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Nouvelles decouvertes d'Art Pariétal Paléolithique á la Meseta: La grotte del Reno (Valdesotos, Guadalajara)

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... Sites such as Peña Capón, although more recently excavated than the Manzanares Valley sites mentioned above and containing undoubtedly Solutrean industries, also lacked modern studies and chronometric dates (Alcolea et al. 1997b). Furthermore, the presence of some rock art depictions assigned on stylistic grounds by some specialists to the Solutrean in Central Iberia (Alcolea et al. 1997a) has been widely considered to be proof not necessarily of permanent human settlement in this area, just of occupations of undetermined duration. 3. The vast majority of Upper Paleolithic sites discovered in Central Iberia during the recent decades are Magdalenian-in other words, post-LGM (Jarama II, Enebrales, El Monte and Estebanvela, among a few others; see Cacho et al. 2012). ...
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The currently most widely accepted model of population dynamics in Southwest Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum depicts the Iberian Peninsula as a human refugium. However, this refugium was generally thought to be limited to the coastal areas of Iberia, while the interior lands of the Spanish plateau were explicitly excluded as areas of significant human settlement. According to what we have termed the “crossing-area model,” these inner territories supposedly had no Solutrean settlements, only ephemeral visits corresponding to the passage of hunter-gatherers en route between the more favored coastal areas. In this paper we test the validity of this model in light of new data from several sites in Central Iberia, namely from the Madrid Basin and the southeastern foothills of the Central System mountain range. We conclude that the crossing-area model does not explain the current data and therefore should be reassessed. Consequently, we propose to open up new avenues of research aimed at approaching the central region of Iberia in its own cultural and ecological terms.
... On the other hand, the motifs of Villalba lack the characteristic traits of the interior archaic phase. This phase is indeed very present in the Douro basin and its surroundings, where it is fully developed not only in the Côa valley, but also in La Griega cave (Corchón, 1997) and, in the Upper Tagus basin, in El Reno cave (Alcolea-González et al., 1997). The stylistic peculiarity of this archaic phase, including step-like horse maines, linear motifs in absolute profile, or the lack of care for details and finishing figures, are not found in the Villalba figures. ...
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The Palaeolithic art of the Iberian interior territories is quantitatively scarce, spatially dispersed and relatively poor in archaeological context. This state-of-the-art is not only a reflection of the Palaeolithic reality, but is also due to a prolonged lack of investigation in the area, which has been only started to be corrected in recent years. The Plaque of Villalba is one of the few portable Palaeolithic art works known in the Iberian plateau. It was found in 1988 in the upper Duero basin, and despite lacking any kind of archaeological context, it can be considered a masterpiece among the Upper Palaeolithic graphic expression of Iberia. Here we present a new study of the piece using new recording techniques that were not available when it was first studied. These techniques not only include a complete new series of digital photos, but also a 3D scan of the plaque. Our new recording of the engravings of the plaque, more accurate and comprehensive than previous views, enable us to discuss their style and chronology in the context of the Palaeolithic art of inner Iberia.
... El núcleo artístico pleistocénico del Alto Jarama (Fig. 1B), en el que destaca la cueva de El Reno, situada a unos 11 km. en línea recta de Peña Capón y para cuya primera fase de decoración algunos de nosotros ya propusimos una edad pleniglaciar (Alcolea et al. 1997a(Alcolea et al. , 1997b(Alcolea et al. , 2000), posee motivos arcaicos claramente paralelizables con el horizonte artístico más antiguo de la Meseta (Alcolea y Balbín 2003b). Dicho horizonte incorporaría tanto algunas fases de las cuevas castellanas más conocidas, como Los Casares, La Hoz o La Griega, como el grueso de la fase antigua de los conjuntos del Côa (Baptista 2008). ...
... El núcleo artístico pleistocénico del Alto Jarama (Fig. 1B), en el que destaca la cueva de El Reno, situada a unos 11 km. en línea recta de Peña Capón y para cuya primera fase de decoración algunos de nosotros ya propusimos una edad pleniglaciar (Alcolea et al. 1997aAlcolea et al. , 1997bAlcolea et al. , 2000), posee motivos arcaicos claramente paralelizables con el horizonte artístico más antiguo de la Meseta (Alcolea y Balbín 2003b). Dicho horizonte incorporaría tanto algunas fases de las cuevas castellanas más conocidas , como Los Casares, La Hoz o La Griega, como el grueso de la fase antigua de los conjuntos del Côa (Baptista 2008). ...
... El núcleo artístico pleistocénico del Alto Jarama (Fig. 1B), en el que destaca la cueva de El Reno, situada a unos 11 km. en línea recta de Peña Capón y para cuya primera fase de decoración algunos de nosotros ya propusimos una edad pleniglaciar (Alcolea et al. 1997aAlcolea et al. , 1997bAlcolea et al. , 2000), posee motivos arcaicos claramente paralelizables con el horizonte artístico más antiguo de la Meseta (Alcolea y Balbín 2003b). Dicho horizonte incorporaría tanto algunas fases de las cuevas castellanas más conocidas , como Los Casares, La Hoz o La Griega, como el grueso de la fase antigua de los conjuntos del Côa (Baptista 2008). ...
... Sur ce dernier point particulier, nous avons des données semblables sur d'autres gisements de la Meseta. L'existence de phases successives dans la décoration des grottes de la Hoz dans l'Alcarria (Balbín et al., 1995 : 43-44) et de El Reno (Alcolea et al., 1997a(Alcolea et al., , 1997b, propose un schéma similaire, avec des séries modernes magdaléniennes des débuts du Style IV ancien qui incorporent des bisons et des rennes. Ce parallèle, aussi bien par la similitude du phénomène que par la parenté géographique, illustre à nouveau la cohérence que semble avoir l'art des cavernes de la Meseta et son expression extérieure. ...
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The Paleolithic shelter Art in the open air of Siega Verde, Salamanca, is the unitary group better endowed with paleolithic shelter manifestations in the bleakness of the whole Iberian Peninsula. Its study, consequence of more than 10 years of works on the land, has culminated with the recent publication of a complete monograph. In the following lines, we intend to synthesize the content of that, with special emphasis in the internal analysis of the representations and in their relationship with its cultural immediate environment, the Upper Paleolithic of the Castilian Plateau. The results of so long investigation process suppose a new interpretation way, not only of the own site, but also of the whole Paleolithic shelter phenomenon inside the Peninsula, and in a more general environment, of the graphic system of the European Upper Paleolithic.
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El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una aproximación a las figuras grabadas de estilo paleolítico descubiertas en varios abrigos del norte de Castellón (GUILLEM et alii, 2001, MARTÍNEZ VALLE et alii, 2003, MARTÍNEZ VALLE y GUILLEM, 2005).
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The Peña Capón rockshelter contains an archaeological deposit known since 1970 that was the object of a preliminary study in the late 1990’s. In this paper we present a revision of the archaeological material from level 3 that includes the technological and typological study of the lithics and bone tools, the zooarchaeological and taphonomic analysis of the faunal remains, the record of engravings on bones, and the radiocarbon dating of several bone samples. The data obtained has allowed us to relate the level 3 to the Protosolutrean industries with Vale Comprido points defined in the Portuguese Estremadura, a matter that constitutes an important breakthrough within the Meseta area, where little is known about the Upper Palaeolithic prior to the Middle Solutrean. The results are consistent with the definition of the Protosolutrean as a transitional industry between the Gravettian and the Solutrean. Furthermore, the verification of a human settlement in the foothills of the Central System range during the Upper Pleniglacial (MIS 2) strongly points to the abandonment of the classic hypothesis that posit a depopulation of inner Iberia during the coldest stages of the last glacial cycle.
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