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To well understand crowd behavior, microscopic models have been developed in recent decades, in which an individual’s behavioral/psychological status can be modeled and simulated. A well-known model is the social-force model innovated by physicists (Helbing and Molnar, 1995; Helbing, Farkas and Vicsek, 2000; Helbing et al., 2002). This model has been widely accepted and mainly used in simulation of crowd evacuation in the past decade. A problem, however, is that the testing results of the model were not explained in consistency with the psychological findings, resulting in misunderstanding of the model by psychologists. This paper will bridge the gap between psychological studies and physical explanation about this model. We reinterpret this physics-based model from a psychological perspective, clarifying that the model is consistent with psychological studies on stress, including time-related stress and interpersonal stress. Based on the conception of stress, we renew the model at both micro-and-macro level, referring to multi-agent simulation in a microscopic sense and fluid-based analysis in a macroscopic sense. The cognition and behavior of individual agents are critically modeled as response to environmental stimuli. Existing simulation results such as faster-is-slower effect will be reinterpreted by Yerkes–Dodson law, and herding and grouping effect are further discussed by integrating attraction into the social force. In brief the social-force model exhibits a bridge between the physics laws and psychological principles regarding crowd motion, and this paper will renew and reinterpret the model on the foundations of psychological studies.
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                
               
    !""#$  %  & '((($    '((')     
                   
      *           
              *  
 +               
          ,      
                
                 
  -*           ./0
               1 2   
  *               
1111111111111
2 2
3         4  *        
  5   4             
              *
                 
1111111111
     *            
       !""#$  %  & '((($    '((') &
           6 7  6 7
  *          8     
                    
191111111111111
5                    
    *        5      
     % *      : ;     9 
         *         
<= +     0  -  3 - >  3 ? =    
       >  3       :?% @ A 3 2 !(((B"#2  
111111111111111
=+ 6> ? %   = =  3 ,7 CD!E(#(#!BE   '(!E > 
31?111
!



                     
          *        
      2   4  *       
  .0            *  
111111111111111?1;11
+                  
11111111
                 
   2              
         ? B 2         
   F          *     
 F      2    *     
111119150-)11?1#11
        :         ?
E            *     
         9 =0-)       
           D        
                     
    9    ? G         
 ,    9  *         4  
617116171
2                  
            *      
                   
111111111111111
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=                   
    *      2         
  4     :           
1!""#$11%11&1'((($1111'((')1
                  
 2    8             
    ) -          
       )          
         H 4          
                )   
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            ()  *      ) 
   ()     J 2     ()     * 
8      ) F            
 ()  )       4           
 J                
 )      ()         
'
    =+    = !"G!$ + !"GB) ? ()    () K
()()  ()       ()      2     
1)1K1))11)11)1111111111
111111111
111
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 F               
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';)
                 
                        
F                 % '!
2             -9 ';)    
                    
  *       2 K !       ( L L !   
                  
                   
                  
111:81;111
  ! " # $%  &%  '()  *+, & 
     -    #      - 
&-() * 
   
              
                  
 ,        2  %  & '(((     
               !""#    '(('
M '(!G)             %      %
K%
 N%
  %
    *   
         
11
,               
    67               
      O()O)            
 *    6F7           
            -9 '!)    
      5        
1111111111
   #%.  /-0 .0  $.0 111, & #   #
 0 %     2%     %  
#  #   #  &    % #
###3# 
;
2               
P '(!()            % 0 ? 
- M   '((Q M '(!G) = ?+   5 ) &+  
=  , '((E)              
*               
111P111?1'((G$1P111'((Q)11
                 :8 ; 
2      : ;    9         
                 
 3   '(!!) 3            
 %          *     
        4        =
                     
1111111111111*11111
222 =?.35H5@23H1-C=H:25:15%1?-H%0I2&2:@1%5I3-1:01?532H%5I3-
               
    &               
                    
*1111
;!11=1?11=
5              *  67   
 %  & '((($    '(('$   P '(!()  *  
             ? !"Q($ =* !"";$
5F '((!)            0  67
                
,  -9 '!)  '')     9          
         8            
11111111
,              67   
F      67 ? !"Q($ 5F '((!) =    
         ? !"GQ ? '((B) F    
        2 ?  M '((!       
       -9 '') F      D 
       (         
                    
111111111?111111111-91'!)11'')11
%                  
      ?             
              2      
    67         67     
   F          *  
1111111111167111111111
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         *          
                  
F                
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           F        2 
            -9 ;!)     
         4      4(     (
111114(1141111
1;!1151311?11?%1 
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
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1111
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1K111111
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 11
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  4  *     4  4(        % 
& '(((   2            4    4( +
F      4  4( *            
4(1K14411*11111111114S!111111
2    4( (  4   *  8    F  
               -9 ;!)   
    4      8     2   
 4         *       
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1:8111
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2             4( 2     
       (  (      *  
11%1111111+1'('(11
;;11%?1-11./01
2        4            
           67    %  &
'(((                   
                2  
             +  *    
       2      * 
D          )$  *  
     4)        ./0   
 .  0 !"(Q$  !""B$ + '(!E) 2       
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11111111111*111111
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 * ! "- % ##   %, & #   /-0 .  $.0 111 %   
# #        .  5  %0  # #   
%  #     &    %  3  0 <.=4 %0 %
   -%    #, #  % 0 -       
-#3### 
./0         D     