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Expanding approaches to teaching for diversity and social justice in K-12 education: Fostering global citizenship across the content areas


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Educators today must be able to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student body and to teach all students the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for civic participation in a globalized, pluralist society. While state departments of education and national teacher organizations have begun to adopt global awareness in their teaching standards and evaluation tools, educators need to understand what globally competent teachers actually do in classrooms across subject areas and grade levels. This qualitative, multiple case study explores the signature pedagogies (Shulman, 2005) of 10 in-service teachers in one southeastern state who teach for global competence in math, music, science, English, social studies, and language classes across elementary, middle, and high schools. We found three signature pedagogies that characterized globally competent teaching practices across participants: 1) intentional integration of global topics and multiple perspectives into and across the standard curriculum; 2) ongoing authentic engagement with global issues; and 3) connecting teachers’ global experiences, students’ global experiences, and the curriculum. These signature pedagogies provide visions of possibility for concrete practices teachers can adapt to infuse global citizenship education into their own contexts and for policies that school districts and teacher education programs can consider in preparing and supporting teachers in this work.
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Journal website: Manuscript received: 12/6/2015
Facebook: /EPAAA Revisions received: 26/2/2016
Twitter: @epaa_aape Accepted: 8/3/2016
Education for Global Citizenship:
Democratic Visions and Future Directions
education policy analysis
A peer-reviewed, independent,
open access, multilingual journal
Arizona State University
Volume 24 Number 59 May 16, 2016 ISSN 1068-2341
Expanding Approaches to Teaching for Diversity and
Justice in K-12 Education: Fostering Global Citizenship
Across the Content Areas
Ariel Tichnor-Wagner
Hillary Parkhouse
Jocelyn Glazier
Jessie Montana Cain
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
United States
Citation: Tichnor-Wagner, A., Parkhouse, H., Glazier, J., & Cain, J. M. (2016). Expanding
approaches to teaching for diversity and social justice in K-12 education: Fostering global citizenship
across the content areas. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(59). This article is part of EPAA/AAPE’s Special Issue on
Education for Global Citizenship: Democratic Visions and Future Directions, Guest Edited by Dr. John Myer.
Abstract: Educators today must be able to respond to the needs of an increasingly diverse student
body and to teach all students the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for civic participation in a
globalized, pluralist society. While state departments of education and national teacher organizations
have begun to adopt global awareness in their teaching standards and evaluation tools, there is a
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 2
need for educators to understand what globally competent teachers actually do in classrooms across
subject areas and grade levels. This qualitative, multiple case study explores the signature pedagogies
(Shulman, 2005) of 10 in-service teachers in one southeastern state who teach for global competence
in math, music, science, English, social studies, and language classes across elementary, middle, and
high schools. We found three signature pedagogies that characterized globally competent teaching
practices across participants: 1) intentional integration of global topics and multiple perspectives into
and across the standard curriculum; 2) ongoing authentic engagement with global issues; and 3)
connecting teachers’ global experiences, students’ global experiences, and the curriculum. These
signature pedagogies provide visions of possibility for concrete practices teachers can adapt to infuse
global citizenship education into their own contexts and for policies that school districts and teacher
education programs can consider in preparing and supporting teachers in this work.
Keywords: global education; global perspectives; citizenship education; teacher competencies; K-12
Ampliando las perspectivas sobre la enseñanza para la diversidad y la justicia social
en la educación básica: Fomentando la ciudanía mundial a través de las áreas de
Resumen: en la actualidad los docentes deben de ser capaces de responder a las
necesidades de un alumnado diverso y enseñar conocimientos, habilidades y actitudes para
la participación cívica en sociedades pluralistas y globalizadas. Mientras que departamentos
de educación y organizaciones nacionales de docentes han empezado a adoptar una
conciencia global en sus estándares de enseñanza y las herramientas de evaluación,
docentes necesitan entender lo que hacen los maestros competentes al nivel mundial
realmente en sus salas de clase, a través de disciplinas y niveles de grado. Este estudio
cualitativo de casos múltiples explora pedagogías emblemáticas (Shulman, 2005) de 10
docentes en-servicio en un estado del sudeste que ensenan competencias globales en las
matemáticas, el músico, ciencia, inglés, estudios sociales y clases de idiomas a través de
escuelas primarias, intermedias y colegios secundarios. Los autores identificaron tres
pedagogías emblemáticas que caracterizan prácticas de enseñanza competente a nivel
mundial: 1) la integración intencional de temas globales y perspectivas múltiples en y a
través del currículo estándar; 2) un compromiso autentico con problemas globales; y 3)
conectando las experiencias globales de docentes, experiencias globales de los estudiantes,
y el currículo. Estas pedagogías emblemáticas proveen perspectivas potenciales para
practicas concretas que docentes pueden adaptar para una educación ciudadanía global en
contextos diferentes y para políticas que distritos escolares y programas de formación
docente pueden considerar en la preparación y apoyo de los docentes.
Palabras-clave: educación global; perspectivas globales; educación ciudadana;
competencias docentes; educación K-12
Ampliando abordagens ao ensino à diversidade e justiça social na educação K-12:
Promover a cidadania global através das áreas de conteúdo
Resumo: Hoje, educadores devem ser capazes de responder ás necessidades de um
alunado diverso e para ensinar a todos os alunos o conhecimento, as habilidades e atitudes
necessárias para a participação cívica numa sociedade pluralista globalizada. Enquanto os
departamentos estatais de educação e as organizações nacionais de professores tem
começado de adoptar uma consciência global em seus padrões de ensino e as ferramentas
de avaliação, educadores precisam de entender o que realmente faz os professores
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 3
competentes ao nível mundial em suas aulas, através das disciplinas e níveis acadêmicas.
Este qualitativo estudo de casos múltiplas explora as pedagogias emblemáticas (Shulman,
2005) de 10 professores em-serviço num estado do sudeste que ensinam para a
competência ao nível mundial em as matemáticas, a música, a ciência, o inglês, os estudos
sociais e aulas de línguas através de escolas primarias, médias e colégios. Os autores
encontraram três pedagogias emblemáticas que caracterizam práticas de ensino competente
ao nível mundial entre as participantes: 1) a integração intencional de temas globais e
perspectivas múltiplas em e através do currículo comum; 2) um compromisso autentico
com problemas globais; e 3) uma conexão entre as experiências globais dos professores, as
experiências globais dos alunos e o currículo. Estas pedagogias emblemáticas provem
vistas potenciais para práticas concretas que professores podem adaptar para infundir a
educação de cidadania mundial em seus próprios contextos e para políticas que distritos
escolares e programas de formação do professor podem considerar na preparação e apoio
dos professores neste trabalho.
Palavras-chave: educação global; perspectivas globais; educação cidadania; competência
do professor; educação K-12
Globalization has extended the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes that schools must
foster in students so that they can successfully live, work, and take action as citizens in an
interconnected world (Bottery, 2006; Zhao, 2010). The proliferation of political and economic
structures and systems that transcend national borders (e.g., the United Nations, the European
Union, the World Bank, international free trade agreements, transnational corporations) requires
that students know how to communicate, cooperate, and negotiate with individuals from different
national and cultural backgrounds (Zhao, 2010). The unprecedented rise in global migration and
displacement has increased the linguistic and cultural diversity of communities and classrooms.
Therefore, educators must be able to respond to the academic and social needs of an increasingly
diverse student body and to teach all of their students to understand, appreciate, and respect
similarities and differences across various racial, ethnic, and religious groups within a pluralist society
(O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011; Suarez-Orozco, 2001). Furthermore, educators must prepare students
to address problems of equity and justice not only locally but also worldwide as globalization has
made environmental and social injustices even more apparent (Apple, 2011; Banks, 2008; Suarez-
Orozco, 2001). To support students in developing multiple, intersecting civic and cultural identities
and participating as citizens in a global community, teachers must be equipped with specific skills,
knowledge, and attitudes. The purpose of this article is to flesh out a framework for what globally
competent teaching looks like in K-12 classrooms.
Given the realities of globalization, our education system must rethink what citizenship
education entails and how it is taught in K-12 classrooms. Schools have traditionally conceptualized
citizens as those belonging to a nation-state with certain rights and responsibilities, and have placed
citizenship education in distinct courses or as part of the social studies curriculum. However, in
today’s increasingly interdependent world, what it means to be a citizen has transcended traditional
nation-state boundaries and has made more fluid the cultural, national, and global identities to which
individuals feel a sense of belongingness (Banks, 2008; Myers & Zaman, 2009). As such, global
citizenship does not require individuals to give up their national, regional, or cultural identities for
This research was funded by the Longview Foundation [grant number 5-59272].
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 4
one global culture. Rather, global citizenship is a “layered citizenship” (Banks, 2008) whereby
individuals possess the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that foster productive and socially just
participation in inextricably connected local and global communities (Osler & Vincent, 2002).
Further, not only should global citizens have the right to be able to “live and work effectively
anywhere in the world” (Noddings, 2005, p. 2) but they should hold the responsibility to reflect
critically on their position in interconnected global systems (Andreotti, 2006) and “make decisions
and take action in the global interest to benefit humankind” (Banks, 2008, p. 134).
Global citizenship education scholars and NGOs supporting global citizenship education
have outlined the competencies (i.e., dispositions, knowledge, and skills) that students engaged in
global citizenship education should learn if they are to “secure a world that is more just, peaceful,
tolerant, inclusive, secure, and sustainable” (UNESCO, 2014, p. 9). This includes perspective
consciousness, empathy, human rights and social justice, the interconnectedness of the local and the
global, intercultural understanding and communication, and how to take political action across the
local, national, and global arenas in which students are situated (Asia Society, 2014; Banks, 2008;
Girard & Harris, 2013; Myers, 2006; O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011; UNESCO, 2014). Just as
globalization affects multiple sectors of society, the specific issues arising from globalization that
students should learn to take responsibility for and act upon cut across grade levels and academic
disciplines (Gaudelli, 2003; O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011). Therefore, to move global citizenship
education from abstraction to action, advocates have called for global citizenship to be integrated
into extant subjects (Asia Society, 2014; Klein, 2013; UNESCO, 2014).
While the literature establishes what it is that students ought to know and be able to do, less
is known about how teachers instill these mindsets, concepts, and skillsets in students across grade
levels and subject areas and what responsibility policymakers and teacher educators have in moving
teachers in these directions. In the United States, state departments of education and national
teacher organizations have begun to incorporate aspects of global citizenship education in their
teaching standards and evaluation tools (Kirby & Crawford, 2012). For example, the North Carolina
Teaching Standards and Teacher Evaluation stipulates that teachers “embrace diversity in the school
community and in the world” and “promote global awareness and its relevance to subjects they
teach” (Public Schools of North Carolina, 2012). Similarly, NCATE’s diversity standard for teacher
candidates requires that educators “reflect multicultural and global perspectives that draw on the
histories, experiences, and representations of students and families from diverse populations”
(National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 2008, p. 36). However, for these policies
to translate into teaching practice, educators at all levels need to understand what teaching for global
citizenship looks like in practice and what a core set of pedagogies might look like for teachers
across subject areas and grade levels that could be incorporated into district, teacher education, and
evaluation policy.
Research conducted in this area of study has been situated in social studies and foreign
language classrooms, often in the upper grade levels (Gaudelli, 2006; Karamon & Tochon, 2007;
Merryfield, 2008; Myers, 2006; Rapoport, 2010; Suarez, 2003). For example, Merryfield (1998)
studied three groups of social studies teachers: (a) those identified as exemplary global educators, (b)
experienced classroom teachers just beginning to teach with a global perspective, and (c) preservice
teachers who studied global education in a methods course, and found common practices across all
three groups. Social studies teachers of all levels of global competency development connected
global content to students’ lives, taught students about their own cultures and diverse cultures
through sharing multiple perspectives and comparisons of similarities and differences, and made
connections across time and space. Exemplary teachers stood apart in that they also taught about
the interconnectedness of local and global inequities; provided cross-cultural experiential learning;
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 5
used themes, issues, or problems to organize global content; emphasized skills in higher level
thinking and research; and employed various teaching strategies and resources. Similarly, Girard and
Harris (2013) examined how world history courses could address global citizenship competencies.
They suggested that teachers need to engage in disciplined inquiry around global issues, teach the
interconnectedness of economic, political, and cultural systems, and teach students to understand
and respect multiple perspectives. These authors acknowledged that certain aspects of the social
studies context (e.g., curriculum) facilitated these practices.
While global citizenship education is of critical importance in social studies and foreign
language contexts, so too is it in all content areas and across all grade levels if we are indeed going to
successfully prepare students to be world citizens. Yet, with the exception of a few reports (Boix
Mansilla & Jackson, 2011), little research has highlighted what globally competent teaching looks like
in content area classrooms that, at first glance, may not lend themselves to teaching global
citizenship. Furthermore, while studies have examined how pre-service teachers develop global
competencies in teacher preparation and teaching abroad programs in multiple subject areas
(Burton, 2011; Colville-Hall, Adamowicz-Hariasz, Sidorova, & Engelking, 2011; Cushner &
Brennan, 2007), there is an absence of research examining how in-service teachers then employ
these competencies in their classrooms and move them into teaching for global citizenship.
This study addresses these gaps by examining the pedagogical practices of in-service teachers
in one southeastern state who infuse global citizenship education in both expected and unexpected
subject areas. Specifically, we sought to uncover the signature pedagogies (Boix Mansilla, 2013;
Shulman, 2005) that these teachers used in math, music, science, English, social studies, and
language classes across elementary schools and into middle and high schools. Then we set out to
determine implications of these understandings for policymakers and teacher educators as the stakes
for K-12 global citizenship grow higher.
Unpacking Global Competence for Global Citizenship Education
Before we move into the bulk of the study, we wanted to expand a bit on our definition of
global citizenship education by exploring the notion of global competencies. A central component
of global citizenship education, global competence is a compilation of dispositions, knowledge, and
skills necessary to effectively engage as citizens of the world (Zhao, 2010). Like others before us, we
argue that in order for educators to foster a unique set of global competency dispositions,
knowledge, and skills in students that can empower them to “reflect critically on the legacies and
processes of their cultures and contexts, to imagine different futures, and to take responsibility for
their decisions and actions” (Andreotti, 2006, p. 96-97), educators are required to develop those
same competencies in themselves. While there is a focus on global competence within the field of
global citizenship education (e.g., Girard & Harris, 2013; Klein, 2013; Zhao, 2010), we were struck in
our review of the literature by a lack of an agreed-upon set of global competencies for teachers in
particular. Thus in this article, we first flesh out the competencies required of teachers so that they
can in turn teach for global citizenship.
Derived from a systematic review of the literature on K-12 teacher training and global
education (including work in global citizenship education), we identified 12 core elements that
globally competent teachers demonstrate. These are divided into three domains: dispositions,
knowledge, and skills (Tichnor-Wagner, Glazier, Parkhouse, & Cain, 2016). Dispositions include
valuing multiple perspectives and a commitment to equity worldwide; knowledge includes
understanding of global conditions and current events, the interconnectedness of the world and an
experiential understanding of multiple cultures; and finally, skills include a teacher’s ability to
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 6
communicate in multiple languages, to create a classroom environment that values diversity and
global engagement, and to facilitate intercultural conversations. Figure 1 provides a complete list of
these elements.
Empathy and
valuing multiple
(Eslami, 2005;
Hanvey, 1982;
Roberts, 2007)
Commitment to
equity worldwide
(Merryfield, 2002;
O’Connor &
Zeichner, 2011;
Roberts, 2007)
Global conditions and
current events (Hanvey,
1982; Kirkwood, 2001;
Merryfield, 2002; Selby &
Pike, 2000)
The ways the world is
interconnected and
(Kirkwood, 2001; Selby
& Pike, 2000)
understanding of
multiple cultures
(Cushner & Brennan,
2007; Eslami, 2005;
Kirkwood, 2001; Landorf
et al., 2007)
(Deardorff, 2009; Zhao,
Communicating in multiple
languages (Landorf et al., 2007;
Zhao, 2010)
Creating a classroom environment
that values diversity and global
engagement (Banks, 2008;
O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011)
Providing content-aligned
investigations of the world
(Kirkwood, 2001; O’Connor &
Zeichner, 2011; Roberts, 2007;
Selby & Pike, 2000; Subedi, 2010)
Facilitating intercultural
conversations (O’Connor &
Zeichner, 2011)
Facilitating intercultural
partnerships (Noddings, 2005;
Roberts, 2007; Subedi, 2010)
Assessing students’ global
competencies (Kirkwood, 2001)
Note. Derived from Tichnor-Wagner et al. (2016). These are select references for each competence.
Figure 1. Elements of Globally Competent Teaching
Dispositions and knowledge related to global competence are the areas currently most
addressed in teacher preparation programs that purport to prepare teachers for global citizenship
education work. These may develop through preservice coursework (Kirkwood, 2001; Landorf,
Rocco, & Levin, 2007) and student teaching abroad experiences (Cushner & Brennan, 2007; Mahon
& Cushner, 2007; Zong, 2009). Furthermore, pre-service teachers often enter programs of education
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 7
with prior dispositions and knowledge related to global education, for example, through childhood
experiences, travel, or former jobs (Parkhouse, Tichnor-Wagner, Glazier, & Cain, 2015). Missing,
however, from teacher preparation and continuing professional development is the explicit teaching
of the necessary and varied skills pre-service teachers need to teach in globally responsive ways.
These necessary skills are varied and critical and require particular attention in teacher education and
in ongoing teacher professional development and evaluation if teachers are to foster an ethos of
global citizenship in students.
Globally competent teaching skills include the following. First, globally competent teachers
communicate in multiple languages, particularly as a means to converse with parents, students, and
community members who may not speak English as their first language (Asia Society, 2014;
Houston & Pierson, 2008; Nero, 2009; Zhao, 2010). Examples of this may include teachers talking
to parents in the parents’ home language, allowing students to talk to each other in their home
languages, and incorporating multiple languages into everyday classroom instruction, for example, by
regularly introducing new words from different languages and having classroom resources available
in multiple languages. This skill helps validate and respect the cultural identities of students within a
global context (Banks, 2008; Myers & Zaman, 2009).
Second, globally competent teachers create a classroom environment that values diversity and global
engagement. This encompasses using multiple global resources (e.g., books, globes, lesson plans),
providing specific global examples when teaching content-area skills, engaging students in class
discussions about global issues, and providing opportunities for students to reflect upon the impacts
of their actions on global issues and people (Banks, 2008; Eslami, 2005; Girard & Harris, 2013;
Merryfield, 2008; O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011; Zhao, 2010). In doing so, students may become
comfortable with their layered identities, value diverse perspectives, and build skills in reflexivity and
dialogue that leads to understanding of different lived realities among interconnected global actors
(Andreotti, 2006; Andreotti & Pashby, 2013). Third, globally competent teachers integrate learning
experiences that promote content aligned investigations of the world (Girard & Harris, 2013; Subedi, 2010;
Ukpokodu, 2010). These learning experiences incorporate students’ interests and experiences
(O’Connor & Zeichner, 2011) and are applied to real-world issues and concerns, prompting students
to think critically about behaviors and processes that contribute to inequities, injustices, and
environmental degradation and planting the seed for students to take responsibility and action
(Leduc, 2013; Noddings, 2005).
Fourth, globally competent teachers facilitate intercultural and international conversations. These
authentic conversations are shared and collaborative rather than unidirectional (Merryfield, 2002;
Noddings, 2005; Roberts, 2007). This may include Skype conversations, pen pals, or inviting
individuals from diverse cultures and countries as guest speakers (Devlin-Foltz, 2010; Merryfield,
2002; Roberts, 2007; Sprague, 2012). A fifth skill is developing local, national, or international partnerships
that provide opportunities for collaborative real-world contexts for global learning experiences
(Merryfield, 2002; Noddings, 2005; Roberts, 2007). Partners can range from international students at
local universities, to sister classrooms halfway around the world, to local non-profit organizations
whose work addresses global concerns. These conversations and partnerships can be an important
first step in developing empathy and the ability to work with, rather than for, others in order to craft
alternative solutions to global problems (Andreotti, 2006). As Andreotti and Pashby (2013) argued,
“Justice starts with the forms of relationships we are able to create” (p. 433).
Finally, globally competent teachers assess students’ global competence development using a variety of
authentic, differentiated assessments. This could include, for example, projects or rubrics (Boix
Mansilla & Jackson, 2011) that allow students to critically reflect on their own global competence
and contributionsboth positive and negativeto current global conditions (Andreotti, 2006). In
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 8
discussing global competency components, Klein (2013) further argued “We are true global citizens
when the values we have acquired through global learning translate into new behaviors in every
aspect of our lives...[Therefore] we need evidence that new insights are shaping students’ behavior
and leading them to ‘walk the ‘walk’ even when no one is looking” (p. 486).
Armed with this more comprehensive understanding of the competencies required of
teachers if they are to engage in global citizenship education, we set out next to explore what these
competencies looked like in the real world of classrooms. As we identified, missing from the
literature are multi-disciplinary depictions of what these competenciesand global citizenship more
generallylook like in teachers' practice as they teach the required curriculum. We sought to address
this gap through interviewing, observing, and analyzing the work of teachers in various content areas
who are engaged in global citizenship education.
Signature Pedagogies: A Framework for Illustrating Global Citizenship
Through this study, we set out to determine if there is a core set of pedagogies that
demarcate global citizenship education across different disciplines. What are the distinct ways in
which teachers prepare K-12 students to live, work, and take actions in ways that make the
interconnected world in which we live more just, equitable, and sustainable? In other words, what
are the signature pedagogies—the “forms of instruction that leap to mind” (Shulman, 2005, p. 52)
of teachers who infuse global citizenship education into their classroom?
Most often applied to research on professional schools, such as medicine and law, signature
pedagogies encompass visible teaching practices and underlying beliefs about why those practices
should occur (Shulman, 2005). In explaining the concept of signature pedagogies in professional
schools, Shulman gave the examples of “bedside teaching,” or medical rounds, for medical students
and legal case study methods for law students. Medical rounds and case studies qualify as signature
pedagogies because they encompass both visible teaching practices (e.g., a physician engaging a
group of medical students in discussion as they led them through clinical rounds) as well as the
underlying beliefs about why those practices should be utilized and the values and dispositions of
the profession itself (e.g., case study dialogue in law school reflecting what legal encounters entail in
the courtroom). In this study, we sought to apply of the concept of signature pedagogies to include
the practices and beliefs involved in teaching for global citizenship.
According to Shulman (2005), signature pedagogies contain three dimensions. The first is a
surface structure, or “concrete, operational acts of teaching and learning, of showing and
demonstrating, of questioning and answering” (p. 54). Second, signature pedagogies have a deep
structure, or a “set of assumptions about how to best impart a certain body of knowledge” (p. 55).
The third dimension is its implicit structure, which “comprises a set of beliefs about professional
attitudes, values, and dispositions” (p. 55). Shulman (2005) further contended that signature
pedagogies can be defined by what they are not, or what knowledge and ways of teaching are
deliberately not conveyed.
Although specific surface, deep, and implicit structures may vary by profession, signature
pedagogies share a common set of features. They are “pervasive and routine, cutting across topics
and courses, programs and institutions” (Shulman, 2005, p. 56). Therefore, we would expect to see
the same signature pedagogies across classrooms in different communities, different content areas,
and different grade levels. Additionally, we would see these practices as routine habits occurring as a
part of educators’ everyday teaching.
Building from Shulman’s (2005) framework for signature pedagogies, Boix Mansilla (2013)
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 9
characterized signature pedagogies in global education as teaching approaches that nurture the
development of students’ understanding of the world and global habits of mind. Drawing from a
case study of the classroom of a fifth and sixth grade social studies teacher, Boix Mansilla (2013)
proposed that signature pedagogies in global education that support students' development of global
citizenship include the following components: 1) identifying “a clear global competence purpose”
(e.g., classroom instruction or activities aimed to develop students’ abilities and attitudes to
understand and act on issues of global importance); 2) having a “strong disciplinary foundation”
(e.g., incorporating concepts, content, and ways of thinking from applicable disciplines); 3)
maintaining “integrative units of understanding that are central to the development of global
competence and can integrate students’ capacity to investigate the world, take perspective,
communicate across difference and perhaps even take action” (e.g., including a holistic set of skills
from multiple disciplines); 4) having a “ubiquitous, spiraling presence” in the curriculum; 5) being
“centered on learning demands” so as to best meet students’ needs”; and 6) being “open to teacher
inquiry and ongoing feedback” (p. 14-15). While significant, the pilot study was limited in its
attention to one grade level and subject area. Thus we embarked on this study to examine whether
there existed signature pedagogies of globally competent teachers that would carry across schools
and classrooms.
Because signature pedagogies are meant to pervade across different locations, we wondered
if educators in different institutional contexts teaching different subject areas and students with
varying demographics shared common practices across their classrooms as they sought to foster
global citizenship in their students. Furthermore, although pedagogical practices for global
competence have been identified for social studies and foreign language instruction (Boix Mansilla,
2013; Girard & Harris, 2013; Merryfield; 1998; Rapoport, 2013), to date, few empirical analyses have
considered what these pedagogies might look like across different content areas including English
language arts (ELA), math, science, and music. Are there signature pedagogies for globally
competent teaching that cross disciplinary boundaries? If so, how might we then introduce teachers
to these pedagogies through policy so that they can enact global citizenship education?
We conducted a qualitative multiple case study (Yin, 2009) with ten North Carolina K-12
educators committed to globally competent teaching practices. A multiple case design allows for the
selection of two or more “replications” wherein the same phenomenon is occurring (Yin, 2009).
These cases were purposefully chosen to represent varying contexts in which the phenomenon of
globally competent teaching occurs in regards to location, school level, and content area(s). All cases
were also purposefully selected within the same state in order to control for the same policy context
both in regard to political will for teaching with a global perspective and additional accountability
mandates that impact classroom instruction.
North Carolina is in many ways a microcosm of how globalization is affecting local
communities in the United States. Over the past three decades, North Carolina has experienced one
of the fastest growing immigrant populations in the United States; furthermore, the state has
experienced an economic shift from manufacturing and agricultural jobs to knowledge-intensive
jobs within transnational companies. Responding to these new global realities, for the past decade,
the State Board of Education and Department of Public Instruction has increasingly highlighted the
importance of infusing a global perspective into instruction. In 2007, North Carolina’s Teacher
Evaluation and Professional Standards incorporated “global awareness” into five of its standards.
Most recently, in 2013 the State Board of Education commissioned a task force whose findings
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 10
emphasized that the state must prepare students to be “the most globally aware and prepared in the
nation” and was the first state to provide concrete recommendations to provide teachers the training
and tools to do so (North Carolina State Board of Education, 2013, p. 7). As such, teachers that
represent the diversity of North Carolina schoolsfrom urban centers to rural regions to military
communitieshave been asked to incorporate a global perspective into their everyday teaching.
However, these state documents do not define global awareness, nor do they include global
awareness into school or district accountability systems, which exclusively target reading, math, and
science standards. Therefore, this study serves an important purpose in operationalizing feasible
signature practices in which teachers in different content areas and different school contexts might
be trained to support global citizenship education.
Sample and Data Collection
We used a stratified purposeful sampling strategy to illuminate globally competent teaching
strategies in different grade levels and content areas (Miles & Huberman, 1994). Participants were
recruited through a rigorous application process that included submission of lesson plans, a
description of potential participants' global education experiences, and examples of how they
incorporated global competencies into their classrooms. Participants were selected based on 1) the
extent to which they demonstrated different elements of global competencies as identified through
the extensive literature review; and 2) to maximize variation in subject area, school level, school
location (urban, suburban, rural), and school type (e.g. traditional, international focus). These were
teachers who actively engaged in global citizenship education.
Ultimately, 10 teachers participated in the study, a number arrived at when we reached
representation from elementary, middle, and high school teachers and the subject areas of English,
math, social studies, science, language, and the arts. This allowed us to search for signature
pedagogies that were present across grade levels and content areas. The selected participants
represented a cross-section of elementary school teachers (Ally, Linda and Shauna), middle school
teachers (Mike, Simon, Chris, Kate, and Nelson), and high school teachers (Alyssa and Marlene).
Two of the elementary school teachers taught all subject areas, and one taught ESL students in all
subject areas. Middle school and high school teachers were also selected to represent a variety of
content areas, including math (Chris), science (Simone), English language arts (Kate and Alyssa), and
music (Nelson) in addition to the more commonly examined areas within global education literature
of social studies (Mike and Simone) and world languages (Marlene). The school context of the 10
teachers varied as well. Shauna, Mike, and Nelson taught in global-themed public magnet schools.
Linda and Mike taught in suburban contexts. Shauna, Nelson, and Alyssa taught in urban schools.
Ally, Simone, and Marlene taught in rural schools. Chris taught in a private Christian school.
Data sources for each participant case included an in-depth biographical interview, two-to-
four classroom observations and post-observation interviews, two online focus groups, an in-person
focus group, and a collection of teaching artifacts (e.g., lesson plans, unit plans, project descriptions,
grading rubrics). While classroom observations and teaching artifacts provided evidence of surface
structures, post-observation and in-depth interviews allowed us to uncover the deep and implicit
structures underlying teachers’ actions. A complete list of participants and participant interactions
can be found in Table 1.
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 11
Table 1.
Teacher Participants (n = 10)
Public PK-5
Public PK-5
Pubic Magnet,
Public IB
Public middle
6 12
Christian PK-
Public middle
6 8
Public Global
Studies K-12
Public high
Spanish for
10 12
Public high
Note. All participants’ names are pseudonyms.
Data Analysis
Data were analyzed through several alternating phases of focused and open coding to
identify common themes, as well as counterexamples (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Initially, wethe
authors and research teamcoded the data for instances of the global competency skills derived
from our comprehensive literature review that represented observable practices (Tichnor-Wagner et
al., 2016). Skill codes included: using multiple languages, creating a classroom environment that values diversity
and global engagement, providing content-aligned investigations of the world, facilitating intercultural conversations,
facilitating intercultural partnerships, and assessing students’ global competencies.
From the a priori skills identified, we then conducted several iterative processes of coding for
globally competent signature pedagogies to search for commonalities within and across teachers’ work.
We first examined individual teachers' cases before aggregating for cross-case analyses to “help
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 12
ensure that emergent categories and discovered patterns [were] grounded in specific cases and their
contexts” (Patton, 2002). Second, through constant comparison of incidents (i.e., global competence
skills) across teacher cases via a cross-case matrix (Corbin & Strauss, 2008), we derived a list of
inductive codes that suggested examples of surface, deep, and implicit structures that comprise a
signature pedagogy for globally competent teaching. As we compared across cases, we defined
“signature pedagogies” as those that were evident across at least three interactions for each teacher
case and found in nine out of 10 teachers to ensure that they held true across content areas and
grade levels. In addition, each pedagogy identified had to have surface, deep, and implicit structures
(Shulman, 2005). This resulted in three signature pedagogies for globally competent teaching.
Findings: Signature Pedagogies for Globally Competent Teaching across
Content Areas
Overall, we found that each teacher demonstrated the same core signature pedagogies
throughout his or her regular instruction, embodying Shulman’s (2005) supposition that signature
pedagogies are “pervasive” and “routine.” The three signature pedagogies evident across content
areas were: 1) intentional integration of global topics and multiple perspectives into and across the
standard curriculum; 2) ongoing authentic engagement with global issues; and 3) connecting
teachers’ global experiences, students’ global experiences, and the curriculum. In this section, we
describe overall trends and specific examples of signature pedagogies across the 10 participants,
illuminating for each signature pedagogy the surface, deep, and implicit structures (Shulman, 2005)
that K-12 educators evoked in preparing students to be citizens of the world (illustrated in Table 2).
Table 2
Signature Pedagogies for Globally Competent Teaching
1) Intentional integration
of global topics and
multiple perspectives
into and across the
standard curriculum
2) Ongoing authentic
engagement with
global issues
3) Connecting teachers’
global experiences,
students’ global
experiences, and the
Global examples
Grounded in standard
Intercultural dialogue
Community service and
service-learning projects
Sharing global experiences
informally and intentionally
in lessons and authentic
Providing spaces for
students to share global
Presenting multiple
examples and perspectives
Spiraled throughout the
Spiraled throughout the
Students learning from each
Teachers reflecting on
classroom applications of
their global experiences
Global Citizenship: layered identities, empathy, understanding global
interconnectedness, valuing differences, responsible action
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 13
Below, we synthesize the 10 cases to describe these signature pedagogies. Specific examples for each
teacher case are identified in Table 3.
Integrating Global Topics and Perspectives Into and Across the Standard Curriculum
First, all 10 teachers used global examplesthat is, examples that introduced students to
diverse countries and cultures or to conditions and challenges common across the human experience
(Ukpokodu, 1999)and presented students with multiple perspectives to teach their content area
standard course of study. In doing so, they infused global citizenship goals such as empathy,
tolerance, and valuing multiple perspectives alongside conventional curriculum standard objectives.
To teach language arts objectives, middle school teacher Kate provided her students with
reading materials from multiple cultures. During a unit on point of view, Kate partnered with her
school’s media specialist to create a list of books set in countries around the world. Students picked
a book of their choice to independently read and, upon completion, write a book report and create a
poster on the country where their book was set. On the day students presented their posters, the
class engaged in a discussion on the differences between countries and between the cultures of the
characters in their books and those in the United States. For lessons on specific reading skills, Kate
also infused global examples. In a review lesson on idioms, small groups of students matched idioms
from around the world with their countries of origin. Students then discussed their reasoning along
with the meaning of the idiom. Then, students independently created an idiom using the setting of
their book from the book project.
In middle school science teacher Simone’s classroom, students examined examples of energy
use around the world as they learned science standards on the environmental consequences of
obtaining, transforming, and distributing energy sources and the implications of the depletion of
energy sources. After discussing the pros and cons of obtaining and utilizing major sources of
energy, Simone assigned small groups of students a country and had them choose an energy source
that would work best for that country based on the price of the energy source, available natural
resources, and the size of the population. The next day, the class examined charts on energy
consumption around the world, discussed challenges that some countries could have in using eco-
friendly energy sources, and debated whether it was more important that everyone around the world
have access to electricity or that the environment be preserved.
Nelson, a middle school music teacher, introduced music method standards (e.g., developing
tone and discriminating pitch, using expressive elements, interpreting standard musical notation) by
comparing songs and musical genres from different Latin American countries (e.g., ballads, mariachi,
orchestral music). The examples of Kate, Simon, and Nelson represented a surface structure of
observable global content.
The ways in which global content was introduced represented a deep structure of teachers’
beliefs about the best ways to infuse global content in the standard curriculum: namely by providing
multiple global examples and perspectives. Kate’s students, for example, presented on books that
took place in a variety of countries including Canada, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru,
Pakistan, Nepal, India, Vietnam, Korea, China, England, Russia, Sudan, and Nigeria. Similarly, in a
single lesson Nelson introduced different forms of music from multiple Latin American countries,
including Mexico, Venezuela, and Paraguay.
Another deep structure of this signature pedagogy was that global examples and perspectives
were not something designated for a particular lesson or unit of study, but were spiraled throughout
the year. Kate pointed to daily warm-ups as another way to achieve that spiraling presence in her
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 14
middle school English language arts classroom. She explained why she introduced news stories from
around the world (e.g., a story on Cambodian farmers) during warm-ups on a regular basis:
I really try to read the news daily because…there’s always a chance to insert
something. A lot of times, I’ll start the class with a news article just so they have
something different they may not hear about...That’s just a little snippet of
something that’s easy to do the beginning of the day. (Interview)
Kate and Alyssa in particular noted that maintaining this spiraling presence throughout the year was
particularly important because global competence was not something that developed in students
In addition, the presence of global topics spiraled across multiple content areas, thus
illustrating “integrative units of understanding” in that the complexity of global topics required
teachers to draw upon different disciplines of knowledge for students to develop a holistic
understanding (Boix Mansilla, 2013). For the three elementary school teachers, all of whom taught
all subject areas, this meant incorporating global examples into social studies, language arts, math,
music, science, and ESL instruction and creating globally-oriented interdisciplinary lessons and units.
Shauna, for example, read books aloud in Spanish and English to reinforce what students were
learning in their language elective. She regularly met with the team of first grade teachers and the
specials teachers (e.g., language, music, library, art, P.E.) to make sure that everyone “incorporated a
world view in everything we teach” (Interview).
Like the elementary school teachers, middle and high school teachers of content-specific
areas infused an interdisciplinary perspective as they integrated global elements into their standard
course of study. For example, middle school music teacher Nelson reported how, in using global
examples from Mexico and Venezuela, he pulled in geography, social studies, and language. For
example, when he introduced a musical genre, he provided background knowledge of the geographic
location of the country of origin and explained the history and politics of each country’s music
education systems. Nelson shared that in teaching about the background of Venezuela’s El Sistemo
music program that he wanted students to see how “even stuff with the government affects the
arts.” He shared a video of Gustavo Dudamel, conductor of the Los Angeles Philharmonic and
product of El Sistemo, explaining that he wanted students
…to see his [Gustavo Dudamel’s] response to the Venezuelan [economic and
humanitarian] crisis and if [students] could bridge how the arts and politics could be
kept separate sometimes but how sometimes they should be kept together. They
both should work hand in hand but since it’s a delicate situation with the
government funding of El Sistemo he didn’t want to say anything negative.
In having students sing and play songs in Spanish, he incorporated world languages into music class
as well, not only by exposing them to Spanish but by evoking mini grammar lessons. As he
explained in an interview, he “touched briefly on the male and female context of un and una and how
that’s not the same.” The spiraling of global topics across time and content area kept global
education always present in the teachers’ and students’ minds.
Teachers further described the implicit structure of valuing global citizenship as the rationale
for integrating global content into the standard curriculum. Science teacher Simone shared in a post-
observation interview that one of the goals of her lesson on energy was to have students develop
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 15
empathy for those in countries that may not have access to clean energy sources. Elementary school
teacher Ally emphasized the importance of “teaching our children empathy for others as we teach
them about the world.” Shauna expressed a similar sense of empathy in an interview when
describing one of the end goals of her science unit on seeds which she opened with a video on a
seed vault in Norway that stored the seeds of fruits and vegetables from all over the world as
“caring for plants and animals and thinking about our world that we all share and just putting that in
[students’] heads. We share and there are things that we have to do.” These teachers expressed an
implicit purpose in using global examples to develop in their students the global citizenship elements
of empathy, perspective consciousness, and expanded worldviews.
Authentic Engagement with Global Issues
The second signature pedagogy that emerged from the data was authentic engagement with
global issues, in which teachers engaged students in learning tasks related to contemporary global
issues or real-time global experiences. These tasks were authentic in that they required depth of
knowledge, higher order thinking, and an audience beyond the classroom (Newmann & Wehlage,
1993). Audiences beyond the classroom include community members, pen pals in other countries,
legislative representatives, and others. Regarding the surface structure, some authentic tasks were
directly embedded into standard content-area curriculum. For example, in Simone’s science class,
students synthesized the knowledge they had learned about energy use around the world (described
in the previous section) to write a letter to the President of the United States outlining the steps he
should take to solve the global energy crisis.
Teachers of different content areas also had students engage with authentic audiences
through activities that fostered intercultural communication. Ally, Alyssa, and Marlene facilitated
video-chats between their students and individuals from different countries; Linda, Ally, and Simone
initiated pen pal exchanges between their students and those in other countries. For a semester, high
school ELA teacher Alyssa worked on a video exchange between her classes and a school in India.
Each student created a slide that introduced him or herself and asked questions of students in India
(e.g., “What are some favorite cultural dishes that you enjoy?”), compiled them in a Prezi
presentation, and edited the presentation as a class before Alyssa sent it to the receiving school in
India. Elementary teacher Ally facilitated a weekly Friday Skype session between her first grade
classroom and a school in Indonesia that had been built after the tsunami. First graders emphatically
introduced themselves with loud hellos and waves, shared music, and asked and answered many
questions about one another’s cultures (e.g., “Why do girls wear hoods on their heads?” “Do you
have a uniform to wear in school?”). Linda described a pen pal exchange between her first grade
students and students in an orphanage in Uganda that she had previously visited, saying “not only
were we working on language arts, we were working on identifying with someone else who's not just
a picture in a book or in a movie. So it really made it real for them and that was exciting to see.”
Community service and service-learning projects were another form of authentic learning
that cut across disciplines and age groups. Ally, Linda, Simone, Chris, Kate, and Alyssa introduced
these projects as a part of the curriculum or as extracurricular activities as a way to instill in students
empathy and a desire to take action on issues of global importance. For example, Linda, a first-grade
ESL teacher, engaged her students in a community service project where the students created
shoeboxes full of school supplies for a local organization that distributed them to children around
the world.
This signature pedagogy of authentic engagement also appeared to hold a deep structure of a
spiraling presence, as teachers engaged students in authentic tasks throughout the school year.
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 16
Alyssa’s students’ communication with the school in India was a semester-long project where
students worked on videos and prezis for their counterparts in India during learning stations, where
students rotated between three different activities to practice providing evidence for argumentative
writing. Ally and her first grade students Skyped with the same school in Indonesia on a weekly
basis. Ally also helped create an ongoing pen pal exchange with a school in Tanzania, which resulted
in her school becoming involved in a fundraising campaign to build a well in a Tanzanian school.
As when they discussed intentional integration of global topics, teachers revealed implicit
structures of valuing global citizenship when describing the authentic tasks they used with students.
For example, Ally equated service-learning projects with “teaching empathy,” elaborating that “when
I shared that information with kids, they started to have a different perspective...they think that
everything is about them but they need to know that there are others out there we need to care for.”
Likewise, Alyssa shared the following experience that revealed how intercultural communication
experiences allowed her students to understand a sense of “layered” citizenship (Banks, 2008):
I took a group of students one year to [a local university] and we had this
teleconference with students in Jamaica... Some of the kids were really surprised
about the idea of skin tones and so forth and this idea of bleaching your skin. Some
of the kids just did not realize that was going on, or that it was that extreme. And
then there were other kids where their parents were immigrants and so they were
very familiar with this idea; even within their household there’s this talk of who was
bleaching their skin, or they thought that person should bleach their skin. So,
someone might walk by and say that’s a room of Americans or that’s a room of black
students or that’s a room of minorities but there’s so much more going on. There’s
different layers going on; there’s different perspectives within a culture whatever you
may define that as. (Interview)
In describing the project where students collected school supplies to send to children in need
around the world, Linda explained how her first grade students “were able to visualize the inequity
and to see this is one way that I can help--this is a way that I can be selfless. . . That I can give my
new crayon to this little kid who needs it more than I do. To have that perspective I think is really
eye-opening for some of these students.” Linda further explained how using global examples in a
science lesson about scarcity was key to developing empathy in her young students:
It didn't really click with them what scarcity was until I showed examples from
students from other countries. You know our students can choose what they want
for lunch. Students in other countries can't choose their meal every day. They might
just eat the same thing every day. For them, that was just mind-blowing, that they
couldn't choose their meal. Or you know, you guys have shoes. Every kid that comes
to school has shoes. In other countries kids might never have shoes when they go to
school. I mean they just couldn't fathom constantly walking on the ground without
shoes. . . Especially here in the mountains where students are in dire poverty. . .
Maybe that clicked with them to say, I don't have shoes, but neither does [that
student]. Now I can identify with, this is what I'm struggling with, or this is what I
see. (Interview)
In the above examples, teachers revealed an implicit structure in which they believed part of their
role as educators was to provide opportunities for students to engage as global citizens.
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 17
Connecting Teachers’ Global Experiences, Students’ Global Experiences, and the
The third signature pedagogy that emerged from the data was that all 10 teachers made
connections between their own experiences and their students’ past, present, and future, including
connections that would orient students towards local and global activism. This corroborates
Merryfield’s (1998) study of social studies teachers, which found that social studies teachers at all
levels of global competence development made connections between students’ own cultures, global
content, and time and space. Surface structures included teachers sharing global experiences informally
or in lessons and providing students spaces to share their global experiences as well. Teachers
frequently shared with students their personal experiences from time spent in different countries as
volunteers, teachers, or tourists. Linda had spent a year teaching English in a Greek-American
school in Athens, and Alyssa taught at a school in India for six weeks over the summer as a part of a
teacher exchange program. Nelson, Shauna, and Chris participated in professional development
programs that took educators abroad to locations such as Japan, Denmark, Norway, Costa Rica, and
Guatemala. They discussed these experiences with students informally, for example, answering
questions students asked or hanging objects or photos from their travels on the classroom walls as a
way to elicit conversation. Alyssa explained the value of devoting a portion of a class period to
sharing a PowerPoint presentation of photos from the summer teaching program in which she
participated in India:
It was a good idea for me to show the pictures and actually talk about it. It wasn’t
just looking at pictures. They [the students] had questions that I really didn’t think
they were going to ask and that leads to important topics to debate...They might even
bring in their own personal stories too. To actually see a real live example is helpful
to students.
Teachers also deliberately wove the knowledge and attitudes developed through these life
experiences into lesson plans and authentic activities. Shauna launched into a new science unit on
seeds by introducing the concept of seed vaultsknowledge she had gained as a result of a trip she
had taken to the Artic with National Geographic where they visited the world’s largest seed vault in
Svalbard, Norway. Her students watched a short video on the Svalbard seed vault, then engaged in a
class discussion on where seed vaults are located around the world and why seeds need to be
protected. As Shauna described,
Remembering my trip to Svalbard and knowing that the seed bank was there just hit
me. I’m like, I can show them the seed bank and let them know that seeds are
important to our survival and let them know that there are places on our planet that
I’ve seen before that house seeds in case there’s any kind of catastrophe . . . If I had
not gone there and heard about it, I would not have known to include this . . . Just
having that background and knowing about the seed vault was able to help me create
that lesson . . . It’s neat to see, for me, to take me back to last summer when I was
seeing this with my own eyes. To bring it into my classroom is priceless. (Interview)
The school in India that Alyssa’s students were communicating with was the school she taught in
during the summer teacher exchange program. Kate engaged her students in a service-learning
project that provided supplies for the school in Cape Verde where she was a Peace Corps volunteer.
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 18
Likewise, Nelson’s inclusion of Latin American music into his lessons was inspired by the
professional development program he attended in Costa Rica.
In order to weave student experiences into lessons, teachers first had to create classroom
environments where students felt comfortable sharing these experiences. Teachers did so by sharing
their own experiences first, which created spaces for students to share their experiences. Teachers
allowed such sharing to arise organically in classroom discussions. Shauna explained of her students,
the majority of whom had family members from different countries and lived in multilingual homes,
They write a lot about it [international and intercultural experiences] and they share out and of
course their classmates have lots of questions.” Shauna described a particular incident when teaching
water pollution: We were talking about dams and then they started talking about trash island . . .
and they talked about people getting sick from drinking the water. They said if you go to Mexico you
can’t drink the water. Well, if you go to India too I had to pump my water. I showed them the pump
that I used.” Linda similarly elaborated:
Not only can I bring my experiences into the lessons, but I can bring their
experiences into the lessons. If they can relate to a story about an Eastern European
folktale, and they recognize the name of the grandmother in the story, [then] they
can tell me a story about their grandmother. If I read a story about the Mexican
Christmas where a little girl is making tamales with her mother, I had a little boy who
popped in and explained his memory of doing that. And so its just really neat. I can
share mine, but when we blend it together with the students and the teacher, it
makes for a really rich learning environment.
Kate shared how she had to open up about her own experiences to have students feel comfortable
opening up about their unique cultural backgrounds: “In sixth grade they want to all be the same so
they don’t want to really bring up, well, we do this at home. But I think once I start telling stories or
once I am open about it then other students will share things.” As Nelson explained about a
professional development travel program he attended in Costa Rica,
They [the students] heard about Costa Rica the first three months of school. There is
so much that I learned that they could appreciate. We had dialogues for extended
periods of times. They, especially the Hispanic students, were able to relate and the
Hispanic students were able to educate their neighbor who did not have a similar
background as to how their family sometimes operates. (Interview)
As the above quotes demonstrate, in having students share their experiences, teachers learned from
students and students learned from each other in ways to helped students value their layered
identities as global citizens (Banks, 2008).
While the seats of some teachers’ classrooms were filled with students with transnational
identities, other teachers acknowledged that their students did not yet have an awareness of the
world beyond their local communities. As such, it became all the more acute for teachers to share
their personal experiences in order to build that awareness in students. Ally explained:
Some kids because they have military backgrounds have travelled quite a bit, but that
is not the majority. [It’s] challenging because some have never been anywhere. We
are an hour and a half from the beach and we have kids who have never been out the
county or state. It’s difficult at times because I feel like when I try to expose them to
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 19
different cultures, they seem almost imagined to them. That is why it is so valuable to
me to have personal experiences because they know it is possible. I can say this is the
way it is because I saw it myself. I want them to know that it is possible. (Interview)
Math teacher Chris and social studies teacher Mike reflected how the privilege of their students
served as a springboard for teaching global topics from a more critical perspective. Mike explained:
I think that's the biggest thing for [my students] is exposure, because even if they
travel overseas, they travel to destination spots overseas. We do have some kids do
mission work . . . But overall, even if they have visited other places, its very touristy,
and they dont really know how it is. So we get into some pretty in-depth topics here,
like we do Howard Zinn and things like that. When we talk about Columbus in
Spanish and what they did to the Aztecs and we have genocide debates in here, and
they do research on it. And they try to decide if this is a genocide or not genocide.
We try to look at the other half of history, so the people who didnt get to write it.
We focus a lot of our class time on the other end, so the people who didnt have the
opportunity to speak for themselves. (Interview)
The deep structures, or how these connections between teacher and student global experiences were
taught, were intentional yet flexible. Teachers were able to improvise and be spontaneous in how
they made personal global connections to their instruction, acting responsively to students’
curiosities, experiences, and questions in real time. Mike explained,
A lot of times we'll get a lot of ignorant comments and statements. And I think the
biggest thing for me to do is to pause, all the time, when there's stuff like that. And
I'm like, Hold up. We're going to talk about it. This is an IB school, and we can't
have you walking around having this misconception of what this is or having the
wrong ideas. So we do a lot of that. And I'm very comfortable with that. (Interview)
Shauna adhered to the philosophy that students’ “curiosity will drive the lesson,” and often went
off-script from the lesson plan to ensure that students’ questions and connections were validated.
For example, during one observation, she took a break from her read-aloud to teach an impromptu
mini-lesson differentiating similar sounding Spanish and English words when her native Spanish-
speaker students made a connection between the English word she had read aloud and a Spanish
A second deep structure underlying these teacher and student global connections was that
teachers provided opportunities for students to learn global content and perspectives from one
another. Shauna emphasized, “With all the diverse, multiple cultures, [students] learn a lot from each
other.” Rather than provide students information about different countries and cultures around the
world, Kate asked her students to present to each other about the countries and cultures they had
experienced through the book they read for their global book project. At the high school level,
Spanish-as-a-Heritage-Language teacher Marlene had a student from Barcelona present to the class
about Spain as a way to broaden the perspectives of the majority of students who were largely from
Latin America (Observation).
As with the two signature pedagogies listed above, these connections that teachers made to
their own and to their students’ global experiences revealed the implicit premium teachers placed on
fostering students’ identities as global citizens. Specifically, teachers alluded to the importance of
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 20
cultivating students’ interrelated cultural, national, regional, and global identities (Banks, 2008). For
example, Chris reflected, “If we do stories about different cultures all the time they start to lose
value on their own. And my white middle class children from North Carolina have a culture of their
own too and so I think we want to connect to that... Because we are part of the globe aren’t we?”
Nelson emphasized that he and his students “talk about our backgrounds a lot” as a way to
acknowledge the diversity of the students and teachers of the multicultural school and “share and
connect with one another.”
Table 3.
Examples of Global Competency Signature Pedagogies across Content Area
I. Intentional
integration of global
topics and multiple
perspectives into
and across standard
2) Ongoing
engagement with
global issues
3) Connecting
teachers’ global
students’ global
experiences, and the
Ally Elementary
Taught as a reading
specialist in a public, rural
PK-5 elementary school of
about 700 students.
Student composition
included 54% white, 34%
black, 7% Latino/a, and
5% Native American.
objectives of teaching
empathy and respect
for difference into
lessons; Reading
group passages about
places around the
world; Uses foreign
“currency kits” during
Pen pal relationships
with a school in
Tanzania; Fundraising
with other schools to
build a well for a
school in Tanzania
Shares travel experience
with students, many of
whom have never
traveled, to expose
them to the world;
Skypes with friends
from other countries
with her classes
Linda Elementary
Taught in a suburban
PK-5 school with about
750 students. Student
composition included 76%
white, 15% Latino/a,
and 7% black. She taught
the ESL class, where most
students came from Latin
America or Eastern
Broaden students’
horizons and
perspectives and teach
empathy; Using
routines of kids from
different countries to
teach compare and
Pen pal exchange with
students in Uganda;
Project to collect
school supplies for
students in other
Students and teachers
make connections
between their own
cultural experiences and
content area lessons;
Draws on experience as
a second-language
learner in Greece to
teach ESL students
Taught all subjects in a
pubic magnet
PK-5 IB world school
with about 800 students.
Student composition
included 54% black,
Exposes students to
global resources to
give them perspective;
Learning targets to
respect others who
seem different;
Reinforces students’
Spanish during
Students read books
that inspire them to
take action on helping
the environment ;
Students create a piece
(writing, music, dress)
of their choice to
express themselves
Emphasizes learning
multiple languages
based upon her own
travel experiences and
backgrounds of
students; Incorporates
her travel experiences
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 21
26% Latino/a, and 18%
English language arts
into lesson plans;
Students share their
experiences living or
visiting relatives in
other countries
Mike Middle
Taught social studies in a
public middle school with
an IB middle grades
program. The school had
about 400 students, 82%
were white, 10% Asian,
5% black, and 3%
Uses “global
hypotheticals” and
“global conversations”
to teach content on
geography, culture,
political and economic
system from multiple
perspective and in
ways that fosters
conversations” have
students consider
current global
problems and
brainstorm solutions
Because students have
had “touristy” travel
experiences, he focuses
class on the
marginalized voices in
history; International
students openly share
experiences to expose
classmates to multiple
Simone Middle
Taught social studies and
science in a rural public
middle school with about
800 students. Her school
was 73% white, 20%
black, and 6% Latino/a.
Teaches history from
multiple perspectives;
Uses global examples
in science and social
studies lessons
Students participate in
community service
activities; Created a
pen pals for her
students; Students
write letter to the
president about the
global energy crisis
Hangs up artifacts from
places she has traveled
to elicit questions from
Taught mathematics in
grades 6-12 at a private,
Christian PK-12 school in
an affluent urban area.
Uses global math
stories to teach math
concepts; Asks
probing questions to
make global
Real-world math
Partnerships with
schools in other
countries focused on
doing math in
different cultural
Connects different
cultures to the culture
of his students
Kate Middle
Taught 6th grade English
language arts in a public
urban middle school
representing grades 6, 7,
and 8. The school’s
student composition was
50% black, 40% white,
and 6% Latino/a.
Facilitates student
understanding of
diverse cultures and
perspectives though
novels and
throughout the school
year; Uses examples
from different cultures
and countries for skill-
specific lessons (e.g.,
Using news articles to
understand how word
choice reveals one’s
perspectives; Cross-
disciplinary service-
learning project;
Students choose
novels that they are
interested from other
Students share their
cultural and linguistic
backgrounds and cross-
cultural experiences;
experiences as a Peace
Corps volunteer into
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 22
Taught music and band
for middle and high school
students at a public global
studies K-12 magnet
school. The schools’
approximately 700
students were 57% black,
27% Latino/a, and 8%
Goal of promoting
how music is inter-
related with subject
areas and is used in
other societies; Uses
music from different
Latin America
countries to teach
music methods;
Students partner with
elementary school
students to read global
folk tales
Has students examine
various contexts
around the world
where music is made
Students and teacher
regularly discuss their
backgrounds; Had
extended dialogues with
students about trip to
Costa Rica, helped
teacher connect to
Hispanic students
Alyssa High
Taught English language
arts to AP and college-
prep 11th grade students in
a 1500-student urban
public high school, where
over 90% of students were
black and less than 5%
Uses global current
events as evidence for
argumentative essay
Provides students
various opportunities
to engage in real
Incorporates global
competencies into
Informal conversations
with students about
teaching experience in
India; Intercultural
communication project
with teacher from
India; Students discuss
relevance of global
news to their own lives
Marlene High
Taught Spanish-for-
Heritage Speakers in a
rural high school of 1300
students. The school’s
student composition was
87% white, 6%
Latino/a, and 5% black.
Learning targets
include respect for
other countries and
cultures, sense of self
and connection to the
world, and expanding
students’ worldview;
Essential questions
that guide class
include “How are we
the same? How are we
different? How are we
exchanges with
university students
learning Spanish and
international students;
Students create
biographical Facebook
pages rather than
write reports
Makes connections
from conference and
travel for Skype and
Google Hangout
conversations between
her classes and classes
in Mexico and
Although teaching different subjects and students of different ages and backgrounds, these
ten teachers shared signature pedagogies that defined their globally competent teaching practices.
The vignettes that follow illustrate in more depth what these signature pedagogies look like during a
regular classroom day, and reveal nuances in how these pedagogies look within three different cases,
representing different content areas, grade levels, and school contexts.
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 23
Weaving Together Signature Pedagogies in Everyday Practice
Teachers in our study wove together the three signature pedagogies throughout their lessons.
These pedagogies did not live in isolation. The three vignettes that follow demonstrate how an
elementary, middle, and high school teacher wove the three signature pedagogies together in a way
that taught students to think deeply about their roles in the world as global citizens. We intentionally
highlight these vignettes as representing three distinct cases in three different contexts, thus
expanding the classroom examples that exist in the literature on global citizenship education.
Shauna, a 15-year veteran teacher, taught in a public, PK-5 urban IB magnet elementary
school. In the words of Shauna, as an IB school the faculty “includes a world view in everything we
teach” and students learned Spanish in every grade level. Her diverse classroom included students
who were African American, Latino/a (including Brazilian, Dominican, Mexican, and Puerto Rican),
Afghan, and Indian. Chris taught mathematics for over five years in a private, Christian PK-12
school with a predominately white student population. Alyssa, a lateral-entry English teacher, had
been teaching mostly 11th grade for almost 10 years at a large, historically African American high
school in a mid-sized city. The majority of her students were African-American, but she had a
handful of Latino/a ESL students as well. While the specific curricular materials and teaching
strategies differed across these three classroom contexts, the same underlying signature pedagogies
were interlaced throughout their lessons.
Shauna: Trash-Free Lunch. As a part of a science unit on sharing the planet, Shauna introduces the
book Trash-Free Lunch to a small reading group of five students, which tells the story of students who measured the
amount of garbage that their school generated during lunch and then made efforts to eliminate the trash they used. As
students read the story together, Shauna asks: “What can you do to make your lunch have no trash starting
tomorrow? What do you think?” She then asks, “How many of you bring your lunch?” One student raises his hand
and she asks him to get his lunchbox to show the group. She also shows her lunchbox and reusable water bottle to the
horseshoe table where the students are sitting. She asks students to explain whether these lunches were trash free. A
student then shares that her dad is going shopping today and after hearing the story she will ask her dad to get a water
bottle that she could fill with water and juice to put in her lunchbox. Shauna replies, “That’s action based on what
you learned about pollution. You’re ready to change what you’re doing. You can share this with your friends in the
cafeteria.” Shauna then says that there are schools all over the world that are trash-free and shows a video on the iPad
of lunches all over the world. “What’s different about their trays?” Students respond, “They’re metal.” She then asks,
“Do they throw away their metal trays?” Students say no and that the schools re-use them. Shauna ends the lesson by
sharing her experiences during a professional development program in India where all of the lunches she ate in schools
used metal silverware and plates so that there was no trash. Students bring the books home to read with their parents
that night. (Observation)
All three signature pedagogies were woven throughout this lesson. Shauna integrated the
global issue of pollution into her science unit and taught it in an interdisciplinary way via small
reading groups. Students had authentic engagement with global issues as Shauna challenged them to
apply the lessons from the story into their daily lunch routine. Third, she shared examples of how
she and another student in the class brought reusable water bottles and sandwich containers, and
how she observed trash-free lunches in India, thus connecting the curriculum to the teacher’s and
students’ experiences. An important part of these signature pedagogies was the intentionally on
Shauna’s part of teaching students to be responsible stewards of the planet and active global citizens,
which represented the implicit structure underlying the actions she and her students took in the
classroom. As she explained in a post-observation interview, “These kids saw a problem in their
school and acted on it.”
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 24
Chris: Global Math Stories. Chris passes out a worksheet to his middle school class entitled
“Investigation: Shipping Graveyard.” This worksheet introduces Chittagong, Bangladesh, as one of the 10 fastest
growing populations in the world with shipbreaking as one of its top industries. Before reading the worksheet, Chris
shows his class on Google Maps where the city is located. The class reads the background statement together. Working
together in small groups, students use the division property of exponents to estimate the population of Chittagong at
various time points. After coming back together as a class and having students share how they solved the problem,
Chris poses the question of what happens when the population grows so quickly. He then shows a documentary of the
shipbreaking industry. When a student makes a comment that shipbreaking could be fun, Chris responds by
explaining the dangerous working conditions, including hauling sharp, heavy metal with bare feet and pulling material
apart that contains toxins and asbestos. He points out that some of the workers are 14, the same age as his students.
He then asks the class, “Here’s the challenge. What did we learn about Chittagong in our activity?” A
student responds that it has one of the fastest growing populations. “What does that say about resources?” Chris prods.
Students respond that they need a lot of resources but don’t necessarily have them. Chris connects this back to why
shipbreaking has become a popular industry in Chittagong. He asks small groups to discuss the following: What are
some alternatives? How could we help? What are your impressions? At the end of discussion, Chris says, “One thing
that I was so impressed by was that I was hearing solutions to the problem. I heard you talking about how you could
handle the waste. What are your thoughts on what to do with that?” Students then share the different ideas their small
groups discussed. (Observation)
This vignette illustrates multiple signature pedagogies in practice. First, Chris used a global
example (population growth in Chittagong) to teach the curriculum standard of exponential growth.
The real-world context of applying exponential rules to population growth and the ensuing
discussion on solutions to the problems borne from the shipbreaking industry illustrates authentic
engagement with global issues. Third, Chris made connections to students’ experiences and the
unsafe working conditions of ship-breakers by responding to student comments that initially lacked
sensitivity to the topic. Using these pedagogies, Chris taught math content while simultaneously
guiding students towards developing empathy towards those working in the shipyards and thinking
about ways to take action that addressed the underlying causes of inequities in the shipbreaking
enterprise (i.e., rapid population growth, scarce resources, and developed countries sending ships
filled with toxic waste to shipbreaking ports).
Alyssa: Integrating Global Current Events into English Language Arts.
As she does
many mornings, Alyssa begins her second period Advanced Placement English class by discussing current events.
Alyssa asks students to share news stories they’ve heard and to think about how they could use the news to support an
argument and counterargument for an argumentative essay. With each news story shared, the whole class discusses the
broader themes that could be drawn from it. After a few minutes of sharing news from around the United States,
Alyssa points out that they shared very few global news stories. She asks students what they think global news stories
are, specifically telling them that she does not know the answer, and prods them to share global current events they’ve
heard. One student shares something she heard about President Obama’s foreign policy concerning Iran. A second
student shares the news about the Nigerian schoolgirls who were kidnapped by Boko Haram, which the class discusses
for a short time. From this story, the class identifies themes of terrorism and threat of education; one student calls out
that it was similar to the story of Malala in Afghanistan. Alyssa then turns on CNN student news and, during the
10-minute segment, asks students to rank the news stories from most to least relevant to their personal lives.
Afterwards, students share with each other how they ranked the different news stories and debate why they thought
specific stories were relevant. (Observation)
In this vignette, Alyssa used global examples to teach a content area standard. In her case,
she used international current events as a way to help students with their argumentative essay writing
as she asked them to consider their reasoning for their choice of story relevance. The use of global
news had a spiraling presence throughout her curriculum, as students watched the news in class on a
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 25
regular basis and were able to make connections between current and previous news stories they had
heard, for example, the student making a connection between the kidnapped Nigerian schoolgirls
and the Taliban shooting of Malala Yousafzai. Further, using current events as a jumping-off point
to practice argumentative writing is an authentic way for students to engage in the ELA curriculum,
as opposed to making arguments for decontextualized hypothetical situations. Alyssa also made
explicit connections between students’ lives, the curriculum, and global content. She had students
share the news that they heard outside of class and reflect on how different news stories are
personally relevant to them. She allowed students to define for themselves global news and debate
what global news stories they deemed relevant. Ultimately, the ways in which Alyssa engaged
students in international current events helped open students’ eyes to the multiple ways in which
they were influenced by and contributed to events taking place in the interconnected world.
The findings from this study suggest a core set of integrated signature pedagogies that we
might expect to see from teachers across content areas as they prepare their students for global
citizenship: 1) intentional integration of global topics and multiple perspectives into and across the
standard curriculum; 2) ongoing authentic engagement with global issues; and 3) connecting
teachers’ global experiences, students’ global experiences, and the curriculum. Each contain what
Shulman (2005) identified as core features of signature pedagogies: surface, deep, and implicit
structures, all of which pointed to the desire of the 10 teachers to guide students to see the world
through multiple perspectives, respect differences, develop empathy, and take action to improve
global conditions. These signature pedagogies were pervasive and routine, as they revealed themselves in
teachers across different school contexts, in classrooms filled with students representing varying
demographics, and in different subject areas and grade levels. Further, these pedagogies are aligned
with educational research demonstrating the positive outcomes on student achievement that result
from culturally relevant and sustaining pedagogy (Ladson-Billings, 1995; Paris, 2012) and teaching
for problem-solving through authentic engagement (Newmann & Wehlage, 1993). This suggests that
as UNESCO (2014), Asia Society (2014), and other advocates recommend, it is feasible for global
citizenship education to be infused into extant curriculum in courses such as math, science, English,
and the arts alongside social studies and language. To do so, educators must value critical
conceptualizations of global citizenship in how and what they teach and themselves be supported via
state, district, and teacher education policy in developing globally competent teaching practices.
Implications for Policy
If all teachers are to become global citizenship educators as suggested by current global
citizenship education policy advocates (e.g., UNESCO), they need visions of possibility across
content areas. These signature pedagogies for globally competent teaching provide a framework
around which global citizenship education policy could be designed and implemented. First, state
and district teacher standards and evaluations can, and should, include global citizenship integration
as part of the competencies that all teachers should be expected to possess. These are not
prescriptive, but rather are intentionally flexible so that teachers and students have autonomy in
determining what global content to incorporate, what authentic tasks are most meaningful, and how
their personal global experiences may contribute to global citizenship and curricular goals. This
could take the form of observation checklists or a part of teachers’ professional development plans.
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 26
Policies that require teachers to utilize these pedagogies necessitate that structures be put in
place to build teacher capacity in these areas. Therefore, these signature pedagogies, as visions of
possibility, have implications for teacher education. As teacher educators set out to prepare teachers
for globalized contexts, a deep and thorough understanding of signature pedagogies for global
citizenship education provides teacher educators with a place to begin preparing teachers for this
work. Teacher education programs could embed these pedagogies throughout coursework and field
experiences (Shakley & Bailey, 2012). Within foundations and methods coursework, these signature
pedagogies could be intentionally integrated into course objectives, content, instructional materials,
and modeling of instructional delivery (Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016; Ukpokodu, 2010). Teacher
education programs can better link theory to practice by placing student teachers in classrooms
where teachers are committed to doing this work so that they can observe and practice globally
competent teaching in the school contexts where they will teach. In addition, teacher educators
should be attuned to the range of cross-cultural, international, and activist-oriented experiences that
teacher candidates bring with them when they enter a program, and provide additional differentiated
local and international experiences. For example, they might prioritize student teaching abroad
opportunities for those who have not traveled overseas or forge partnerships with local community
organizations that play active roles in promoting equity and social justice for those students with few
experiences engaging with the local community. Participating in such experiences may help teachers
create authentic global citizenship-oriented tasks for students and better connect their own
experiences with the curriculum and the experiences of students.
School districts play a primary role in furthering the professional development of teachers
once they matriculate out of teacher education programs (Whitenack & Swanson, 2013). As such,
they can use these three signature pedagogies as a framework for selecting required professional
development for educators or for providing information and funding for non-mandated
professional development opportunities that can further educators’ development of these signature
pedagogies for global competence development. A number of organizations provide such training
and programs abroad for in-service teachers, including Asia Society, Primary Source, VIF
International Education, World Savvy, and World View. In addition, school districts should provide
opportunities (e.g., shared planning periods, professional development days) for teachers in different
departments and grade levels to collaborate on global signature pedagogies to help achieve the
spiraling, integrated presence of global content and perspectives across the curriculum (Garet,
Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001; Guskey, 2003). It is important that school districts go
beyond simply saying that global citizenship education is important by inserting it into mission and
vision statements or teacher evaluations. For teachers to truly integrate these signature pedagogies
into their everyday teaching practice requires that they are given the time, resources, and funding to
learn, practice, and reflect.
Global citizenship education can, and should, be woven throughout the school day and the
scholastic experience of youth today, not as an add-on but as a way to teach all subject areas. The
problems and perspectives that students will encounter in our interconnected world will not occur in
isolation but will be deeply rooted in areas such as the humanities, social sciences, technology, and
the environment. The teachers we worked with recognized the importance of using their traditional
content areas as a vehicle for driving their students to identify as citizens of the world who are
empathetic, respect differences, understand global interconnectedness, and take action on issues of
global importance, and they used common signature pedagogies as a mechanism for doing so.
Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 27
As others have argued against soft forms of global citizenship that prescribe universal
solutions to complex global problems (Andreotti, 2006), we believe that signature pedagogies for
globally competent teaching should remain broad and flexible so that teachers can reflect on how to
adjust learning activities and global citizenship outcomes to the needs and experiences of their
students and curriculum that they are required to teach. As with Shulman (2005) and Boix Mansilla
(2013), we also recognize that signature pedagogies are open to ongoing feedback and revision. As
such, we invite researchers, practitioners, and policymakers to use the signature pedagogies we
described as a starting place to embark in future research and policy action that supports teachers in
all content areas to guide students’ development as active, responsible citizens in our globalized
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Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 31
About the Authors
Ariel Tichnor-Wagner
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Ariel Tichnor-Wagner is a doctoral candidate in the Policy, Leadership, and School
Improvement program in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel
Hill. Her research focuses on the adoption and implementation of policies aimed at improving
the academic and social-emotional outcomes of culturally and linguistically diverse students and
globally competent teaching practices.
Hillary Parkhouse
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Hillary Parkhouse is a doctoral candidate in the Culture, Curriculum, and Change program at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Her research interests are critical pedagogy and critical
theory, citizenship education, global education, and secondary social studies.
Jocelyn Glazier
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Jocelyn Glazier, Ph.D. is an Associate Professor in the School of Education at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. A former high school English teacher, Jocelyn now prepares teachers
to create and enact meaningful, equitable and transformative curricula and pedagogy in their
classrooms. Her research has consistently focused on the ways teachers can break cycles of
oppression in schools. In particular, she has examined the experiences of teachers as they collaborate
to transform their teaching to incorporate experiential and multicultural pedagogies into their
Jessie Montana Cain
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Jessie Montana Cain, Ph.D., a former K-12 teacher, earned her doctorate in Educational Psychology,
Measurement, and Evaluation from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As an applied
psychometrician, her research interests focus on bridging the gap between the field of measurement
and equity-driven fields such as multicultural education. She is currently a Postdoctoral Research
Associate at the Education Policy Initiative at Carolina where she conducts policy-relevant research
and program evaluation.
Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 32
About the Guest Editor
John P. Myers
Florida State University
John P. Myers is Associate Professor in the School of Teacher Education at Florida State University
and coordinator of the Social Science Education program. His research examines the consequences
of globalization for how youth understand the complexities of the modern world. This work focuses
on classroom practices that foster global citizenship and identities as students come to understand
core world history and social science concepts.
Education for Global Citizenship:
Democratic Visions and Future Directions
education policy analysis archives
Volume 24 Number 59 May 16, 2016 ISSN 1068-2341
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Fos tering g l o bal citizenship across co n tent a reas 34
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Ed ucational Policy A n alysis Ar c hives V o l . 24 No. 59 SPECIAL ISSUE 35
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Almerindo Afonso
Universidade do Minho
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Dalila Andrade Oliveira
Universidade Federal de Minas
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... Denne oversikten er ikke uttømmende, men viser at internasjonale forhold og globale spørsmål som tema er inkludert i norsk skole, mens perspektivene på og framstillingene av dette er mindre entydige. Forskningen er mangelfull på hvordan dette praktisk foregår i skolen, og hvordan og hvorfor laerere vektlegger disse perspektivene (Børhaug, 2021;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016). ...
... Tarozzi og Inguaggiatos studie (2016) av hvordan global laering er integrert i utdanningssystemene i ti EU-land viser at flere tema går igjen som sentrale i de forskjellige landene, der mangfold, menneskerettigheter, miljø, fred/konflikt og temaer knyttet til sosial og økonomisk ulikhet dominerer i landene som er analysert. Casestudier i enkeltland viser tematisk variasjon avhengig av landets kulturelle, sosiokulturelle og økonomiske kontekst (Davies, 2006;Oxley & Morris, 2013;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016), mens flere post-koloniale studier kritiserer global laering for å vektlegge overfladisk kunnskap som unngår komplekse og etiske spørsmål knyttet til hegemoni og ulikhet som reproduserer globale maktsystemer ved skape et eurosentrisk «oss» som hjelper «de andre» som har problemer (Andreotti, 2011;Mikander, 2016;Pashby et al., 2020). ...
... Den globale dimensjonen i utviklingen av samfunnsforståelse blir i den internasjonale litteraturen om feltet primaert knyttet teoretisk til (a) utvikling av et utvidet medborgerskapsbegrep, (b) utdanning for baerekraftig utvikling og (c) interkulturell kompetanse og mangfoldsforståelse (Goren & Yemini, 2017;Hicks, 2003;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016). Her blir begreper som globalt medborgerskap, global bevissthet, internasjonalisering, global utdanning/laering/danning og utdanning for baerekraftig utvikling anvendt av ulike bidragsytere (Davies et al, 2005;Klein, 2020;Tarozzi & Inguaggiato, 2016;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016). ...
Full-text available
Denne artikkelen belyser hvilken rolle internasjonale spørsmål og globale forhold har for et utvalg samfunnsfaglærere i videregående skole forut for fagfornyelsen, og hvilke hensikter og formål som knyttes til slik undervisning. Internasjonale spørsmål og tematikk knyttet til globale forhold har vært en integrert del av samfunnsfagene i norsk skole og blir framhevet som ett av flere aspekter ved skolens dannelsesoppdrag, også etter fagfornyelsen. Det er imidlertid uklart hvilken rolle global læring faktisk har i praksis, og hvilke formål lærerne har med å undervise i tematikken. Gjennom en kvalitativ intervjustudie analyseres disse problemstillingene i lys av kritiske tilnærminger til global bevissthet og globalt medborgerskap. Studien viser at lærerne betrakter internasjonale forhold og globale spørsmål som en viktig og nødvendig del av samfunnsfaget, og dette blir knyttet til en utvidet, «kosmonasjonal» medborgerskapsforståelse. Samtidig er det primært en «myk» og veldedighetsbasert tilnærming til global bevissthet som trer fram, mens de kritisk-strukturelle og deltagende perspektivene på global bevissthet er mindre synlige selv om disse også er til stede, spesielt i møte med bærekraftstemaer.
... Globalisation and unprecedented migration waves in the early 21 st century have led to increasing diversity and growing multiculturalism in many countries, including the Flanders region . Although the migration phenomenon has occurred throughout time, it has never before been as extensive and rapid Rios & Markus, 2011;Wagner et al., 2016), challenging traditional nation states to deal with the co-existence of many cultural, linguistic, religious, ethnic, and social differences simultaneously . The uncertainties that have accompanied this increased diversity have challenged society to think about how to deal with this changing context and have resulted in renewed attention for different citizenship approaches . ...
... Nations, therefore, need to offer everyone opportunities to develop and maintain their unique group identities while exploring how to simultaneously involve them in a shared community . Rather than a fixed identity in the traditional nation state that overlooks differences, in this view multiple, fluid, changing, opposing, and overlapping identities are allowed which balance individual, local, national, and global identifications Myers & Zaman, 2009;Veugelers, 2020;Wagner et al., 2016). ...
... As teachers most likely teach interpretations of citizenship that are in line with their underlying citizenship beliefs, accounting for these beliefs is essential to fully understand their choices when implementing citizenship education in their classroom . However, only limited empirical research has focused on what teachers believe good citizenship comprises and which different underlying normative beliefs drive their practices Wagner et al., 2016). ...
... Within social studies education, several studies have illuminated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and how they teach for justice (Ciechanowski, 2012Martell & Stevens, 2017b;Pang & Gibson, 2001;Parkhouse, 2018;Sondel, 2015;Stevens & Martell, 2016;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016). In these studies, researchers have explicated the complex development of beliefs and practices related to equity-oriented approaches for teaching about race (Martell & Stevens, 2017b), gender (Stevens & Martell, 2016), democracy (Pang & Gibson, 2001), critical consciousness (Parkhouse, 2018), global competence (Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016), and disrupting stereotypes (Ciechanowski, 2013). ...
... Within social studies education, several studies have illuminated the relationship between teachers' beliefs and how they teach for justice (Ciechanowski, 2012Martell & Stevens, 2017b;Pang & Gibson, 2001;Parkhouse, 2018;Sondel, 2015;Stevens & Martell, 2016;Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016). In these studies, researchers have explicated the complex development of beliefs and practices related to equity-oriented approaches for teaching about race (Martell & Stevens, 2017b), gender (Stevens & Martell, 2016), democracy (Pang & Gibson, 2001), critical consciousness (Parkhouse, 2018), global competence (Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016), and disrupting stereotypes (Ciechanowski, 2013). They have identified ways that school contexts can create barriers for teachers who wish to implement justice pedagogy in the classroom (Sondel, 2015), and they have even been able to draw important conclusions about teaching for equity from unsuccessful equity-practices (Ciechanowski, 2012). ...
... Of course, this is not to suggest the teachers who identified as white and/or men were unsuccessful, which is quite the contrary, as Martin, Dana, Jane, and Rafael all focused on justice in their teaching, often in ways that decentered whiteness or maleness (Delgado & Stefancic, 2017;DiAngelo, 2016;Love, 2019). One possible reason for this might have been the teachers' heightened awareness of their own racial and gender identities (Lawrence, 1997;Tatum, 1994). As for what accounts for this awareness, we contend that their teacher preparation program sheds a partial light on the issue. ...
Using interpretative case study methods, the researchers examined the beliefs and practices of 10 preservice social studies teachers with self-described preferences to teach for justice. While all of the participants in this study identified as committed to justice, there was a division between teachers whose beliefs were tolerance-oriented (focused primarily on individual prejudice) and teachers whose beliefs were equity-oriented (focused primarily on systemic oppression). Across the cases, we generally found that the teachers were grouped into three types: teachers not making progress toward critical social studies, teachers implementing critical social studies irregularly, and teachers implementing critical social studies regularly. Teachers who had strong equity-oriented beliefs were more likely to implement critical social studies regularly in their classrooms during student teaching.
... OECD/Asia Society (2018) defines the domains of global competence as the investigation of the world, recognizing perspectives, communicating ideas, and taking actions (OECD/ Asia Society, 2018). Alternatively, this term can be defined as the ability to examine local, international, and intercultural issues (Tichnor-Wagner et al., 2016;OECD/Asia Society, 2018). Collective well-being and sustainable development entail the critical understanding and acceptance of other perspectives. ...
Full-text available
Research in the globalization era has emphasized the importance of global competence and its integration into language teaching and learning. This article discussed the current focus of global education through the integration of global competence in English as a Second Language (ESL) in Malaysia. The country’s global competence development among ESL teachers and students, along with its integration into English lessons, were identified, satisfying the need to achieve quality education. The global competence integration of ESL teachers will meet the fourth United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 4), which strives for quality education. The global education goals form a critical starting point of this article, which articulates the connection to the targets in SDG 4. Hence, this article investigated the significance of global competence in language teaching and learning in Malaysia. Overall, the integration of global competence among ESL teachers can provide life-long learning, enhancing the quality of education.
... The main aim of CE in democratic societies is to strengthen citizens' engagement and encourage active participation in society (Geboers et al. 2013). Traditionally, CE has highlighted a formal political interpretation in which participation and engagement are associated with commitment to the nation-state (Wagner et al. 2016). Previous research has found that teachers' beliefs about what CE entails tend to be rather conservative. ...
Full-text available
With the rise of Global Citizenship Education (GCE) in education systems worldwide, recent research has attempted to categorise its various types and orientations. There are, however, limited insights into how different education stakeholders perceive and implement GCE in pedagogical practice. To bridge this gap between theory and practice, we apply a social cartography of GCE types from a recent study to identify management staff’s, teachers’, and pupils’ perceptions of GCE in the context of Dutch (bilingual) secondary education. Based on a content analysis of 12 interviews and three focus groups with pupils, our findings indicate a clear dominance of a liberal orientation towards GCE, focusing on political and moral themes, but also evidence of a critical orientation, as well as liberal-critical and neoliberal-liberal interfaces. We propose that the reflections of practitioners and pupils presented in this study should be used to further develop (Dutch) GCE.
... VOSviewer provides an appealing user user interfaces that rapidly studies these maps because it is difficult to find clusters in mapping and extract themes from them.. As a result, four clusters (software, education, business and user experience) in gamification and business visualization; three clusters (training, project and trainer experience) in gamification and education visualization; four clusters (application, technology, training and data) in gamification and human resources; three clusters (education, application and technology) in gamification and & Cain, 2016). Strong, collaborative school-university partnerships present one opportunity for supporting educators' professional development. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The main goal of this research is to reveal the perceptions of 8th grade students towards game-based EFL utilizing metaphors by analyzing their academic achievements. A total number of 69, 8th grade students aged between 12 and 14 were enrolled. A web 2.0 tool named “Quizziz” was applied to observe the accuracy of the students on game-based tests. Their academic achievements were recorded weekly and their perceptions based on their results were gathered via a data collection tool. Data were analyzed using content analysis; obtained metaphors were divided into categories and the frequencies were calculated. The reliability of the study was found to be 96%. Concludingly, positive perceptions were produced by the participants on digital game-based EFL by expressing that this process was utterly effective, by stating that their motivation was increased through in-game power-ups, competing with other students, and having immediate feedback. So far, studies have been conducted analyzing the effectiveness of game-based EFL on the achievements of students varying of different ages in a number of subjects. Nonetheless, no research has been carried out on this subject, therefore revealing the importance of utilizing digital game-based EFL on students’ academic achievements has been a requirement.
... VOSviewer provides an appealing user user interfaces that rapidly studies these maps because it is difficult to find clusters in mapping and extract themes from them.. As a result, four clusters (software, education, business and user experience) in gamification and business visualization; three clusters (training, project and trainer experience) in gamification and education visualization; four clusters (application, technology, training and data) in gamification and human resources; three clusters (education, application and technology) in gamification and & Cain, 2016). Strong, collaborative school-university partnerships present one opportunity for supporting educators' professional development. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Higher education (HE) institutions have long recognized the importance of maintaining competitiveness and sustainability in the global market. In that, universities need to strengthen their global presence through various internationalization activities to attract international student admission and lead in innovation.Furthermore, an inclusive view of sustainability in HE perceived the need for universities to build a strong international brand to make quality education more accessible. Therefore, a collaboration between cross-national HE institutions can be a strategy to address not only the intensifying market forces, but also the need to sustain growth across multiple collaborative forms. Latent content analysis on 34 articles, with seven focused on higher education internalization during the pandemic, revealed challenges and strategies built around six major themes: reciprocal relationship, cultural competency and credibility, institutional support, logistical support, faculty workload and incentives, and periodic assessment and evaluation.The reciprocity and cultural competency appear frequently and are interconnected themes indicating some shared behaviors as prerequisites for establishing and maintaining partnerships.
... There is no room for doubt that the teacher is vital to generating rich and meaningful historical experiences for their pupils by making them aware of the sources and of the diversity of historical perspectives (Meneses et al. 2019). Similarly, for teachers to be able to put into practice those historical experiences which foster citizenship among their pupils, it is vital that they develop these competencies in themselves (Tichnor-Wagner et al. 2016). Fuentes-Moreno et al. (2020) concluded that teachers fulfil a fundamental role in the promotion of citizenship education in their classes through the teaching of social sciences, since their role is fundamental in the choice of both content and work methods, as well as in generating learning environments that favor participatory processes. ...
Full-text available
The most recent scientific literature on the treatment of social problems or controversial social questions in the Social Sciences classroom and their inclusion into curricula emphasizes the need to introduce students into large-scale social debates where different points of view exist, different interests are at stake, and where it is desirable that they construct their own opinions in that respect from a critical and reasoned perspective. Work with social problems permits a typology of analysis that includes the relative experience of the past and the expectations for the future in a present that is lived, and to consider the temporal relation on the basis of an analysis of changes and continuities that are observable from a comparative perspective. In the comprehension and interpretation of the historicity of the present and in planning the social future, social problems would have to represent a fundamental curricular tenant that gives relevance to the contemporaneousness of the student. This book aims to answer the following research questions with theoretical and empirical studies: 1. What are the purposes of teaching history and social sciences at today’s schools? 2. What is the place of social thought formation and social problems in learning/teaching in Social Sciences? Prof. Dr. Delfín Ortega-Sánchez Editor
... As implication, it can be expressed that the weak infrastructure, especially in rural areas, should be strengthened by the local and central government in order for more students to easily access education and families should be educated about distance education and digitalization. & Cain, 2016). Strong, collaborative school-university partnerships present one opportunity for supporting educators' professional development. ...
Conference Paper
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Micro learning is a new learning field that arises against the increasing need for lifelong learning and aims to discover new learning ways and is included in e-learning environments (Job & Ogalo, 2012). Micro-learning is one of the reform-oriented approaches that can accelerate digital transformation in mathematics teaching, contribute to integrating technology in mathematics education and engage students in mathematics. In the study, we discussed the conceptual and procedural information on the subject of “Ratio.” We have created conceptual and operational information definitions on the subject. In the study we conducted within qualitative research, we preferred the case study approach research design. The study participants are ten sixth-grade students studying in a secondary school in the Eastern Anatolia region from Turkey. In the study, we used the Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test (CPKT), consisting of 22 questions that we developed as a data collection tool and interviews. We prepared digital content with Web 2.0 tools. We analyzed the data we obtained within the scope of the research with the method of content analysis. Based on the findings obtained within the scope of the research, it can be said that both the conceptual and procedural knowledge of the students on the subject of “Ratio” after the education made by microlearning in the e-learning environment is at the desired level. This result shows that micro-learning can be used in mathematics learning-teaching processes. Keywords: mathematic education, micro learning, conceptual and procedural knowledge
This study aims to investigate how teachers’ citizenship beliefs relate to the way they teach citizenship in the classroom. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 65 sixth-grade primary school teachers in Flanders. The results show a dominant presence of conservative citizenship beliefs, which are also reflected in the citizenship contents teachers prefer and the roles they assign themselves. Teachers, regardless of their citizenship beliefs, predominantly use daily situations and current events as educational materials. The article concludes with recommendations for a better endorsement for teachers with particular attention for an expansion of their citizenship beliefs and citizenship education.
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This narrative inquiry uses pedagogic discourse theory and organization theory to frame pre-service teacher education and in-service professional development initiatives in a school district facing tensions related to the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Implications for similar future initiatives are considered.
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Background/Context The current national debate over the purposes of civic education is largely tied to outdated notions of citizenship that overlook its changing nature under globalization. Civic education is based on a legalistic understanding of citizenship that emphasizes patriotism and the structures and functions of government. This study examined adolescents’ civic beliefs and affiliations, drawing on theories of transnational and global citizenship. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study The purpose was to examine diverse adolescents’ vocabularies of citizenship, a concept that captures the tensions in their civic beliefs and affiliations. Their vocabularies were explored in terms of two topics at the intersection of national and global affiliations: universal human rights and global citizenship. The central question asked was: How do adolescents from immigrant backgrounds understand the tensions between national and global civic affiliations, and do they differ from dominant-culture adolescents’ understandings? Setting The research setting was the Pennsylvania Governor's School for International Studies, a 5-week summer program for high school students that emphasizes current scholarship and skills in international affairs, cultural studies, and foreign language. Research Design A mixed-method case study design was employed to collect detailed and rich data on the students’ beliefs about citizenship. Findings/Results The findings showed that the students from immigrant backgrounds favored universal positions and were the only students to call attention to national economic inequalities. In contrast, a majority of the dominant-culture students gave a more central role to national affiliations. However, over half of the students switched between universal and nationally oriented positions for the issues of global citizenship and human rights. It is argued that these switches represent a strong indication of the tensions in civic affiliations in light of globalization. Conclusions/Recommendations The findings presented here suggest that the question of either national- or global-oriented civic education makes little sense. This research suggests that differentiated forms of civic education are needed if all youth will have access to full citizenship and the range of civic affiliations needed in the world. Two approaches for reconceptualizing civic education are proposed: Civic education curricula should focus on the intersection of national with global issues and affiliations, and civic education should address, in addition to civic attitudes, skills, and knowledge, a conscious effort to help adolescents build flexible and multiple civic identities.
This paper presents a study that focuses on American pre-service teachers who taught in France from September to December 2009. The American participants were chosen to compare results with similar programs designed for American students studying abroad. It would be impossible to draw valid and reliable comparisons between the US and French programs because the two exchanges are very different. For future teachers, the intercultural competence they achieve abroad can help prepare them to meet the challenges of the increasingly diverse student population they will encounter in their classrooms when they return home and to be more capable of preparing citizens for the interconnected world of the 21st century.
As classrooms become increasingly diverse and students need more complex skills for collaboratively addressing transnational issues, we need a better understanding of the factors that contribute to globally competent teaching. Education research has highlighted the benefits of study abroad and overseas teaching, as well as local cross-cultural immersion, but these options are not always feasible. We sought to identify the various means by which teachers develop global competence. Through this qualitative case study of 10 global educators, we found that international travel, though present in some instances, was not always necessary. In fact, it was an accumulation of experiences that prompted teachers to incorporate global perspectives, lessons, and skill development throughout their careers. Thus, globally competent teaching may be better conceptualized as a path, rather than as an end goal.
In a largely standards-driven educational climate, educators are challenged to navigate the tensions between standards-based, scholarly pursuits and the more experiential, student-driven techniques of technology-enabled global education. At a time when these tensions are at their zenith, we need to prioritize global competencies and other 21st-century skills alongside more scholarly and standards-based education so that all learning has meaning and purpose for our students. This article explores how global educators are developing integrated approaches that include a strategic combination of technological tools, global partner organizations, high-quality resources, and a well-defined sense of the skills and knowledge to be fostered through global learning.
If the definitions of global citizenship are varied and contestable, how do teachers conceptualize and make meaning of global citizenship when required to teach global citizenship in the classroom? For this study, twenty-nine grade six social studies teachers in British Columbia, Canada, were surveyed on their definitions of global citizenship with a focus on active participation. Their responses indicated a belief in active citizenship, civic global responsibility, community service, and making change in the world; however, the focus of their student work in global citizenship was often limited to treating the symptoms of global inequalities, thus ignoring our interdependencies. Consequently, this article suggests that a more critical approach to global citizenship needs to be articulated in curriculum documents and promoted in schools.