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Information2Bang2for2the2 Energy2Buck
Towards2Energy; and2Mobility;Aware2Tracking2
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Tracking2of2Mobile2Objects
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4 V
Continental;Scale2Animal2Tracking
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• Y2<*+8E/2<#2N&E"*#+&+($*&8**<&<#8%*+8/$&QK#(&8*@1+#E:S
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Camazotz Tracking2Platform
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] \!'&+*@*# 9*+&Q1TK$(X ?>a b S
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] !+ * 881+*&E*)%*+/E1+*&8*28(+&)#@+(%"(2*
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Delay;Tolerant2Wireless2Networking
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Delay;Tolerant2Wireless2Networking
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Delay;Tolerant2Wireless2Networking
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Balancing2Energy2H arvesting /Consumption
Energy 2In pu t2(S o lar2Harv estin g )
'12 2 :
Energy 2Outpu t2(GPS , 2S ensors)
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Informa tion2Bang2
for2the2Energy2Buck
Software2Framework
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] !+(E(E:%*&#)%$*)*2E*<&F( 2E#=# I'
Energy Monitoring
Mobility Prediction
GPS
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
Battery
Harvesting
EnergyAwareness Layer MobilityAwareness Layer
Motion Detection
Temperature
Pressure
Sensor Process Layer
Scheduling Layer
Task Scheduler
Energy
Bookkeeping
Sensor Output
start/stop processes
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task N
Energy
Mobility
,_ V
'@"*<1 $*& \! '&8/)% $*8&E(@+*/8*W( +) /E#( 2&N/#2&W ( +&E"*&*2*+N:&8%*2E
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Energy Monitoring
F(2 E#2 1 (1 8&?( 2 # E(+# 2N&( W&P2 *+N:&;*8( 1 +@*8
] Output: M+/@=#2N&E"* &*2*+ N:&@(281)%E#(2&(W&?FY&\!'&8*28(+8&+/<#(&*E@k
] Input:2 ?*/81+*&9($E/N *R@1++*2E&(W&8($/+&%/2*$%1E&Q>CFS
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Energy harvested/day [mAh]
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Energy used/day [mAh]
C/#$:&*2*+N:&@(2 81)%E#( 2& /2<&
"/+9*8E#2N& W(+&W$:#2N& W(X*8
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\!'& 8*28(+8Z/+9*8E#2 N
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Detection2 of2 Animal2Activity2(Flights)
C*E*@E&@(2 E*XER/@E# 9# E:&8E/E*&QW$ :# 2 N R2(2 TW$:#2NS&(W&E+/@=*<&(K0*@E
] Y8*&$(AT%(A*+*+E#/$&8*28(+&E(&)(2#E(+&@(2E*XE&(W&E+/@=*<&(K0*@E
] '@ "*<1$*&\!'&8/)%$#2N&<1+#2N&%*+#(<8&(W&/@E#9#E:
2
1
0
1
2
Acceleration [g]
Accelerometer (zaxis)
0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120
Time [s]
0
180
360
Heading [°]
Magnetometer GPS
0
5
10
15
Speed [m/s]
GPS
,4 V
Prediction 2of 2Animal2Mobility
• >&% +#( +#T*8E#)/E# (2&K/8*<&(2&"#8E(+#@/$&E+/@=#2N&</E/&Q8E/E# 8E#@8S
] Z#8E(+#@/$&</E/&Q/@E#9#E:&<1+/E#(2S&W(+&E"*&8% *@# W#*<&# 2<# 9#<1/ $
] Z#8E(+#@/$&</E/&Q/@E#9#E:&<1+/E#(2S&W+()&/&$/+N*+&%(%1$/E#(2
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
Max. distance (yesterday) [m]
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
Max. distance (today) [m]
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
Max. distance from camp [m]
10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
Total ﬂight distance [m]
y =52.75⇤ x
0.7
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Prediction 2of 2Animal2Mobility
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] F/$@1$/ E*&*8E#)/E*&( W&+*)/#2# 2N&W$ #N" E&< #8E/2@*O
,^ V
Initial2estimate Distance2to2base
Software2Framework
,g V
Energy Monitoring
Mobility Prediction
GPS
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
Battery
Harvesting
EnergyAwareness Layer MobilityAwareness Layer
Motion Detection
Temperature
Pressure
Sensor Process Layer
Scheduling Layer
Task Scheduler
Energy
Bookkeeping
Sensor Output
start/stop processes
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task N
Energy
Mobility
✓ ✓
Motion;based2GPS2Sampling
• !*+#(<#@&\!'&8/)%$#2N&A"#$*&/@E#9#E:&<*E*@E*<O
• '@"*<1$*&k \! '&8 /)%$*8&K/ 8*<&(2& *2*+N :&K1<N*E&/9/ #$/ K$*O
• M/+N*E&\!'&<1E:T@:@$*&<1+#2N&/@E#9#E:&<1+/E#(2O
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*X%*@E*<&/@E#9#E:&Q)(E#(2S& <1+/E#(2
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'@"*<1 $*& \! '&%*+#(< #@/$$:&<1 +#2N & *X% *@E*<&/@E#9#E:E*+9/$
Information;based2GPS2tracking
• \(/$O&?/X#)#G*W(+)/E#(2&N/ #2&(W&*/@"& \!'&8 /)%$*
• P)%$ (:&C*/< T;*@=(2#2N&18#2N&)/N2*E()*E*+&Q<#N#E/$&@()%/88S
• M"+*8"($< &;&# 8&/</% E*<&K /8*<&(2 &E/+N*E&<1 E:T@:@$*& W (+ &\!'
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Example:2GPS2Sampling2 Strategies
Groundtruth
GPS Samples
Groundtruth
GPS Samples
Groundtruth
GPS Samples
Static2motion;based2GPS2trac king :
• !*+#(<#@&\!'&8/)%$# 2N&A"*2&)(9#2N
• IWW$#2*&*8E#)/E#(2&(W&/@E#9#E:&<1+/ E#(2
Ad aptive2mo tion;based2GPS2trac king:
• !*+#(<#@&\!'&8/)% $#2N & A"*2&)(9#2N
• I2$#2*&*8E#)/E#(2&(W&/@E#9#E:&<1+/ E#(2
Inf orm ation ;based2GPS2tracking:
• \!'&8/)%$#2N& i&<*/<&+*@=(2 #2N
• I2$#2*&*8E#)/E#(2&(W&/@E#9#E:&<1+/ E#(2
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Ev aluation
'#)1$/E#(2&(W&<#WW*+*2E&\!'&8@"*<1$#2N&8E+/E*N#*8O
] U#X*<&*2*+N:& K1<N*E&W(+&E"*&(K8*+9/E#(2&%*+#(<&Qg%)&E(&b/)S
\+(12<&E+1E"& K/ 8*<&(2& "#N"T+*8($1E#(2&)(K#$#E:&E+/@*8&Q,&ZGS
] M+/@*8&@($$*@E*<& (2& ,_&W$:#2N&W(X*8& A#E"&E+/@=#2N& <*9#@*8&
] C/E/8*E&@(2E/#28 &g`&E+#%8&Qn,__h___&\!'&8/)%$*&%(#2E8S
• ?*E+#@8O&
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Tracking2Performance:2Comparison
• D*&+*%(+E&/9*+/N*&E+/@=#2N&*++(+8&W(+&<#WW*+*2E&\!'&8@"*<1$#2N&
8E+/E*N#*8&W(+&(1+&</E/8*E&(W&g`&*)%#+#@/$&/2#)/$&E+/@*8
1.5 2.25 3
Power budget [mW]
10
0
10
1
10
2
10
3
Tracking error (avg) [m]
staticpopulation
adaptiveprevpopulation
adaptiveindvidual
informationindividual
ofﬂine
4_ V
P2*+N:T /2<&)(K#$#E:T/A/+*&E/8=&8@"*<1$*+
I1 E$( (=O&H)% +(9*<&%+*<#@E#( 2&(W&)(K#$# E:&<1+/E#( 2&K /8*< &(2&@(2E*XE
] ;*W#2*&%+*<#@E#(2&)(<*$&K/8*<&(2&A*/E"*+&@(2<#E#(28&QE*) %*+/E1+ *&/#+ &
%+*881+*S
] ></%E&%+*<#@E#(2&)(<*$8&W(+&(E"*+&8%*@#*8R(K0*@E8
Energy Monitoring
Mobility Prediction
GPS
Accelerometer
Magnetometer
Battery
Harvesting
EnergyAwareness Layer MobilityAwareness Layer
Motion Detection
Temperature
Pressure
Sensor Process Layer
Scheduling Layer
Task Scheduler
Energy
Bookkeeping
Sensor Output
start/stop processes
Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task N
Conclusions2and2Outlook
4, V
www.data61.csiro.au
Thank2 you
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Backup2Slides
BatMon Deployment
Example:2GPS2Sampling2 Strategies2
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Energy [J]
Static motionbased
Adaptive motionbased
Informationbased
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
Time of Day [Hour]
0
50
100
150
Time [min]
Individualbased prediction
Predicted time to base
Populationbased prediction
Observed motion duration
4g V
Ev aluation2R esults:2Tracking2Error
4J V
Energy; and2Mobility;Aware2Tracking
• \! '&8/)%$#2N&K/8*<& (2&*2*+N :&K1<N*E&/2<& *X %*@E*<&) (K#$#E:
P2*+N:&71<N *E&p&^&8/)%$*8
P2*+N:&71<N *E&p&B&8/)%$*8
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\!'\!' \!' \!'
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\!' \!' \!'
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;*/$&>@ E#9#E:&C1+/E#(2&p&B_&)#21E*8
Practical2Challenge:2Catching2Flying2Foxes
4j V
Flying2Foxes2Dataset
4` V