ArticlePDF Available

The medicinal and nutritional role of underutilized citrus fruit Citrus hystrix (Kaffir lime): a review

  • C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre


Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Pre clinical studies have shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized C. hystrix fruit.
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014 1-5
Review Article Available online through
Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it
is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used
to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of
medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various
phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Preclinical studies have
shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase,
cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized
C. hystrix fruit.
Key words: Citrus hystrix, underutilized fruits, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, health benefits.
*Corresponding author.
Perumal Siddhuraju
Bioresource Technology Lab,
School of Life Sciences,
Department of Environmental Sciences,
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046,
Tamil Nadu, India.
The Medicinal And Nutritional Role of Underutilized Citrus
Fruit- Citrus hystrix (Kaffir Lime): A Review
Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*
Bioresource Technology Lab, School of Life Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences,
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India.
Received on: 20-11-2013; Revised on: 10-12- 2013; Accepted on:19-12-2013
ISSN: 0975-7619
Indigenous plant species are important sources of nutrition and tradi-
tional medicine to the local people in the rural areas, where the avail-
ability of the food is less or is unaffordable to the poor people.1 Citrus
hystrix DC belonging to the family Rutaceae is an underutilized tropi-
cal fruit, is a small and bushy tree, about 3-5 m tall, which grows all
over India and South East regions of Asia, Southern China, Malaysia
and Thailand.2 C. hystrix belonging to the family Rutaceae is an
underutilized tropical fruit of Thailand. It is an underexploited tree
and is known as wild lime, medicinal lime and kaffir lime in English.
They were bumpy, green, maturing to yellow skinned citrus fruit with
a highly acidic flavour. A very thorny bush with aromatic leaves. The
fruits are subglobose to oblate-globose shape, with a distinct nipple
on the stem end. It has thick rind, knobby and wrinkled nature.3 Kaffir
lime is used as an herbal medicine to cure many diseases such as
heart disease, dizziness and indigestion and also as physical nourish-
ment.4 It has folkloric reputation to be used in flu, fever, hypertension,
abdominal pains and diarrhea on infants.5 The fruit skin was tradition-
ally used among the Malaysian folks for washing their hairs and other
parts of the body and also the fruit juice is rubbed onto the skin to
soften or mixed with bath water to control body odor.6 Extracts from
the skin as well as juice are used as an insecticide for washing the
head and treating the feet to kill land leeches. The regular use of
rubbing fresh leaves on the teeth and gum could aid in dental health.
The oil from leaves and fruits are used as perfumery and medicinal
preparation. Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of fruit peel possesses
post-coital anti-fertility activity.7 Crude acetone extract of root exhib-
its the activity against HIV-1 protease.8 The fruits are used in tradi-
tional cuisines and remedies such as headaches and sore throats by
Thai people.9 The methanolic extract of leaves is known to inhibit the
herpes virus10 and also used as mosquito repellent.11 The fruits are
used as pickle as well as in cooking. The leaves are strongly aromatic
and one or two leaves can be torn, chopped or shredded and used in
soups and curries preparation and also added in butter milk during
the summer time in order to delay or stop the lipid peroxidation due to
the presence of associated bioactive compounds i.e. polyphenols
and enhance the digestion system of stomach.
2. Phytochemistry
The leaves contain two glyceroglycolipids (1, 2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-
O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (DLGG) and 1-O-α-linolenoyl-2-O-
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
palmitoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (LPGG) 12 and a-toco-
pherol.13 Leaves contain the volatile compounds such as citronellal,
α-pinene, ß-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, trans-ocimene, γ-terpinene,
?-cymene, terpinolene, copaene, camphene, limonene, copene, lina-
lool, ß-cubebene, isopulegol, caryophyllene, citronellyl acetate,
citronellyl propionate citronellol, linalool, nerolidol, isopulegol,
caryophyllene and δ-cadinene.14,15,16 Forty one volatile constituents
were identified from the leaf oil such as 2, 6-dimethyl-5heptenal and
2,6-dimetyl-5-heptenol and three new compounds were identified (ρ-
menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-ρ-menthene).6 Fifty
four free and thirty-nine glycosidically bound volatile compounds
were isolated from kaffir lime leaves.15,17,18 Two flavanone glycoside
namely hesperidine and neohesperidine and one furanocoumarin
namely oxypeucedanin hydrate were isolated from leaves19 and also
contains eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, didymin and
myricetin.20,21 Phenolic acids (vanillic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic
acid, m-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) were identified
from the ethanolic extract of leaves.22
Polar phenolic compounds such as aglycones and glycosides of fla-
vonoids, didymin, eriocitrin. neohesperidin and neoeriocitrin were
identified in Peel of kaffir lime.23 Peel contains flavanones (naringin
and hesperidin), polymethoxyflavones (sinensetin, nobiletin and
tangeretin).24,25 Peel contains essential oils such as ß-pinene, sabinene,
terpinen-4-ol, pinene, terpineol, 1, 8-cineole, citronellal, limonene, ρ-
menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-ρ-menthene.6,26,27
Four new citrunosides (1-4) was isolated from peel, compound 1 is a
1-O-isopropyl-6-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl esters of 5'', 9''-dimethyl-2'',
8'' -decadienoic acid. Compound 2-4 possess a 1-O-isopropryl- ß-D-
glucopyranosyl and a dihydroxyprenyl furanocoumarin moiety con-
jugated to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid as diesters.28 Peel is
a good source of dietary fiber, containing total dietary fiber (82 g/
100g), insoluble dietary fiber (54 g/100g) and soluble dietary fiber (28
Limonoid namely limonin was isolated from root.19 Two coumarins
(hystrixarin (1) and hopeyhopin (2), a benzenoid derivatives
(hystroxene-I (3) and quinolinone alkaloid (hystrolinone (4) were iso-
lated from the crude acetone extract of root.8
3.1. Antimicrobial activity
It is a well known fact that essential oils from Citrus spp., possessed
antimicrobial effect such as antibacterial and antifungal activity.29,30
So that the essential from citrus has used to improve the shelf life and
safety of minimally processed fruits, skim milk and low-fat milk.31 The
essential oil and crude ethanolic extract of Kaffir lime peel showed
greater antibacterial action against twenty sero types of Salmonella
and five species of enterobacteria than the crude ethanolic extract of
kaffir lime leaves.32 Volatile oil from the Kaffir lime peel exhibit the
antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. typhimurium and
S. aureus.33
The crude extract of Kaffir lime oil from peel could inhibit the growth
of Candida albicans which causing dandruff on the scalp. The Kaffir
aromatic oil at 1% (v/v) could inhibit the growth of C. albicans and
having more effective than positive control ketoconasole.34 Essential
oil (ß- citronellol, linalool and citronellol) from the leaf of Kaffir lime
exhibited insecticidal properties against Spodoptera litura at 26.748
µL/g.16 Makrut leaf oil (citronellal) and makrut oil (limonene, terpinene
and a- terpineol) exhibited antibacterial properties by disc diffusion
method against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenza, S.
pneumonia, S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii.35
Supercritical fluid extract of C. hystrix (stem and bark) have the pos-
sibility to be applied as a constituent of cosmetic products and medi-
cines because they showed highest antibacterial activity against on
Basillus subtilis, moderate activity on B. cereus and Staphylococcus
epidermidis, and weak activity against S. aureus and
Propionibacterum acnes which are known to cause various type of
skin infections.36 At 5 and 10% concentration the Kaffir lime extract
could inhibit the fungal spore germination of Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides and Fusarium sp.,37 Isolated coumarins (hystrixarin
and hopeyhopin), benzenoid derivatives (hystroxene) and
quinolinone alkaloid (hystrolinone) from the acetone extract of Kaffir
lime root were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against
Acinetobacter baumannii and E. coli with MIC values <3.125 and
3.125 µg/ml.8
Kaffir lime peel has the potential to act as a natural antimicrobial
agent and showed activity against B. cereus, Salmonella typhi and
Staphylococcus aureus.38 The ethyl acetate extract from kaffir lime
peel exhibited broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against Gram-
positive bacteria, yeast and molds including Staphylococcus aureus,
Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
var. sake and Aspergillus fumigatus TISTR 3180. The major compo-
nent such as limonene, citronellal sabinene and ß-pinene may con-
tribute to the antimicrobial activity.26
Alcoholic extract of Kaffir lime peel has been exhibited the antibacte-
rial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, Vibrio cholera Ogawa and V.
parahemolyticus.39,40 The methanolic peel extract of C. hystrix fruit
possess antibacterial activity on human pathogenic bacteria such as
S. aureus, S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris. The
maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus and S. typhi
an inhibition zone of 19 mm and 22 mm respectively.41
Anti-inflammatory activity
Essential oil from C. hystrix reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory ac-
tivity against P. acne using 5-lipoxigenase inhibition assay. The ma-
jor component such as d-limonene in the essential oil could contrib-
ute to the inhibitory activity and observed IC50 value of 0.05 µl/ml
were compared to that of positive control nordihydroguaretic acid.
D-limonene could inhibit the P. acne and reduce inflammation as well
as reduce the post-acne scar formation and help to relieve acne blem-
Methanolic extract of leaves tested to measure the anti-inflammatory
activity by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014 1-5
edema formation on ICR mouse ears. Two glycerolipids (1,2-di-O-α-
linolenoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (DLGG), 1-O- α-
linllenoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-3-O- ß-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol (LPGG)
exhibited higher activity ( 32 and 43%) than positive control in-
domethacin (19%).12
3.2. Anti tumor activity
Methonolic extract of leaves were evaluated for hepatocarcinogenic
activity against 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline. C.
hystrix exerts strong promotive potential on 2-amino-3,8-
dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline induced hepatocarcinogenesis in
the rat model. The presence of some active chemicals in the leaves of
C. hystrix could significantly enhance the hepatocarcinogenic ef-
Two glycerolipids (1,2-di-O-a-linolenoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-
glycerol (DLGG), 1-O- a-linllenoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-3-O- ß-
galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol (LPGG)) from methanolic extract of
leaves of C. hystrix were evaluated to inhibit the tumor promoting
activity of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate in mouse skin with
dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol
13- acetate. Both lipids were potent inhibitors of tumor promoter-
induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation.12
3.3. Anticholinesterase activity
The isolated Citrusosides A-D and furanocoumarins compounds from
the hexane and methanolic extract of peel reported to possess
butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory properties and observed IC50 of 11.2
, 15.4 and 23 µM was comparable to that of the standard Galanthamine
(3.2 µM). It is confirmed that the presence of dioxygenated geranyl
chain in the compounds to be vital for the anticholinesterase activ-
Two flavanone glycosides (hesperidin and neohesperidin) and
furanocoumarin (oxypeucedanin hydrate) from butanolic and
dichloromethane extract of leaves and limonoid (limonin) from the
ethyl acetate extract of roots investigated to possess low to medium
anticholinesterase inhibitory activity toward acetylcholinesterase and
butyrylcholinesterase. The highest activity were reported to the com-
pounds neohesperidine and oxypeucedanin with the IC50 values of
0.16 mM toward AChE 0.26 mM BChE was compared to that of the
positive control serine.19
3.4. Antioxidant activity
Methanolic extract of leaves were evaluated for antioxidant potential.
It exerts its oxidative stress by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and
inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to liver
cancer cell line HepG2 cells due to the presence of flavonol (myricetin)
in the leaves (68.4 mg/100 g).21 Ethanolic extract of leaves were screened
for the ferric reducing antioxidant power, ß- carotene bleaching and
oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. The study reported that
leaves extracts exhibited FRAP value (781 mM TE/g), ß- carotene
bleaching activity (35.67%) and ORAC assay (10.51 mmol TE/g).44
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of leaves was reported for the
higher total phenolic content (128.9 mg GAE/g extract) than the sol-
vent extraction and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity with the
IC50 of 0.065-0.300 mg/ml.22 Juice of Kaffir lime was reported to pos-
sessed high phenolic (490.47 mg GAE/ 100 ml of juice) and flavonoid,
(22.25 mg hesperidine equivalent/100 ml) content and exhibited good
antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAPS methods. Juice showed the
scavenging activity against DPPH radicals to have IC50 values of 35
mg/100 ml and FRAP value of 89.0 µmol Fe2+ equivalent/100 mL of
3.5. Inhibitors of Nitric oxide generation
Coumarins (bergamottin, oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6’, 7;-dihydroxy-3’,
7’-dimethyl-2-octenyl) oxy-]-psoralen) from the Methanolic extract of
fruits were exhibited as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide and inter-
feron induced nitric oxide generation in RAW 264.7 cells. Among the
three coumarins the inhibitory activity of bergamottin was higher
than the others and it showed (IC50 value of 14 µM) which was com-
parable to that of a synthetic L-arginine analogue inhibitor of iNOS
(N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine) (IC50 value of 7.9 µM). The bergamottin
has the potential to inhibits the LPS/IFN-γ-triggered iNOS expres-
sion pathways and /or iNOS enzyme activity.46
Citrus, popularly known as food article is the unique source of vari-
ous types of compounds having diverse structure. C. hystrix is a
versatile, nutritious fruit with a great variety of uses. Here, an attempt
was made to address phytochemistry and pharmacology of the
underutilized fruit C. hystrix. It is quite evident from this review that
C. hystrix an important medicinal herb which are being utilized in the
field of Ayurveda, Siddha and other medical systems. C. hystrix con-
tains a number of phytoconstituents, which are the key factors in the
nutritional and medicinal value of this plant. Almost all parts of this
plant such as leaf, fruit, seed and root are used to cure a variety of
diseases. Crude extracts and phytochemicals isolated from various
parts of C. hystrix, as reviewed here have been found to have many
pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxi-
dant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant activity. The
underutilized fruit of C. hystrix is a very important part of biodiversity
and it’s sustainably use for future generations. Quite a significant
amount of work has been done on the biological activity and possible
application of these compounds and hence extensive investigation
on its pharmacology and clinical trials is needed to exploit their thera-
peutic utility to cure various diseases. The nutraceuticals perspec-
tives of dietary fiber prepared from peel and pulp of C. hystrix fruit
may be further exploited through in vivo studies for the wider utiliza-
Conflicts of Interest
All authors have none to declare.
1. Baliga MS, Bhat HP, Pai RJ, Boloor R, Palatty PL. The
chemistry and medicinal uses of the underutilized Indian
fruit tree Garcinia indica Choisy (kokum): A review. Food
Res Int. 2011;44:1790–1799.
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
2. Subhadrabandhu S. Under-Utilized Tropical Fruits of Thai-
land. Bangkok: FAO. 2001.
3. Shaha RK, Nayagi Y, Punichelvana AP, Afandi A. Optimized
Extraction Condition and Characterization of Pectin from
Kaffir Lime (Citrus hystrix). Res J Agric Forestry Sci.
4. Hutadilok-Towatana N, Chaiyamutti P, Panthong K,
Mahabusarakam W, Rukachaisirikul V. Antioxidative and free
radical scavenging activities of some plants used in Thai
Folk Medicine. Pharma Biol. 2006;44: 221–228.
5. Fortin H, Vigora C, Lohezic-Le F, RobinaV, Le Bosse B,
Boustiea J and Arnoros M. In vitro antiviral activity of thirty-
six plants from La R eunion Island. Fitoterapia 2002; 3: 346-
6. Nor OM. Volatile aroma compounds in Citrus hystrix oil.
J Trop Agric and Food Sci. 1999;27(2):225–229.
7. Pawinee P, Thirayudh G, Aporn C. Antifertility effect of Cit-
rus hytrix. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13:105-110.
8. Panthong K, Srisud Y, Rukachaisirikul V, Hutadilok-Towatana
N, Voravuthikunchai SP, Tewtrakul S. Benzene, coumarin and
quinolinone derivatives from roots of Citrus hystrix.
Phytochem. 2013;88:79–84.
9. Silverstrelli G, Lanari A, Parnetti L, Tomassoni O, Amenta F.
Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: From pharmacology to a
better understanding of disease pathophysiology. Mech
Ageing Dev. 2006;127:148-157.
10. Chowdhurry A, Alam MA, Rahman MS, Hossain MA, Rashid
MM. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of
Citrus hystrix DC. Fruits J Pharm Sci. 2009;8(2):177-180.
11. Tawtsin A, Wratten SD, Scott R, Thavara U,
Techadamrongsin Y. Repellency of volatile oils from plants
against three mosquito vectors. Engl J Med. 2001;26:76-82.
12. Murakami A, Nakamura Y, Koshimizu K, Ohigashi H.
Glyceroglycolipids from Citrus hystrix, a traditional herb in
Thailand, potently inhibit the tumorpromoting activity of
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in mouse skin. J Agric
Food Chem. 1995;43:2779–2783.
13. Ling SL, Mohamed S. Alpha-Tocopherol content in 62 ed-
ible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:3101-3105.
14. Lawrence BM, Hogg JW, Terhune SJ. Constituents of the
leaf and peel oils of Citrus hystrix DC. Phytochem.
15. Tinjan P, Jirapakkul W. Comparative study on extraction
methods of free and glycosidically bound volatile com-
pounds from kaffir lime leaves by solvent extraction and
solid phase extraction. Kasetsart Journal. 2007;41:300–306.
16. Loh FS, Awang RM, Omar D, Rahmani M. Insecticidal prop-
erties of Citrus hystrix DC leaves essential oil against
Spodoptera litura fabricius. J Med Plants Res.
17. Farah FMA, Rasip AGA, Nor AMA, Abu S, Mohamad O.
Screening of high genotype Citrus hystrix for essential oil
production. For Res Inst Malays. 2005;44-49.
18. Jirapakkul W, Tinchan P, Chaiseri S. Effect of drying tem-
perature on key odourants in kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix D.C.,
Rutaceae) leaves. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2013;48:143–149.
19. Niamthiang S, Sawasdee P. Cholinesterase inhibitors from
the leaves and roots of Citrus hystrix DC. Pure and Applied
Chemistry International Conference. 2013.
20. Kaur C, Kapoor HC. Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables-
the millennium’s health. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2001;36:703-
21. Laohavechvanich P, Muangnoi C, Butryee C Kriengsinyos
W. Protective effect of makrut lime leaf (Citrus hystrix) in
HepG2 cells: Implications for oxidative stress. Science Asia.
22. Jamilah B, Gedi, MA, Suhaila M, Zaidul, ISMd. Phenolics in
Citrus hystrix leaves obtained using supercritical carbon
dioxide extraction. Int Food Res Journal. 2011;18(3):941-
23. Chan SW, Lee CY, Yap CF, Wan Aida WM, Ho CW.
Optimisation of extraction conditions for phenolic com-
pounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. In Food Res
J. 2009;16: 203- 213.
24. Jayaraman J, Namasivayam N. Naringenin modulates circu-
latory lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and hepatic al-
cohol metabolizing enzymes in rats with ethanol induced
liver injury. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011;25(6):682–689.
25. Chinapongtitiwat V, Jongaroontaprangsee S, Chiewchan N,
Devahastin S. Important flavonoids and limonin in selected
Thai citrus residues. J Functional Foods. 2013;5:1151-1158.
26. Chanthaphon S, Chanthachum S, Hongpattarakere T. Anti-
microbial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from
tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms.
Songklanakarin. J Sci Technol. 2008;30:125-131.
27. Waikedrea J, Dugayb A, Barrachinac I, Herrenknechtc C,
Cabaliona P, Fournet A. Chemical Composition and Antimi-
crobial Activity of the Essential Oils from New Caledonian
Citrus macroptera and Citrus hystrix. Chem Biodivers.
28. Youkwan J, Sutthivaiyakit S, Sutthivaiyakit P. Citrusosides
A–D and furanocoumarins with cholinesterase inhibitory
activity from the fruit peels of Citrus hystrix. J Nat Prod.
2010;73: 1879–1883.
29. Lanciotti R, Gianotti A, Patrignani F, Belletti N, Guerzoni EM,
Gardini F. Use of natural aroma compounds to improve shelf-
life and safety of minimally processed fruits. Trends Food
Sci. Tech. 2004;15:201-208.
30. Caccioni, D. R. L., Guizzardi, M., Biondi, D. M., Renda, A.
and Ruberto, G. 1998. Relationship between volatile compo-
nents of citrus fruit essential oils and antimicrobial action
on Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum. Int. J.
Food Microbiol. 43:73-79.
31. Dabbah R, Edwards MV, Moats AW. Antimicrobial action of
some citrus fruit oils on selected food borne bacteria. J Appl
Microbiol. 1970;19:27-31.
32. Nanasombat S. Lohasupthawee P. Antibacterial activity of
crude ethanolic extracts and essential oils of spices against
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014 1-5
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared
Salmonellae and other Enterobacteria. KMITL Sci Technol
J. 2005;5(3):527-538.
33. Srisukha V, Tribuddharatb C, Nukoolkarnc V,
Bunyapraphatsarac N, Chokephaibulkitd K, Phoomniyomb
S, Chuanphungb S, Srifuengfung S. Antibacterial activity of
essential oils from Citrus hystrix (makrut lime) against respi-
ratory tract pathogens. Science Asia. 2012;38:212–217.
34. Prasart F, Chonlada W. Development of Anti-Dandruff Sham-
poo from Kaffir Lime which is the By-Product of Food In-
dustry. Kasetsart J Nat. Sci. 2005;39:725 – 729.
35. Srisukha V, Tribuddharatb C, Nukoolkarnc V,
Bunyapraphatsarac N, Chokephaibulkitd, Phoomniyomb KS,
Chuanphungb S, Srifuengfung S. Antibacterial activity of
essential oils from Citrus hystrix (makrut lime) against respi-
ratory tract pathogens. Science Asia. 2012;38:212–217.
36. Pyo D, Oo HH. Supercritical fluid extraction of drug-like
materials from selected Myanmar natural plants and their
antimicrobial activity. J Liq Chromatogr R T. 2007;30: 377-
37. Noengpa K, Prayoonrat P, Chingduang S. Efficiency of cer-
tain medicinal plants to inhibit Colletrotrichum
gloeosporiodes and Fusarium sp. 2006.
38. Chaisawadi S, Thongbute D, Methawiriyaslip W,
Pitakworarat N, Chaisawadi A, Jaturonrasamee K, Khemkhaw
J, Tanuthumchareon W. Preliminary study of antimicrobial
activities on medicinal herbs of Thai food ingredients. Acta
Hort. 2005;675:111–4.
39. Chalermpunchai K, Bumpenboon D. Thai folkloric prepara-
tions as antimicrobial agents. Special project report. Bangkok:
Faculty of Pharmacy, Mahidol University, 1988.
40. Temsiririrkul R, Saralamp P, Sansena T, Kittiwararit N,
Chulasiri M. Antimicrobial and antimutagenic activity of
Citrus peels. Mahidol J Pharm Sci. 1994;21:7-15.
41. Ajithkumar INP, Panneerselvam R. Effect of Citrus hystrix
and Citrus limon extracts on antibacterial activity against
human pathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Bio-
medicine (2012);1-4.
42. Lertsatitthanakorn P, Taweechaisupapong S, Aromdee C,
Khunkitti. In vitro bioactivities of essential oils used for
acne control. Int J Aromather. 2006;16:43-49.
43. Tiwawech D, Hirose M, Futakuchi M, Lin C, Thamavit W,
Ito N, Shirai T. Enhancing effects of Thai edible plants on 2-
hepatocarcinogenesis in a rat medium-term bioassay. Can-
cer Lett. 2000;158:195–201.
44. Aziman N, Abdullah N, Noor ZM, Zulkifli KS, Kamarudin
WSSW. Phytochemical Constituents and In Vitro Bioactiv-
ity of Ethanolic Aromatic Herb Extracts. Sains Malaysiana.
45. Ghafar MFA, Prasad KN, Weng KK, Ismail A. Flavonoid,
hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activi-
ties from Citrus species. Afr J Biotechnol. 2010;9:326-330.
46. Murakami A, Gao G, Kim OK, Omura M, Yano M, Ito C,
Furukawa H, Jiwajinda S, Koshimizu, K, Ohigashi H. Identi-
fication of coumarins from the fruit of Citrus hystrix DC as
inhibitors of nitric oxide generation in mouse macrophage
RAW 264.7 cells. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999;47:333–339.
... In Malaysia, the fruits are used in hair shampoo to decrease dandruff and to promote hair growth [10]. The leaves and fruits are also used to boost sexual performance [13] and to treat hypertension, heart disease, and diarrhea [14,15]. Fruits Stomachache [11] Leaves and fruits Steam bath Aphrodisiac [13,14] ...
... The leaves and fruits are also used to boost sexual performance [13] and to treat hypertension, heart disease, and diarrhea [14,15]. Fruits Stomachache [11] Leaves and fruits Steam bath Aphrodisiac [13,14] ...
... In Malaysia, the fruits are used in hair shampoo to decrease dandruff and to promote hair growth [10]. The leaves and fruits are also used to boost sexual performance [13] and to treat hypertension, heart disease, and diarrhea [14,15]. ...
Full-text available
Metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and obesity are major medical problems globally. The incidence of these disorders has increased tremendously in recent years. Studies have demonstrated that plants with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties have beneficial effects on these disorders. One of these plants is Citrus hystrix DC, commonly known as kaffir lime. This review aims to present updates on the progress of research regarding the use of C. hystrix in metabolic disorders. Phytochemical compounds, including β-pinene, sabinene, citronellal, and citronellol, have been detected in the plant; and its extract exhibited potential antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activity, as well as prevention of development of hypertension. These beneficial properties may be attributable to the presence of bioactive compounds which have therapeutic potential in treating these metabolic disorders. The compounds have the potential to be developed as candidate drugs. This review will assist in validating the regulatory role of the extract and its bioactive compounds on metabolic disorders, thus expediting future research in the area.
... The benefits attached with green synthesis such as environmental friendliness, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, stability, and reproducibility justifies the importance of green synthesis of SNPs [37][38][39]. Investigations suggest anti-biofilm, antivirulence, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activity of Citrus hystrix [40,41]. The fruits of traditional herb Citrus hystrix (C. ...
... The fruits of traditional herb Citrus hystrix (C. hystrix) are known to possess various phytoconstituents such as: terpene, terpinenols, glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids [40]. The C. hystrix herb is known to aid the dental health. ...
... The FTIR characterization study aided in determination of reduction of Ag + to Ag 0 and formation of SNPs [54]. The FT-IR spectrum of CHFJE given in figure 3(A), displayed characteristic IR bands at 3402 cm -1 (O- The literature recorded Citrus hystrix fruit juice to possess terpenes (β-pinene, 39.50%), terpinenol (terpinen-4-ol, 17.55%), glycerol-glycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furano-coumarins, flavonoids and alkaloids [40,55]. The FTIR spectrum of biogenic SNPs of the present study revealed that the interaction of biochemical moieties of CHFJE with SNPs caused broadening, and marginal shifting of IR band signals positions relatively. ...
Evidences over periodontitis predominance by human microbiota, inhibitory response of Citrus hystrix against periodontitis triggering bacteria and potentiation of antimicrobial response by silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were the stimulus to perform green synthesis of SNPs blended with Citrus hystrix and evaluation against periodontitis triggering microbiota. Present study involved SNPs biosynthesis using Citrus hystrix fruit juice extract (CHFJE), optimization (using UV-Visible spectrometry), characterization (by FTIR, FESEM, XRD, and EDX), stability study (by UV-Visible spectrometry), and evaluation of green SNPs against periodontitis triggering microbiota (using well diffusion method). Biogenic SNPs exhibited absorbance signal at 430 nm. Optimization study established 15 mM AgNO3 concentration, 5:5 CHFJE and AgNO3 volumetric ratio, pH 7, 60 °C temperature and 60 min time as parametric requirement for green synthesis of SNPs using CHFJE. Stability study exhibited absorbance signal between 428-457 nm supporting SNPs stability. The SNPs biosynthesis success was based on broad and shifted FTIR bands; size below 28 nm in FESEM; XRD signals at 38.95, 44.97, 64.92 and 78.97 representing 111, 200, 220 and 311 planes; and elemental silver 83.66 %, carbon 11.87 % and oxygen 4.47 % in EDX spectrum. SNPs displayed maximum inhibitory zone against B. cereus (9.66±0.57 mm and 18 mm), followed by P. aeruginosa (8.66±0.57 mm and 18.33±0.57 mm), E. coli (8 mm and 17.33±.57 mm) and S. pyogenes (6.33±0.57 mm and 13 mm) at 50 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL concentration. Present study establish that green synthesis of SNPs using CHFJE is a facile method and also the SNPs blended with Citrus hystrix fruit juice extract (CHFJE) possess high inhibitory potential against periodontitis triggering microbiota
... Kaffir lime leaf extracts reportedly exhibit antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities. 1 The primary chemical constituents of kaffir lime peel are β-pinene (30.6%), limonene (29.2%), and sabinene (22.6%), and the primary compound in the leaves is citronellal (65.4%). 2 The essential oil of the peels and leaves of kaffir lime can be extracted by hydrodistillation or solvent extraction. The major constituents of ethyl acetate extracts of kaffir lime peel are β-pinene (6.83%), limonene (31.64%), and citronellal (25.99%). 2 However, the amount of each component isolated by Lawrence et al. 2 differed slightly from other reports. ...
The leaves of the kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) are commonly used in cuisine and folk medicine. The aim of this study was to isolate a bioactive compound in kaffir lime leaves and characterize its biological activity. The compound was isolated from a hexane fractional extract and identified as agrostophillinol. This is the first report of agrostophillinol isolated from kaffir lime leaves. In terms of cytotoxicity, agrostophillinol exhibited IC50 values of 36.27 ± 7.30 and 53.44 ± 10.63 μg/mL against EoL-1 and HL60 cells, respectively. Agrostophillinol also exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, significantly inhibiting IL-6 secretion.
... As a traditional medicine in Thailand, the leaves are used to maintain healthy teeth and gums, and as a remedy for scurvy. The leave extracts were reported to have antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities [1]. Meanwhile, the juice is used to clean the blood, dispel gas, increase appetite, and to keep the hair and scalp in good health. ...
Full-text available
Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) is a plant member of family Rutaceae, and its leaves are commonly used in folk medicine. The present study explores antileukemic effects of the extracts and purified active compounds from the leaves. The antileukemic activity was investigated via inhibition of Wilms’ tumor 1 (WT1), which is a protein that involves in leukemic cell proliferation. In addition, the compounds were investigated for their effects on WT1 gene expression using real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell cycle arrest and total cell number were investigated using flow cytometry and trypan blue exclusion method, respectively. The results demonstrated that the hexane fractionated extract had the greatest inhibitory effect on WT1 gene expression of many leukemic cell lines and significantly decreased WT1 protein levels of K562 cells (representative of the leukemic cells), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Subfraction No. 9 (F9) after partial purification of hexane fractioned extract showed the highest suppression on WT1 protein and suppressed cell cycle at G2/M. The organic compounds were isolated from F9 and identified as phytol and lupeol. The bioassays confirmed antiproliferative activities of natural products phytol and lupeol. The results demonstrated anticancer activity of the isolated phytol and lupeol to decrease leukemic cell proliferation.
... These four plants were extensively investigated by various researches for its wide array of potential uses, mostly in medical field [46,44,28,47,50,51]. A number of traditional uses of these selected plants have been studied in many countries [27,26,9,1]. The need to study, such benefits gained from natural food sources, is due to the existence of numerous diseases and illnesses which altered the mankind's livelihood. ...
... It comes under the family Rutaceae, and is widely found in south-east Asia. The whole fruits and leaves are used in traditional medicine for headache, flu, fever, sore throat, bad breath and indigestion (Abirami et al. 2014), and exhibit pharmaceutical effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-tumour (Murakami et al. 1995), antimicrobial (Chaisawadi et al. 2005) and antioxidant activities (Hutadilok-Towatana et al. 2006). Ethanolic extract of fruit peel showed cardioprotective and hepatoprotective activity in rat model (Putri et al. 2013). ...
Full-text available
Chemical investigation of the fruit peel of dietary plant Citrus hystrix offered two new flavones 5,6,4′-trihydroxypyranoflavone I and 5,4′-dimethyl-6-prenylpyranoflavone XIII besides 11 known compounds. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the aid of suitable analytical methods like 1D, 2D-NMR, mass and single crystal X-ray analysis. An X-ray crystal study of compound II was done for the first time and the compounds I–VI, XI and XII are hitherto not reported from this plant. Biological studies revealed that compound I found to have a good antidiabetic and antiacetylcholinesterase activities meanwhile compounds II, III and V showed a significant free radical scavenging ability as well as antioxidant capacity. In addition, compounds I, IV, V and VI showed cytotoxicity against U87, A549 and MCF-7 cells. Overall, the new compound I showed valuable bioactive properties. Due to insufficient quantity of compound XIII, biological studies were not done.
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to access the existing awareness of nearly forgotten Thai detergent plants by the use of chemometrics tool. A Northern Thai forest dependent community was chosen as it played vital role on knowledge retaining of plant utilisations. For initial perception, ethnobotanical survey was conducted to determine usage of plants by the community. Then the utilised plant parts were screened for phytochemicals and their relationships with the defined cleansing terms (viz., shampoo, scrub, detergent, soap, scent and spiritual) were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). From the results, the most cited plants as known, used and found were Acacia concinna, Clitoria ternetea, Oryza sativa and Citrus hystrix. Biometric analyses advised that knowledge of detergent plant utilisation was well preserved at all age ranges and it was not variable with genders. Cluster analysis described that term ‘spiritual’ was not narrated with cleansing properties. For phytochemical analysis, plant extracts showed positive variable of bioactive ingredients and the main compounds in the extracts was saponins. These findings confirmed that the knowledge of indigenous plant utilisation was reserved by the forest dependent community and the information is beneficial toward local plant conservation movement.
Full-text available
Citrus hystrix (CH) is a beneficial plant utilized in traditional folk medicine to relieve various health ailments. The antisenescent mechanisms of CH extracts were investigated using human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). Phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities of CH extracts were analyzed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay. Effects of CH extracts on high glucose-induced cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell cycle arrest and cell cycle-associated proteins were assessed using a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide tetrazolium (MTT) assay, non-fluorescent 2', 7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) assay, flow cytometer and Western blot. The extracts protected neuronal senescence by inhibiting ROS generation. CH extracts induced cell cycle progression by releasing senescent cells from the G1 phase arrest. As the Western blot confirmed, the mechanism involved in cell cycle progression was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, phospho-cell division cycle 2 (pcdc2) and phospho-Retinoblastoma (pRb) proteins. Furthermore, the Western blot showed that extracts increased Surtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression by increasing the phosphorylation of Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Collectively, CH extracts could protect high glucose-induced human neuronal senescence by inducing cell cycle progression and up-regulation of SIRT1, thus leading to the improvement of the neuronal cell functions.
Full-text available
ABSTRAK Dislipdemia berhubungan dengan penyakit jantung koroner. Hasil riset kesehatan dasar (RISKESDAS) Indonesiatahun 2013 menunjukkan sebesar 35,9% penduduk di atas usia 15 tahun memiliki kadar kolesterol yang tidak normaldan 15.9% penduduk memiliki kadar low density lipoprotein(LDL) yang tinggi. Fenomena ini memicu terusberkembangnya studi-studi in vivo untuk membantu upaya penurunan kadar LDL sebagai salah satu target terapidislipidemia. Salah satu pendekatannya adalah penggunaan ekstrak kulit jeruk purut yang memiliki aktivitasantioksidan dan antikolesterol pada studi terdahulu. Penelitian ini diharapkan mampu membuktikan efek kulit jerukpurut dalam menurunkan kadar LDL.Penelitian denganpost-test only controlled group designini menggunakan 25ekor tikus wistar. Tikus wistar dibagi dalam 5 kelompok yaitu kontrol negatif (K-) tanpa pemberian diet tinggi lemakdan ekstrak, kontrol positif (K+) dengan diberikan diet tinggi lemak saja, perlakuan 1 (P1) diberikan ekstrak kulitjeruk purut dosis 35 mg/kgBB tikus/hari, perlakuan 2 (P2) diberikan ekstrak dosis 70 mg/kgBB tikus/hari danperlakuan 3 (P3) diberikan ekstrak dosis 140 mg/kgBB tikus/hari. Intervensi diberikan selama 3 minggu kemudiandilakukan pengambilan darah untuk pengukuran kadar LDL masing-masing tikus dengan metode CHOD-PAP. Datakemudian dianalisis dengan uji One Way Anova. Rerata kadar LDL kelompok K-, K+, P1, P2, dan P3 masing-masing adalah 71,20±18,29 mg/dl ; 76,91±4,58 mg/dl ; 66,84±6,71 mg/dl ; 58,17±10,71 mg/dl ; 63,19±11,68 mg/dl.Hasiluji signifikansi menunjukkan nilai p = 0.134. Pemberian ekstrak kulit jeruk purut tidak menunjukkan efek yangsignifikan untuk menurunkan kadar LDL.
Full-text available
Spices are not only just herbs used in culinary for improving the taste of dishes. They are also sources of a numerous bioactive compounds significantly beneficial for health. They have been used since ancient times because of their antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and carminative properties. Several scientific studies have suggested their protective role against chronic diseases. In fact, their active compounds may help in arthritis, neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's, Parkinson, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc.), diabetes, sore muscles, gastrointestinal problems and many more. In the present study, possible roles of spices and their active components, in chronic diseases (cancer, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, etc.) along with their mechanism of action have been reviewed.
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (°C), and extraction time (min) on total phenolic content (TPC) from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. The independent variables were coded at five levels and their actual values were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. Results showed that ethanol concentration was the most significant (p<0.001) factor affecting the TPC. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be ethanol concentration of 52.9%, extraction temperature of 48.3oC, and extraction time of 126.5 min. Under the optimised conditions, the experimental value for TPC was 1291.8 mg GAE/100g DW, which reasonably close to the predicted value (1268.8 mg GAE/100g DW).
Full-text available
DOI: 10.3329/dujps.v8i2.6035 Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 8(2): 177-180, 2009 (December)
Full-text available
The extraction of phenolics from Citrus hystrix leaf was carried out using supercritical fluid extraction and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of CO2 flow rate, extraction pressure and extraction temperature on yield, total phenolic content and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl-IC50 were evaluated and compared with ethanol extraction. The extraction pressure was the most significant factor affecting the yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 of the extracts, followed by CO2 flow rate and the extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of pressure, CO2 flow rate and temperature were at 267 bars, 18 g/min and 50oC, respectively. The yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 obtained were 5.06%, 116.53 mg GAE/g extract and IC50 of 0.063 mg/ml, respectively. These values were not significantly different (p<0.05) to their predicted values. Better inhibition and TPC were obtained using SFE method whereas higher yield and phenolic acids were obtained in the ethanol extracts.
Full-text available
The essential oil of Citrus hystrix was prepared from fresh leaves and peels and analysed by means of capillary GC and GC-MS. Forty-one components were identified, accounting ca. 95% of the oil, depending on the method of preparation. The leaf oil contains l-citronellal (61.73%) as a major compound whereas l-limonene, sabinene and a-pinene are predominant in the peel oil. This is th.e first time p-menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-p-menthene is reported in C. hystrix oil.
Phytochemical compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected ethanolic aromatic Malaysian herbal extracts namely Persicaria hydropiper, Citrus hystrix, Murraya koenigii, Etlingera elatior, Cymbopogon citratus and Kaempferia galanga were screened and determined. Antioxidant activities were analysed using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine antibacterial activity against six bacteria strains. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and steroids were detected in the herb extracts. P. hydropiper extract had the highest antioxidant activities in FRAP and ORAC assays in which 1676.67 mM TE/g EW and 11.20 mmol TE/g EW were obtained, respectively. However, M. koenigii extract showed 61.8% inhibition in β-carotene bleaching assay among samples but lower than BHA/BHT standard. M. koenigii extract showed the most effective antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria. Aromatic Malaysian herbs such as P. hydropiper and M. koenigii were found to exhibit high antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
The distributions of important flavonoids and limonin in selected Thai citrus residues were investigated in this study. The residues of interest were peels of pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Kao Yai and cv. Kao Nampheung), residues after juice extraction of tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainamphueng and cv. Bangmod) and peels and residues after juice extraction of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC). Flavonoids were characterized and quantified in terms of flavanones, i.e., naringin and hesperidin, and polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), i.e., nobiletin, sinensetin and tangeretin. Naringin was a dominant flavanone in polmelo peels. Three PMFs were found in all samples with varying contents. Comparing the samples, residues from tangerine cv. Bangmod exhibited the highest value of each PMFs. Limonin was present in small amounts in pomelo peels and residues after juice extraction of tangerine and kaffir lime. All samples were good sources of dietary fibre, with a total dietary fibre content of more than 60 g/100 g on a dry weight basis with high proportion of soluble dietary fibre.
Many essential oils have antibacterial activity with a potential use in medicine. Citrus hystrix DC, or makrut lime, contains two essential oils, makrut leaf oil and makrut (fruit peel) oil, of which we determined the inhibitory effect against respiratory pathogens and evaluated their active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse the chemical composition of the essential oils. The antibacterial activities were tested by disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 411 isolates of groups A, B, C, F, G streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant and -sensitive S. aureus) and Acinetobacter baumannii, obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections. Makrut leaf oil and makrut oil were both effective against all the pathogens with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 0.06-68 mg/ml and 0.03-17.40 mg/ml, respectively. Citronellal was found to be the major component (80.04%) in makrut leaf oil and had the lowest MIC. In contrast, makrut oil consisted of several components (limonene 40.65%, terpinene-4-ol 13.71%, α-terpineol 13.20%), and the most active component was α-terpineol, followed by terpinene-4-ol, and limonene. These results suggest that makrut leaf oil, makrut oil, and their components (citronellal, α-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol) may be alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many bacterial diseases.
Kaffir lime juice is a by-product of food industry. It could be used as an ingredient to make kaffir lime shampoo. The crude extract of kaffir lime oil from its peel could inhibit the growth of Candida alcicans which is a micro-organism associated with the dandruff of the scalp. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of C. albicans by the oil was 1% (v/v). The kaffir lime juice has acid properties, helps cleaning hair, removes dirt and gives shampoo color. The optimum formula was kaffir lime juice, kaffir lime peel oil, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, coconut diethanolamide, 5-bromo-5-nitro-1, 3-dioxane (Bronidox) and water at 15.0, 1.0, 50.0, 30.0, 0.l and 30.0 % (w/w), respectively. A test with one hundred consumers showed that most of them were quite satisfied with this product especially in reducing dandruff of the scalp. The kaffir lime shampoo has color in L, a and b values of 4.6, -0.67 and 1.0, respectively. Its viscosity was 1,811 centipoise.