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The medicinal and nutritional role of underutilized citrus fruit Citrus hystrix (Kaffir lime): a review

  • C.P.R. Environmental Education Centre


Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Pre clinical studies have shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized C. hystrix fruit.
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014 1-5
Review Article Available online through
Citrus hystrix, commonly known as kaffir lime and medicinal lime as mentioned in ancient literature and belonging to Rutaceae family and it
is native to everywhere within India and South East Asia. The fruits are green when raw and greenish yellow when fully ripe. They are used
to prepare juice, pickles and as acidulant in curries. In the traditional Indian system of medicine the Ayurveda and various folk systems of
medicine, the fruit peel and leaves are used to treat various inflammatory ailments. Chemical studies have shown that fruit contains various
phytoconstituents like glycerolglycolipids, tannins, tocopherols, furanocoumarins and flavonoids and alkaloids. Preclinical studies have
shown that some of its phytochemicals possess antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, chemopreventive, antioxidant, anticholinesterase,
cardio and hepatoprotective effects. The present paper deals with review of phytoconstituents and pharmacological action of underutilized
C. hystrix fruit.
Key words: Citrus hystrix, underutilized fruits, phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, health benefits.
*Corresponding author.
Perumal Siddhuraju
Bioresource Technology Lab,
School of Life Sciences,
Department of Environmental Sciences,
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046,
Tamil Nadu, India.
The Medicinal And Nutritional Role of Underutilized Citrus
Fruit- Citrus hystrix (Kaffir Lime): A Review
Arumugam Abirami, Gunasekaran Nagarani and Perumal Siddhuraju*
Bioresource Technology Lab, School of Life Sciences, Department of Environmental Sciences,
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore – 641 046, Tamil Nadu, India.
Received on: 20-11-2013; Revised on: 10-12- 2013; Accepted on:19-12-2013
ISSN: 0975-7619
Indigenous plant species are important sources of nutrition and tradi-
tional medicine to the local people in the rural areas, where the avail-
ability of the food is less or is unaffordable to the poor people.1 Citrus
hystrix DC belonging to the family Rutaceae is an underutilized tropi-
cal fruit, is a small and bushy tree, about 3-5 m tall, which grows all
over India and South East regions of Asia, Southern China, Malaysia
and Thailand.2 C. hystrix belonging to the family Rutaceae is an
underutilized tropical fruit of Thailand. It is an underexploited tree
and is known as wild lime, medicinal lime and kaffir lime in English.
They were bumpy, green, maturing to yellow skinned citrus fruit with
a highly acidic flavour. A very thorny bush with aromatic leaves. The
fruits are subglobose to oblate-globose shape, with a distinct nipple
on the stem end. It has thick rind, knobby and wrinkled nature.3 Kaffir
lime is used as an herbal medicine to cure many diseases such as
heart disease, dizziness and indigestion and also as physical nourish-
ment.4 It has folkloric reputation to be used in flu, fever, hypertension,
abdominal pains and diarrhea on infants.5 The fruit skin was tradition-
ally used among the Malaysian folks for washing their hairs and other
parts of the body and also the fruit juice is rubbed onto the skin to
soften or mixed with bath water to control body odor.6 Extracts from
the skin as well as juice are used as an insecticide for washing the
head and treating the feet to kill land leeches. The regular use of
rubbing fresh leaves on the teeth and gum could aid in dental health.
The oil from leaves and fruits are used as perfumery and medicinal
preparation. Alcoholic and chloroform extracts of fruit peel possesses
post-coital anti-fertility activity.7 Crude acetone extract of root exhib-
its the activity against HIV-1 protease.8 The fruits are used in tradi-
tional cuisines and remedies such as headaches and sore throats by
Thai people.9 The methanolic extract of leaves is known to inhibit the
herpes virus10 and also used as mosquito repellent.11 The fruits are
used as pickle as well as in cooking. The leaves are strongly aromatic
and one or two leaves can be torn, chopped or shredded and used in
soups and curries preparation and also added in butter milk during
the summer time in order to delay or stop the lipid peroxidation due to
the presence of associated bioactive compounds i.e. polyphenols
and enhance the digestion system of stomach.
2. Phytochemistry
The leaves contain two glyceroglycolipids (1, 2-di-O-α-linolenoyl-3-
O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (DLGG) and 1-O-α-linolenoyl-2-O-
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Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
palmitoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (LPGG) 12 and a-toco-
pherol.13 Leaves contain the volatile compounds such as citronellal,
α-pinene, ß-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, trans-ocimene, γ-terpinene,
?-cymene, terpinolene, copaene, camphene, limonene, copene, lina-
lool, ß-cubebene, isopulegol, caryophyllene, citronellyl acetate,
citronellyl propionate citronellol, linalool, nerolidol, isopulegol,
caryophyllene and δ-cadinene.14,15,16 Forty one volatile constituents
were identified from the leaf oil such as 2, 6-dimethyl-5heptenal and
2,6-dimetyl-5-heptenol and three new compounds were identified (ρ-
menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-ρ-menthene).6 Fifty
four free and thirty-nine glycosidically bound volatile compounds
were isolated from kaffir lime leaves.15,17,18 Two flavanone glycoside
namely hesperidine and neohesperidine and one furanocoumarin
namely oxypeucedanin hydrate were isolated from leaves19 and also
contains eriocitrin, neoeriocitrin, narirutin, naringin, didymin and
myricetin.20,21 Phenolic acids (vanillic acid, ρ-coumaric acid, sinapic
acid, m-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid) were identified
from the ethanolic extract of leaves.22
Polar phenolic compounds such as aglycones and glycosides of fla-
vonoids, didymin, eriocitrin. neohesperidin and neoeriocitrin were
identified in Peel of kaffir lime.23 Peel contains flavanones (naringin
and hesperidin), polymethoxyflavones (sinensetin, nobiletin and
tangeretin).24,25 Peel contains essential oils such as ß-pinene, sabinene,
terpinen-4-ol, pinene, terpineol, 1, 8-cineole, citronellal, limonene, ρ-
menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-ρ-menthene.6,26,27
Four new citrunosides (1-4) was isolated from peel, compound 1 is a
1-O-isopropyl-6-O-ß-D-glucopyranosyl esters of 5'', 9''-dimethyl-2'',
8'' -decadienoic acid. Compound 2-4 possess a 1-O-isopropryl- ß-D-
glucopyranosyl and a dihydroxyprenyl furanocoumarin moiety con-
jugated to the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid as diesters.28 Peel is
a good source of dietary fiber, containing total dietary fiber (82 g/
100g), insoluble dietary fiber (54 g/100g) and soluble dietary fiber (28
Limonoid namely limonin was isolated from root.19 Two coumarins
(hystrixarin (1) and hopeyhopin (2), a benzenoid derivatives
(hystroxene-I (3) and quinolinone alkaloid (hystrolinone (4) were iso-
lated from the crude acetone extract of root.8
3.1. Antimicrobial activity
It is a well known fact that essential oils from Citrus spp., possessed
antimicrobial effect such as antibacterial and antifungal activity.29,30
So that the essential from citrus has used to improve the shelf life and
safety of minimally processed fruits, skim milk and low-fat milk.31 The
essential oil and crude ethanolic extract of Kaffir lime peel showed
greater antibacterial action against twenty sero types of Salmonella
and five species of enterobacteria than the crude ethanolic extract of
kaffir lime leaves.32 Volatile oil from the Kaffir lime peel exhibit the
antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, S. typhimurium and
S. aureus.33
The crude extract of Kaffir lime oil from peel could inhibit the growth
of Candida albicans which causing dandruff on the scalp. The Kaffir
aromatic oil at 1% (v/v) could inhibit the growth of C. albicans and
having more effective than positive control ketoconasole.34 Essential
oil (ß- citronellol, linalool and citronellol) from the leaf of Kaffir lime
exhibited insecticidal properties against Spodoptera litura at 26.748
µL/g.16 Makrut leaf oil (citronellal) and makrut oil (limonene, terpinene
and a- terpineol) exhibited antibacterial properties by disc diffusion
method against Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenza, S.
pneumonia, S. aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii.35
Supercritical fluid extract of C. hystrix (stem and bark) have the pos-
sibility to be applied as a constituent of cosmetic products and medi-
cines because they showed highest antibacterial activity against on
Basillus subtilis, moderate activity on B. cereus and Staphylococcus
epidermidis, and weak activity against S. aureus and
Propionibacterum acnes which are known to cause various type of
skin infections.36 At 5 and 10% concentration the Kaffir lime extract
could inhibit the fungal spore germination of Colletotrichum
gloeosporioides and Fusarium sp.,37 Isolated coumarins (hystrixarin
and hopeyhopin), benzenoid derivatives (hystroxene) and
quinolinone alkaloid (hystrolinone) from the acetone extract of Kaffir
lime root were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against
Acinetobacter baumannii and E. coli with MIC values <3.125 and
3.125 µg/ml.8
Kaffir lime peel has the potential to act as a natural antimicrobial
agent and showed activity against B. cereus, Salmonella typhi and
Staphylococcus aureus.38 The ethyl acetate extract from kaffir lime
peel exhibited broad spectrum of inhibitory activity against Gram-
positive bacteria, yeast and molds including Staphylococcus aureus,
Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
var. sake and Aspergillus fumigatus TISTR 3180. The major compo-
nent such as limonene, citronellal sabinene and ß-pinene may con-
tribute to the antimicrobial activity.26
Alcoholic extract of Kaffir lime peel has been exhibited the antibacte-
rial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, Vibrio cholera Ogawa and V.
parahemolyticus.39,40 The methanolic peel extract of C. hystrix fruit
possess antibacterial activity on human pathogenic bacteria such as
S. aureus, S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumonia and Proteus vulgaris. The
maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus and S. typhi
an inhibition zone of 19 mm and 22 mm respectively.41
Anti-inflammatory activity
Essential oil from C. hystrix reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory ac-
tivity against P. acne using 5-lipoxigenase inhibition assay. The ma-
jor component such as d-limonene in the essential oil could contrib-
ute to the inhibitory activity and observed IC50 value of 0.05 µl/ml
were compared to that of positive control nordihydroguaretic acid.
D-limonene could inhibit the P. acne and reduce inflammation as well
as reduce the post-acne scar formation and help to relieve acne blem-
Methanolic extract of leaves tested to measure the anti-inflammatory
activity by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induces
Abirami et al. / Drug Invention Today 2014,6(1),1-5
Drug Invention Today Vol.6.Issue.1.January 2014 1-5
edema formation on ICR mouse ears. Two glycerolipids (1,2-di-O-α-
linolenoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-glycerol (DLGG), 1-O- α-
linllenoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-3-O- ß-galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol (LPGG)
exhibited higher activity ( 32 and 43%) than positive control in-
domethacin (19%).12
3.2. Anti tumor activity
Methonolic extract of leaves were evaluated for hepatocarcinogenic
activity against 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline. C.
hystrix exerts strong promotive potential on 2-amino-3,8-
dimethylimidazo (4,5-f) quinoxaline induced hepatocarcinogenesis in
the rat model. The presence of some active chemicals in the leaves of
C. hystrix could significantly enhance the hepatocarcinogenic ef-
Two glycerolipids (1,2-di-O-a-linolenoyl-3-O-ß-galactopyranosyl-sn-
glycerol (DLGG), 1-O- a-linllenoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-3-O- ß-
galactopyranosyl- sn-glycerol (LPGG)) from methanolic extract of
leaves of C. hystrix were evaluated to inhibit the tumor promoting
activity of 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol 13-acetate in mouse skin with
dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol
13- acetate. Both lipids were potent inhibitors of tumor promoter-
induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation.12
3.3. Anticholinesterase activity
The isolated Citrusosides A-D and furanocoumarins compounds from
the hexane and methanolic extract of peel reported to possess
butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory properties and observed IC50 of 11.2
, 15.4 and 23 µM was comparable to that of the standard Galanthamine
(3.2 µM). It is confirmed that the presence of dioxygenated geranyl
chain in the compounds to be vital for the anticholinesterase activ-
Two flavanone glycosides (hesperidin and neohesperidin) and
furanocoumarin (oxypeucedanin hydrate) from butanolic and
dichloromethane extract of leaves and limonoid (limonin) from the
ethyl acetate extract of roots investigated to possess low to medium
anticholinesterase inhibitory activity toward acetylcholinesterase and
butyrylcholinesterase. The highest activity were reported to the com-
pounds neohesperidine and oxypeucedanin with the IC50 values of
0.16 mM toward AChE 0.26 mM BChE was compared to that of the
positive control serine.19
3.4. Antioxidant activity
Methanolic extract of leaves were evaluated for antioxidant potential.
It exerts its oxidative stress by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and
inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to liver
cancer cell line HepG2 cells due to the presence of flavonol (myricetin)
in the leaves (68.4 mg/100 g).21 Ethanolic extract of leaves were screened
for the ferric reducing antioxidant power, ß- carotene bleaching and
oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. The study reported that
leaves extracts exhibited FRAP value (781 mM TE/g), ß- carotene
bleaching activity (35.67%) and ORAC assay (10.51 mmol TE/g).44
Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of leaves was reported for the
higher total phenolic content (128.9 mg GAE/g extract) than the sol-
vent extraction and higher DPPH radical scavenging activity with the
IC50 of 0.065-0.300 mg/ml.22 Juice of Kaffir lime was reported to pos-
sessed high phenolic (490.47 mg GAE/ 100 ml of juice) and flavonoid,
(22.25 mg hesperidine equivalent/100 ml) content and exhibited good
antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAPS methods. Juice showed the
scavenging activity against DPPH radicals to have IC50 values of 35
mg/100 ml and FRAP value of 89.0 µmol Fe2+ equivalent/100 mL of
3.5. Inhibitors of Nitric oxide generation
Coumarins (bergamottin, oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6’, 7;-dihydroxy-3’,
7’-dimethyl-2-octenyl) oxy-]-psoralen) from the Methanolic extract of
fruits were exhibited as inhibitors of lipopolysaccharide and inter-
feron induced nitric oxide generation in RAW 264.7 cells. Among the
three coumarins the inhibitory activity of bergamottin was higher
than the others and it showed (IC50 value of 14 µM) which was com-
parable to that of a synthetic L-arginine analogue inhibitor of iNOS
(N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine) (IC50 value of 7.9 µM). The bergamottin
has the potential to inhibits the LPS/IFN-γ-triggered iNOS expres-
sion pathways and /or iNOS enzyme activity.46
Citrus, popularly known as food article is the unique source of vari-
ous types of compounds having diverse structure. C. hystrix is a
versatile, nutritious fruit with a great variety of uses. Here, an attempt
was made to address phytochemistry and pharmacology of the
underutilized fruit C. hystrix. It is quite evident from this review that
C. hystrix an important medicinal herb which are being utilized in the
field of Ayurveda, Siddha and other medical systems. C. hystrix con-
tains a number of phytoconstituents, which are the key factors in the
nutritional and medicinal value of this plant. Almost all parts of this
plant such as leaf, fruit, seed and root are used to cure a variety of
diseases. Crude extracts and phytochemicals isolated from various
parts of C. hystrix, as reviewed here have been found to have many
pharmacological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antioxi-
dant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant activity. The
underutilized fruit of C. hystrix is a very important part of biodiversity
and it’s sustainably use for future generations. Quite a significant
amount of work has been done on the biological activity and possible
application of these compounds and hence extensive investigation
on its pharmacology and clinical trials is needed to exploit their thera-
peutic utility to cure various diseases. The nutraceuticals perspec-
tives of dietary fiber prepared from peel and pulp of C. hystrix fruit
may be further exploited through in vivo studies for the wider utiliza-
Conflicts of Interest
All authors have none to declare.
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... Citrus hystrix, also known as kaffir lime, is a citrus fruit in the Rutaceae family. It is a native plant in Southern China and Tropical Southeast Asia [3]. Kaffir lime is generally grown worldwide as a garden shrub. ...
... In addition to its versatile cooking usage, kaffir lime is also used in traditional medicine. Its fruit is used to alleviate various health conditions including inflammatory illness, antimicrobial infection, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular health, fever, headache, flu, and sore throats, and skin disorders [3,[7][8][9]. The ethanol extract of kaffir rinds and leaves have a neuroprotective effect, which prevented SH-SY5Y, human neuroblastoma cell's senescence upon high-glucose induction [10]. ...
... Citrus fruits are abundant in multiple phytoconstituents and have increased attention for studying to improve health outcomes. Their leaf, peel, and juice have been reported to contain high levels of phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, alkaloid, tocopherol, glycerol glycolipid, furanocoumarin, and ascorbic acid [1][2][3]. The essential oil is abundant with many volatile compounds such as limonene, solution followed by the incubation of mixture sample at room temperature for 30 min. ...
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Citrus hystrix or kaffir lime is a native tropical plant containing a high level of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Its fruits are used as a food ingredient to enhance the sour-sweet scent and flavor in many dishes. Due to its polyphenol-containing, it has also been used as traditional medicine for health benefits including oral and gum health, stress relief, hair care, and skincare. In this study, we demonstrated the antioxidant activity of C. hystrix water extract and its effect on human keratinocyte and fibroblast migration. The extract showed a high amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents. The HPLC analysis indicated the presence of gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, rutin, and quercetin. We showed that C. hystrix water extract exhibited free radical scavenging capacity, determined by DPPH assay, with IC50 of 14.91 mg/mL, and nitrite radical scavenging capacity, determined by NO assay, with IC50 of 4.46 mg/mL. The C. hystrix water extract displayed unnoticeable toxicity at all tested doses. We showed that the treatment of water extracts as low as 50 μg/mL decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) from H2O2-induced ROS formation in both cell lines. Besides, C. hystrix water extract promoted cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these results demonstrated the positive benefit of C. hystrix water extract as a wound-healing accelerator. Its health benefits may be due to the antioxidant capability of its phytochemical compounds contained in C. hystrix water extract that enhances the migration of two major cell types: fibroblast and keratinocytes, responsible for the proliferation and remodeling phase of wound healing.
... The peel and leaf are sources of phenolic compounds and antioxidative substances [5]. These phytochemical compounds exhibited many advantages, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase, anticancer, cardioprotective, and antidiabetic activities [4], [6], [7]. The previous phytochemical report showed that this plant contains various phytoconstituents such as high phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, tannins, glycerolglycolipids, tocopherols, and furanocoumarins in several parts of CH, such as a leaf, peel, and juice [6], [8]. ...
... These phytochemical compounds exhibited many advantages, such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anticholinesterase, anticancer, cardioprotective, and antidiabetic activities [4], [6], [7]. The previous phytochemical report showed that this plant contains various phytoconstituents such as high phenolic, flavonoid, alkaloid, tannins, glycerolglycolipids, tocopherols, and furanocoumarins in several parts of CH, such as a leaf, peel, and juice [6], [8]. Results of phytochemical tests, known kaffir peel essential oil contains the main components of β-pine (21.44%), citronellal (20.91%), limonene (12.59%), and terpinene-4-of (11.93%), ...
... The lipid layer in gram-negative bacteria protects the cytoplasm from the environment and has a selective system against foreign substances in the lipopolysaccharide layer. The selective nature of gram-negative bacteria provides benefits in its defense system [6] [26] [30]. ...
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Leaf and peel of the kaffir lime plant (Citrus hystrix D.C.) can be used as herbal preparations to treat infections by opportunistic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to analyze the antibacterial activity of the combination of leaf and peel extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria isolates. This study used a posttest-only control group design, including phytochemical tests and in vitro antibacterial activity tests. The combination of leaf and peel extract of kaffir lime tested was 12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 75% (w/v). The results of phytochemical tests on the leaf extract and rind of limes were found to have antibacterial compounds, namely flavonoids, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids. The results of the antibacterial activity test used the paper disc diffusion method, showed that there were differences in the size of the inhibition zone for the four test bacteria; The combination treatment of 75% (1:1) leaf-peel extract gave the greatest inhibitory zone effect on the four test bacteria and was equivalent to the positive control. The conclusion of the study, the combination of leaf and peel extract had different antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
... This is inseparable from the content of chemical compounds in it. Several compounds have been shown to help treat AV (Abirami et al., 2014;Wijayadi & Rusliati, 2020). ...
... Therefore, this oil can help treat AV and prevent the formation of scar tissue that can occur (Dilla Dertyasasa & Anindito Sri Tunjung, 2017). This is in line with research which found that the D-limonene compound of this oil can inhibits P. acnes, reduces inflammation, reduces scar tissue formation and helps relieve the severity of AV (Abirami et al., 2014). Traditionally, lime/lime essential oil is usually applied topically directly to the skin. ...
Acne vulgaris (AV) is a disease of the pilosebaceous unit that often occurs at the age of 15 to 40 years. Various factors can influence this disease such as abnormal keratinization, microbial colonization, increased sebum production and complex inflammatory mechanisms. Essential oils can be used as an alternative therapy for AV. Various kinds of essential oils which are natural aromatic compounds from herbal plants, have long been known to help cure AV. This is because of the various beneficial compounds contained in each essential oils. The effects are varied such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial which will affect the healing mechanism of AV. This literature review discusses the role of essential oils from kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix), cinnamon (Cinnamomum), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Cymbopogon flexuosus), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) against AV treatment.
... The kaffir lime tree is about 3-5 m high and its fruit is round to egg-shaped and often has a distinct nipple-like structure near the apex. They have thick, wrinkled green skin that turns yellow after ripening (Abirami et al., 2014). Essential oils (EO) exist in the leaves, flowers, and fruit; the oils exist in the highest concentrations in the green skin of the fruit. ...
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Essential oil (EO) was extracted from the peel of Citrus hystrix DC. originating from Tinh Bien, An Giang province (Vietnam), using steam distillation. The study aimed to determine some physicochemical properties of Citrus hystrix peel EO (ChpEO), including the acid value (AV), saponification value (SV), ester value (EV), density, specific gravity, and freezing point. The chemical composition was also analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Compounds like β-pinene (30.19%), D-limonene (22.15%), and sabinene (21.37%), with antioxidant and antibacterial properties, had a relatively high content. The EO was also capable of inhibiting the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Salmonella typhimurium (ATCC 13311), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778) specifically.
... Kaffir lime or Citrus hystrix DC comes from the family Rutaceae and is distributed in India and Southeast Asia [43]. This plant has aromatic fruits and leaves, and has various properties such as anti-tumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities [44]. ...
Melasma, known as a hyperpigmentation disorder, is more common in women of childbearing age with Fitzpatrick IV-VI skin types. Various factors of this disease, namely genetic factors, UV exposure, hormonal, thyroid disease, pregnancy, and drugs. The best treatment for melasma is with 2 – 4% hydroquinone, but because of the side effects, alternative treatments are mostly used for melasma. One of them is with essential oils. Essential oils have been investigated as depigmenting agents because of their anti-tyrosinase potential. In this literature, it is proven that the essential oils of sage (Salvia), hedgenettle / woundwort (Stachys), lavender (Lavandula), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), cinnamon (Cinnamomum), mountain tea (Sideritis), pomelo (Citrus grandis ( L) Osbeck), and kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC) are effective against melasma. The purpose of this literature is to discuss the various effects of essential oils that can be used as depigmentation agents in the alternative treatment of melasma.
... Typically, kaffir lime leaves are used as an aromatic, seasoning, and traditional medicine to maintain healthy teeth, gums, and scurvy [18]. Kaffir lime leaf extract is helpful for antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activity [19]. ...
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The xanthine oxidase enzyme is an enzyme that catalyzes purine metabolic reactions, the oxidation of hypoxanthine to uric acid through xanthine compounds. High uric acid causes hyperuricemia. One treatment is to inhibit the xanthine oxidase enzyme. It can be conducted with a natural remedy, for example kaffir lime leaf extract. Research showed that kaffir lime leaves contain flavonoids that can inhibit the activity of the xanthine oxidase. This research aimed to examine kaffir lime leaf extract as an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase enzyme activity. Isolation of kaffir lime leaves was conducted by various maceration times of 24, 48, and 72 hours. The method of determining the inhibition value (IC50) of kaffir lime leaf extract to the xanthine oxidase enzyme was UV-Vis spectrophotometer at λ 291,5 nm. Maceration results of kaffir lime leaf extract with phytochemical tests for 48 hours showed that there were phenolic, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, and triterpenoids compounds. FT-IR test showed that there were C=O, C=C aromatic, O-H, and CH-aliphatic groups, which indicated the structure of the flavonoids. Maceration of kaffir lime leaf extract for 48 hours was a weak inhibitor with an IC50 value of 285,82 ppm.
... Kaffir lime, known by its scientific name Citrus Hystrix, which comes from Rutaceae family, is very famous in Asian countries [1]. Nowadays, kaffir lime is in high demand in industrial sectors such as aromatherapy, perfume, beauty products, and the medical field [2]- [5]. Kaffir lime oil can be obtained from its fruit or leaves. ...
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span lang="EN-US">This paper presents kaffir lime oil quality grading using the intelligent system classification method, a non-linear support vector machine (NSVM). This method classifies the quality kaffir lime oil into two groups: high and low quality, based on their significant chemical compounds. The 90 data of kaffir lime oil were used in this project from high to low quality. The abundance (%) of significant chemical compounds will act as the input and high or low quality as an output. The 90 data will be divided into two sets: training and testing data sets with a ratio of 8:2. The radial basis function (RBF) optimization kernel parameters in NSVM. Using the implementation of MATLAB software version R2020a, all data and analysis work was performed automatically. The results showed that the NSVM model met all performance criteria for 100% accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision.</span
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Edible coatings are pivotal in enhancing the quality of processed meat products, acting as barriers to environmental and microbial influences by adhering directly to the food surface. Arrowroot flour, a widely produced edible tuber in Thailand, is uncharted in terms of its capability and effectiveness as an edible coating on food materials. This study aims to elucidate the composition and spectral properties of arrowroot tuber flour (ATF) to discern its viability as an edible coating for pork sausages. ATF exhibited a composition predominantly featuring carbohydrates (74.78%), moisture (9.59%), and protein (8.89%), underlining its appropriateness as an edible coating. Rapid visco amylograph revealed ATF’s significant pasting capability. This study incorporated kaffir lime leaves essential oil (KEO) into the ATF coating in diverse concentrations (0–3%). Fourier-transform Infrared spectroscopy illuminated characteristic peaks and bands, showing observable shifts with the integration of KEO, yet the majority of peak placements remained essentially unchanged. The microstructure of the coatings maintained its homogeneity at heightened KEO concentrations, reflecting compatibility with ATF. The efficacy of the ATF-KEO coatings was evaluated on pork sausages, using uncoated samples as controls. While color modifications were evident, coated sausages maintained consistent moisture content, water activity, and pH levels throughout the storage duration. The coated samples also manifested enhanced textural attributes and a decline in lipid oxidation, as evidenced by reduced TBARS levels compared to controls. A subsequent microbial examination corroborated the inhibitory capacity of the ATF-KEO coatings on the microbial proliferation in pork sausages, encapsulating Total Viable Count (TVC), psychrotrophic bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria. In conclusion, the findings substantiate the promising application of ATF, especially in synergy with KEO, as a proficient edible coating for meat products. This combination aids in preserving color and texture, impeding microbial advancement, and moderating lipid oxidation, thereby contributing to the overall quality and safety of the products.
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The current research was conducted to extract the bioactive compounds from citrus waste and assess their role in the development of functional foods to treat different disorders. The scientific name of citrus is Citrus L. and it belongs to the Rutaceae family. It is one of the most important fruit crops that is grown throughout the world. During processing, a large amount of waste is produced from citrus fruits in the form of peel, seeds, and pomace. Every year, the citrus processing industry creates a large amount of waste. The citrus waste is composed of highly bioactive substances and phytochemicals, including essential oils (EOs), ascorbic acid, sugars, carotenoids, flavonoids, dietary fiber, polyphenols, and a range of trace elements. These valuable compounds are used to develop functional foods, including baked products, beverages, meat products, and dairy products. Moreover, these functional foods play an important role in treating various disorders, including anti-aging, anti-mutagenic, antidiabetic, anti-carcinogenic, anti-allergenic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and cardiovascular-protective activity. EOs are complex and contain several naturally occurring bioactive compounds that are frequently used as the best substitutes in the food industry. Citrus essential oils have many uses in the packaging and food safety industries. They can also be used as an alternative preservative to extend the shelf lives of different food products.
Due to the COVID-19, self-catering captured the interest of many people. This paper proposes a novel mobile application, which can share recipes and recognition material to help individuals with low prior cooking skill. It offers good, practical knowledge and can help to build cooperative teams in the cooking community among novice cooks. Choosing the ingredients for cooking can be difficult. This is especially true because of Thai vegetables look similar such as white and sweet basil particularly for new cooks not familiar with their other characteristics. This research introduces a mobile application, Kin Rai Dee App, which is based on sharing recipes and recognition material by using Roboflow with a pretrained model. To develop Thai vegetable image classification in our mobile application, the Convolutional Neural Network technique and a Thai vegetable dataset is used to evaluate the performance of our classification model. This dataset is composed of two sources including (1) Thai herb dataset from Kaggle website and (2) our own images. Therefore, there are totally 12 classes in the Thai vegetable dataset with image’s resolutions of 224 × 224 pixels. The result for image training is implemented through machine learning and Roboflow methods. The experiments process has training results accuracy at 85% and testing result at 15% in both models. The performance of our model has proven that it can achieve the result with confidence values 100% and 99.21% for specific Thai vegetables.KeywordsThai recipe retrievalConvolutional Neural NetworkThai vegetable image recognitionCooperative applicationCommunity-based application
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The objective of this study was to optimise the extraction conditions for phenolic compounds from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels using response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was applied to determine the effects of ethanol concentration (%), extraction temperature (°C), and extraction time (min) on total phenolic content (TPC) from limau purut (Citrus hystrix) peels. The independent variables were coded at five levels and their actual values were selected based on the results of single factor experiments. Results showed that ethanol concentration was the most significant (p<0.001) factor affecting the TPC. The optimum extraction conditions were found to be ethanol concentration of 52.9%, extraction temperature of 48.3oC, and extraction time of 126.5 min. Under the optimised conditions, the experimental value for TPC was 1291.8 mg GAE/100g DW, which reasonably close to the predicted value (1268.8 mg GAE/100g DW).
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DOI: 10.3329/dujps.v8i2.6035 Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 8(2): 177-180, 2009 (December)
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The extraction of phenolics from Citrus hystrix leaf was carried out using supercritical fluid extraction and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of CO2 flow rate, extraction pressure and extraction temperature on yield, total phenolic content and diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl-IC50 were evaluated and compared with ethanol extraction. The extraction pressure was the most significant factor affecting the yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 of the extracts, followed by CO2 flow rate and the extraction temperature. The optimum conditions of pressure, CO2 flow rate and temperature were at 267 bars, 18 g/min and 50oC, respectively. The yield, TPC and DPPH-IC50 obtained were 5.06%, 116.53 mg GAE/g extract and IC50 of 0.063 mg/ml, respectively. These values were not significantly different (p<0.05) to their predicted values. Better inhibition and TPC were obtained using SFE method whereas higher yield and phenolic acids were obtained in the ethanol extracts.
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The essential oil of Citrus hystrix was prepared from fresh leaves and peels and analysed by means of capillary GC and GC-MS. Forty-one components were identified, accounting ca. 95% of the oil, depending on the method of preparation. The leaf oil contains l-citronellal (61.73%) as a major compound whereas l-limonene, sabinene and a-pinene are predominant in the peel oil. This is th.e first time p-menthan-8-ol (dihydro-a-terpineol), guaiol, and 4-p-menthene is reported in C. hystrix oil.
Phytochemical compounds, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected ethanolic aromatic Malaysian herbal extracts namely Persicaria hydropiper, Citrus hystrix, Murraya koenigii, Etlingera elatior, Cymbopogon citratus and Kaempferia galanga were screened and determined. Antioxidant activities were analysed using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), β-carotene bleaching and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assays. Disc diffusion assay was used to determine antibacterial activity against six bacteria strains. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids and steroids were detected in the herb extracts. P. hydropiper extract had the highest antioxidant activities in FRAP and ORAC assays in which 1676.67 mM TE/g EW and 11.20 mmol TE/g EW were obtained, respectively. However, M. koenigii extract showed 61.8% inhibition in β-carotene bleaching assay among samples but lower than BHA/BHT standard. M. koenigii extract showed the most effective antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria. Aromatic Malaysian herbs such as P. hydropiper and M. koenigii were found to exhibit high antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
The distributions of important flavonoids and limonin in selected Thai citrus residues were investigated in this study. The residues of interest were peels of pomelo (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck cv. Kao Yai and cv. Kao Nampheung), residues after juice extraction of tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Sainamphueng and cv. Bangmod) and peels and residues after juice extraction of kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC). Flavonoids were characterized and quantified in terms of flavanones, i.e., naringin and hesperidin, and polymethoxyflavones (PMFs), i.e., nobiletin, sinensetin and tangeretin. Naringin was a dominant flavanone in polmelo peels. Three PMFs were found in all samples with varying contents. Comparing the samples, residues from tangerine cv. Bangmod exhibited the highest value of each PMFs. Limonin was present in small amounts in pomelo peels and residues after juice extraction of tangerine and kaffir lime. All samples were good sources of dietary fibre, with a total dietary fibre content of more than 60 g/100 g on a dry weight basis with high proportion of soluble dietary fibre.
Many essential oils have antibacterial activity with a potential use in medicine. Citrus hystrix DC, or makrut lime, contains two essential oils, makrut leaf oil and makrut (fruit peel) oil, of which we determined the inhibitory effect against respiratory pathogens and evaluated their active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse the chemical composition of the essential oils. The antibacterial activities were tested by disc-diffusion and broth microdilution methods against 411 isolates of groups A, B, C, F, G streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-resistant and -sensitive S. aureus) and Acinetobacter baumannii, obtained from patients with respiratory tract infections. Makrut leaf oil and makrut oil were both effective against all the pathogens with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 0.06-68 mg/ml and 0.03-17.40 mg/ml, respectively. Citronellal was found to be the major component (80.04%) in makrut leaf oil and had the lowest MIC. In contrast, makrut oil consisted of several components (limonene 40.65%, terpinene-4-ol 13.71%, α-terpineol 13.20%), and the most active component was α-terpineol, followed by terpinene-4-ol, and limonene. These results suggest that makrut leaf oil, makrut oil, and their components (citronellal, α-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol) may be alternative natural source medicine to prevent and treat many bacterial diseases.
Kaffir lime juice is a by-product of food industry. It could be used as an ingredient to make kaffir lime shampoo. The crude extract of kaffir lime oil from its peel could inhibit the growth of Candida alcicans which is a micro-organism associated with the dandruff of the scalp. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of C. albicans by the oil was 1% (v/v). The kaffir lime juice has acid properties, helps cleaning hair, removes dirt and gives shampoo color. The optimum formula was kaffir lime juice, kaffir lime peel oil, sodium lauryl ether sulfate, coconut diethanolamide, 5-bromo-5-nitro-1, 3-dioxane (Bronidox) and water at 15.0, 1.0, 50.0, 30.0, 0.l and 30.0 % (w/w), respectively. A test with one hundred consumers showed that most of them were quite satisfied with this product especially in reducing dandruff of the scalp. The kaffir lime shampoo has color in L, a and b values of 4.6, -0.67 and 1.0, respectively. Its viscosity was 1,811 centipoise.