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Innovative learning in work teams: analyzing cycles of knowledge creation in practice

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... All the constituent interventions that fed into the COLAB model describe this collective/collaborative learning and the formation of innovations as an iterative and experimental process that takes place over multiple cycles and with the help of the facilitating researcher (Engeström, 1999;Kajamaa, 2015). The iterative cycles represent a means for rehearsal of new roles and relations between workers and agencies (Halse et al., 2010), which forms the basis for social innovation in practice (Aakjaer & Darsø, 2014). ...
... The iterative cycles represent a means for rehearsal of new roles and relations between workers and agencies (Halse et al., 2010), which forms the basis for social innovation in practice (Aakjaer & Darsø, 2014). Change Laboratory interventionists spell out the dimensions of these cycles in most detail in the description of the so-called expansive learning cycle (Engeström, 1999;Kajamaa, 2015). This forms the underpinning of the potential model intervention being developed through COLAB, a model aimed at facilitating the collective learning process within the CJS context ( Fig. 8.2). ...
... Overall researchers anticipate that innovations and workplace transformations generated through this cycle will, in codesign terms, allow participants to discover what is (framing current problems), imagine new solutions (what could be-reframing problems) and explore the viability of new solutions (what will be) (Aakjaer, 2018) (Fig. 8.1). Engeström, 1987Engeström, , 1999Engeström, , 2004 The Structure Within Which Collective Learning Is Located As with the expansive learning cycle process, the description of the structure of the Change Laboratory, that is put in place to manage this collective learning, served as the "baseline" structure for the development of the COLAB model also. We chose this method because of its international application and success as a means of workplace transformation in a variety of workplace contexts including paper mills, factories, entrepreneurial contexts, elderly care, hospitals, schools and newsrooms (see e.g. ...
Chapter
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This chapter presents the COLAB model for promoting organisational learning and innovation with potential application in criminal justice-related organisations. We describe this model as a toolkit that built on the Change Laboratory model of workplace transformation but one augmented with the beneficial components of Activity Clinics, Boundary Crossing Workshops and Codesign methods and developed within the criminal justice context. Limitations and future directions for the model are discussed.
... Little has been done to extend this theoretical approach to practices of school design and construction. In so doing we employ and develop the theoretical tools of cultural-historical activity theory (Cole and Engeström, 1993;Engeström, 1999). Activity theory offers a means of moving forward in terms of the different forms of collaboration, range of perspectives of the varied stakeholders involved, and constant change to which schools, and learning generally, are subject. ...
... Activity theory offers a means of moving forward in terms of the different forms of collaboration, range of perspectives of the varied stakeholders involved, and constant change to which schools, and learning generally, are subject. Engeström (1999) sees joint activity or practice as the unit of analysis for activity theory, not individual activity. He is interested in the process of social transformation and includes the structure of the social world in analysis, taking into account the conflictual nature of social practice. ...
... Doing mass customization requires designing a product at least once for each customer. In practices of co-configuration there is a need to go beyond conventional teamwork or networking to the practice of 'knotworking' (Engeström, 1999). Engeström argues that knotworking is a rapidly changing, distributed and partially improvised orchestration of collaborative performance which takes place between otherwise loosely connected actors and their work systems to support clients. ...
Article
This article focusses on the lessons learnt from the collaborative design of guidance for new build schools in England about the processes of school design, construction and occupation. The study involved headteachers, school building commissioners, teachers and wider school communities thinking about the pedagogic implications of the production of new school buildings. Professionals who had been involved with the development of new school buildings, and those currently involved, engaged in workshops to discuss their experiences of the process and designed guidance for those who would be involved in the future. This collaborative process pointed to possibilities but also significant potential risks involved in innovative school design. Theoretically, an activity theory framework was adopted to explore patterns of interaction and contradictions in the collaborative processes of the design, construction and occupation of new school builds and how these should be captured in a guidance document. We problematise the concept of innovation in the design of new build schools and the related risks. We suggest that collaborative school design calls for a new conception of collective action.
... Underpinning the research questions of this study (see Dugdale, 2020), CHAT has been used to analyse and describe the elements of organisational work being undertaken by the specific individuals of interest in the activity (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 1999(Engeström, , 2000(Engeström, , 2001. The core components of the activity system model, namely the object, tools, subject, community, rules, and division of labour, have been employed as analytical lenses to explore the interactions between these components and theorise the nature of collaboration practice. ...
... Learning by expanding. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy. Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. ...
... In other words, CHAT is used as an analytical tool because its epistemological approach combines both historical and cultural dimensions of social phenomena to make sense of activities, i.e. CHAT has utility as an exploratory tool because it allows the study of collaboration at a systems level and accounts for the multiple factors that mediate collective work activity (Engeström, 1999). In the offender rehabilitation context, these systems might be two adjacent services that have separate but also some common goals: working together on the same piece of rehabilitation strategy, for example, police custody officers collaborate with L&D workers to screen and assess individuals for vulnerabilities (their shared object of activity) when they enter the criminal justice system. ...
Book
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This Open Access edited collection seeks to improve collaboration between criminal justice and welfare services in order to help prepare offenders for life after serving a prison sentence. It examines the potential tensions between criminal justice agencies and other organisations which are involved in the rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders, most notably those engaged in mental health care or third sector organisations. It then suggests a variety of different methods and approaches to help to overcome such tensions and promote inter-agency collaboration and co-working, drawing on emerging research and models, with a focus on the practice in European and Scandinavian countries. For academics and practitioners working in prisons and the penal system, this collection will be invaluable.
... Underpinning the research questions of this study (see Dugdale, 2020), CHAT has been used to analyse and describe the elements of organisational work being undertaken by the specific individuals of interest in the activity (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 1999(Engeström, , 2000(Engeström, , 2001. The core components of the activity system model, namely the object, tools, subject, community, rules, and division of labour, have been employed as analytical lenses to explore the interactions between these components and theorise the nature of collaboration practice. ...
... Learning by expanding. Helsinki: Orienta-Konsultit Oy. Engeström, Y. (1999). Activity theory and individual and social transformation. ...
... In other words, CHAT is used as an analytical tool because its epistemological approach combines both historical and cultural dimensions of social phenomena to make sense of activities, i.e. CHAT has utility as an exploratory tool because it allows the study of collaboration at a systems level and accounts for the multiple factors that mediate collective work activity (Engeström, 1999). In the offender rehabilitation context, these systems might be two adjacent services that have separate but also some common goals: working together on the same piece of rehabilitation strategy, for example, police custody officers collaborate with L&D workers to screen and assess individuals for vulnerabilities (their shared object of activity) when they enter the criminal justice system. ...
Chapter
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In secured institutions, which include prison services, violence between clients or towards staff has a major impact, eliciting feelings of stress, anger and fear for those involved. In this chapter we explain how violence can be understood as a complexity of multiple factors, and why a structured risk management strategy is necessary to adequately assess and manage violence. We describe specifically the Early Recognition Method (ERM) as a step-wise forward strategy aiming to identify, formulate and manage early warning signs of violence and allows a risk management dialogue to develop between prison staff and inmates. The ERM-dialogue strategy has successfully been developed and applied in forensic psychiatry and in this chapter we explore how, in a process of innovation, the knowledge and research of the ERM-applied in forensic services, has been transferred to prison services. The ‘multivoicedness’ of the ERM is explored through the theoretical concept of the ‘Self’
... While being an emerging area of inquiry, little research has focally examined how emotion labor shapes LTIs. Examining this connection is significant As a strand associated with sociocultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978), AT explores "the ways sociocultural historical contexts shape human activity" (Anh, 2013, p. 2) and is currently argued to involve the components of subject, object, tools, community, rules, and division of labor (Antoniadou, 2011;Engeström, 1999). AT began with the fundamental idea of social mediation in human cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978) and has gradually accounted for a wider range of individuals' sociocultural performances and communications. ...
... AT has also developed over time in capturing how various situational factors shape individual functioning. Engeström (1999) outlines three generations of AT the first of which draws primarily on Vygotsky's mediation and involves three components of tools, subjects, and outcomes. The second generation (as shown in Fig. 1 below) involves six components and situates individual performance within a higher layer of institutional factors. ...
... Nonetheless, the teachers invested more positive emotion regulation to maintain interpersonal identities in relation to colleagues and students. This finding further aligns with the layered nature of activity systems (Engeström, 1999) in which participants hold multiple perceptions regarding different actors and agents. ...
Article
Current scholarship on language teacher emotions and identity construction emphasizes the substantial role of contextual discourses and power relations in shaping teachers' professionalism. In line with this scholarship, the present study examined the role of emotion labor in Iranian English language teachers' identity construction. Grounded in activity theory as the conceptual underpinning, the study shows how institutional work functions as a regulatory mechanism for teachers' emotion labor and their multi-faceted identities. Data analyses indicated that the teachers' emotion labor and identity construction are shaped by institutional particularities in three dimensions: (1) emotion labor of managing conflicts in subjectivity and adopted identities, (2) emotion labor of dealing with tensions in caring for students and assigned identities, and (3) emotion labor of aligning agency with resisted identities. The findings reveal how the teachers engaged in and interpreted emotion labor in light of tools, goals, division of labor, and communities of practice that come to shape their multi-faceted identities. Based on the findings, we argue that gradual policy adaptation accounting for emotions and identities, rather than policy overhauls that may create resistance, would reduce institutional clashes and transform teachers’ management of emotions into a site of mutual emotionality, rather than a site of vulnerability.
... The object is the motive for developing the activity while the latter is realised through actions and conscious goals which are followed by operations that are unconscious and depend on the conditions for the attainment of a specific goal. Engeström (1999) emphasises the systemic and structural character of activity by extending Vygotsky's original tripartite model to study the human activity at the level of the individual (subject, object and tools) by introducing additional elements (mediators) of human activity (rules, community and division of labour) the relationships between which are constantly mediated (Figure 1). ...
... Based on the above, within the Activity Theory perspective, the activity system for the study reported here is the curriculum design activity of the designers (the subject of the system). Their conceptions of mathematics education practice are expressed through updating and integrating the two mathematics curricula (the object of the system) to (Engeström, 1999). ...
... The focus of the study reported here is on the three LCs' discourse developed in the context of their management meetings (October 2020-July 2021). Within Engeström's (1999) perspective, LCs are seen "as practitioners who struggle through developmental transformations" in their activity system emerging as a result of their interactions in shaping the newed curriculum. ...
Article
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The paper reports on updating and integrating two reformed curricula designed in an era of national crises in Greece. In particular, the curriculum design activity of the Leading Coordinators (LCs) is studied under the lenses of Activity Theory and Positioning Theory. Sixteen transcribed videotaped meetings over a period of ten months are analysed to examine LCs’ positionings enacted within the design activity as well as the interaction of the latter with other activity systems in situ. LCs’ discourse brought to the fore convergent and divergent positionings mainly related to their research identity, occasionally revealing tensions. Research was the dominant activity system that interacted with that of the curriculum design activity, giving rise to contradictions. These were intensified by socio-political implications of the crises and were mainly related to the formation of a shared object for the design activity, its course of development and the activity of other stakeholders.
... It has previously been discussed that tools, both enabling or limiting, can be used by learners or instructors to manipulate and mediate a product (Kuutti, 1996;Engestrom, 1999). The Graphical representation of total number of errors overtime. ...
... Moreover, being synchronic, students could not return to the oral conversation with the instructor when they revised their texts after their instructor's oral feedback. Hence, the oral and written feedback provided by the instructor were manipulated by the limitations set by the medium used (Engestrom, 1999). In addition, this degree of feedback explicitness was evidently related to the mode and medium being used in the study (Ducate and Arnold, 2012). ...
... Thus, CHAT is inherently a dynamic structure, with its components subject to constant change motivated by tensions and contradictions within the activity system which also serve as a means through which new knowledge about the activity system can emerge (Engeström, 1987). Engeström (1999) supplemented Vygotsky and Leont'ev developments to create a third-generation Activity Theory model (see Figure 1) including a specific focus on rules, community, and hierarchies (division of labor). Triggering actions; such as the perceived failure of the project manager or a major regulatory change affecting the stability of the project epitomizes the contradiction inside the activity stream or between parallel activity systems (Engeström, 1999). ...
... Engeström (1999) supplemented Vygotsky and Leont'ev developments to create a third-generation Activity Theory model (see Figure 1) including a specific focus on rules, community, and hierarchies (division of labor). Triggering actions; such as the perceived failure of the project manager or a major regulatory change affecting the stability of the project epitomizes the contradiction inside the activity stream or between parallel activity systems (Engeström, 1999). While focused primarily on human activity, the ability to inculpate artifacts and tools as mediating devices within the activity relations enables the focus of the project management debate to shift from computer systems, widely adopted within construction project management, as the focus of interest toward an understanding of technology (and techniques) as part of a wider scope of human activity (Kaptelinin & Nardi, 2009). ...
Article
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This paper explores collaborative information behavior in the context of highly politicized decision making. It draws upon a qualitative case study of project management of a contentious public sector infrastructure project. We noted the creation of spaces for the development and exchange of information by experts and conceptualize these as information spheres. We postulate that these were formed to bypass power‐induced information behavior that excludes expert power, such as information avoidance. This approach contrasts with the expected project management and information norms, rules and behavior, however, provides a language that can be used to explain the phenomena of bounded information spaces which complement and may be used as a development of adjunct to small world's theory.
... Cet apprentissage profond transformerait durablement l'activité d'un collectif par la création de nouveaux savoirs ou de nouvelles pratiques pour une activité émergente (Goodnough & Murphy, 2017 ;Viau-Guay & Hamel, 2017). Ce concept se situe dans la troisième génération de la théorie socioculturelle de l'activité (CHAT) (Engeström, 1999). Cette génération de la CHAT se fonde sur les deux générations précédentes, soit celle de Vygotsky (1985) et de Leontiev (1978). ...
... La deuxième génération de la théorie de l'activité est attribuée à Leont'ev, un auteur qui accorde davantage de place à la dimension collective de l'activité et qui distingue l'action individuelle de l'action collective (Engeström, 1999). Pour Leont'ev, la médiation se caractérise à la fois par les règles établies et par la division du travail dans une communauté d'individus qui partagent le même motif (Barma, 2008). ...
Article
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La fermeture des écoles causée par la pandémie de la COVID-19 a suscité beaucoup d’inquiétude dans les milieux éducatifs. En effet, les élèves n’ont plus eu accès à l’enseignement traditionnel dans les établissements scolaires. Les enseignants ont dû s’adapter rapidement aux nouvelles mesures d’urgence et enseigner à distance, en mode virtuel. En plus de devoir s’approprier une variété d’outils numériques, ils ont été soumis à une pression quant à la qualité de leur enseignement et à l’encadrement des élèves. Le climat inhabituel et incertain causé par la pandémie a donc amené plusieurs acteurs du milieu scolaire à réfléchir à leur pratique afin d’améliorer l’expérience éducative des élèves lors d’un futur retour en classe. Ce changement obligatoire de stratégie pédagogique représente un défi susceptible de créer des tensions chez les enseignants qui ont décidé d’utiliser de nouvelles approches pédagogiques davantage centrées sur l’élève. Cet article, ancré dans la troisième génération de la théorie de l’activité, se base sur une recension systématique des écrits et analyse la façon dont les défis engendrés par l’enseignement virtuel ont pu favoriser l’apprentissage expansif des enseignants. Cette revue de la documentation suggère de possibles contradictions représentant les quatre niveaux établis par Engeström (2001) et propose des étapes susceptibles de mener à une transformation durable de l’activité. En conclusion, il avance que la résolution des contradictions vécues par les enseignants favorisera à la fois la transformation de leurs pratiques pédagogiques ainsi que leur adaptation à la nouvelle réalité virtuelle.
... Engeström (1987) extended Vygotsky's triadic model of mediation to include the broader social conditions and systems (see a representation of the second generation activity system in Fig. 2). Activity theory (AT) offers a collective, systemic mediational structure for an institution or organisation (Engeström, 1999), represented in the lower part of the figure, which consists of the 'community', 'rules' and 'division of labour'. The 'community' is the sum of the participants "who share the same 'object' that shapes and lends direction to the individuals and shared activity at hand" (Lantolf & Thorne, 2006, p. 223). ...
... Findings from micro-and macro-genetic analysis were combined and reported with reference to Engeström's (1999) AT model to explore how the contrastive features of self-repair used by students from the two school were shaped by the conditions and the collective activity of L2 learning in their respective contexts. In this study, the subject component captures the different members (i.e., teacher and students) and their attitudes towards self-repairs. ...
Article
This article uses activity theory to consider how L2 learners' self-repair behaviour takes shape in their situated learning contexts. It compares and investigates EFL learners from two secondary schools in China that differed in their L2 pedagogical systems and overall educational cultures: a mainstream public school and a private school that provides an international curriculum. Data from classroom interactions, lesson observations and interviews with teachers and students were triangulated. Analysis of data reveals that tension or affordance could arise out of the interaction within or between different constituents of an activity system of a school setting. This exerts further mediating influences on L2 learners' self-repair behaviour, including the frequencies, underlying problems, strategies used and changes incurred. This paper concludes by suggesting that EFL practitioners should be more mindful of students’ self-repair features in order to reflect on possible sources of tension that can stem from different elements of an activity system, to consider potential forms of conflict resolution, and to create an environment that is conducive for the creation of affordances for learning. Further research using activity theoretical reconceptualization and the concept of expansive learning is called for.
... 2). Nardi (1996) discussed the resemblance of basic premises of activity theory with theories of situated actions (Suchman 1987) and distributed cognition (Hollan,1 For a rigorous and extended description of activity theory and other key components of the activity system: community, rules, and division of labor, see Engeström (1987a;1987b), and Lindblom and Alenljung (2020), Ceha et al. (2021), Huang and Mutlu (2012) for applications of activity theory in HRI. Kuutti (1996) Hutchins, and Kirsh 2000). ...
... Indeed, activity theory is in line with contemporary views of embodied and situated cognition, which consider tools as an organic element of extended cognitive systems (Favela et al. 2021). Engeström (2001;1987a) also proposed relevant conceptual tools for understanding social action, depicting collaboration as a network of two (or more) interacting activity systems. Activity theory considers human behaviour at different levels of abstraction by specifying three possible levels of analysis, ascending from motor operations to complex activities (table 1). ...
Conference Paper
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The research on physically and socially situated artificial agents could complement and enrich computational models of creativity. This paper discusses six perspective lines of inquiry at the intersection of creativity and social robotics. It provides a description of ways in which the field of social robotics may influence (and be influenced by) creativity research in psychology and speculates how human-machine co-creation will affect the notions of both human and artificial creativity. By discussing potential research areas, the authors hope to outline an agenda for future collaboration between creativity scholars in psychology, social robotics, and computer science.
... There is a growing interest around education environments within the perspective of knowledge management (KM) due to the fact that schools and universities are precisely the first places where individuals (teachers and students) deal with structured information, data, and knowledge, in their two recognized forms: tacit and explicit (Bollinger & Smith, 2001;Cheng, 2018;2019;Engeström, 1999;Farnese, Barbieri, Chirumbolo, & Patriotta, 2019;Garavelli, Gorgoglione, & Scozzi., 2002;Geeraerts, Vanhoof & Van den Bossche, 2016;Hoe, 2006;Ihrig, Canals, Boisot, Nordberg, 2012;F. Lin, S. Lin, & Huang, 2008;McAdam & McCreedy, 1999;Pons, Pérez, Stiven, & Quintero, 2014;Ngulube, 2003;Nonaka & Konno, 1998;Quintas, Lefrere & Jones, 1997;Song et. ...
... The KM concept mentioned in this paper refers to the Nonaka model, widely accepted as the most effective to represent the tacit-explicit knowledge flow and transformation. The relevant literature around KM processes in public and private organizations regularly makes reference to this model and to the related concepts (Bollinger & Smith, 2001;Cheng, 2019;Engeström, 1999;Farnese et al., 2019;Garavelli et al., 2002;Hoe, 2006;Lin et al., 2008;McAdam & McCreedy, 1999;Ngulube, 2003;Nonaka & Konno, 1998;Pons et al., 2014;Quintas et al., 1997;Song et. Al., 2014;Zhao & Ordóñez de Pablos, 2009;Zhao, 2010). ...
Chapter
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This chapter's goal is to identify the teacher mental framework oriented to knowledge management (KM) and compatible to the ubiquitous Nonaka's model, regarding the sharing and collaboration practices found in the EU platform eTwinning. The pilot-study shows that when information and communication technology (ICT) skills become standardized, teachers' behavioral attitudes related to sharing and collaboration should be observed from a more holistic perspective. The first part provides a general description of Nonaka's model in connection with the education sector. The second part offers a bird's eye view of the European context framed by EU Acts and frameworks of reference to identify the roots of an emerging teaching profile linked to the awareness of knowledge flow. The third part presents a pilot research involving the idea of innovation related to the growing attitudes of digital collaboration and sharing. Within the eTwinning practice-context, this chapter proposes to switch the general approach from a teacher learning perspective to a teacher “knowledge management” standpoint.
... It has previously been discussed that tools, both enabling or limiting, can be used by learners or instructors to manipulate and mediate a product (Kuutti, 1996;Engestrom, 1999). The Graphical representation of total number of errors overtime. ...
... Moreover, being synchronic, students could not return to the oral conversation with the instructor when they revised their texts after their instructor's oral feedback. Hence, the oral and written feedback provided by the instructor were manipulated by the limitations set by the medium used (Engestrom, 1999). In addition, this degree of feedback explicitness was evidently related to the mode and medium being used in the study (Ducate and Arnold, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to assess the efficacy of electronic feedback (e-feedback) and traditional oral feedback on undergraduate students’ English writing over 12 weeks of teaching. Three treatment groups were involved: Asynchronous written e-feedback through Microsoft Word Track Changes; teacher–student oral metalinguistic conferencing; no feedback control group. Two grammatical features (i.e. conjunctions and articles), the most problematic forms, were targeted to determine the effect of feedback on these grammatical features. One-way ANOVA test resulted to reveal that the feedback-receiving group performed better than those given no feedback at all. Furthermore, students who received e-feedback performed much better in improving conjunctions errors than those who received oral feedback. The study suggests to train learners and teachers towards e-feedback for better learning of English language.
... We utilize Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) theory of knowledge creation as a heuristic device in the study of student's knowledge creation in their design and making activities in the FUSE Studio. We view knowledge as not only conceptualized or internalized in individuals heads but as "knowledge between people" (Engeström, 1999). In our perspective, knowledge creation is a non-linear, cyclic process, always embedded in social practices and mediated by language and tools (Vygotsky, 1978). ...
... By viewing problem construction and problem solving as complex, intertwined and tension-laden process carried out by intentional students, we step beyond Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) theory focused typically on predefined learning tasks and the depiction of a rather tension-free view learning processes of collectives. Expanding this theory, we emphasize the unexpected and creative processes (Sefton-Green et al., 2011) of design and making, which may lead to embodiment of new knowledge into novel mediating "knowledge artefacts" (Engeström, 1999), as well as to the development of the students' "conceptual artefacts", which are symbolic in nature and enhance their learning activity (see also Wartofsky, 1979). ...
... It would be difficult to examine humor only as isolated utterances, as humor is meant for other listeners to both hear and respond to; in short, to promote dialogue. CHAT (Engeström, 1999) allowed me to establish more complex units of analysis, as well as to provide a context within which to view nuanced scaffolding and hybridity. The other concepts from the CHAT perspective include interpreting scaffolding as dynamic and reciprocal, and "working in the zPD" (Ash & Levitt, 2003;Vygotsky, 1978;Wells, 1999). ...
... Knowing and meeting the expectations of the new mainstream, however, necessitates successfully identifying and characterizing the "commonalities of learning approaches of individuals who are members of ethnic groups that historically have been underserved in U.S. schools (e.g., African-American, Latino, and Native American students)" (Gutiérrez & Rogoff, 2003, p. 19). Influenced by social-cultural (Vygotsky, 1978) and cultural historical activity (Engeström, 1999;Wells, 1999) theories, some researchers have suggested that our definition of what counts as the "norm" needs to be broadened to include all learners, not just the most typical European-American visitors. It is crucial, however, not to "essentialize" differences among learners, by suggesting that certain ways of "doing" museums be labeled as belonging only to particular cultural groups. ...
Article
This chapter focuses on recognizing humor as a powerful resource for visitors from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds who are new to learning contexts, such as museums and aquariums. By using humor, visitors negotiate hybrid learning spaces, as well as gain authority in informal settings. Humor… serves a number of functions—social cohesion or rupture, the cementing of relationships… persuasion through the distraction of entertainment, and the simultaneous challenge and reinforcement of the status quo. (Moreau & Enahoro, 2012, p. 1)
... During the expansive learning process, tensions erupt, which could but not be limited to improper tools used, for example, old operational equipment and resistance to change (rules). This causes contradictions between activities (Engeström, 1999). Hospitality classroom learning and WIL are examples of the tools that could be used for this study. ...
... In this activity, the community included the academic staff, hospitality employers and hospitality graduates because they all play a role in the activity. According to Engeström (1999), the way each of the community members act on the object is guided by the division of labour. Members of the system play different roles. ...
Thesis
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The hospitality industry is a highly service-orientated sector and therefore requires hospitality graduates to be prepared for the industry. This can be done if higher education institutions fully equip hospitality graduates for the industry during their tertiary period so that when they get to the workplace they have what the hospitality employers expect from them. The research problem is that there seem to be existing challenges/contradictions in the hospitality graduates’ preparation by the hotel school at a university in the Western Cape for the first line management (FLM) role. This study set out to explore these challenges and to bring together academic staff, employers and hospitality graduates to collectively seek potential interventions. The objective of the study was to focus on hotel school graduates' preparedness for the FLM role in the hospitality industry in the Western Cape. This was done using a qualitative intervention-research methodology, the Change Laboratory (CL), which allows participants involved in the problem to generate solutions through dialogic workshops for change. Historical data was collected through in-depth interviews (mirror data) with six hospitality lecturers and four hospitality employers (selected from five-star hotels in Cape Town) through purposive sampling. This was followed by four CL intervention sessions with six hospitality graduates, self-selected through non-probability purposive sampling. The mirror data collected from hospitality employers and academic staff were closely aligned as there seemed to be agreement that hospitality graduates were not prepared for the FLM role in the industry. In the CL sessions, the main contradictions of the hospitality graduates’ preparedness for the FLM role in the industry emerged during the analysis stage and the modelling stages. A new activity system for the future for the hospitality graduates’ preparedness for the FLM role was developed as a solution to the outlined main contradictions. This was envisaged to be an activity system that would produce a possible solution to the research problem. The study therefore recommends further research be done on the proposed new activity system so that all the processes of the expansive learning cycle could be completed for the proposals to be effected at this UoT hotel school as this would bring about the needed change (prepared hospitality graduates).
... In research focusing specifically on organizational learning, two modelsboth of which, though, focus on the development side of learning have had a major impact. From a cognitive perspective, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) proposed the socializationexternalization-combination-internalization spiral model for innovative learning, whilst Engestrom (1999) used an expansive learning cycle that is based on a contextual perspective. When analyzing the two models, Engestrom (1999) found that nonexpansive phases were not supported by either and concluded that the "processes of innovation knowledge creation are not pure" (p. ...
... From a cognitive perspective, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) proposed the socializationexternalization-combination-internalization spiral model for innovative learning, whilst Engestrom (1999) used an expansive learning cycle that is based on a contextual perspective. When analyzing the two models, Engestrom (1999) found that nonexpansive phases were not supported by either and concluded that the "processes of innovation knowledge creation are not pure" (p. 391) and that learning processes contain both expansive and nonexpansive phases. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of the paper is to describe ambidextrous learning in organizations within the customer order-based context (COBC), here based on a dynamic view of work processes. The study focuses on how organizations can learn while working with customer orders, considering learning in organizations as both a process and an outcome. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual article focuses on learning in the COBC, where the individual customer requirements represent a key input into the organization’s work processes, thus limiting the possibilities to plan and standardize. The COBC brings about challenges and potentials for learning in organizations where task variety and complexity are high and in which the contradictory interplay between efficiency and responsiveness is apparent not only at a strategic level but also at an operative level in the customer order fulfillment processes. Depending on the variations in tasks and parallel complex work processes between different units in the organization, the ambidextrous learning dynamic can appear in the COBC. Findings Five propositions were made from the analysis: Proposition 1: Learning in the COBC can occur both in real-time but also in retrospect and with sporadic and recurrent interventions. Proposition 2: Learning in the COBC can occur for, as well as from, customer order processes. Proposition 3: Learning in the COBC varies and will depend on the delivery strategy. Proposition 4: Learning can be stimulated by the variation in priorities among customer orders in the COBC because the work characteristics for the back office and front office differ between customer order fulfillment processes. Proposition 5: Learning in the COBC can occur both within the back office and front office but also between these organizational units. The paper discusses the importance of building learning infrastructure in COBC and how that can be supported by a suggested learning office. Originality/value The present study demonstrates the importance of functions being able to act both as back office and front office in relation to delivery strategy. It also shows the ambidextrous learning process for the sake of improving both the internal efficiency and external effectiveness across the organization.
... The alternative positioning and different contexts, concepts and discourses within these frameworks can together be conceptualised as a third space and can become rich zones of collaboration and learning (Gutiérrez et al., 1999). Congruent with Gutiérrez, we view a third space as re-organised extended activities (Engeström, 1999) and as zones of proximal development that results in new opportunities for learning. ...
... Our analysis of the ALP focuses specifically on the (in)consistencies with the FMP. The FMP has a social constructivist perspective and was derived from elements of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, concerning cognition and behaviour embedded in collectively organised, artefact-mediated activity systems (Engeström, 1999), theories of intrinsic motivation and conceptual learning research. Its principles are based on collective understanding, theoretical insights and experiences that aim to contribute to 'a theory of pedagogy in informal contexts' (DeWitt & Osborne, 2007, p. 689). ...
Article
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A third space can be unlocked through collaborative efforts between out-of-school organisations (like museums) and schools. By bridging museum and school contexts, blurring boundaries between disciplines and shifting between multiple perspectives on a subject, a third space, can contribute to meaningful science education. However, resources that support collaboration between museum educators and teachers are required. The educational design of a third space between museums and schools can enable an experience informed by context-based, interdisciplinary, and value-centred teaching strategies. This study conceptualises and validates the Alma-Löv-Programme (ALP), a museum resource designed to support students' interdisciplinary, and value-centred learning in a third space. It applies an art-based teaching strategy that encourages student groups to address science issues depicted by contemporary art. Comparison of the Alma-Löv-Programme design guidelines to the design instantiations of the established Framework for Museum Practice showed that they are largely consistent. However, noted distinctions indicate several factors that may be important for preparation and exploration of a third space. The findings can inform the design of activities and programmes by educators in the out-of-school sector. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Such factors as we identify at the meso level have been investigated previously in CSCL research, most notably in cultural historical activity systems terms. Activity systems are not restricted to a micro level and could, in theory, apply to all of the levels we identify above (Engeström 1987(Engeström , 1999(Engeström , 2001 Following from this approach, we would like to throw light on the field of CSCL making use of the theoretical lenses of educational research, human centered informatics, and the social sciences more generally. In doing so: ...
... These functions and uses are in constant flux and transform as the activity unfolds (Engeström, 1999). Tools such as maps, written documents, technical drawings, etc. are not simply a mental function; they also have a clear material form. ...
Chapter
This paper reviews some foundational issues that we believe will affect the progress of CSCL over the next 10 years. In particular, we examine the terms technology, affordance, and infrastructure, and we propose a relational approach to their use in CSCL. Following a consideration of networks, space, and trust as conditions of productive learning, we propose an indirect approach to design in CSCL. The work supporting this theoretical paper is based on the outcomes of two European research networks: E-QUEL, a network investigating e-quality in e-learning; and Kaleidoscope, a European Union Framework 6 Network of Excellence. In arguing for a relational understanding of affordance, infrastructure, and technology, we also argue for a focus on what we describe as meso-level activity. Overall this paper does not aim to be comprehensive or summative in its review of the state of the art in CSCL but rather to provide a view of the issues currently facing CSCL from a European perspective.
... On olemassa erilaisia malleja siitä, miten tietoyhteiskunnalle tyypilliset yhteisöt toimivat. Seuraavassa esitellään lyhyesti kolme tunnettua innovatiivisia tietoyhteisöjä kuvaava mallia: Ikujiro Nonakan ja Hirotaka Takeuchin (1995) tietoa luovan organisaation malli, Yrjö Engeströmin (1987, 1999aAhonen ym., 2000) ekspansiivisen oppimisen malli ja Carl Bereiterin (2002) tiedonrakenteluyhteisön malli (ks. tarkempaa vertailua: Hakkarainen ym., arvioitavana; Paavola ym., 2002). ...
... Niiden keskeisenä tehtävänä on paikallisten ratkaisujen löytäminen toimintaa vaikeuttaviin käytännön ongelmiin, jotka hankaloittavat yhteisten tavoitteiden saavuttamista. Innovatiiviset tietoyhteisöt reflektoivat toimintaansa liittyviä häiriöitä, halkeamia ja jännitteitä sekä pyrkivät tarkoituksellisesti toteuttamaan sosiaalisia muutoksia, jotka tukevat tiedon luomista (Engeström, 1987;1999a). Näille yhteisöille on tyypillistä ottaa ratkaistavaksi asteittain haasteellisempia ongelmia, jota selviytyminen toisen asteen ympäristössä edellyttää (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1993). ...
Article
Tutkijat ovatkin alkaneet puhua kokonaan uudentyyppisistä sosiaalisista verkostoista, joissa nykyajan työntekijät toimivat. Näitä ovat yksilön itsensä aktiivisesti ylläpitämät suhteet (ns. intensionaaliset verkostot) ja nk. solmutyöskentely. Nopeatempoisessa projektityössä yksittäiset asiantuntijat ovat enenevässä määrin riippuvaisia itse ylläpitämästään henkilökohtaisesta sosiaalisesta verkostosta.
... Nisbet et al. (2021) have argued that student placements are part of a larger and more complex set of interacting and at times competing systems of activity-health and education. This can be conceptualised through the lens of Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) (Engeström, 1999). Conflicting purposes or foci created tension and a de-coupling of the relationship between working and learning (Nisbet et al., 2021). ...
... We argue for a systems approach to understanding the complexities of the service-learning milieu and have found that applying Cultural Historical Activity Theory (Engeström, 1999) to better understand the learnings from the broader collaborative research underpinning this present study to be helpful (Nisbet et al., 2021). Applying a CHAT lens to this work has enabled us to examine interactions within and between the education and health care systems. ...
Article
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Allied health clinical placements take place within an increasingly overstretched health care system where demand for services often exceeds availability of resources. Within this environment, student placements are often perceived as an additional burden to an already overwhelmed workforce. This study explored whether the quality of patient care was enhanced when services were re-designed using a collaborative partnership approach to more purposefully integrate students into delivery of care. Using an embedded multiple case study design, data were collected through focus groups and interviews, patient experience surveys, and secondary administrative data sources. Cases were across physiotherapy and occupational therapy in six different hospital settings. Perception of care provided by students was viewed positively by all stakeholders, including patients. Perceived health outcomes of faster improvement of health condition, improved mobility and function identified through our qualitative findings were supported by quantitative service delivery markers such as increased therapy sessions, more patients being discharged home instead of to other care facilities and reduced length of stay. Health care providers and students alike perceived improvements in service efficiencies whilst maintaining high quality care. This study has provided preliminary evidence towards improved patient care when a partnering approach is adopted whereby students are intentionally integrated into services that otherwise might not have been delivered. Furthermore, it has shifted the associated narrative from students as additional burden to students as benefit.
... 11 A better understanding of practices experienced, as distinct from intended processes, can identify targets for system change, new ways of working and new forms of practice. [12][13][14][15][16] To address this, the multistep process of prescribing and medication use should be conceptualised as a series of socially constructed practices in which patients, informal carers and professionals are required to collaborate across locations and organisational boundaries. [17][18][19] Optimal prescribing and medication use are influenced by 'etiquette'; socially mediated evolutionary rules and boundaries, with unclear divisions of labour, shaping practice and disrupting intended processes. ...
Article
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Introduction Prescribing and medication use in palliative care is a multistep process. It requires systems coordination and is enacted through activities of patients, informal carers and professionals. This study compares practice to idealised descriptions of what should happen; identifying when, how and why process disturbances impact on quality and safety. Our objectives are to: Document an intended model (phase 1, scoping review). Refine the model with study of practice (phase 2, ethnography). Use the model to pinpoint ‘hot’ (viewed as problematic by participants) and ‘cold’ spots (observed as problematic by researchers) within or when patients move across three contexts-hospice, hospital and community (home). Create learning recommendations for quality and safety targeted at underlying themes and contributing factors. Methods and analysis The review will scope Ovid Medline, CINAHL and Embase, Google Scholar and Images—no date limits, English language only. The Population (palliative), Concept (medication use), Context (home, hospice, hospital) framework defines inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data will be extracted to create a model illustrating how processes ideally occur, incorporating multiple steps of typical episodes of prescribing and medication use for symptom control. Direct observations, informal conversations around acts of prescribing and medication use, and semistructured interviews will be conducted with a purposive sample of patients, carers and professionals. Drawing on activity theory, we will synthesise analysis of both phases. The analysis will identify when, how and why activities affect patient safety and experience. Generating a rich multivoiced understanding of the process will help identify meaningful targets for improvement. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval granted by the Camden & Kings Cross NHS Regional Ethics Committee (21/LO/0459). A patient and public involvement (PPI) coinvestigator, a multiprofessional steering group and a PPI engagement group are working with the research team. Dissemination of findings is planned through peer-reviewed publications and a stakeholder (policymakers, commissioners, clinicians, researchers, public) report/dissemination event.
... No design, vários desses estudos buscam identificar as contradições do sistema, e a partir do seu entendimento, propor soluções e melhoramentos da atividade. Todavia, neste capítulo a principal contribuição da teoria é o entendimento do processo de design como um sistema de atividade com estrutura, transições, transformações internas, de constante mudanças, de desenvolvimento irregular e orientado a determinados objetos (LEONT'EV, 1978;ENGESTRÖM, 1999;KUUTTI, 1996;BARRETO CAMPELLO, 2005). Nosso objetivo é perceber as ocorrências, tomadas de decisões, origens das ideias, encaminhamentos, conflitos, influências, acaso, ou seja, os eventos do processo de design de uma forma geral, sem nos determos nas contradições do sistema, nem tão pouco propor soluções. ...
... preparing future veterinarians, treating patients). In its second-generation form, Engeström describes activity theory as a conceptual framework for describing the interactions of people, the tools that they use and the rules within complex 'activity systems' (58)(59)(60). The key terms of activity theory are expanded in Supplementary Item two (58-60). ...
Preprint
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Learning theories are logically related statements designed to explain what should or could be aspired to in establishing ideal learning conditions. Multiple theories can inform our understanding of a single concept, in this case: veterinary workplace clinical training (WCT), which occurs just prior to students’ graduation as competent veterinary surgeons. The competency movement has strongly influenced reforms in veterinary education and is considered important. In reflection of this, the term “preparedness” is operationalised here as a measure of the likelihood that the veterinary student is going to be a competent learner and participant during WCT. Preparedness itself is therefore important because it directly impacts performance. Workplace clinical training is explored through the lenses of cognitivist, social constructivist and socio-culturalist learning theories and used to inform student preparedness characteristics in terms of their behaviours, personal attributes, knowledge and skills, and awarenesses to optimise learning and participation.
... 'Rules' refer to the subject-community interaction, e.g., regulations, norms or conventions that constrain an activity. 'Division of labour' signifies the community-object interaction that relates to the subjects' hierarchical structure of activities among actors with the same or different tasks within their activity system (Engeström, 1987(Engeström, , 1999. Engeström (2000) includes the 'outcome' of the activity system as the transformation of the object produced by the activity into a result that can be utilised by other activity systems ( Figure 2). ...
Article
This study analysed a series of workshops and explored prerequisites for interdisciplinary co-design among industrial designers, design engineers and users in the development of a novel medical device. Presented as a case study, this paper focus on what affects participants’ transformative processes towards genuine participation in co-design processes. Based on Activity Theory, we suggest that co-design activities have to support not only users, but all participants, shifting their perspectives beyond their own domain’s rules, motives, objects and division of labour i.e. beyond their own activity system, to support users’ participation as equal members in design teams. We propose that Genuine Co-design requires a holistic approach where a neutral arena, an impartial facilitator, clear rules of play, along with representational artefacts as mediating tools in the formation of a new collective activity system to foster equality, mutual value and long-term knowledge generation. Such approach requires a process over time.
... Developmental learning thus occurs when individuals or groups of individuals begin to reflect on and question established ideologies, routines, structures, and practices (Ellström, 2001). A similar view is presented by Engeström (1999), who describes innovative learning as occurring in a cyclical process, starting from critique of existing situations or dominating practices and proceeding through analysis and testing phases to the implementation and consolidation of stable practices. ...
Article
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Promoting the capacity for critical reflection is a pivotal part of management learning and education. Based on the concept of developmental learning, the purpose of this paper is to explore and outline two types of critical reflection: critique for improvement and critique for emancipation. Critique for improvement is based on a performative intent and is aimed at using critical reflection to improve organizational practices. Critique for emancipation is based on a critical performative intent and focuses on emancipation from repressive ideological and social conditions that place unnecessary restrictions on the development of human consciousness. In this paper, it is argued that managers and leaders enrolled in management education need to be exposed to both critique for improvement and critique for emancipation. A heuristic conceptual framework is therefore proposed, along with strategies for how to balance the two types of critique in management learning and education and propositions to be explored in further research.
... The learning process of working with a technological artifact (e.g., a machine) is not purely restricted to learning its characteristics. It is both an instrumentalization process (Rabardel and Béguin, 2005) and a reconfiguration of experience and their own experience at work (Engeström, 1999, Rabardel, 1995. In this dimension "Understanding the machine", the workers verbalized the importance of this appropriation. ...
Chapter
At a time when the transformation of human-machine relationships is instigated by technological advances, the redefinition of know-how, the relationships with the worker collective and the risks and impacts on health have been pushed aside by the emphasis given to technological potential. More than in technology itself, it is through the technical act that these relationships are embodied: a process developed through experience which is not neutral to its socio-technical and organizational context, generating both pleasure and suffering. Through the analysis of work activity, using observations, individual and auto-confrontation interviews, a case study was conducted in a garment factory. Results give insight into four different dimensions which define efficient technical acts: understanding the machine, relationship with others, a job well done and risks and impacts on health. The management of these work dimensions is done to pursue a balance (which is always fragile) between work demands and health preservation.
... The researchers who analyzed the data were not in contact with the participants and were not involved in the intervention development or implementation processes. We used theory-directed content analysis as a tool, and the theory of expansive learning (Engeström, 1999) provided the framework for our analysis. Although full cycles of expansive learning may take years, the aim of a change workshop intervention is to initiate the learning process (Virkkunen & Newnham, 2013). ...
Article
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The aim of this mixed-method pilot study was to expand the understanding of potential methods to support collaboration between vocational schools and workplaces and to enhance workplace guidance processes. Specifically, we evaluated whether a Cultural-historical Activity theory-based intervention program could have beneficial effects on school–workplace collaboration and on the individual-level competencies of the teachers and workplace personnel. Our results indicate that the change workshop provides a potential mechanism for enhancing personal competencies such as self-efficacy and for promoting collaboration between schools and workplaces, especially in terms of defining objectives for workplace learning. Our study also highlighted how the change workshop method has the potential to trigger expansive learning, in which school personnel and workplace trainers, through learning actions, can change and create new ways of working together. This study highlights the importance of providing workplaces and educational institutions with opportunities to share experiences and learn how to promote workplace-situated learning together.
... Activity Theory has evolved and been expanded over time, but it is Engestrom's (1987) approach that has served as the basis for much of the AT-oriented work in information security and human-computer interaction research. Kaptelinin and Nardi (1997), Engeström (1999) explain the fundamental principles of Activity Theory and these include the following:  Hierarchical structure of activity -Activities are composed of goal-directed actions that are undertaken to fulfil the object and different actions may be undertaken to meet the same goal. Actions are executed through automatic operations. ...
Article
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The introduction of mobile money systems in emerging economies has enabled the would-be unbanked population to gain access to financial services. The number of mobile money users and value of transactions is on the increase. This rapid growth of mobile money services and value transactions in emerging economies is attributed to the light-touch regulatory framework which allows minimal limitations on who should operate mobile money system and few restrictions on who can function as an agent. These increases both in services and transactions indicate that mobile money systems hold a lot of valuable customer financial information that needs to be jealously protected against information breaches and abuse by the various stakeholders in the mobile money ecosystem. Taking an interpretive qualitative approach, Activity Theory (AT) has been used to analyse the mobile money management activities focusing on information security policies, regulations and procedures. In order to comprehend the aspects revealed by the Activity Theory analysis that raise information security management concerns in mobile money operations, Mobile Network Operator (MNO) management issues, in terms of the security of mobile money operations, are detailed. Our findings look at the reasons given by various stakeholders for information security management gaps in mobile money operations in emerging economies. Our findings disclose the roles of MNO staff, who are not information security experts, in the development and compliance monitoring of policies, regulations and procedures related to the safety of financial information in mobile money systems.
... Con el objetivo de construir sentido sobre la actividad desarrollada durante el 2020-2021, enmarcamos nuestra reflexión en la teoría de la actividad (Engeström, 1998) que abreva en los estudios de Vygotsky (1978). Nardi (1996) considera que la teoría de la actividad posibilita el análisis del diseño y la evaluación tecnológica al ver los artefactos como mediadores en el fenómeno, ampliando la mirada sobre los modos que se despliegan cuando la tecnología y los dispositivos que la materializan se integran a la experiencia humana. ...
Chapter
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En este capítulo, describiremos el trabajo del Área de Lenguas Extranjeras y Segundas Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS) a raíz de la pandemia COVID-19. Este trabajo se enmarca en la teoría de la actividad de la tercera generación de Engeström para analizar la actividad del Área de Lenguas Extranjeras y Segundas Lenguas durante la pandemia. Se focaliza la mirada en la reformulación de la actividad docente, de los materiales didácticos y las evaluaciones para garantizar la continuidad pedagógica. En el proceso de virtualización, se observa cómo el esfuerzo sostenido de cada integrante de los equipos de portugués e inglés permitió convertir la crisis en una oportunidad para explorar e implementar recursos multimedia y propiciar el afianzamiento de la autonomía en el aprendizaje de los/as estudiantes. El equipo consideró que no todas las personas involucradas habían desarrollado competencias tecnológicas y no se dio por supuesta ninguna de las habilidades necesarias para llevar adelante la dinámica de las clases. La participación de un estudiante ciego en las clases de portugués potenció el interés de ese equipo en el diseño universal.
... On attribue la troisième génération de la CHAT à Engeström (1999). Cette théorie est utilisée dans l'élaboration d'une méthodologie interventionniste qui vise à générer de nouvelles pratiques (Lektorsky, 2009). ...
Article
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Plusieurs défis se dressent devant les enseignants qui désirent changer leurs pratiques pour s’éloigner des pratiques traditionnelles d’enseignement vertical des savoirs. Ces difficultés sont associées à des facteurs individuels davantage à des facteurs culturels, notamment le milieu scolaire et les systèmes éducatifs en place. Pour comprendre la façon dont ces éléments culturels influencent le choix des pratiques enseignantes et la volonté des enseignants.es de faire autrement, le cadre d’analyse de la théorie socioculturelle de l’activité s’avère intéressant. Toutefois, il demeure possible de le bonifier par rapport aux aspects politiques de l’éducation à l’aide de certains concepts de pédagogie critique. Cet article traite donc des possibles contributions que peut apporter la pédagogie critique au cadre d’analyse de la théorie socioculturelle de l’activité lorsqu’on s’intéresse aux difficultés associées à l’innovation des pratiques enseignantes. Bien que plusieurs éléments relatifs aux pratiques enseignantes puissent être étudiés sous l’angle de ces deux courants, une recension des écrits traitant de leurs complémentarités et de leurs ressemblances a permis de dégager deux thématiques interreliées, soit l’effet des forces politiques sur le choix des approches d’enseignement et l’importance de la remise en question dans le changement de mentalité. Au terme de l’analyse, nous avons été en mesure de schématiser les étapes de la conscientisation des individus à partir de concepts importants de la troisième génération de la théorie socioculturelle de l’activité.
... This may create obstacles to the effective engagement of the player in the game and ultimately the sustainability of the learning efforts. Hence, relying on the Situational Leadership framework, this work follows the sequence of learning action in an expansive learning cycle (Engeström, 1999) to operationalize the Kolb's learning model. 2 The above conceptualization of this work's framework and learning by expanding, proposed by Engeström, provides a basis for the experiment to operationalize the notion of learning to encourage secure and sustainable behavior through gamification. However, in business settings, organizations expect that training will result in better performance at work. ...
Chapter
While academic interest has grown in using gamification in training different aspects of cybersecurity, the research remains sparse on the design and development of games that focus on integrated concepts of security and sustainability. This chapter builds on a previously presented framework for designing serious games and develops and evaluates an instantiation of a game aimed to promote secure and sustainable behavior in digital ecosystems. It describes the theoretical foundation of the game, giving a detailed account of its game design process. Then, it provides the preliminary evaluation in which significant qualitative evidence of security and sustainable behavior is observed regarding progressive system thinking and anticipatory and problem-solving competencies. The results show that gamifica-tion facilitated learning the concepts and changing behavior towards sustainability transitions. Further investigation, with larger sample size, is required using other game elements that promote cooperation and critical thinking competencies.
... Activity theory (Leont'ev, 1978;Engeström, 1987;1999), grounded in classic Vygotskian notions of human development, is well-suited to capturing the complexity, situatedness, and dynamic nature of a teacher's instructional approach. Activity theory furnishes both a conceptual lens and a set of robust methodological tools, as this theory has been operationalized and applied in many other areas of inquiry (Mochizuki, 2017;Yamagata-Lynch, 2010). ...
... The use of technological artifacts at work reveals a variety of constraints which the human workers have to manage (Rabardel and Béguin, 2005) in conformity with the specific contextual characteristics which determine it (Engeström, 1999). In the context under analysis, the workers mentioned the development of strategies for the use of their machines according to contextual work demands. ...
Conference Paper
With the current technological transformations being developed, the focus seems to rely mainly on the increase of productivity and on promises of the reduction of physical constraints for workers. However, in the analysis of the new human-machine relationships induced by technological advances, other less visible impacts should be debated, namely for workers’ health and well-being. In a garment factory in Portugal, characterized by rigorous quality demands, sectored and short production cycles, with production times controlled by the minute, this study aims to analyze human-machine interactions from the point of view of their protagonists. A qualitative and participatory methodology was used (observations; individual and collective interviews; and moments of auto-confrontation). The results show how these work situations potentiate a "contained" suffering due to the lack of space for its verbalization, which ends up being managed individually, under penalty of being considered unfit for the work’s current demands.
... An early example of this in the UK can be seen in the work of Simon Goodchild who analyzed 'Students' Goals' in the mathematics classroom using activity theory concepts and Jean Lave's cultural psychology (Goodchild 1995(Goodchild , 2001Lave 1988). Activity theory, either in its first generation form from Vygotsky of the mediation triangle, the second generation form from Leont'ev of activity, action and operation, or the third generation form from Engeström, has become a growing tradition of research in the UK beginning late in the 20 th century (Leont'ev 1981 ;Engeström 1999). It is certainly as a consequence of these Vygotskian developments that researchers very often refer to sociocultural aspects in their research. ...
Article
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In the first period of emergency from Covid19, only workplace organizations with essential production activities were able to continue to carry out their work. This required them the implementation of organizational strategies useful to contrast the risk of the pandemic and to protect production performance. The qualitative study conducted in a Lombard company, through semi-structured interviews, aimed at figures with different levels of responsibility, wanted to investigate: (i) which boundary spanning activities were used to manage the emergency? (ii) what factors allowed the effectiveness of the result in terms of contrasting the pandemic and guaranteeing the productivity (iii), what were the perceived effects on the company? Findings highlight the importance of the activities of organizational boundary spanners in emergency management and of those factors that, by supporting the socio-emotional dimension, have determined the organization’s productive advantage. Le attività dei boundary spanners organizzativi durante la pandemia da Covid19: il caso di un’organizzazione profit. Nel primo periodo della diffusione dell’emergenza sanitaria da Covid19, solo le organizzazioni lavorative con attività produttive essenziali hanno potuto continuare a svolgere il loro lavoro. Questo ha richiesto loro la messa in atto di strategie organizzative utili a contrastare il rischio della diffusione della pandemia e a salvaguardare la performance produttiva. Lo studio qualitativo condotto, in un’organizzazione profit lombarda, tramite interviste semistrutturate, rivolte a figure con diversi livelli di responsabilità ha voluto investigare: (i) quali attività di boundary spanning sono state utilizzate per gestire l’emergenza? (ii) quali fattori hanno consentito l’efficacia di risultato in termini di contrasto alla pandemia e di garanzia produttività (iii), quali sono state le ricadute percepite sull’organizzazione? I risultati ottenuti evidenziano l’importanza delle attività dei boundary spanners organizzativi nella gestione dell’emergenza e di quei fattori che sostenendo la dimensione socio-emozionale ne hanno determinano il vantaggio produttivo dell’organizzazione.
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Institutional educational technology policies in Higher Education Institutions can help or hinder the objectives of faculty and administration staff. In many national contexts, these policies typically result from a top-down unilateral canonical decision-making process and or/retroactive heuristic models of investigation. However, research utilizing and advocating multilateral non-canonical approaches and more sociocultural models of investigation in institutional educational technology policy decision-making are novel. This paper stems from a project which used a formative Change Laboratory intervention to affect real meaningful change in institutional educational technology policy at one university in South Korea. Participants, including Korean faculty, international faculty and administration staff participated in multilateral, non-canonical workshops over a period of 7 months to explore and redesign their own activity. Central to this formative Change Laboratory intervention was Engeström’s Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT). The study utilized CHAT as a practical lens/toolkit to expose/examine contradictions and collectively transform institutional educational technology policy-practice activity. CHAT’s activity system models helped participants identify, shape and question ‘normal’ or ‘routine’ practices in shared activity. As a result, participants realized how unilateral canonical policies inhibiting research and pedagogy objectives might be questioned and changed for the better. This paper reflects on the use and value of CHAT as a more sociocultural approach to institutional educational technology policy. Rather than presenting a paper that just ‘happens’ to use activity theory, this paper discusses my reasons for using CHAT, how it was used, how I collected and analysed data, my experience of using it, and prevailing criticisms. This paper will be of particular interest to researchers who are interested in using CHAT to conduct research on topics related to technology enhanced learning. Keywords: institutional educational technology policy; higher education; Change Laboratory; activity theory; CHAT
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The present collective volume is consisted of papers presented during the Regional ISCAR 2019 Conference titled "Crisis in contexts" hosted in Ioannina, Greece. The papers are published in the e-proceedings of the conference (ISBN: 978-960-233-250-4). Editors: Katerina Plakitsi, Eleni Kolokouri, Athina – Christina Kornelaki Formatting: George Koukoulis Copy-editing:Aikaterini Vlachou
Thesis
Digital learning resources are commonly employed to support learning in out-of-class contexts, either as a complement to the learning in formal classrooms or as an alternative that can be used by learners to pursue personal learning goals. However, often existing research studies lack a strong conceptual underpinning in terms of pedagogic theory. This study identified a significant gap in the literature concerning children’s use of digital technology to support science learning outside of the classroom. In order to develop a framework for further research in this area, this research adopted a multiple case study design using semi-structured interviews and observations as data collection methods. In particular, seven Year 9 students (13-14 years old) studying at a secondary school in Cambridge, UK were studied. I built a synthesis from theoretical perspectives regarding metacognition, learning motivation, and the experience of using digital technology in out-of-class science learning contexts. This thesis considered the characteristics of digital learning resources available for facilitating self-directed learning of science in out-of-class contexts. A sociocultural framework was followed, and the key findings are summarised as follows: 1) The present research, whilst being generally consistent with previous studies regarding the identification of motivational factors, found that intrinsic motivation (sometimes being overlooked or minimised in earlier work) played an important part in learners’ science learning; 2) user interface (UI), all-in-one features of digital technology, simulation and alternative learning experience were factors that influenced the learning motivation of secondary school-age learners when learning science with digital technology; 3) learners actively chose a number of apps and web-based platforms when engaging in science learning in out-of-class contexts, and they creatively used these tools for curriculum-related activities and satisfying personal interest; 4) a learner’s choice of learning resources was informed by their metacognitive sophistication; 5) Despite the fact that the home has been considered as the most common site where out-of-class learning takes place, this specific context remains relatively under-researched as relatively more attention had been paid to the study of science learning in the contexts of museums and field-trips; the empirical data from the present study suggested that learning in out-of-class contexts (especially at home) played an important role in science learning. The mission of the present research was to provide alternative insights for parents, teachers and researchers to understand digital technology-mediated science learning in out-of-class contexts from the perspective of learners, and inform the design and development of digital technology based on sociocultural theories.
Conference Paper
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ΠΕΡΙΛΗΨΗ Η παρούσα εργασία παρουσιάζει τα αποτελέσματα από ποιοτική έρευνα που πραγματοποιήθηκε σε εκπαιδευτικούς Πρωτοβάθμιας Εκπαίδευσης (Π.Ε.) του Νομού Ιωαννίνων σχετικά με τις αντιλήψεις τους για τα σχολικά εγχειρίδια των Φυσικών Επιστημών (Φ.Ε.) στο Δημοτικό Σχολείο. H ποιοτική ανάλυση αναδεικνύει ότι οι εκπαιδευτικοί αξιολογούν θετικά τα σχολικά εγχειρίδια και συγκεκριμένα το τετράδιο εργασιών αναδεικνύοντας το πείραμα και τη διδακτική μεθοδολογία ως δύο από τα πιο βασικά χαρακτηριστικά του. Παράλληλα, επισημαίνουν τους προβληματισμούς τους για τη χρησιμότητα κάποιων πειραμάτων και του μεγάλου όγκου της ύλης.
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Purpose This contribution investigates methodological questions concerning Change Laboratory interventions. It contemplates the research questions: To what extent the Change Laboratory can be situated within the panorama of qualitative inquiry? If so, to what extent can the methods and strategies of inquiry help improve a Change Laboratory intervention? Design/methodology/approach To answer the first question, this paper makes an overview on key terms of qualitative research; subsequently, it presents the characterising features of the Change Laboratory. Then, it takes a historical perspective and compares the Change Laboratory firstly against action research, and secondly with design experiments. To answer the second section, it examines a case study of Change Laboratory with teachers that the first author facilitated. Next, it displays how trustworthiness was ensured through a thick description and member checks. Findings The paper argues that the Change Laboratory is a strategy of inquiry; it aligns with the characteristics of qualitative research, and it follows the agenda of a participative paradigm. Furthermore, the methods and strategies of inquiry such as thick descriptions and member checks, not only can improve rigour and validity of the intervention but also strengthen the outcomes of the Change Laboratory itself. Originality/value The Change Laboratory is well defined as a formative method, but not fully understood as an investigative method. Although scholars discussed methodological issues of Cultural Historical Activity Theory in diverse articles, the relationship between the Change Laboratory and qualitative inquiry has remained unclear.
Article
The Department of Basic Education in South Africa is worried about massive learners" poor academic performance in public secondary schools. In various secondary schools in Vhembe District, the quality of learners" academic performance has retrogressed and deteriorated, despite several intervention strategies to improve the performance. The study aims to determine how teachers' approaches can influence intervention strategies to enhance learners" performance in Grade 12 by providing support, care, guidance and professional development programmes within the schools and through the government initiative programmes. This study focused on the teachers" approaches to improving intervention strategies to enhance the academic performance of Grade 12 learners in Vhembe District, Limpopo, South Africa. A sample of 16 teachers and 15 heads of the department was purposively selected in this interpretive qualitative study. The participants were engaged in two semi-structured focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Findings revealed that extra lessons, peer teaching, collaborative teaching and learning, outsourcing of expert subject teachers, Volume 12, Number 2, June 2022 pp 7-29 Teachers' Approaches to Improving Intervention … 8 quality quarterly assessment and monitoring of informal and formal tasks were implemented as teachers" approaches to enhance quality of learners' performance. While the participants decried that several schools in the Vhembe District are dysfunctional and need interventions to improve output. The study recommends further support for teacher professional development to enhance teaching and learning for better quality results.
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Research literature on the role of mathematics teachers during the COVID-19 crisis shows that teacher preparation for emergency situations is required. In reporting on this exploratory study, we present and analyse lesson plans created by seven future teachers for mathematics classes during the pandemic. Data were collected between April and October 2021 from 16 four-hour class sessions in a Mathematics Degree Program at a public university in Medellín, Colombia. The notion of Humans-with-Media and the Learning by Expanding theory were used as frameworks to understand what roles prospective mathematics teacher (PMTs) assign to technologies for teaching in pandemic conditions. The PMTs’ uses of technology for teaching mathematics during a pandemic were categorized. The results show that technology was used to reorganize and reproduce mathematics teaching practices. This report addresses the impact of technology on the activity system, and we conclude with a discussion of opportunities and limitations of students’ conceptions about teaching and technology during a pandemic.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to establish a broader context for rethinking science education by connecting inclusive teaching and learning with sustainable development. It presents a teachers’ training course on the United Nations 17 Sustainable Development Goals (Agenda 2030) and the connections with inclusive education, which was designed and implemented by the researching @fise group of the University of Ioannina, Greece. The course focuses on the concepts of Sustainable Development Goals that are relevant to the dimensions of Science, Education and Health (S|E|H) and are included in the science curricula for the early grades. Furthermore, it responds to the need of teachers to connect the contents of the school curriculum with real-life situations as well as the learners’ interests. The teachers developed educational material and worked on the inclusion of this material in the science education curricula for the early years. This course was introductory in bringing together S|E|H in the school science curricula and in designing educational material that could fit in inclusive classrooms. At the end of the course, participants stressed the importance of raising public awareness and helping members of society take action in order to benefit from the sustainable development goals without any distinction.
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There is increasing interest in the use of ethnography as a qualitative research approach to explore, in depth, issues of culture in health professions education (HPE). Our specific focus in this article is incorporating the digital into ethnography. Digital technologies are pervasively and increasingly shaping the way we interact, behave, think, and communicate as health professions educators and learners. Understanding the contemporary culture(s) of HPE thus means paying attention to what goes on in digital spaces. In this paper, we critically consider some of the potential issues when the field of ethnography exists outside the space time continuum, including the need to engage with theory in research about technology and digital spaces in HPE. After a very brief review of the few HPE studies that have used digital ethnography, we scrutinize what can be gained when ethnography encompasses the digital world, particularly in relation to untangling sociomaterial aspects of HPE. We chart the shifts inherent in conducting ethnographic research within the digital landscape, specifically those related to research field, the role of the researcher and ethical issues. We then use two examples to illustrate possible HPE research questions and potential strategies for using digital ethnography to answer those questions: using digital tools in the conduct of an ethnographic study and how to conduct an ethnography of a digital space. We conclude that acknowledging the pervasiveness of technologies in the design, delivery and experiences of HPE opens up new research questions which can be addressed by embracing the digital in ethnography.
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This article explores the tensions and contradictions in the potential success of maker-learning in Higher Education (HE) as supported in academic library makerspaces. Insights are formed from an in-depth, Cultural-Historical Activity Theory framed case study on a well-established North American HE academic library-based makerspace service. Lessons are drawn from the organisational tensions that emerged as challenges in its development. Participants were from the library service, students and academics from different disciplines that make significant use of the library makerspace. The ‘relational agency’ and ‘common knowledge’ of academic librarians in bringing together academic and student perspectives on the utility of maker-learning is found to be key. Maker-learning is observed to be an intertwined embodied/haptic, social/dialogic and rational/critical expansive cross-disciplinary system in a Zone of Proximal Development. Evidence of attempts to address the themes of inclusivity, diversity and sustainability to achieve ethical-maker-learning outcomes are discussed and developed. The article then expands on Ratto’s Critical Maker pedagogy utilised by the case study library service. I conclude with the proposal of a potentially transformative new concept for supporting cross-disciplinary maker-learning systems, ‘Critical Material Literacy’ (CML), whereby technical and material awareness connects with progressive concerns for people and the planet. This new theoretical concept is designed to start proactively addressing the key case study themes, with academic librarians becoming critical agents in creating ethical-maker knowledge hubs.
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Le cas « Université Paysanne UNICAMPO » traite d’une expérience collective de formation en milieu rural mise en place depuis septembre 2003 dans la région du Cariri, Etat de la Paraíba au Nordeste au Brésil. L’objectif du projet Unicampo est de développer des compétences locales en matière d’appui à l’agriculture familiale et au développement rural durable à travers la formation de leaders paysans. Il s’agit de stimuler leur capital technique, social et culturel à partir de méthodes de recherche-action-formation. La formation est offerte par l’Université Fédérale de Campina Grande (UFCG) dans le cadre d’un partenariat articulant un pôle universitaire décentralisé dans la région du Cariri avec divers acteurs du développement régional, dont des ONG locales. Il est également porté et cofinancé par le Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD). Pour l’ensemble des enseignants-chercheurs impliqués, ce projet a un statut d’expérimentation pédagogique et organisationnelle, visant un haut niveau d’interactions entre formateurs et formés tant sur les contenus de formation que sur le cadre socio-politique conditionnant les possibilités développement local. Cette expérience est considérée comme la première étape vers la construction de l'Université Paysanne du Brésil (Caniello et al., 2003). L’UFCG et le Ministère du Développement Agraire (MDA) ont déjà pris date pour créer de nouveaux sites de l’université paysanne au Nordeste. Une reproduction à l‘identique dans des situations différentes étant impossible, de par les spécificités et le caractère expérimental de la formation Unicampo, il convenait de formaliser et systématiser méthode et contenus pour qu’ils puissent être partiellement répliqués ou réadaptés. Cela supposait de mieux comprendre les dynamiques au cœur de cette première initiative, d’analyser leurs modalités afin de les adapter ou de les améliorer. Ce texte présente les résultats de l’étude conduite en 2004 par E Coudel au cours d’un stage afin de systématiser les apprentissages issus de l’expérience collective à partir de la « méthode Acolade » (voir chapitre ii) . Il concerne essentiellement le suivi-évaluation du premier cycle Unicampo, très riche en terme de construction collective et qui a conditionné la suite de la dynamique et du dispositif de formation. Pour saisir les relations entre dynamiques collectives et types d’apprentissages nous avons exploré l’usage de différentes grilles de lecture afin d’examiner les relations complexes entre l’action collective, les apprentissages et l’action des chercheurs. En choisissant l’Unicampo comme objet d’étude, nous faisions l’hypothèse qu’il s’agissait d’une action collective entre plusieurs catégories d’acteurs hétérogènes.
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Este artigo é uma Pesquisa em Design Educacional (PDE), cujo compromisso é desenvolver contribuições teóricas e soluções práticas, simultaneamente, em contextos reais, em conjunto com as partes interessadas. Por isso, buscou-se estudar alternativas, com o uso das TDIC, para problemas sobre o ensino de física, no âmbito do Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência (PIBID). O objetivo deste trabalho envolveu a análise de uma intervenção e construção de princípios de Design sobre a aprendizagem do tema da relatividade do tempo, na Física de Einstein, com o uso do Facebook como suporte para mediar as discussões. Para tal, usamos as quatro fases do processo de desenvolvimento de intervenções com o uso das TDIC apontadas por Reeves (2000) dentro do escopo do referencial da PDE. Os resultados mostram que houve desenvolvimento da equipe, ao observarmos as decisões que foram necessárias ao longo do processo. Observou-se que, para atingir uma meta sob um conjunto de restrições, houve a necessidade de desenvolver um entendimento sobre as próprias metas e restrições para as quais está se projetando, além de observar melhor os recursos disponíveis para a construção de um design. Identificamos um desenvolvimento em duas categorias: Habilidade para contornar as dificuldades, em vez de desistir; e capacidade de reavaliar a influência do contexto do design. Por fim, construiu-se seis princípios que podem orientar novas atividades em contextos similares.
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