EF9a strain in the caecum against coliforms ( P <0.001), CoNS ( P =0.0002) and pseudomonads ( P =0.0603) and in the appendix (coliforms, P <0.05) were detected.</p
... According to Fasuyi (2005), rabbit production is one of the cheapest means of providing readily available animal protein for the teeming Nigerian populace. This is due to its relatively lower cost of production, prolificacy, ability to convert forages not competed for by human into rich animal protein and ease of management (Cardinali et al., 2015;Dalle Zotte et al., 2016;Ozung et al., 2017). Nutritionally, rabbit meat is reported to have high energy value of 427-849 kJ/100 g (fresh meat), crude protein content of 20-21%, 60% of oleic and linoleic as unsaturated fatty acids, moderate values for potassium, phosphorus and magnesium with low lipids, cholesterol, and sodium contents (Hermida et al. 2006;Simonová et al., 2010;Para et al., 2015; Zepeda-Bastida et al., 2019). ...
... Seeds with oregano leaves have been reported to improve feed conversion ratio. Moreover, the dietary inclusion of a mixture of Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Cassia senna L, and Lupinus albus L. played an important role as a growth promotor in rabbits (Dalle Zotte et al. 2016). Ahmed et al. (2002) pointed out that the feed conversion ratio was improved significantly by adding garlic powder to the rabbit diet. ...
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The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of feed restriction systems, herbal mixture and their interactions on growth performance, carcass traits, and microbial aspects of growing New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit kept from 5 to 13 weeks of age. A 3 × 4 factorial arrangement was performed, including three feed restriction systems (ad-libitum, 90%, and 80% of ad-libitum) and four dietary supplementation levels of herbal mix (0, 0.30%, 0.50% and 0.70%). A total number of 120 rabbits (male and female ratio 1:1) at five weeks of age were randomly allotted into twelve experimental groups (n = 10 each). Results showed a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain and feed intake in restricted-fed rabbits compared to the control group (ad-libitum). HERBS levels significantly influenced the growth performance and carcass traits of rabbits. The herbal blend had a positive effect on reducing the population of pathogenic microorganisms and increasing the population of lactic acid bacteria. Conclusively, it could be concluded that the feed restriction system has beneficial effects in the improvement of feed conversion ratio (FCR), weight gain, and carcass traits. In addition, HERBS supplementation to the growing rabbits resulted in significant improvements in growth performance, carcass characteristics, and microbial aspects of rabbits kept from 5 to 13 weeks of age. • Highlights: • This work investigated the effect of feed restriction systems (FRS), herbal mix (HERBS), and their interactions with rabbits. • Restricted feed decreased live body weight during all ages studied. • Feed conversion ratio, weight gain and carcass traits were improved due to FRS. • The HERBS improved the growth, carcass traits, and microbial aspects of rabbits.
... However, concerns about antimicrobial resistance, residue accumulation in animal products, and environmental pollution have led to a limited application of antibiotics as growth promoters (4,5). Due to these factors, searching for alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, such as pro-and prebiotics, organic acids, enzymes, and plant extracts, have attracted more and more attention (5)(6)(7). Among the candidate alternatives to antibiotics, plant extracts appear to be one of the most widely accepted (8,9). ...
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The effects of dietary supplementation with guava leaf extracts (GE) on intestinal barrier function and serum and fecal metabolome in weaned piglets challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were investigated. In total, 50 weaned piglets (Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace) from 25 pens (two piglets per pen) were randomly divided into five groups: BC (blank control), NC (negative control), S50 (supplemented with 50 mg kg−1 diet GE), S100 (100 mg kg−1 diet GE), and S200 (200 mg kg−1 diet GE), respectively. On day 4, all groups (except BC) were orally challenged with enterotoxigenic ETEC at a dose of 1.0 × 109 colony-forming units (CFUs). After treatment for 28 days, intestinal barrier function and parallel serum and fecal metabolomics analysis were carried out. Results suggested that dietary supplementation with GE (50–200 mg kg−1) increased protein expression of intestinal tight junction proteins (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1) (p < 0.05) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) (p < 0.05). Moreover, dietary supplementation with GE (50–200 mg kg−1) increased the level of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) and reversed the higher level of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) induced by ETEC in serum compared with the NC group (p < 0.05), and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of piglets. In addition, dietary addition with GE (100 mg kg−1) reversed the lower level of L-pipecolic acid induced by ETEC in feces compared with the NC group (p < 0.05) and decreased the oxidative stress of piglets. Collectively, dietary supplementation with GE exhibited a positive effect on improving intestinal barrier function. It can reprogram energy metabolism through similar or dissimilar metabolic pathways and finally enhance the antioxidant ability of piglets challenged by ETEC.
... As a consequence of this, veterinary antibiotics have been commonly used to treat intestinal infections for improving animal growth performances and health in several decades, but concerns about antimicrobial resistance, accumulations of residues in animal production and pollutions in the environment, led to the limited application for antibiotics as growth promoters [4,5]. Due to these factors, the search for alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters, such as pro-and prebiotics, organic acids, enzymes, plant extracts, have been attracted more and more interest [5][6][7]. Among the candidates for replacement, plant extracts appear to have one of the most widespread acceptance at this time [8,9]. ...
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Background: The effects of dietary supplementation with guava leaf extracts (GE) on growth performance, diarrhea and intestinal barrier function, as well as associated with its modulation of serum and fecal metabolic changes in weaned piglets challenged by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) were investigated. Method: Fifty weaned piglets (Duroc × Yorkshire × Landrace) from 5 pens (2 piglets per pen) were randomly divided into five groups: blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), or those supplemented with 50 mg kg⁻¹ (S50), 100 mg kg⁻¹ (S100), or 200 (S200) mg kg⁻¹ diet GE, respectively. On day 4, all piglets (except for BC) were orally challenged with about 1.0 × 10⁹ colony-forming units (CFU) enterotoxigenic ETEC. After 28-day trial, growth performance, diarrhea incidence, intestinal barrier function and metabolomics of serum and fecal were investigated. Results: We demonstrated that dietary supplementation with GE (50-200 mg kg⁻¹) reduced diarrhea incidence of piglets and increased expression of intestinal tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Occludin, Claudin-1) (P < 0.05) and sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) (P < 0.05). Moreover, dietary supplementation with GE (50-200 mg kg⁻¹) upregulated level of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) and reversed higher level of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) caused by ETEC in serum compared with NC group (P < 0.05), and enhanced antioxidant ability of piglets. In addition, dietary addition with GE (100 mg kg⁻¹) reversed the lower level of L-pipecolic acid caused by ETEC in feces compared with NC group (P < 0.05), and decreased oxidative stress response of piglets. Further, there were no differences (P > 0.05) in the final weight, average daily feed intake (ADFI) and F/G among dietary groups during the overall period, and piglets in S50 group has the higher average daily gain (ADG). Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with 50-200 mg kg⁻¹ GE reduced diarrhea incidence of weaned piglets challenged by ETEC and exhibited positive effect on improving intestinal barrier function. Meanwhile, dietary addition with GE organized and redistributed energy resources through similar or dissimilar metabolic pathways, and finally enhanced antioxidant ability of piglets challenged by ETEC.
Article
The present study tested the effect of a liquorice root extract (L) administration in the diet of growing rabbits and/or in their minced meat. A total of fifty-six rabbit does and their kits (3 weeks of age) were divided into 4 groups receiving a commercial diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with increasing levels of L: 2 g/kg (L2), 4 g/kg (L4), 6 g/kg (L6). At weaning (5 weeks of age), sixty rabbits/group were randomly selected, caged by 3, and fed ad libitum with the experimental diets until slaughter (12 weeks of age). At 6 weeks of age, 6 rabbits/diet were selected for gastrointestinal tract pH and caecal microbial count analyses. Live performance and health status were recorded weekly and daily, respectively. Carcass traits were measured after slaughter and hind leg (HL) and Longissimus lumborum (LL) meat were dissected for pHu and L*a*b* colour measurements. Minced meat from HL belonging to C and L6 dietary treatments was each split in two parts to incorporate liquorice extract at 0.25% (w/w), obtaining four groups of meat burgers: CC; CL; L6C and L6L. The pH, L*a*b* colour and microbial count (TVC, Coliforms, and Pseudomonas) were measured at days 0, 3 and 6 of refrigerated storage. A sensory analysis was conducted on LL meat of C and L6 dietary treatments, and tested attributes were odour, taste, flavour, texture and off-flavours. Liquorice dietary inclusion did not show a clear effect on live performance, resulting comparable among groups, with exception of the lowest growth rate for L2 rabbits (P < 0.001) that impaired their slaughter yield. Total aerobic bacteria of the caecal content increased with L inclusion level (P < 0.05). Rabbits of the L6 group exhibited the highest carcass weight with higher proportion of the mid part of the carcass (P < 0.01), but to the detriment of the hind part (P < 0.05), compared to the C group rabbits. Liquorice dietary inclusion level significantly increased dissectible fat proportion on the chilled carcass, due to the increase of perirenal fat depot (P < 0.05). Sensory analysis on the loin meat did not reveal differences in the considered attributes due to the dietary treatment. The L6C and L6L burgers exhibited the lowest microbial growth (particularly Pseudomonas) during refrigerated storage. In conclusion, live performance traits of rabbits seem not to benefit from the dietary supplementation of liquorice extract. However, the dietary inclusion was more effective than the incorporation into meat as antimicrobial on meat burgers. The combination of dietary and in-meat supplementation of liquorice extract exhibited the most effective antimicrobial effect.
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The present study investigates the effects of Enterococcus durans ED26E/7 beneficial strain and its enterocin - durancin EntED26E/7 on selected parameters in rabbits: growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity, jejunal morphometry and meat physico-chemical characteristics. Seventy-two rabbits (aged five weeks, M91 meatline, both sexes) were divided into experimental groups E1 (E. durans ED26E/7 strain; dose 500 μL/animal/day, concentration 109 CFU/mL) and E2 (durancin EntED26E/7; dose 50 µL/animal/day, with activity 12 800 AU/mL) and control group (C). The additives were administered in drinking water for a period of 21 days. All animals remained in good health during the experiment. The highest body weight gain (increase by 1.5% compared to C) was noted in E1 group during ED26E/7 strain application (P<0.001). Both bioactive compounds positively influenced („reduced“) the feed conversion ratio (P<0.001). The ED26E/7 strain and its durancin EntED26E/7 application stimulated the activity of most enzymes tested in the caecum; only the amylolytic and inulolytic activity in E2 group decreased during durancin EntED26E/7 addition. Both additives, but mainl the ED26E/7 strain, showed a tendency to improve the jejunal morhological parameters till the end of the experiment (day 42). The meat physico-chemical parameters were no negatively influenced by the application of E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its durancin EntED26E/7. The diet supplementation with bacteriocinogenic and probiotic E. durans ED26E/7 strain and its durancin EntED26E/7 may improve the growth performance, caecal enzymatic activity and jejunal morphometry of rabbits, without any negative effect on rabbit meat quality.
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The effect of including lemongrass extract powder (LGEP) as a phytogenic herbal extract supplementation for growing rabbits on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters and carcase characteristics were evaluated. One hundred twenty unsexed V-Line rabbits, with 35 days age and 802±47g weight, were used. Rabbits were divided equally into four treatments to be fed on basal diet as a control diet without lemongrass inclusion (LGEP0) or with the inclusion of LGEP at 2g (LGEP2), 4g (LGEP4) or 6g (LGEP6) per kg diet. Feeding LGEP did not significantly affect final body weight, weekly weight gains, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio. Moreover, no significant effect of supplementing rabbit diets with LGEP was observed on all apparent nutrient digestibility. The LGEP4 treatment decreased (P<.05) blood malondialdehyde, while LGEP contained treatments increased blood immunoglobulin G concentration as well as spleen relative weight (P<.01) compared to the control treatment. Although HIGHLIGHTS LGEP inclusion levels did not significantly affect productive performance traits, the studied LGEP treatments may help to enhance the anti-oxidative status and relative immune response of growing rabbits.
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Codonopsis pilosula is a perennial plant mainly used in medicines; for which only the roots are generally used, with the leaves going unused. To provide guidance for the comprehensive development and utilization of this plant, C. Pilosula leaves were processed into tea according to green tea processing technology. In this study, the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf tea (CLT), raw leaves (CL) and roots (CR) were studied and compared. The results showed that compared with CR, the total flavonoid, total polyphenol, protein and amino acids contents of CLT and CL were much higher. However, for the both water and ethanol extracts, the polysaccharide of CLT and CL were lower than that observed in CR. The chemical contents of CL and CLT were similar. Interestingly, with respect to lobetyolin, the primary medicinal component of C. pilosula, the level detected in CLT (0.68 mg/g) was much higher than that in CL (0.28 mg/g) and CR (0.23 mg/g). The results of DPPH, ABTS, FRAP analyses all indicated that the antioxidant activities of CLT and CL approached that of vitamin C (VC) at specific concentrations, whereas CR showed a much lower antioxidant capacity. Antimicrobial activity test showed that CLT and CL had antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeast. In summary, compared with the most commonly used part of C. pilosula (the root), the leaves and leaf tea had a much stronger antioxidant activity and higher lobetyolin, protein, amino acid, polysaccharides, total flavonoid and total polyphenol levels. The leaves and tea also had antimicrobial activities against bacteria and yeast. Thus, C. pilosula leaves could actually be promising materials with economic prospects in many fields including for chemical extraction and as antioxidants in foods and cosmetics. Processing the leaves into tea allowed for higher levels of lobetyolin to be obtained but did not significantly decrease the chemical content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Thus, C. Pilosula leaf tea could be used as a novel healthy product with high antioxidant activity, and high levels of nutrients and lobetyolin. Processing C. pilosula leaves into tea may be an appropriate and economic way of utilizing this plant reasonably.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with Agave fourcroydes powder on growth performance, carcass traits, organ weights, gut morphometry, and blood biochemistry in broiler rabbits. A total of 40 male rabbits (New Zealand × Californian) weaned at 35 d were randomly selected for a control diet (CD) and CD + 1.5% of A. fourcroydes powder, with 10 replicates and two rabbits per replicate. After 60 d, A. fourcroydes powder increased body weight, feed intake, and weight gain (P<0.05), without affecting feed conversion ratio and viability (P>0.05). Furthermore, this natural product did not affect the edible portions and the indicators determined in the Longissimus dorsi, nor the organ relative weights and the intestinal morphometry (P>0.05); however, a decrease in cecal pH was observed and consequently an increase in cecal beneficial bacteria (P<0.05) were found. Also, A. fourcroydes powder reduced (P<0.05) the serum concentration of glucose, harmful lipids, HDL and atherogenic index although without change for the ureic nitrogen, creatinine and VLDL (P>0.05). Agave fourcroydes powder as a zootechnical additive promoted better growth, in addition, it showed lipid-lowering and hypoglycemic effects, without modifying the edible portions and organs digestive.
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The aim of this study was to develop functional cooked sausages with reduced nitrites addition manufactured using pork after daily supplementation with 3.5 and 7.5 mg dihydroquercetin (DHQ) (samples D1 and D2, respectively) or 0.255 and 0.545 g dry distilled rose petals (Rosa damascene Mill.) (DDRP) (samples R1 and R2, respectively)/kg live weight/d. The sensory properties, colour characteristics (L*, a*, b*), TBARS and shelf life of the sausages were studied. Lower concentration of used phytonutrients approve sensory acceptance of sausages with half added nitrites. Higher doses of DHQ and DDRP supplements increased the sausage pH by 3% (p ˂ 0.05). The use of 0.545 g DDRP /kg live weight/d as a feed supplement decreased the L* value and increased the redness (a*) in processed sausages while the higher doses of DHQ show an opposite effect. Feed enrichment with DHQ or DDRP is appropriate for manufacturing functional sausages with half added nitrites addition due to the stabilizing effect on colour (L*, a*, b*) characteristics in dynamics, the decreasing of TBARS and the increasing of the sausages shelf life.
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The study investigated the effect of Digestarom® dietary supplementation on the reproductive performances of rabbit does. Pannon Ka (maternal line) multiparous does were randomly divided into two dietary groups since insemination and fed ad libitum. In the first group (n=51), rabbit does were fed with a commercial diet (C), whereas in the other group (n=52) they received the same diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg of Digestarom® (D). The experiment lasted for two reproductive cycles (kindling 1=K1; kindling 2=K2). Body weight of does and litter size (kits born total, alive, stillborn) were recorded at kindling. Litter size and litter weight were registered at 7, 14, 21 days of age after nursing, and the average individual weight of kits was calculated. Kits’ mortality was recorded daily. At K1, rabbit does performances were unaffected by dietary treatments. During K2, D does were significantly lighter than C ones (P<0.05) and displayed a lower kindling rate (P<0.05). Digestarom® did not improve the reproductive performance of rabbit does. They seemed to dislike the D diet in K1 and such behavior could have led to the negative results in K2. Further studies should focus on feed acceptance, dose-dependent effect, physiological adaptation and in vivo oxidative status of does. Finally, several consecutive reproductive cycles are recommended to test the efficacy of new feed supplements.
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XA pen trial using 1,080 male Ross 308 broiler chicks (6 treatments with 6 replicates each) was conducted to examine the effects of 3 dietary phytogenic products on avian coccidiosis. The dietary treatments included (1) a negative control (NC), (2) a positive control (PC) without feed additive, (3) Narasin at 0.7 kg/t (COCC), (4) PHYT1 (oregano) at 2.0 kg/t, (5) PHYT2 (combination of Curcuma, saponins, and inulin) at 1.0 kg/t, and (6) PHYT3 (Quillaja) at 1.0 kg/t. Treatments 2 through 6 were challenged with a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella at d 15 via feed. Standard performance parameters and coccidial lesion scoring (d 22) were conducted. One week after coccidial challenge, chicks BW of the COCC treatment and the NC were higher than all other treatments. Body weights on d 39 were 2.47 (NC), 2.34 (PC), 2.51 (COCC), 2.35 (PHYT1), 2.39 (PHYT2), and 2.41 kg (PHYT3) with an SEM of 0.033. For the entire trial period, Narasin yielded a significantly better FCR in comparison with the PC and PHYT3. Overall mean lesion score was 0.54 (NC), 0.91 (PC), 0.50 (COCC), 0.81 (PHYT 1), 1.02 (PHYT 2), and 1.13 (PHYT 3) with an SEM of 0.122. It was concluded that all 3 phytogenic products were not effective at the used dosage in alleviating the negative effects observed in coccidiosis-challenged birds.
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In the present trial, the effect of a fermented rooibos tea extract as a natural antioxidant on the shelf-life of rabbit meat patties was investigated. With this purpose, three treatments with the inclusion of 0.5% (R1), 1% (R2) and 2% (R3) fermented rooibos tea extract were compared to a control group without any extract (C: 0%). The inclusion of 0.5%, 1% and 2% fermented rooibos tea extract lowered the peroxides content of rabbit meat patties compared to untreated ones (P<0.0001). Moreover, the rooibos presence affected also the pH values of rabbit meat patties, with R2 and R3 groups providing lower values compared to R1 and C groups (P<0.0001). Differently, although a lower drip loss in patties treated with the rooibos tea extract compared to the control group was expected, no effect was observed in this sense. Consequently, further studies are needed to deeply understand the mechanisms through which the rooibos presence would affect quality aspects of meat and meat products.
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An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of source of protein (soybean vs sunflower meal) and enzyme supplementation (no enzyme vs protease addition vs protease + xylanase addition) on digestion and growth traits of rabbits. Treatments were arranged factorially in six isonutritive diets. Two hundred and forty rabbits weaned at 25 or 35 days were used to measure dry matter and crude protein apparent ileal digestibility of diets at 35 or 45 days of age, respectively. Another one hundred and eighty animals weaned at 35 days were fed ad libitum in individual cages during four weeks to determine fattening performance. Source of protein did not affect digestion efficiency or feed conversion rate in the whole fattening period, but animals fed soybean meal-based diets showed higher feed intake, grew faster and had higher mortality than those fed sunflower meal-based diets. Addition of enzymes increased ileal apparent digestibility, especially in youngest animals when supplements contained xylanase besides protease activity. Enzyme supplementation did not affect any of the growth traits studied, but decreased fattening mortality in sunflower meal-based diets.
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This work aimed to test the effect of a dietary inclusion of formic and citric acids on growth performance, mortality, jejunal histology and development of intestinal lymphoid tissues in growing non-medicated rabbits. To this end, a control diet (diet C; 35.9 and 34.7% NDF and 18.9 and 19.1% CP, on DM basis, in the 2855 d and 56-77 d periods, respectively) was compared with the same diet supplemented with a blend of microencapsulated formic and citric acids (diet A: diet C enriched with 0.4% and 0.2% in the 28-55 d and 56-77 d periods, respectively). Sixty rabbits weaned at 28 d were assigned to each diet. At 56 and 77 d, 5 rabbits per diet and age were slaughtered to assess caecal traits, jejunal histology and follicular development in the caudal ileal Peyer's patch and the appendix. No dietary effects were observed on growth performance in the 28-55 d period. In the 56-77 d period, average daily gain of rabbits fed diet A was greater than that of control rabbits (48.0 vs. 43.9 g; P=O.019). Mortality rate was not affected by the diet (11.8% on average). Caecal pH, volatile fatty acids and ammonia concentration, and appendix size were not affected by diet. Caecal pH was lower at 77 than at 56 d (6.02 vs 6.19; P=0.016). The concentrations of ammonia (P=0.003) and volatile fatty acids (P<<0.001) in the caecal contents increased, respectively, from 9.62 and 70.5 to 14.2 and 81.9 mmol/L when rabbits reached 77 d of age. At 77 d the appendix was heavier (4.30 vs. 3.21 g/kg BW; P<<0.001 ), longer (13.3 vs. 10.4 cm; P<<0.001) and wider (1.74 vs. 1.45 cm; P=0.006) than at 56 d. At 56 d, villi of control rabbits were shorter than those of rabbits fed diet A and than those of rabbits aged 77 d, irrespective of the dietary treatment (662 vs. 807 urn; P<<0.001 ). In the Peyer's patch, the average follicle area was greater at 77 than at 56 d of age (118 vs. 88.4 x 10 3 urn 2; P<<0.001) and was also greater in rabbits fed diet C than in those fed diet A (109 vs. 97.5 x 10 3 uμrn 2; P=O.049). In the appendix, no differences in the average follicle area were found at 56 d of age (115×10 3 urn 2), whereas at 77 d the area increase was higher for rabbits fed diet C than for those fed diet A (95.5 vs. 50.8%; P<<0.001). In conclusion, including formic and citric acids in growing rabbit diets improved weight gain in the 56-77 period, had a trophic effect on the jejunal mucosa at 56 d and controlled the hypertrophy of gut-associated lymphoid tissues.
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An On Farm trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of shatavari (Asparagus recemosus) on milk production in lactating dairy animals which were parturated 1 to 4 months before commencement of trial. Total 20 animals (10 buffaloes and 10 cross breed cows) were selected and fed 50 gm powder of shatavari roots in concentrates once in a day for a period of 60 days. The overall milk production were increased 1.06+ 0.17 kg (11.47%) daily and average milk production in buffaloes and cows were increased 0.8+ 0.34 kg(9.0%), 1.32+ 0.15 kg(12.72%) respectively as compared to their previous production. Increase in the income by feeding shatavari came to Rs. 7.49/day/animal and B:C ratio were found 1:3.30. From the above results it was concluded that shatavari is effective for increase in milk production and beneficial for economic milk production. India has witnessed rapid development in milk production during last two decades and has emerged as the world's top dairy nation, but it is still not sufficient to meet-out the requirement of increasing population. The low milk production of dairy animals due to various factors like under feeding, mal-nutrition, various diseases, stress, seasons etc. which hamper the economy of dairy industry. The use of herbal feed additives in livestock production, is as old as the ancient history. Now a days, herbal plants are widely used as animal feed additives, having galactogogue properties viz; Shatavari, Jiwanti (Leptadenia reticulata), Bhringraj (Eclipta alba), Acacia cataehu, Carica papaya (Papaya) and Methi (Trigonella foenum) as reported by Chopra et al (1952), Bakshi et al (2004).
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The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a herbal essential oil mixture on the performance of broilers produced by a young (30 wk) or an old breeder (80 wk) flock. One thousand and eight unsexed day-old broiler chicks (Ross-308) originating from the two breeder flocks were randomly allocated to three treatment groups of 336 birds each. Dietary treatments were: a control and two diets containing 24 mg/kg or 48 mg/kg of an essential oil mixture. There were no significant effects of dietary treatment on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 days. The effect of the age of the parents did not have a significant effect on body weight of the broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Up to 21 days the feed intake of broilers from young breeders was reduced significantly as a result of the inclusion of the essential oil mixture in their diets, and a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio was recorded in these birds. Difference in regression coefficients for feed intake and feed conversion ratio between broilers from young and old breeder flocks was significant. Carcass yield and some internal organ weights such as the liver, pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard and small intestine were not affected by the addition of the essential oil mixture to the diet. Inclusion of essential oil mixture to the diet decreased mortality significantly at 21 days.
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The ban on nutritive antibiotic use in Europe and the increased awareness of the consumers triggered a need for natural and safe feed additives to achieve better production results of farm animals. Plant extracts are used in animal nutrition as appetite and digestion stimulants, stimulants of physiological functions, for prevention and treatment of certain pathological conditions, as colorants and antioxidants. This article is a review of present literature data on the usage of plant extracts in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.