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... Reduced Ab-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. (192,193,194) Inhibited Ab fibrillogenesis in human brain. ...
... Foremost categories of phytochemical present in pomegranate fruit are Polyphenols and have shown antioxidant activity through in vivo PD models (193) and in vitro (194). Chelate metal ions and donating hydrogen atoms are the properties of phenolic compounds which help them to scavenge free radicals. ...
... Chelate metal ions and donating hydrogen atoms are the properties of phenolic compounds which help them to scavenge free radicals. The scavenging capability of the juice of pomegranate is due to punicalagin an active ingredient which is three fold of green tea infusion or red wine (193). Additionally, the juice has favorable medicinal value and will shield from inflammation, cancer, trauma, and neurons degeneration (195,196). ...
Article
Neurodegeneration is the destruction of neurons, and once the neurons degenerate they can’t revive. This is one of the most concerned health conditions among aged population, more than ∼70% of the elderly people are suffering from neurodegeneration. Among all of the neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Poly-glutamine disease (Poly-Q) are the major one and affecting most of the people around the world and posing excessive burden on the society. In order to understand this disease in non-human animal models it is pertinent to examine in model organism and various animal model are being used for such diseases like rat, mice and non-vertebrate model like Drosophila. Drosophila melanogaster is one of the best animal proven by several eminent scientist and had received several Nobel prizes for uncovering mechanism of human related genes and highly efficient model for studying neurodegenerative diseases due to its great affinity with human disease-related genes. Another factor is also employed to act as therapeutic or preventive method that is nutraceuticals. Nutraceuticals are functional natural compounds with antioxidant properties and had extensively showed the neuroprotective effect in different organisms. These nutraceuticals having antioxidant properties act through scavenging free radicals or by increasing endogenous cellular antioxidant defense molecules. For the best benefit, we are trying to utilize these nutraceuticals, which will have no or negligible side effects. In this review, we are dealing with various types of such nutraceuticals which have potent value in the prevention and curing of the diseases related to neurodegeneration. • Highlights • Neurodegeneration is the silently progressing disease which shows its symptoms when it is well rooted. • Many chemical drugs (almost all) have only symptomatic relief with side effects. • Potent mechanism of neurodegeneration and improvement effect by nutraceuticals is proposed. • Based on the Indian Cuisine scientists are trying to find the medicine from the food or food components having antioxidant properties. • The best model to study the neurodegenerative diseases is Drosophila melanogaster. • Many nutraceuticals having antioxidant properties have been studied and attenuated various diseases are discussed.
... The most cultivated strawberry species produced in North America is F. × ananassa, arising from breeding between two species: F. × virginiana and F. × chiloensis (Stewart and Folta, 2010). Strawberry fruits provide a wide range of sensory elicitation and health benefits to the consumer, including high fiber, micronutrient, and ascorbic acid content (Giampieri et al., 2012;Afrin et al., 2016;Battino et al., 2016). Additionally, strawberry fruits are part of a growing trend that highlights plant-derived antioxidants for their proven health benefits (Nile and Park, 2014). ...
... Considering the important role that strawberry plants play in the fruit industry, several reviews on strawberry production have been conducted, including flower initiation, development, handling, flavor profile, and health benefits (López-Aranda et al., 2011;Heide et al., 2013;Afrin et al., 2016;Baicu and Popa, 2018;Yan et al., 2018). However, there is limited information available on the impact of light properties on strawberry productivity and secondary metabolite accumulation. ...
Article
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Rapid technology development in controlled environment (CE) plant production has been applied to a large variety of plants. In recent years, strawberries have become a popular fruit for CE production because of their high economic and nutritional values. With the widespread use of light-emitting diode (LED) technology in the produce industry, growers can manipulate strawberry growth and development by providing specific light spectra. Manipulating light intensity and spectral composition can modify strawberry secondary metabolism and highly impact fruit quality and antioxidant properties. While the impact of visible light on secondary metabolite profiles for other greenhouse crops is well documented, more insight into the impact of different light spectra, from UV radiation to the visible light spectrum, on strawberry plants is required. This will allow growers to maximize yield and rapidly adapt to consumer preferences. In this review, a compilation of studies investigating the effect of light properties on strawberry fruit flavonoids is provided, and a comparative analysis of how light spectra influences strawberry’s photobiology and secondary metabolism is presented. The effects of pre-harvest and post-harvest light treatments with UV radiation and visible light are considered. Future studies and implications for LED lighting configurations in strawberry fruit production for researchers and growers are discussed.
... Some authors have stated that the consumption of plants containing such metabolites leads to a significant reduction in the risk of contracting some chronic diseases (Afrin et al., 2016). The consumption of plants of the genus Prosopis is therefore recommended to increase general health. ...
... Juliflorine also shows activity against Alzheimer's, according to , and some flavonoids with antioxidant effects, i.e., −(−)mesquitol, have been reported (Sirmah et al., 2009). These benefits of phytochemical compounds significantly contribute to reducing the effects of various diseases, including chronicle diseases, all over the world (Afrin et al., 2016). Prosopis species have been successfully used in traditional medicine for about 1,000 years to cure many diseases (Giovannetti et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
The arid and semi-arid areas in Argentina occupy more than the sixty percent of the country. The genus Prosopis dominates these environments with approximately 21 species. The driest part of the Argentinean Pampas is dominated by caldén (Prosopis caldenia) forests which cover approximately 27,000 km2. For many years, caldén woodlands were considered as a main source of wood due to its praiseworthy quality. At the beginning of the last century it was widely used as railroad firewood and for paving the streets of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. As a result, only 18% of the original area of these forests remain nowadays. Today, new paradigmas allow us to value the caldén forests not only for their wood but also for the many services that they can provide such as food, medicinal products, dyeing materials, apiculture, regulation of water basins, stabilization of sandy soils, recycling of nutrients, carbon sink, forage for livestock and recreation. In a context of global change, the fact that these forests are a refuge for a large proportion of mammals and birds emphasizes their value as a source of biodiversity. Despite the many functions that these forests have and regardless of the ecosystem services that they provide being valued at USD 2,000 ha-1, they are currently subject to the highest deforestation rates in Argentina. Valuing these forests is a complex task and challenge in a globalized economy that constantly struggles between productive systems which require the replacement of forests and the need to preserve them for the generations to come.
... Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is an important commercial fruit crop with rich organoleptic qualities such as a pleasant flavor, texture, and taste, and numerous health benefits [1,2]. Strawberries are widely consumed as fresh fruit or processed into various food products [1,2]. ...
... Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is an important commercial fruit crop with rich organoleptic qualities such as a pleasant flavor, texture, and taste, and numerous health benefits [1,2]. Strawberries are widely consumed as fresh fruit or processed into various food products [1,2]. Based on the most recent statistics, global strawberry production has increased by 41% in the last decade; and China, the United States of America (USA), the European Union (EU), Mexico, Turkey, Egypt, and South Korea are the leading producers [1,3]. ...
Article
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Due to the increasing health and environmental risks associated with the use of fungicides in agriculture, alternatives—such as using plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) to suppress phytopathogens—that simultaneously improve plant yield, are important. This study evaluated the biocontrol efficiency of Bacillus velezensis CE100 against Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, the respective causal agents for charcoal rot and fusarium wilt diseases in strawberry, and its potential to enhance strawberry growth and fruit production. B. velezensis CE 100 produced fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes, chitinases, and β-1,3-glucanases; and inhibited the mycelial growth of M. phaseolina and F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae by 64.7% and 55.2%, respectively. The mycelia of both phytopathogenic fungi showed severe swelling and rupturing of the hyphae compared to the smooth, normal growth in the control group. Moreover, B. velezensis CE100 produced up to 2.8 units/mL of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during incubation and enhanced root biomass in strawberries. Consequently, B. velezensis CE 100 not only increased the fruit yield of strawberries by controlling the fungal diseases but also through enhancing plant growth. The findings of this study indicate that B. velezensis CE100 could be a safe, ecofriendly biocontrol alternative to chemical fungicides in strawberry production.
... Some authors have stated that the consumption of plants containing such metabolites leads to a significant reduction in the risk of contracting some chronic diseases (Afrin et al., 2016). The consumption of plants of the genus Prosopis is therefore recommended to increase general health. ...
... Juliflorine also shows activity against Alzheimer's, according to , and some flavonoids with antioxidant effects, i.e., −(−)mesquitol, have been reported (Sirmah et al., 2009). These benefits of phytochemical compounds significantly contribute to reducing the effects of various diseases, including chronicle diseases, all over the world (Afrin et al., 2016). Prosopis species have been successfully used in traditional medicine for about 1,000 years to cure many diseases (Giovannetti et al., 2008). ...
... Based on observations many studies proved that higher fruit intake lowered the risk of diabetes [19]. Intake of food with enriched phytochemicals results in reducing the diseases and maintaining the oxidation reduction reactions in cells. ...
... Phytochemicals from strawberry juice are screened by using HPLC [31]. Strawberry has more fiber content; its nutritional value and taste can vary due to environmental factors as well as genetic variation [19]. The risk of diabetes and diabetic complications can be reduced by the intake of natural polyphenols [32]. ...
Research
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Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for α-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e., strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC "High-performance liquid chromatography" screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e., PPARα "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α" and PPARγ (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibit the α-amylase then α-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... Based on observations many studies proved that higher fruit intake lowered the risk of diabetes [19]. Intake of food with enriched phytochemicals results in reducing the diseases and maintaining the oxidation reduction reactions in cells. ...
... Phytochemicals from strawberry juice are screened by using HPLC [31]. Strawberry has more fiber content; its nutritional value and taste can vary due to environmental factors as well as genetic variation [19]. The risk of diabetes and diabetic complications can be reduced by the intake of natural polyphenols [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes is one of the serious metabolic disorders occurred due to the imbalance of glucose level because of damaged pancreatic β-cells and lower production of insulin in body. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (TD1) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (TD2) are main types of diabetes. Major portion of the world is suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Drugs used for diabetes are insulin, biguanides, sulfonylurea and inhibitors for a-glucosidase. Traditional medicines are under trial to reduce diabetic complications with no/minimum side effects. Many antidiabetic plants are under potential research i.e. strawberry, jamun, mulberry, fenugreek, turmeric, black pepper, garlic, ginger, grapefruit, and cinnamon. All of these have antidiabetic potential. These plants have bioactive compounds present in minute amounts. These compounds act against inflammation, diabetes, bacteria, fungi, other microbial infections, and obesity. These plants have antioxidant potential as well. Through HPLC “High- Performance Liquid Chromatography” screening, the compounds identified were caffeic acid, isoquercetin, kaempferol and other flavonoids. These compounds showed hypoglycemic activity. They are responsible for the increased uptake of glucose by the adipose and muscle tissues due to the activation of specific receptors i.e. PPARa “Peroxisome Proliferatoractivated Receptors a” and PPARγ (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ). These activate the enzymes like glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase and catalase. Glutathione peroxidase inhibits the a-amylase then a-glucosidase lower glucose level. Effect of phytochemicals present in antidiabetic plants were studied in vitro and in vivo in animal models by inducing diabetes in them by streptozotocin, alloxan and diet on diabetic patients. Types of phytochemical compounds and their composition vary due to environmental factors, extraction and separation techniques which can have effect on clinical analysis. Bioavailability of oral drugs was also studied synergistically with these plants. Synthetic drugs, if are used with these natural compounds, they have no harmful effect but increase effectiveness. These herbal medications are more preferable, safe to use and cost effective due to which it is easily affordable by people. This review report covers the impact of these plants on diabetes mellitus reported so far.
... The strawberries' nutritional quality is due to their high levels of both nutritive (vitamins, minerals, fibers) and nonnutritive (polyphenols) bioactive ingredients. Human studies have demonstrated that strawberry consumption confers antioxidant, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, anti-obesity, cancer chemopreventive, antimicrobial and neuroprotective benefits and mediates the attenuation of metabolic syndrome [16]. Their potential to combat chronic degenerative diseases derives from their phytochemical content. ...
... It has been suggested that ascorbic acid could be one of the selection targets in new breeding programs, since strawberry genotypes containing a large amount of vitamin C (>12 mg/100 g) could bear the functional health claims on vitamin C according to article 13.1 (EU Directive 1924 [2]. Anthocyanins are the predominant polyphenol class responsible for fruit color, whereas other bioactive polyphenols present in the fruits are flavanols (catechins and procyanidins), ellagitannins, flavonols and phenolic acids [16]. Those polyphenols confer significant antioxidant and concomitantly anti-inflammatory protection, not only because they act as antioxidants themselves, but more importantly because they interact with cellular signaling cascades regulating the activity of transcription factors and influencing the expression of genes essential in cellular metabolism and survival [17,18]. ...
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Citation: Leonardou, V.K.; Doudoumis, E.; Tsormpatsidis, E.; Vysini, E.; Papanikolopoulos, T.; Papasotiropoulos, V.; Lamari, F.N. Quality Traits, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Expression of Key Flavor Genes in Strawberry Genotypes over Harvest Period. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 13499. https:// Abstract: Six strawberry genotypes were examined for fruit yield and size, important chemical traits (sugars, phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, volatiles) and antioxidant properties (ferric reducing power). In addition, we determined the expression of genes and transcription factors (SAAT, FaNES1, FaFAD1, FaEGS2, FaEOBII and FaMYB10) controlling the main flavor and aroma traits, and finally evaluated the effect of the genotype and harvest time on the examined chemical and genetic factors, as well as their intercorrelations. The commercial varieties 'Fortuna', 'Victory', 'Calderon', 'Rociera', and two advanced selections Ber22/6 and Ber23/3 were cultivated under the same conditions at Berryplasma World Ltd. plantations (Varda, Ilia, Region of Western Greece). Strawberries were harvested at three different time points over the main harvest period in Greece, i.e., early March (T1), late March (T2) and late April (T3). 'Fortuna' exhibited the highest early and total yield, while 'Calderon', the highest average berry weight. General Linear Model repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that the interaction of the genotype and harvest time was significant (p < 0.001) on all tested quality attributes and gene expression levels, showing that each genotype behaves differently throughout the harvest period. Exceptions were observed for: (a) the volatile anhydrides, fatty acids, aromatics and phenylpropanoids (all were greatly affected by the harvest time), and (b) lactones, furaneol and FaEGS2 that were affected only by the genotype. We observed significant intercorrelations among those factors, e.g., the positive correlation of FaFAD1 expression with decalactone and nerolidol, of SAAT with furaneol, trans-cinnamic acid and phenylpropanoids, and of FaEGS2 with decalactone and FaFAD1. Moreover, a strong positive correlation between SAAT and FaMYB10 and a moderate negative one between SAAT and glucose were also detected. Those correlations can be further investigated to reveal potential markers for strawberry breeding. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of strawberry physiology, which would facilitate breeding efforts for the development of new strawberry varieties with superior qualitative traits.
... Common garden strawberry is loved by the population for its unique taste and aroma, which explains its demand [3,4]. The composition of its berries includes easily digestible sugars, organic acids, ascorbic acid, phenolic (P-active) compounds, etc., which have an undeniably beneficial effect on the human body, have high physiological activity [5][6][7][8][9][10] and are part of the Mediterranean diet [11]. The consumption of strawberries significantly improves the overall antioxidant status of human blood [1]. ...
... Phenolic compounds with P-vitamin activity are of particular value among the biologically active substances of common garden strawberry. Being a strong antioxidant, phenolic compounds, absorbing the active forms of oxygen and nitrogen, in combination with other vitamins (to a greater extent with ascorbic acid), have a beneficial effect on the hematopoietic system of the human body, reduce the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases [12,7]. There are data indicating the importance of phenolic compounds as signaling particles involved in the modulation of signaling pathways and affecting gene expression, in addition to the effect in the digestive system [13,6]. ...
Article
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The results of the study of 20 new strawberry cultivars grown in the conditions of the Central part of Russia (Orel region), according to the content of anthocyanins, catechins and the total number of polyphenols in berries, are presented. Anthocyanins and catechins are representatives of the main group of phenolic compounds, flavonoids that have a therapeutic and preventive effect on the human body. The purpose of the research is to identify the best genotypes for breeding for an improved chemical composition of berries. The determination of phenolic compounds was carried out by the photometric method. The content of anthocyanins in strawberries varied depending on the cultivar to an average degree (V=16.3%) and amounted to 51.1±1.9 mg/100 g with a range of variation from 40.1 to 70.2 mg/100 g. A high content of anthocyanins (mg/100 g) was observed in Rusich (70.2), Solovushka (64.2), Darselect (62.5), Tsaritsa (59.5), Rubino civ (57.9), Sonata (55.4), Alpha (54.5), Honeoye (51.8). The average content of catechins in the berries of the studied group of cultivars also changed to an average degree (V=22.2%) from 71.4 to 174.6 mg/100 g with an average c value of 124.9±6.2 mg/100 g. The high content of catechins in berries was found in Rusich (136,2), Clery (132,0), Rubino civ (137,4), Sara (137,7), Vima Kimberly (139,5), Dezy (152,5), Sonata (164,9), Solovushka (168,2) and Alpha (174,6). There was no correlation between the accumulation of anthocyanins and catechins in strawberries (r=+0.149). According to the total number of polyphenols (more than 500 mg/100 g) in the berries, Alpha, Rusich, Solovushka, Dezy and Rubino civ are distinguished.
... There is also need for further diversification of crops suited to these areas and this environmental condition, which should have ample food value and also fetch high market price. Strawberry is a rich source of vitamin C, potassium and fibre, and packed with antioxidants having high therapeutic or medicinal values (Afrin et al., 2016). Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic compound which is abundant in strawberries can prevent As-mediated myofibrillar loss and myofibrillar coagulative necrosis (Hemmati et al., 2018). ...
... Furthermore, the anaerobic condition of submerged rice soils increases As-bioavailability through Si transport pathway in rice (Williams et al., 2007). Over the time, As load in rice grains increased manifold reaching to an alarming level of 110-1835 μg kg −1 (Supplementary Table 3), causing severe health hazards not only to the local consumers, but also to millions of people outside the As-contaminated areas (Afrin et al., 2016;Bhattacharya et al., 2012). Cultivation of strawberry can therefore potentially reduce the hazard through limited groundwater extraction and decreasing the As bioaccumulation in the produce (berries). ...
Article
Use of huge amount (1450 – 1650 mm) of arsenic contaminated (14.0 - 24.5 mg l⁻¹) ground water to irrigate winter rice resulted in high deposition of arsenic (As) in the topsoil and in rice grains, posing a serious threat to soil and human health of the Bengal basin. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) requires 250 mm irrigation and fetches 3.5 times more net return over the winter rice, and can be grown as an alternate crop in place of winter rice to save the environment. In comparison to rice As load in edible parts of strawberry reduced from 865 to 39 μg kg⁻¹. Deficit irrigation (0.8 and 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, ETc) to strawberry further reduced total as well as different As species load in fruits. Jute and straw mulches recorded lower As in fruits over other mulches. Drip irrigation to recharge full or 80% of ETc loss and use of jute agrotextile surface mulch maximized root growth and yield in strawberry, benefit:cost ratio, and energy efficiency and productivity. Results demonstrate that strawberry cultivation in non-traditional winter rice growing areas of Bengal basin can potentially benefit millions of people by reducing As load in food chains, ensuring higher returns, and aid in reviving the local jute agrotextile industry.
... Some authors have stated that the consumption of plants containing such metabolites leads to a significant reduction in the risk of contracting some chronic diseases (Afrin et al., 2016). The consumption of plants of the genus Prosopis is therefore recommended to increase general health. ...
... Juliflorine also shows activity against Alzheimer's, according to , and some flavonoids with antioxidant effects, i.e., −(−)mesquitol, have been reported (Sirmah et al., 2009). These benefits of phytochemical compounds significantly contribute to reducing the effects of various diseases, including chronicle diseases, all over the world (Afrin et al., 2016). Prosopis species have been successfully used in traditional medicine for about 1,000 years to cure many diseases (Giovannetti et al., 2008). ...
Chapter
This chapter provides a general overview of the main aspects related to the Fabaceae (Leguminosae) family, focusing on species of the genus Prosopis and covering their main aspects, such as nutritional characteristics, beneficial aspects in different social strata as well as their usage as food, traditional medicine and other uses. General information about their physiological and ecological aspects is provided, particularly regarding their role in maintaining the biodiversity of ecosystems. The enormous capability of Prosopis species to fix atmospheric nitrogen, retaining soil fertility, and their important contribution to soil remediation as also discussed. Furthermore, chemical aspects of the plant as well as the main secondary metabolites and their implications in the control of a large list of diseases are also discussed. This chapter focuses on the potential use of Prosopis species in human health and veterinary medicine. Prosopis species offer a wide range of uses and applications in different areas, such as a nutritional supplement, as feed for livestock, as a retainer of soil fertility and as an invaluable natural and sustainable medical source in both human and animal health.
... The organic acid content in strawberries will increase as the fruit ripens [3]. Strawberry fruit has been tested both in vitro and in vivo and has been known to have antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimetabolic syndrome, antiobesity, neuroprotection, and antimicrobial properties [4]. ...
Article
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Strawberry fruit has five levels of maturity in terms of the color of the strawberry fruit. One of the important factors that affect the fruit's resistance from mechanical damage is the level of fruit maturity. At different levels of ripeness, strawberries have different nutritional content. The strawberries used are obtained from strawberry farmers in Pancasari Village, Tabanan Regency. The level of fruit maturity analyzed was divided into five stages, namely 0, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the red fruit. Based on the ANOVA variety results, the parameters of color, texture, pH, total acid content, total acid content, vitamin C content, and anthocyanin levels of strawberries at different levels of maturity showed very significant differences (P <0.01). Strawberry fruit at the optimal level of maturity obtained the value of L *, namely 18.45, a *, namely 67.04, b *, namely 20.86, texture of 7.46 N, pH of 3.36, total acid of 2.09 (meq NaOH / g), total dissolved solids was 6.40 o Brix, vitamin C levels were 66.24 mg / 100g, and anthocyanin levels were 329.07 (mg PGN / 100 g).
... Strawberry is an important horticultural crop grown worldwide. Strawberry fruits provide consumers with a variety of sensory experiences and health benefits because of their pleasant aroma, sweet and sour tastes, and antioxidative properties (Giampieri et al., 2012;Nile and Park, 2014;Afrin et al., 2016;Battino et al., 2016;Warner et al., 2021). Because of their desirable taste and health benefits, large quantities of strawberry fruits are consumed fresh and in processed foods worldwide. ...
Article
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The efficiency of photosynthate translocation from leaves to fruits directly affects dry matter partitioning. Therefore, controlling photosynthate translocation dynamics is critical for high-yield and high-quality fruit production. Accordingly, photosynthate translocation changes must be characterized using data obtained at a higher spatiotemporal resolution than those provided by conventional methods. In this study, ¹¹ C-photosynthate translocation into strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) fruits in individual plants was visualized non-invasively and repeatedly using a positron emission tracer imaging system (PETIS) to assess the spatiotemporal variability in the translocation dynamics in response to increasing daylight integrals (i.e., 0.5-, 4.5-, and 9-h exposures to 400 μmol m –2 s –1 at the leaf surface). Serial images of photosynthate translocation into strawberry fruits obtained from the PETIS confirmed that ¹¹ C-photosynthates were translocated heterogeneously into each fruit on the same inflorescence. The amount of translocated ¹¹ C-photosynthates and the translocation rate into each fruit significantly increased as the integrated light intensity at the leaf surface increased. An analysis of the pedicel of each fruit also confirmed that the photosynthate translocation rate increased. The cumulated photosynthesis in leaves increased almost linearly during the light period, suggesting that an increase in the amount of photosynthates in leaves promotes the translocation of photosynthates from leaves, resulting in an increase in the photosynthate translocation rate in pedicels and enhanced photosynthate accumulation in fruits. Additionally, the distribution pattern of photosynthate translocated to fruits did not change during the light period, nor did the order of the sink activity ( ¹¹ C radioactivity/fruit dry weight), which is the driving force for the prioritization of the ¹¹ C-partitioning between competing organs, among fruits. Thus, this is the first study to use ¹¹ C-radioisotopes to clarify the spatiotemporal variability in photosynthate translocation from source leaves to individual sink fruits in vivo in response to increasing daylight integrals at a high spatiotemporal resolution.
... The fruit is known throughout the world for its distinctive red colour, juicy texture, aroma and sweetness (Giampieri et al. 2012;Ulrich et al. 2018). Fruits are consumed either fresh or utilized in preparation of chocolates, jam, juice, ice cream, pies, and milkshakes (Afrin et al. 2016). Cultivars of strawberry have their distinct colour, flavour, size, and shape, degree of fertility, season of ripening, shelf life of fruit, disease resistance and nutrition quality (Vallarino et al. 2018). ...
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The objective of this study was to develop a protocol for large-scale propagation of strawberry cv. ‘Sweet Charlie’ and ‘Winter Dawn’ using the micropropagation technique. Shoot cultures were obtained from shoot tips on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 4% table sugar, 0.75% agar, 5 mg L−1 6-benzyladenine and 0.01 mg L−1 kinetin. These shoots were multiplied and maintained on MS medium with 1 mg L–1 6-benzyladenine and 0.1 mg L–1 kinetin. Rooting of in vitro raised shoots was successfully conducted by pulse treatment with 500 mg L–1 indole-3-butyric acid for 30 s and subsequent culturing in MS medium with 1 mg L–1 indole-3-butyric acid, 0.1 g L–1 activated charcoal and 6% table sugar. Plants were successfully acclimatized and survived in field conditions.
... It stands out for its high content of vitamins, minerals, simple sugars, and antioxidant compounds that have free radical scavenging activity and cardio-protective effects (Battino et al., 2019;Giampieri et al., 2017;Mandave, Pawar, Ranjekar, Mantri, & Kuvalekar, 2014), including anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanols, and hydroxycinnamic acid (Gündüz, 2015). It also contains other components with chemopreventive effects such as glucosides, glucuronides, quercetins, tannins, and kaempferol (Afrin et al., 2016;Forbes-Hernández et al., 2017). ...
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La uchuva es catalogada como fruta exótica y altamente apreciada en el mercado exte- rior por su sabor y color, además, por su alta actividad antioxidante y contenido fenólico, lo cual ha sido demostrado en diversas investigaciones. Su versatilidad de uso le otorga una mayor importancia, pues la industria alimentaria ha utilizado la uchuva en diferentes productos, tales como bebidas, postres, yogures y mermeladas. Dada la creciente popularidad de esta fruta, es importante tener una referencia integral de sus beneficios nutricionales y de su transformación. Esta revisión proporciona una visión general de los compuestos nutricionales y bioactivos presentes en la uchuva, al igual que de las investigaciones que se han llevado a cabo para su transformación y procesamiento. La revisión se realizó mediante la consulta de artículos científicos de investigaciones realizadas a nivel mundial, indexados en bases de datos como Elsiever, Spingerlink y Taylor & Francis durante los últimos veinte años. Se determinó que la uchuva es una fuente de diversos compuestos que a nivel nutricional y farmacéutico representan grandes beneficios para la salud; sin embargo, estos se pueden ver afectados por el tratamiento de conservación que se aplique. Se han realizado múltiples estudios que han permitido conservar los compuestos de interés biológico en la uchuva y aumentar su vida útil.
... La pulpa no aprovechable en alimentación constituye una notable fuente de ácidos fenólicos, antocianinas y flavan-3-oles como la catequina y rutina (Tumbas Šaponjac et al., 2015). Son también una importante fuente de vitaminas, de las que destaca la vitamina C, con valores 100g superiores a la media en cítricos (Afrin et al., 2016). La granada supone un caso similar. ...
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Currently, the circular economy model is the most accepted to reduce the amount of waste generated in various production systems, such as agriculture. This sector has great relevance in the economy of Spain due to its favorable climatic conditions. The application of a circular economy model in the peninsular agriculture would contribute to the reduction of the high volume of waste, while revaluing its by-products through several alternatives. Among the most profitable and viable options is the recovery of bioactive and beneficial molecules for health, such as pigments or phenolic compounds, among many others (Figure 1). Today, the vast majority of crops are conventional, which means they use pesticides to prevent various diseases or pests from causing great economic losses in the sector. However, since most of the waste come from conventional crops, there is a possibility that they contain pesticides. When carrying out the process of recovery and purification of biomolecules, there is the risk that pesticides will also be concentrated reaching limits that are harmful to health. Therefore, it is essential to know which pesticides could potentially be present in different food wastes, in order to correctly assess their presence/absence in the final revalued product and determine if it meets food safety standards.
... It is hypothesized that strawberries' antioxidant properties are caused by its polyphenolic composition (Skrovankova et al., 2015). Strawberry is also a considerable source of vitamins, minerals, and sugars (Giampieri et al., 2015;Mazzoni et al., 2016), that can have a synergistic effect on maintaining healthy lifestyle and preventing disease (Afrin et al., 2016;Battino et al., 2019;Cianciosi et al., 2019;Forbes-Hernandez et al., 2018;Gasparrini et al., 2018;Giampieri et al., 2017Giampieri et al., , 2018Pan et al., 2018). Strawberry extract Alba was previously characterized and chosen in the current study for its known beneficial effects Scalzo et al., 2005;, Tulipani, Romandini, et al., 2008Tulipani et al., 2009;, Tulipani, Marzban, et al., 2011. ...
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Increased levels of oxidative stress and oxidative DNA damage are common features in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) found in neurons and peripheral cells like peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Natural products such as strawberry cultivar Alba are an important source of bioactive nutrients that could help in lowering both the oxidative stress and DNA damage levels. The objective was to estimate the effects of Alba extract on DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of sporadic AD (aged 60–84 years) patients, and healthy elderly (aged 69–83 years) and young (aged 21–30 years) individuals in in vitro conditions. Comet assay was used as a sensitive technique for the evaluation of PBL DNA damage levels. Reduction of basal DNA damage level in PBL was shown in the young group after the incubation with Alba extract ranging from 25 to 200 μg/ml, with 100 μg/ml being the most effective concentration. Selected Alba extract of 100 μg/ml was further used for PBL treatment of AD and healthy elderly age matched group, displaying potential to significantly attenuate DNA damage levels in both groups (p < .05). Alba extract displayed biological activity against oxidative DNA damage, suggesting that its functional ingredients may have beneficial health effects. Practical applications The data obtained in this preliminary study displayed that strawberry Alba extract is efficient against DNA damage induced by endogenous and exogenous oxidative stress in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Alzheimer`s disease in vitro. An active area of future research of Alba cultivar should be to determine the trials in in vivo systems. Our findings also suggest that Alba cultivar’s functional ingredients potentially may have beneficial health effects in AD.
... Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is the most important berry crop being cultivated from North to South of Europe. Beside its unique color, taste and aroma, strawberry fruits are enriched with several nutritious and bioactive compounds providing health benefits by reducing risk of diseases such as inflammation disorders and oxidative stress, obesity-related disorders and heart disease, and protection against various types of cancer [1][2][3][4]. Anthocyanins are a type of flavonoids that are commonly found in strawberries. The functional properties and the sensory qualities of the anthocyanins could easily be explained based on their chemical reactivity [5]. ...
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The effect of cultivar and environmental variations and their interaction on anthocyanin components of strawberry were assessed for six cultivars grown in five locations from North to South of Europe in two different years. To evaluate the impact of latitude- and altitude-related factors, daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature and global radiation accumulated for 3, 5, 10 and 15 days before fruit sampling, was analyzed. In general, fruits grown in the south were more enriched in total anthocyanin and pelargonidin-3-glucoside (pel-3-glc), the most abundant anthocyanin in strawberry. Principal component analysis (PCA) provided a separation of the growing locations within a cultivar due to latitudinal climatic differences, temporary weather changes before fruit collection and cultivation technique. PCA also depicted different patterns for anthocyanin distribution indicating a cultivar specific reaction on the environmental factors. The linear regression analysis showed that pel-3-glc was relatively less affected by these factors, while the minor anthocyanins cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6-O-malonyl)-glucoside, pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-(6-O-malonoyl)-glucoside were sensitive to Tmax. The global radiation strongly increased cya-3-mal-glc in ‘Frida’ and pel-3-rut in ‘Frida’ and ‘Florence’. ‘Candonga’ accumulated less pel-3-glc and total anthocyanin with increased global radiation. The anthocyanin profiles of ‘Gariguette’ and ‘Clery’ were unaffected by environmental conditions.
... O potencial farmacológico do morango está associado à presença de flavonoides (antocianinas, flavonóis, flavanóis), ácidos fenólicos e vitamina C em sua composição . Esses compostos apresentam efeitos profiláticos e terapêuticos em doenças cardiovasculares e neurológicas, obesidade e diabetes mellitus (AFRIN et al., 2016), além de significativo potencial anticarcinogênico e anti-inflamatório . Ademais, no período pós-colheita, a elevada A w (≥ 0,98) e as características nutricionais do morango, tornam o fruto in natura um ambiente oportuno para a multiplicação microbiana. ...
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Resumo No presente estudo, o processo produtivo do morango, a composição físico-química, nutricional e sensorial do fruto foram revisados. Como estratégia de busca para seleção dos estudos avaliados foram consultadas as bases de dados do Portal de Periódicos CAPES, SciELO (Scientific Eletronic Library Online) e ScienceDirect. A produção mundial de morangos aumentou mais de 80% nas duas últimas décadas. A China e os Estados Unidos destacam-se entre os maiores produtores mundiais do fruto. O morango apresenta elevada rentabilidade econômica com índice de lucratividade em torno de 49,46%. Cerca de 80% dos morangos produzidos é destinado ao comércio in natura. Contudo, o fruto também é utilizado pela indústria para a produção de iogurtes, compotas, geleias, doces, coberturas, xarope e vinho, já que apresenta elevada perecibilidade e reduzido shelf-life. Em geral, os consumidores de morango preferem ingerir a fruta em sua forma natural, devido às suas características sensoriais. A cor vermelha intensa do morango é atribuída ao conteúdo de antocianinas. Também, o sabor doce, levemente acidificado do morango, é proveniente da combinação entre os ácidos e os açúcares presentes na polpa. Em conclusão, a produção de morangos é uma atividade agrícola de elevada lucratividade, que demanda gestão intensa para o êxito na produtividade e comercialização.
... Some special traits of strawberries, such as the delightful red color, cordiform shape, intense fruity aroma, and sweet flavor, attract consumers. Moreover, it is considered a functional food since it contains bioactive compounds, including vitamin C, anthocyanins, and flavonoids, that have antioxidant activities (Afrin et al., 2016;Edger et al., 2019). Factors such as plant genetics, cultivation environment, fruit ripening, and post-harvest conditions affect the physical, biochemical, and sensory characteristics of strawberries (Hwang;Kim;Shin, 2019;Barth et al., 2020;Cervantes et al., 2020;Lalk et al., 2020;Nunes et al., 2021); therefore, these factors need to be considered when assessing the overall quality of the fruit. ...
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New cultivars generated each year by international breeding programs enter the Brazilian market. These cultivars need to be tested for their adaptation to the climate in each environment due to the great variety of climates that exist in the country. Strawberry is a highly appreciated fruit due to its biochemical and sensory characteristics and is considered the most important berry. The objective of this study was to determine the physical, biochemical, and sensory properties by performing a sensory evaluation of strawberry fruits, commercially cultivated in the South Minas Gerais region, which is characterized by high-altitude tropical climates. Data were analyzed, and statistical parameters were generated using the principal component analysis (PCA), heat maps, and dendrograms to determine the genetic profile of each cultivar, as well as their relationship. The treatments and analyzed variables were divided into four groups based on the UPGMA method. Considering breeding programs aiming to identify and select strawberries genotypes with better biochemical properties, group III (‘Albion’ and ‘Oso Grande’) was selected due to its high DPPH antioxidant activity, intermediate anthocyanin content, and total phenolic compounds. The Albion cultivar showed excellent biochemical attributes, especially with regard to the levels of glucose, fructose, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH). Based on the hierarchical grouping and sensorial quality of fruits, the Camarosa cultivar had the lowest scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Minas-C and Oso Grande cultivars presented the highest scores for all the evaluated attributes, including overall acceptance, aroma, color, and purchase intention. Index terms: Fragaria × ananassa Duch.; flavonoid; antioxidant activity; consumer test; horticulture
... Strawberries contain carbohydrates, proteins and fats in the range of 8.5 g/100 g, 0.7 g/100 g, and 0.4 g/100 g, respectively. In addition, they also possess high level of biologically active components such as phenolics (ellagitannins, ellagic acid, anthocyanins and flavonoids), dietary fibers, and other micronutrients (vitamin C, vitamin A, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin, choline, etc.), and minerals (calcium, zinc, copper, iron, potassium, sodium, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium and selenium) [2]. Therefore, strawberries are now considered superfood that offer multiple health benefits due to their nutraceutical profile and subsequent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, and antiproliferative activities [3,4]. ...
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Freshly harvested strawberries were stored at 5 °C, 10 °C, 20 °C, 26 °C, and 32 °C, and assessed for physical and biochemical changes during storage. The results showed an increase in weight loss, pH, and reducing sugars, while a consistent reduction in axial diameter, radial diameter, brightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), titratable acidity, total phenolics, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activities with increased temperature and prolonged storage period. Kinetic models were developed for biochemical as well as physical parameters and verified using Coefficient of determination (R2), Root mean square error and Akaike information criterion. The biochemical parameters followed either zero or first order with R2 > 0.95, whereas physical parameters followed zero order with R2 > 0.85. Activation energy values for change in biochemical parameters were found to be in the range of 20–50 kJ/mol. A significant correlation was observed between the physical and biochemical parameters of strawberries. A correlation equation between total colour loss and biochemical parameters was developed with R2 in the range 0.76–0.96, which can be used as a rapid and non-destructive method for the detection of the quality of strawberries.
... Strawberry bioactive compounds, namely ascorbic acid (AA), total phenolics (TPC), and anthocyanins (ANC), have been the subject of many studies due to their proven beneficial impact on human health [49][50][51][52][53][54]. However, agricultural practices combined with adverse supply chain conditions may significantly impact the levels of bioactive compounds in strawberries. ...
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Strawberries are greatly appreciated for their flavor and health-promoting properties. However, current agricultural and postharvest handling practices may result in decreased fruit quality. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of conventional or reduced fungicide applications on the quality of ‘Florida Radiance’ strawberries exposed to supply chain conditions. Strawberries held under steady temperature had better sensory and physicochemical quality than fruit exposed to supply chain conditions, regardless of the disease control treatment. Strawberries from the reduced fungicide treatment were firmer, lost less moisture, had higher sugar and higher or similar bioactive contents than fruit from the conventional treatment. Sensory scores were better for reduced fungicide fruit held under steady temperature conditions than other treatments at the consumer level. Microbial load increased during the supply chain but results strongly suggest that washing the fruit significantly reduces the microbial load and residual fungicide levels (fludioxonil, cyprodinil, pyraclostrobin, and captan) on the fruit. Overall, the use of reduced fungicide applications to control strawberry disease constitutes a promising alternative to conventional practices. It will help reduce costs by reducing labor and the amount of fungicides used while maintaining overall strawberry quality. Moreover, avoiding abusive and fluctuating temperature conditions during the supply chain will extend shelf-life and reduce strawberry waste.
... Strawberry contains vitamin C, manganese, folate, and potassium. Strawberries help in to control blood glucose level and reduce other risk of diseases [24]. ...
Article
Fruits are a gift of nature. Each fruit contains its own benefits. Fruits come in different forms and different varieties and each fruit contain unique health benefits for human. There are different types of fruits according to their development. Different Types of fruits are simple fruit, aggregate fruit, multiple fruit, berries, accessory fruit, and seedless fruit. Fruits are rich in dietary fibers, antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, folic acid, pectin, iron, calcium, flavonoids, lycopene, thiamin, magnesium, etc. These elements are important for the proper functioning of the body and play an important role in the prevention of diseases. So, people who eat more fruits or make a habbit to add it in their diet have higher chances of protection from chronic diseases. Fruits are important because they are low in fat, sodium and calories but high in energy. And this energy is important for the proper functioning of body
... To the bioactive compounds in berries belong antioxidants such as polyphenols or vitamins. Bioactive phytochemicals, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers [Skrovankova et al. 2015, Afrin et al. 2016, Holt et al. 2020. Concurrently with the increasing popularity with respect to nutrition and human health the interest in bioactive compounds has also increased among plant scientists [Perin et al. 2019, Nunes et al. 2020, Saridaş 2021. ...
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The strawberry fruit market increasingly demands new cultivars producing berries with enhanced bioactive attributes. In this research the suitability of twelve strawberry cultivars for effective breeding aimed at the enhancement of bioactive fruit attributes was studied. The group of genotypes with different pedigree was examined in respect of variation, breeding parameters, correlation between the content of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of fruit. Pre-breeding research showed the highly significant differences between genotypes regarding all traits analysed. Relationship between the bioactive phytochemicals content and antioxidant capacity of fruit were mostly positive and significant. Only correlation between vitamin C and flavonoids was negative (−0.482). Path analysis exhibited the highest positive direct effect of total phenolic content on antioxidant capacity (0.609). Heritability of traits was very high, reaching values above 0.90. The highest genetic advance was observed for flavonoids. Results suggested that the genotype plays the main role in shaping of fruit antioxidant potential. This study indicated that the efficient strawberry breeding focused on obtaining the forms with enhanced bioactive berry properties could be highly possible.
... This raw material is well-aligned with the growing demand for functional foods in the market as consumers increasingly choose products of exceptional quality with added value [1]. Particular attention is being paid to functional products such as strawberry juice, as the strawberry has been shown to be a fruit with numerous health benefits, e.g., anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective effects [2,3]. ...
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Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. ˈAlbionˈ) were harvested at two stages of ripeness (75% vs. 100%) and their physicochemical, sensory, toxicological and bioactive properties were evaluated before and after processing into juice. Fresh fruits and by-products produced were also evaluated. During processing into juice, color change was higher in fully ripe fruits, confirming the good prospects of the less ripe strawberries for processing. The analysis of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, As, Cd, Pb) was carried out and only Pb in juice and by-product samples of 100% maturi-ty was higher than the MDK. Of the 566 pesticides analysed, only cyprodinil was found in the by-products of 75% maturity, while pyrimetanil was detected in all samples. Fresh strawberries of both ripeness levels were rated similarly to the corresponding juices for all sensory attributes studied, indicating that sensory perception was not affected by processing. However, ripeness was found to be an important factor influencing most sensory attributes. By-products were the material with the highest levels of all bioactive compounds. Considering all quality parameters evaluated, the chemometric evaluation confirms the suitability of 75% ripe strawberries for processing into functional juice, which could be important for the juice industry.
... Strawberries consist of 59 g/100 g of vitamin C. One cup of strawberries has 99% of everyday requirement. Research showed that it lessens the extent of diabetes, cancer, vascular disease, and dementia (Afrin et al., 2016). ...
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Vitamins are very important to stay healthy. Taking macronutrients and micronutrients based on the body’s needs prevents us from diseases and can treat them. Vitamins have proven to help deal with severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) patients. Vitamin C intake seems to boost immunity. Several studies suggested that vitamin C intake can lower the extent of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) besides its other biological functions such as collagen formation and wound healing. Vitamin C works as an anti-oxidant, counteracting the free radicals during an infection. Whenever an infection or disease occurs, it causes the production of reactive oxygen species, or such oxidizing agents help in the inactivation of viruses. Vitamin D is another important micronutrient to treat and prevent URTIs. Commonly, it is recommended for bone and teeth health, but it has also been used for regulating and boosting the immune system. Nutraceutical applications of vitamins are inevitable. Different natural products and foods are good sources of vitamins that can be taken for improved functions of the human body and treatment of diseases. Besides the oral route, vitamins C and D can also be supplied via micro or nanoparticles through other routes. An adequate intake of vitamins positively affects the body in the fight against infections. So, it can also help reduce the severity of illness and morbidity of patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
... Although strawberries are highly appreciated fruits, their intake can induce allergic reactions in atopic patients as it happens with other members of the Rosaceae family, e.g. apples, cherries or peaches (Afrin et al., 2016, June 8;Amil-Ruiz et al., 2011, November;Giampieri et al., 2013, March;Orozco-Navarrete et al., 2020, September 30;Scheurer et al., 1997;Vanek-Krebitz et al., 1995). Allergy to Fra a 1 is a type I birch pollen-related food allergy. ...
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This study aims to analyse the results of specific IgE to molecular components of PR 10 proteins, mould and yeast in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, to find significant sets of molecular components in pairs and triplets in the relation to the severity of atopic dermatitis and the occurrence of asthma bronchiale and allergic rhinitis. The examination of the sensitization to molecular components with ALEX2 Allergy Explorer testing was performed. The level of specific IgE was recorded with Jittered box plots, the Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the level of specific IgE in different forms of AD. The relation between the results of specific IgE was evaluated with Coefficient of correlation (Kendall tau-b). The comparison of significant rules was performed with Fisher–Freeman–Halton exact test and with tests on proportions. Altogether 100 atopic dermatitis patients were examined. Molecular components Fra a 1 + 3, Mal d 1, Api g 1, Mala s 11 and Asp f 6 are recorded as a single molecular component with relation to the severe form of AD; these components are associated in pairs and triplets with molecular components Cor a 1.0401, Cor a 1.0103, Fag s 1, Alt a 1 and with the occurrence of allergic rhinitis. Results are presented in static and interactive tables and plots.
... The evidence of potential health benefits has previously been shown by in vitro assays using human cell lines, preclinical studies using animal models, and clinical trials in humans (van Breda & de Kok, 2018). Human intervention studies have shown that the consumption of strawberries correlates with a decrease in the incidence of head, neck, and esophageal cancer, and it also showed anti-inflammatory effects (Afrin et al., 2016). Furthermore, numerous studies are reporting the beneficial effects of apple phenols on Alzheimer's disease, type II diabetes, weight control, arteriosclerosis, bone health, and the aging cognitive decline (Hyson, 2011). ...
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Different technologies commonly employed by the fruit processing industry affect the phenolic content. This study aimed to establish the extent to which different processing techniques and conditions, tested at an industrial scale, affect phenolics, color, and sensory attributes of fresh strawberries and apples. The effects of freezing, thermal treatments, and high-pressure processing were investigated. In strawberries, mild and standard thermal treatments showed similar patterns for most phenolic groups; an increase in proanthocyanidins, no change in ellagic acid conjugates, and a major decrease in flavonols and anthocyanins. In apples, mild treatments and high-pressure processing had similar effects in all phenolic groups, with increases in dihydrochalcones, hydroxycinnamics, and proanthocyanidins and decreases in flavonols. However, the standard thermal treatment increased flavonols and dihydrochalcones concentrations. This study shows that each fruit behaves differently, and both technology and processing conditions should be customized accordingly to preserve or even increase the phenolic content.
... Tác dụng bảo vệ sức khỏe của dâu tây có thể được thúc đẩy bởi axit ellagic và ellagitannin đã được chứng minh là có khả năng ngăn chặn sự phát triển của tế bào ung thư. Vì vậy, dâu tây là một bổ sung tuyệt vời cho chế độ ăn uống lành mạnh [2][3][4][5]. ...
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Strawberry samples were collected from Dalat and Mocchau regions and extracted by a cryogenic vacuum method. Stable isotope compositions δ2H và δ18O in the extracted water were then analysed by a Liquid Water Isotope Analyzer (LWIA-24D). The evaluated results showed that, at the statistical significance level α=0.05, the δ2H and δ18O values obtained at Mocchau and Dalat samples are clearly different (p<0.001). In detail, the mean value of δ2H for strawberries grown in Mocchau (-42.83‰) was more enriched than that in Dalat (-53.99‰). In contrast, the value of δ18O for strawberries grown in Mocchau (-9.25‰) is more depleted than in Dalat (-5.67‰). In addition, the δ2H and δ18O values in each region are strongly correlated and can be distinguished based on the position of the correlation line relative to the global meteoric water line.
... The commercially cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important berry fruit crop worldwide. It is rich in vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, antioxidants, and other nutrients, and is a highly recommended healthy food for humans [1]. Though wild strawberries are found on all continents, most are of limited agricultural and economic importance. ...
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Strawberry plants and fruits are vulnerable to infections by a broad range of pathogens and pests. However, knowledge about the epidemiology of pathogens causing strawberry diseases is limited. In this study, we analyzed Fusarium commune, a major fungal pathogen causing strawberry root rot, from diseased strawberry root tissues in southcentral China. A total of 354 isolates were obtained from 11 locations that spanned about 700 km from both south to north and east to west. Multilocus genotypes of all isolates were obtained using seven polymorphic simple sequence repeat markers developed in this study. Our analyses revealed significant genetic diversity within each of the 11 local populations of F. commune. STRUCTURE analysis revealed that the optimal number of genetic populations for the 354 strains was two, with most local geographic populations containing isolates in both genetic clusters. Interestingly, many isolates showed allelic ancestry to both genetic clusters, consistent with recent hybridization between the two genetic clusters. In addition, though alleles and genotypes were frequently shared among local populations, statistically significant genetic differentiations were found among the local populations. However, the observed F. commune population genetic distances were not correlated with geographic distances. Together, our analyses suggest that populations of F. commune causing strawberry root rot are likely endemic to southcentral China, with each local population containing shared and unique genetic elements. Though the observed gene flow among geographic regions was relatively low, human activities will likely accelerate pathogen dispersals, resulting in the generation of new genotypes through mating and recombination.
... According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, world production of strawberries exceeds eight million tons (FAO 2018). In addition to its unique flavor, attractive color, and preferred organoleptic properties, strawberry is particularly a rich source of a wide variety of nutritive and nonnutritive bioactive compounds, which exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on human health promotion and on the prevention of various diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and neurological diseases [1][2][3]. Hence, the development of strawberry cultivars rich in bioactive compounds and better flavor is the objective of breeding. ...
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Fruit quality is strongly affected by genotype and harvest date. In this study, parameters regarding fruit quality, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity of different strawberry cultivars at three harvesting dates were quantified to elucidate the influence of genotype and harvest date on strawberry quality. The results showed that harvest date was the major contributor to appearance color, TSS, TA, and TSS/TA ratio of strawberries, while genotype mainly affected firmness, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant capacity. Moreover, the interaction of genotype and harvest date had a primary influence on the content of ascorbic acid. The content of total phenolics and amino acids received the similar influence caused by genotype and harvest date. However, the interaction of genotype and harvest date significantly affected total phenolic content as well. These findings give a better understanding of the influence of the genotype and harvest date on strawberry, which might contribute to breed cultivars with more attractive fruits in terms of quality acceptance and nutritional value.
... La fresa (Fragaria vesca) es un producto que contiene una gran cantidad de ácidos orgánicos, sustancias minerales, vitamina C, ácido fólico, antioxidantes, azúcares, entre otros, los cuales con el consumo de la fresa ayudan a disminuir el colesterol, fortalecer el sistema inmunológico, prevenir enfermedades cardiovasculares y degenerativas como el cáncer, entre otros (Santoyo y Martínez, 2010;Afrin et al., 2016). ...
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Los principales países productores de fresa son China, Estados Unidos de América y México, los cuales concentran alrededor del cincuenta y nueve por ciento de la producción mundial. Asimismo, los mayores exportadores de fresa son España, Estados Unidos de América y México, que aportan cerca del sesenta y uno por ciento de las exportaciones en el mundo. El objetivo del trabajo es analizar la relación que existe entre las exportaciones de fresa de México a Estados Unidos de América y sus determinantes económicos, entre los cuales destacan el precio unitario de exportación de México, el producto interno bruto de los Estados Unidos de América y la demanda total de importación de fresa de los Estados Unidos de América en el mundo, y calcular las elasticidades precio e ingreso de la demanda de exportación de fresa de México. Los signos de los coeficientes de regresión estimados y las elasticidades precio e ingreso son consistentes con la teoría de la demanda, la variable con mayor influencia en las variaciones de la demanda de exportación es el producto interno bruto de los Estados Unidos de América, la elasticidad precio de la exportación obtenida, menor que uno, refleja que la fresa de exportación es un producto inelástico y la elasticidad ingreso de la exportación, menor que uno, indica que la fresa es un bien normal para los Estados Unidos de América. El modelo de regresión estimado es consistente y congruente con la teoría de la demanda de exportación.
... The natural antioxidants in the strawberry fruit also help to reduce the oxidative stresses. This fruit is also found to be beneficial in reduction of inflammation and obesity related disorders and prevention of several types of cancers and heart related diseases (Afrin et al., 2016). Hence, strawberry offers several preventive and therapeutic health benefits and falls under the category of functional food (Basu et al., 2014).For these reasons, the cultivation of this fruit crop is expanding from temperate and subtropical to tropical zones including the southern hilly parts of Gujarat (Rathod et al., 2021).It is one of the most sensitive fruit crops to nutrient management and optimum supply of both macro and micronutrients could improve both the aspects of yield and quality. ...
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The investigation was carried out At Navsari Agricultural University, Waghai during 2018-19 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of Zn and Fe on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cv. Winter Dawn. The ZnSO4,7H2O and FeSO4,7H2O were used as a source for Zn and Fe, respectively and applied as foliar sprays individually (0.2 % and 0.4%) as well as in combination to the strawberry plants at 30, 60 and 75 days after planting of uniform runners. The plants which received no spraying were treated as control. The results indicated that foliar spraying of 0.4 % ZnSO4,7H2O + 0.2 %FeSO4,7H2O significantly increased the plant spread, number of leaves, number of crowns, leaf area, length of petiole, number of runners, number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit weight, marketable fruit percentage, marketable and total fruit yield over control plants. However, fruits with significantly the highest total soluble solid, acidity and anthocyanin content were recorded with the foliar application of 0.4 % ZnSO4,7H2O + 0.4 % FeSO4,7H2O. However, the micronutrient treatments failed to influence any significant effect on days taken to 50.0 % flowering, fruit firmness and acidity content of the strawberry fruits. All the parameters were recorded minimum in plants which received no spraying.
... Based on its unique taste and flavor as well as low caloric value, strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch.) is among the most desirable fruit worldwide. Strawberries are a rich source of several nutritional and bioactive compounds such as easily digestible sugars, organic acids, minerals, vitamins and phenolic compounds (Forbes-Hernandez et al., 2016;Kowalska et al., 2018), which take part in various health-promoting and disease preventive effects . The main phenolic compounds in strawberry are anthocyanins, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic and ellagic acid derivatives, which exert antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, antibacterial or antiviral activity (Aaby et al., 2007;Ariza et al., 2018). ...
... Strawberries contain high levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) and phenolic compounds, particularly flavonoids (mainly catechin, epicatechin, and anthocyanins) (Giampieri et al., 2015). These phytochemicals have been cited for their putative biological activities, including antioxidant, cardioprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, neuroprotective, and antimicrobial activities, that are beneficial to humans (Afrin et al., 2016). ...
Article
The functional compounds and sensory attributes of strawberries are acquired during ripening; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating this process have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to investigate the accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), phenylpropanoids, and L-ascorbic acid (AsA) as well as their relative gene expression levels during this process. The accumulation of ABA during the fruit growth and ripening stages depends on the upregulation of FaNCED1 and FaNCED2 gene expression, and the downregulation of FaCYP707 expression. Moreover, in the initial stages, the ABA glycosylation pathway is activated as a provision for the ABA levels required for future events. As the ABA levels increase, FaPAL, FaC4H1, and FaC4H4 genes expression are upregulated, aiding in the synthesis of flavonoid precursors, which, in addition to the higher FaUFGT expression, directly reflects an improvement in anthocyanin. AsA content increases during fruit development and ripening and is dependent on the synthesis pathway, due to the upregulation of FaGLDH expression, and on the oxidation and recycling pathways via the regulation of expression levels of FaAPX and FaMR. These results suggest that the activation of FaNCED1 and the inhibition of FaCYP707A1 may contribute to the increase in ABA content, thereby stimulating anthocyanin and AsA synthesis and accumulation.
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Now a days, scientific community has been taking initiatives to decrease burden of metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and many others. Many nutraceuticals and functional food have a crucial function in preventing and decreasing burden of chronic diseases. Main purpose of the study was to relate association between mechanism of gut microbiota effecting cardiovascular diseases, moreover, to find out advantageous effects of berry polyphenols on gut microbiota and cardiovascular diseases. To summarize, we explore literature for beneficial effects of berry polyphenols by using multiple search engines including Google Scholar, Science Direct and PubMed. Original research article, review articles, experimental trials (human and animal studies) and abstract were also included in the current study based on relevancy to the characteristics of berries and their potential benefit on human health. This detailed review revealed that all classes of berries and their metabolites possess a definite impact on human health by preventing onset of chronic diseases by its anti-inflammatory property, thus, consider as one of the beneficial natural compounds that can be consumed on daily basis to prevent various disorders. There is also a positive association between berry polyphenols and modulation of gut microbiota and their metabolites, furthermore, showed a relationship between gut microbiome and incidence of cardiovascular disease.
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Scope: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) alters the gut microbial ecology and increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether strawberry consumption reduces vascular complications in an animal model of MetS and identified whether this effect is associated with changes in the composition of gut microbes. Methods and results: Seven-week-old male mice consumed diets with 10% (C) or 60% kcal from fat (high-fat diet fed mice; HF) for 12 weeks and subgroups were fed a 2.35% freeze-dried strawberry supplemented diet (C+SB or HF+SB). This nutritional dose is equivalent to ∼160 g of strawberry. After 12 weeks treatment, vascular inflammation was enhanced in HF vs C mice as shown by an increased monocyte binding to vasculature, elevated serum chemokines, and increased mRNA expression of inflammatory molecules. However, strawberry supplementation suppressed vascular inflammation in HF+SB vs. HF mice. Metabolic variables, blood pressure, and indices of vascular function were similar among the groups. Further, the abundance of opportunistic microbe was decreased in HF+SB. Importantly, circulating chemokines were positively associated with opportunistic microbes and negatively associated with the commensal microbes (Bifidobacterium and Facalibaculum). Conclusion: Dietary strawberry decreases the abundance of opportunistic microbe and this is associated with a decrease in vascular inflammation resulting from MetS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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El fruto de la fresa (Fragaria x ananassa) es un alimento ampliamente consumido a nivel mundial, y al cual se le han atribuido una amplia gama de propiedades beneficiosas para la salud humana, mayoritariamente asociadas a su potencial antioxidante. La búsqueda de fitoquímicos bioactivos en la fresa se ha enfocado en el fruto, mientras que el perfil bioquímico de las hojas ha sido poco estudiado y sigue siendo poco aprovechado, a pesar de constituir una fuente potencial de metabolitos bioactivos que podrían ser utilizados en la formulación de productos para el sector alimenticio, industrial y farmacéutico. Además, se ha reportado mayor contenido de polifenoles bioactivos en las hojas de fresa que en el fruto, y las hojas de fresa podrían ser una fuente importante de ácido elágico, un compuesto antioxidante bioactivo poco abundante en la dieta humana pero de gran potencial biomédico. Este artículo de revisión bibliográfica tiene como objetivo evaluar las características del cultivo de fresa (Fragaria x ananassa) en Costa Rica, con miras al aprovechamiento integral de los residuos agroindustriales de este cultivo. La información consultada demostró que la comercialización del cultivo de fresa se enfoca en el fruto, mientras que las hojas y el resto del material vegetativo de la planta se descartan periódicamente, y podrían ser incorporados en nuevas cadenas productivas. Este tipo de estrategias son de especial importancia para países pequeños en desarrollo y con economías de base agrícola, para mejorar el aprovechamiento de los residuos agroindustriales y darles un mayor valor agregado a los cultivos, en beneficio del ambiente y la salud humana.
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The purpose of this study is to develop a green and safe chitosan-based preservative which can be applied in strawberry preservation. Chitosan (CS) was treated by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine oxygen radical/laccase oxidation system (TEMPO/laccase oxidation system), which was mainly used to prepare TEMPO/laccase chitosan (TLCS). Furthermore, on this basis, the structure and performance of TLCS were also studied. The results showed that compared with CS, the solubility of TLCS improved, and the kinetic viscosity reduced significantly. Next, a cinnamaldehyde-TEMPO/laccase chitosan (CIN-TLCS) antibacterial agent was prepared by covalently combining the aldehyde group in cinnamaldehyde (CIN) and the amino group in CS. It was found that CIN combined with TLCS through covalent bonds, which changed the structure and crystallinity of TLCS. In addition, the total antioxidant capacity of CIN-TLCS also improved, which was necessary for the application of CIN-TLCS in extending shelf life. Cytotoxicity experiments showed that CIN-TLCS had no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, strawberries were used to explore the actual bacteriostatic and fresh-keeping effects of CIN-TLCS. The experiment found that CIN-TLCS could maintain the freshness of strawberries at room temperature (23 ± 1°C) for 5 days and had positive effects on strawberry color, loss-weight rate, hardness and pH. These results showed that CIN-TLCS could be used as a potential preserving agent for fruit storage. Practical Application To obtain a green, safe and effective food preservative, chitosan (CS) was modified by a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine oxygen radical/laccase oxidation system (TEMPO/laccase oxidation system) to get TEMPO/laccase chitosan (TLCS) and cinnamic aldehyde-TEMPO/laccase chitosan (CIN-TLCS). At the same time, the structure and antibacterial properties of TLCS and CIN-TLCS were analyzed, and their possibility as a new green and safe strawberry preservative was studied. Compared with oxazolidine, imidazole and triazole commercial drugs, CIN-TLCS has the advantages of low price, no pollution, no cytotoxicity and no drug resistance.
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The importance of strawberries and some derived extracts in health is growing. So, it is necessary to have an exhaustive characterization of these food matrices that covers the different groups of molecules present in them. The composition in phenolic compounds, anthocyanins and other phytochemicals is well-known. However, so far, less attention has been paid to other compositional aspects such as those related to metals, which might be relevant in order to observe some of the effects of these extracts, since among these metals there may be significant amounts of prooxidants, cofactors of antioxidant enzymes or toxic heavy metals. Accordingly, this study was conducted on lyophilized strawberries used to obtain extracts rich in phenolic compounds or in anthocyanins. On these three products, the composition in metals analysed by ICP-MS was carried out to observe changes after the different extraction processes. Of the 15 metals analysed, and based on the levels observed in lyophilized strawberry, the concentrations of Na, Cr, Zn and Pb were higher in phenolic and anthocyanin extracts. On the other hand, both extracts showed lower levels of P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Co and Mo than the lyophilized. In the case of Cu and Y, the levels were lower in the phenolic extract, but somewhat higher in the extract rich in anthocyanins. Finally, in the case of As, the lyophilized and the phenolic extract did not show detectable levels, while some content in the extract rich in anthocyanins was appreciated. These results suggest that it is important to pay attention to the metal profile of strawberry extracts, which could be partly responsible for the effects generated by the extracts. In addition, it warns of the effects that extraction processes may have on said metal profile, which suggests that such changes should be monitored. © 2021 International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.
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The role of nutrition in ageing and longevity is well-known. It is believed that the responsibility genes have on lifespan is around 30%, with the rest depending on external factors, including nutrition. Strawberries have been demonstrated to exert multiple beneficial roles in health, including ageing. However, no relevant information is available concerning its effects on lifespan. Because of this, we tested the role of a strawberry methanolic extract on the longevity of the experimental model Caenorhabditis elegans. Two hundred and 40 N2 wild nematodes were used for each of the two experimental groups. The control group was cultivated in classical NGM and fed on OP50 Escherichia coli. The strawberry group was cultivated on NGM supplemented from birth on 100 μg mL⁻¹of strawberry methanolic extract rich in phenolic compounds, and fed on OP50 E. coli. The worms were transferred to fresh media plates every day. For the duration of the entire experiment, the number of live, dead or censored worms (animals lost or embedded in the agar, etc.) for each experimental group was counted every day. With the data, survivorship and Kaplan-Meyer curves were built. The mean lifespans were 12.6 and 14 days for the control and strawberry groups, respectively. The maximal lifespans were 23 and 28 days for control and strawberry groups, respectively. Log Rank statistical analysis, which provides an estimation about how different two survivorship curves are, led to very statistically significant differences (P=0.004). This demonstrates that supplementation on strawberry phenolic extract increased lifespan of the worms. According to these results, it can be concluded that the potential of strawberries in health can be extended into the field of longevity, which is closely related to ageing and its associated pathologies. © 2021 International Society for Horticultural Science. All rights reserved.
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Dirigent proteins (DIR) are thought to have important roles in lignans or lignin-like molecules production, defensive responses, secondary metabolism, and disease resistance in plants. There is a lack of information about the DIR genes in strawberries (Fragaria vesca). In this study, 33 FvDIR genes were identified and divided into four subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis. A detailed bioinformatic analysis of FvDIR genes was performed including physiochemical properties of genes, chromosomal locations, exon-intron distribution, motif arrangements, in silico analysis of cis-elements, and protein localization. All the genes were unevenly distributed on 7 chromosomes. The structure and chromosomal distribution of FvDIR genes were systematically analyzed. Most of the genes showed conserved motif and domain composition within the same subfamily. According to exon-intron analysis, 85% of FvDIR genes have no intron. Evolutionary history analysis showed that tandem duplication (six sets) has played more roles in the expansion of gene family than segmental duplication (one set). In silico analysis of cis-elements suggested that most FvDIR genes may function in response to light, hormones, and environmental stresses. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression of FvDIR genes in different plants parts (roots, stolons, leaves, flowers, and fruits), against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides inoculation, and hormone (SA and JA) treatments. The majority of the genes displayed tissue-specific expression patterns, suggesting their roles in plant growth and development. Some of the genes showed differential expression against C. gloeosporioides inoculation and hormone (SA and JA) treatments, signifying their critical roles in plant response to pathogen and hormone treatments. Moreover, ectopic expression of FvDIR13 (Acc. NO. MZ318691) in Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited enhanced resistance to C. higginsianum, increase in lignin contents, and change in expression of genes having presumed roles in JA and SA signaling pathways. We surmise that FvDIR13 can promote lignin synthesis, and has roles in disease resistance via regulating JA and SA responsive genes. Our findings give a new foundation for understanding the functions of FvDIR genes and provide preliminary information about the roles of FvDIR13 in disease resistance.
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Effects of different drying temperatures (45, 55, and 65°C) on drying kinetic parameters, physical quality attributes, and contents of bioactive compounds of strawberry samples were investigated by a pilot scale cabin dryer with air circulation. The diffusion coefficient of water was determined between (Deff) 3.69-9.75 (m2/s) × 10-10, while the diffusion activation energy (Ea) was calculated as 43.42 kJ/mol. Significant changes were observed in color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C*, Hue* and ∆E*) depending on the drying temperature. It has been determined that strawberry is an important source of phenolics and contains high amounts of three anthocyanin compounds and ellagic acid. The most abundant anthocyanin compound in strawberry samples was identified as pelargonidin-3-glucoside (80.26 mg/100g DM), and followed by pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (7.72 mg/100g KM) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (5.08 mg/100g KM). On the other hand, ellagic acid content was determined as the highest in the dried strawberries (23.11-37.04 mg/100g DM) after different drying temperatures. It is concluded that moderate temperatures (
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Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays several roles in plant development. The de novo synthesis and the reversible inactivation of ABA have been largely described in the literature; however, the degradation of ABA, promoted by the enzymes Abscisic Acid 8'-Hydroxylase, encoded by the CYP707A gene family, is still poorly elucidated. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) has been used as a model to study the ABA-dependent maturation process of non-climacteric fruits, and the ABA-dependent response to abiotic stress. However, the CYP707A genes from this species have not been fully described and characterized. In this perspective, FaCYP707A sequences were identified from strawberry fruit transcriptome and several structural and comparative genomic analyzes were performed. Moreover, the expression of the FaCYP707A sequences identified was investigated in fruits under salt stress and ABA application. Four putative FaCYP707A were identified and the structural analysis confirmed the identity of three of them. The phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine their homologous in other plant species and to predict their evolutionary history; and the expression profile of the FaCYP707As demonstrated that FaCYP707A3 seems to be involved in the response against salt stress in an ABA-dependent manner. Moreover, the interaction network analysis pointed out proteins involved in the ABA metabolism, heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification, and cell wall dissemble. This study characterized for the first time the CYP707A gene family in F. ananassa; this information will guide future studies in order to develop biofortified fruits and stress tolerant plants.
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This work aimed to investigate the supercritical CO2 (ScCO2) drying of strawberries and its effect on enzymatic, chemical and microbial stability. Process conditions influenced the final weight loss, water activity and the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD). At 40°C, an efficient drying (WL>92%, aw<0.34) and a complete enzymatic (POD and PPO activity) inactivation can be achieved using several combinations of pressure, time and flow rate. ScCO2 dried strawberry at 40°C, 13.3MPa, 7h and 19kg/h flow rate maintain the total content of Vitamin C (358.5 mg/100g), 95% of total anthocyanin (61.68 mg/100g) and 76% of total flavonoids (25.85 mg/100g) in comparison with fresh samples. Foodborne pathogens (E.coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes) inoculated at high concentration (≥6 log CFU/g) were undetected after the process. Overall results are promising for the development of a novel low temperature drying process for the production of healthy and safe snack.
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Strawberry is highly delicate and perishable fruit prone to microbial spoilage. To address these issues, secondary product(s) using strawberry pulp was prepared by adding sweetener (jaggery or sucrose) and anti-browning agent (citrate) to reduce the extent of drying induced sourness and discoloration, respectively. Subsequently, these products were LDPE packed and radiation processed (≤ 5 kGy) to ensure microbiological safety during ambient temperature storage. Physical, biochemical, functional (antioxidant and antimutagenic) and organoleptic properties (including flavor compounds) were found to be either retained or enhanced compared to dehydrated strawberry pulp. The product termed as dehydrated strawberry roll having jaggery and citrate (DSRJ) was found to be more acceptable than that having sucrose and citrate (DSRS) till 5 months. Scanning electron microscopy indicated better surface quality of DSRJ than DSRS. Electrochemical property when analyzed using cyclic voltammetry displayed strong correlation to radical scavenging antioxidant assays with marginal storage associated shift in the peak potential. GC-MS analysis indicated retention of most of the flavor compounds in DSRJ during storage. Thus, DSRJ, a value-added product could provide a solution to control post-harvest losses of the fruit by processing to a more stable form and ensuring availability beyond the season. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-021-05171-9.
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The physicochemical quality and the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity against Salmonella and phage stability of dip-coated strawberries were investigated in this study by using bacteriophage cocktail with four different biopolymers for a period of 5 day at +4 °Ϲ. The biopolymers used in this study were whey protein concentrate (WPC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), chitosan (CH), and sodium alginate (SA). The phage cocktail was prepared using S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium obtained from the phages isolated from different environmental sources as host bacteria. Uncoated fruit was used as a control. The color, pH, and titratable acidity (TA) of strawberry samples and the stability and antimicrobial activity of bacteriophages during storage were also investigated. Amongst all the biopolymers, WPC coating showed the least escalation in pH and the least decrease in TA. During storage, 0.7 log-unit (PFU/g) reduction in WPC coating with the bacteriophage cocktail was observed. The highest antimicrobial effect was observed in WPC with a reduction of 3.1 log (CFU/g) after 5 days when the multiplicity of infection was 1000. In the light of the results, it was concluded that the phage loaded WPC coating had much better physicochemical and microbiological quality during refrigerated storage; therefore, it could be used effectively to extend the postharvest life of strawberries.
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Secondary compounds of fruit are among the essential concerns due to their positive effects on human health. Many studies have attempted to improve these compounds by applying different genotype or cultivation practices such as irrigation and fertilization. This study aimed to find out the effect of different harvest dates on strawberry genotypes in terms of total phenolic (TP), total antioxidant activity (TAA), total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA), and some crucial individual phenolic compounds during the five-month growing season (January - May periods) with one month intervals. Besides, superior bred lines ('33′, '36′ and '61′) were compared with widely grown cultivars ('Rubygem', 'Festival' and 'Fortuna') under the Mediterranean climate conditions. Regarding the genotypes, it was observed that TMA, TP, TAA, (−) epicatechin, (−) epicatechin gallate, pelargonidin 3- glucoside (P3G), and pelargonidin 3- rutinoside (P3R) values were the highest values in the 33-bred line, while the 36-bred line standed out in terms of ferulic acid and cyanidin 3- glucoside (C3G). This study also has shown that the chlorogenic acid and sinapic acid contents of the 61-bred line were found in the highest level comparing with the others. Regarding the harvest date, fruit antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, and individual phenols such as gallic, syringic, ferulic, (−) epicatechin and ellagic acid were measured the highest in May-harvested fruits, whereas these values were observed at the lowest level in March, except for syringic and (−) epicatechin. On the other hand, rutin, quercetin, sinapic acid, chlorogenic and caffeic acids, and P3G and P3R levels of fruits were the highest in April, when it was the most intense harvest period in Mediterranean climate conditions. These observations indicated that these compounds could be increased by choosing the right genotype and suitable environmental conditions.
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A antocianina pode ser considerada uma grande aliada na prevenção e tratamento de enfermidades, uma vez que estudos comprovam benefícios e resultados positivos de quem faz a utilização. Assim, objetivou-se elencar informações relacionadas a influência que a antocianina pode fazer positivamente na prevenção e tratamento de diabetes mellitusDM. O estudo foi realizado a partir das ferramentas de pesquisa do buscador Google Acadêmico e da base de dados do Scielo, com uso das palavras chaves: “Antocianina”; “Diabete mellitus” e “Alimentação”. As antocianinas-ANTs beneficiam positivamente a saúde humana, o uso dos alimentos que contenham esse tipo de pigmento proporciona melhor qualidade de vida. Podendo preservar as células do pâncreas, diminuir os níveis de glicose no sangue e fazer o controle da apoptose dessas células, melhorando a resistência à insulina e aumentando sua secreção, causando uma homeostasia no metabolismo da glicose. Quando usadas em doses altas a ANTs, possuem um potencial de fazer a prevenção ou o tratamento DM 2.
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Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an important disease in strawberries. This fungus causes significant economic losses since it attacks plants and fruits. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM) and Harpin protein in pre- and post-harvest as inducers of resistance in strawberries to B. cinerea. Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) from ‘Aromas’ and ‘Camarosa’ cultivars were grown in greenhouse and evaluated in laboratory. Doses of Harpin and ASM in pre- and post-harvest applications were assessed. Yield parameters of strawberry, B. cinerea incidence and injured area in fruit, fruit firmness, CO2 assimilation rate, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity were analyzed. Elicitors application in pre- and post-harvest conditions promoted a decrease of B. cinerea incidence and injured area in strawberry fruits. The results suggest that Harpin and ASM treatment show a significant impact on strawberry fruit disease. The control may be associated with the PAL induction, responsible for inducing defense responses. Harpin and ASM represent a promising alternative to synthetic fungicides for B. cinerea control during post-harvest storage.
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Colon cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases across the world. Numerous epidemiological studies indicate that diets rich in fruit, such as berries, provide significant health benefits against several types of cancer, including colon cancer. The anticancer activities of berries are attributed to their high content of phytochemicals and to their relevant antioxidant properties. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that berries and their bioactive components exert therapeutic and preventive effects against colon cancer by the suppression of inflammation, oxidative stress, proliferation and angiogenesis, through the modulation of multiple signaling pathways such as NF-�B, Wnt/�-catenin, PI3K/AKT/PKB/mTOR, and ERK/MAPK. Based on the exciting outcomes of preclinical studies, a few berries have advanced to the clinical phase. A limited number of human studies have shown that consumption of berries can prevent colorectal cancer, especially in patients at high risk (familial adenopolyposis or aberrant crypt foci, and inflammatory bowel diseases). In this review, we aim to highlight the findings of berries and their bioactive compounds in colon cancer from in vitro and in vivo studies, both on animals and humans. Thus, this review could be a useful step towards the next phase of berry research in colon cancer.
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Background: Sufficient intake of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases and body weight management but the exact mechanism is unknown. The World Health Organisation and Food and Agriculture of the United Nation reports recommend adults to consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day excluding starchy vegetables. This review focuses on the importance of fruits and vegetables as well as the benefits and progress of nutrition education in improving intake. Methods: For this narrative review, more than 100 relevant scientific articles were considered from various databases (e.g Science Direct, Pub Med and Google Scholar) using the keywords Fruit and vegetable, Nutrition education, Body weight, Obesity, Benefits and challenges. Results: Existing data suggests that despite the protective effects of fruits and vegetables, their intakes are still inadequate in many countries, especially developing ones. Consequently enhancing strategies to promote fruit and vegetable intake are essential for health promotion among population. A number of reviews confirm that a well planned and behaviour focused nutrition education intervention can significantly improve behaviour and health indicators. Conclusion: Despite challenges in nutrition education intervention programs, they are considered as a good investment in terms of cost benefit ratio. Rapid improvement in trends of nutrition education can be seen in many countries and majority of interventions has been successful in increasing fruits and vegetables intake. It is recommended that health professionals use multiple interventions to deliver information in several smaller doses over time to ensure improved outcomes.
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Current evidence indicates that the consumption of strawberries, a natural source of a wide range of nutritive and bioactive compounds, is associated with the prevention and improvement of chronic-degenerative diseases. Studies involving cells and animals provide evidence on the anti-inflammatory, anticarcinogenic and antiproliferative activity of the strawberry. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that its acute consumption increases plasma antioxidant capacity, improves circulating inflammatory markers and ameliorates postprandial glycemic response. At the same time, a protracted intake reduces chronic inflammation and improves plasma lipid profile, supporting cardiovascular health, especially in individuals with increased risk for metabolic syndrome. To explain these beneficial effects, much attention has been paid in the past to the antioxidant properties of strawberry polyphenols. However, recent research has shown that their biological and functional activities are related not only to the antioxidant capacity but also to the modulation of many cellular pathways involved in metabolism, survival, proliferation and antioxidant defenses. The aim of this review is to update and discuss the molecular and cellular mechanisms proposed in recent studies to elucidate the healthy effects of strawberry polyphenols against the most common chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and inflammation.
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The vegetarian dietary pattern is traditionally a plant-based diet that includes fruits, vegetables, cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetable oils, soya, and possibly dairy products and/or eggs. Vegetarians and other populations who follow a plant-based dietary pattern enjoy longevity. Specifically, vegetarian dietary patterns have been associated with a lower risk for developing IHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, specific cancers, lower all-cause mortality and reduction in cause-specific mortality. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the USA is approximately 20 % and is currently increasing in developing countries in line with the obesity epidemic. The health care costs associated with the MetS are on a magnitude of 1·6 overall compared with healthy individuals, which makes it an important public health problem. Current evidence from several cross-sectional and case-control studies shows an association between consumption of a vegetarian dietary pattern and a reduced prevalence or risk of developing the MetS. There is a need for further research to be conducted, particularly prospective cohort studies to evaluate the effect of vegetarian dietary patterns on reducing the incidence of the MetS and, clinical trials should be designed to explore vegetarian dietary patterns for the reversal of the MetS in high-risk populations. This research could contribute to reduce the societal and economic burdens associated with the disorder.
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Since high intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely related to the incidence of several degenerative diseases, the importance of a balanced diet in relation to human health has increased consumer attention worldwide. Strawberries (Fragaria X ananassa, Duch.) are a rich source of a wide variety of nutritive compounds such as sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as non-nutritive, bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids.All these compounds exert a synergistic and cumulative effect in human health promotion and in disease prevention. Strawberry phenolics are indeed able (i) to detoxify free radicals blocking their production, (ii) to modulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, cell survival and proliferation and antioxidant defense, and (iii) to protect and repair DNA damage.The overall objective of the present review is to update and discuss the key findings, from recent in vivo studies, on the effects of strawberries on human health. Particular attention will be paid to the molecular mechanisms proposed to explain the health effects of polyphenols against the most common diseases related to oxidative stress driven pathologies, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, obesity and neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammation.
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To compare freeze-dried strawberry (FDS) beverage and strawberry-flavored drink effects on lipid profile and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, 36 subjects with T2D (23 females; mean ± SE age: 51.57 ± 10 years) were randomly divided into two groups. Participants consumed two cups of either pure FDS beverage (each cup containing 25 g freeze-dried strawberry powder equivalent to one serving of fresh strawberries; intervention group) or an iso-caloric drink with strawberry flavoring (similar to the FDS drink in fiber content and color; placebo group) daily for 6 wk. Anthropometric measurements, 3 d, 24 h dietary recall, and fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and at weeks 6 intervention. After lying down and relaxing for approximately 10 min, each participant's blood pressure was recorded in triplicate with 5 min intervals; recordings were made at baseline and the trial end-point. Each participant's lipid profile was assessed before and after intervention. Assessment at the weeks 6 intervention showed a significant reduction from baseline in total cholesterol levels and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio in the intervention group (179.01 ± 31.86 to 165.9 ± 32.4 mg/L; P = 0.00 and 3.9 ± 0.88 to 3.6 ± 0.082 mg/L; P = 0.00 respectively), but the change was not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.07, P = 0.29 respectively). Systolic blood pressure levels were significantly reduced from baseline in both the FDS and placebo drink groups (129.95 ± 14.9 to 114.3 ± 27.5 mmHg; P = 0.02 and 127.6 ± 15.6 to 122.9 ± 14.47 mmHg; P = 0.00 respectively), but the reduction was not significantly different between the two groups. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced post-intervention in the FDS drink group compared to placebo group (78.7 ± 7.2 vs 84.4 ± 5.8; P = 0.01), the reduction was also significant within the FDS drink group (84.2 ± 8.03 to 78.7 ± 7.2; P = 0.00). Triglycerides, HDL-C concentrations and anthropometric indices showed no significant differences between or within groups. Short-term FDS supplementation improved selected cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with T2D. Long-term effects on other metabolic biomarkers need to be investigated in future trials.
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Background/objectives: Biomarkers for a mixed fruit and vegetable (FV) diet are needed to provide a better understanding of the association between FV intake and type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the prospective association between a composite score comprised of three biomarkers of FV intake in free-living populations and incident diabetes. Subjects/methods: A total of 318 incident diabetes cases and 926 controls from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation of Cancer)-Norfolk study aged 40-79 years at baseline (1993-1997), completed 7-day prospective food diary and had plasma vitamin C and carotenoid measures. A composite biomarker score (CB-score) comprising the sum of plasma vitamin C, beta-carotene and lutein was derived. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident diabetes were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Results: A strong inverse association was found between the CB-score and incident diabetes. The ORs (95% CI) of diabetes comparing quartiles Q2, Q3 and Q4 of the CB-score with Q1 (reference category) were 0.70 (0.49, 1.00), 0.34 (0.23, 0.52) and 0.19 (0.12, 0.32), respectively, and 0.49 (0.40, 0.58) per s.d. change in CB-score in a model adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. The association was marginally attenuated after additionally adjusting for body mass index and waist circumference (0.60 (0.49 and 0.74) per s.d. change in CB-score). Conclusions: A combination of biomarkers representing the intake of a mixed FV diet was strongly inversely associated with incident diabetes. These findings provide further support for measuring dietary biomarkers in studies of diet-disease associations and highlight the importance of consuming FV for the prevention of diabetes.
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Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases.
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BACKGROUND: Berries are raising increasing interest in the last years because of their nutritional quality and the several bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties that contain. Many studies reported significant increases in the plasma antioxidant capacity after long term and acute consumptions of antioxidant-rich foods. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to confirm the healthy effect of strawberry consumption, evaluating the impact of an acute strawberry intake for 15 days on the plasma oxidative status of healthy volunteers. METHODS: To investigate the possible changes in the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, TEAC, FRAP, BAP and –SHp tests were performed; furthermore, the proteins’ carbonyl residues test and the d-ROMs test were conducted to evaluate the protection provided by the strawberry consumption against radical damage. RESULTS: Acute strawberry consumption improved the plasma TAC, increasing FRAP and BAP values, both immediately after the strawberry consumption and the washout period. Similarly, the strawberry intake decreased proteins’ carbonyl residues and d-ROMs test values. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the nutritional quality of Alba strawberry cultivar and demonstrates that the acute strawberry intake improves the plasma antioxidant capacity, and protects plasma proteins from the radical damage, also after the washout period.
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To determine whether individual fruits are differentially associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Health professionals in the United States. 66 105 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2008), 85 104 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2009), and 36 173 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2008) who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline in these studies. Incident cases of type 2 diabetes, identified through self report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires. During 3 464 641 person years of follow-up, 12 198 participants developed type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for personal, lifestyle, and dietary risk factors of diabetes, the pooled hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week of total whole fruit consumption was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 0.99). With mutual adjustment of individual fruits, the pooled hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes for every three servings/week were 0.74 (0.66 to 0.83) for blueberries, 0.88 (0.83 to 0.93) for grapes and raisins, 0.89 (0.79 to 1.01) for prunes, 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for apples and pears, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.98) for bananas, 0.95 (0.91 to 0.99) for grapefruit, 0.97 (0.92 to 1.02) for peaches, plums, and apricots, 0.99 (0.95 to 1.03) for oranges, 1.03 (0.96 to 1.10) for strawberries, and 1.10 (1.02 to 1.18) for cantaloupe. The pooled hazard ratio for the same increment in fruit juice consumption was 1.08 (1.05 to 1.11). The associations with risk of type 2 diabetes differed significantly among individual fruits (P<0.001 in all cohorts). Our findings suggest the presence of heterogeneity in the associations between individual fruit consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes. Greater consumption of specific whole fruits, particularly blueberries, grapes, and apples, is significantly associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas greater consumption of fruit juice is associated with a higher risk.
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Phenolic compounds in fruits of 27 cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) grown in Norway were characterised and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MSn. Total phenolic content, calculated as the sum of the individual compounds, varied 2.3-fold among cultivars, i.e., from 57 to 133mg/100g of fw. There were significant differences among cultivars in concentration of all phenolic compounds. The highest variation between cultivars was found for cinnamoyl glucose (0.6–24.9mg/100g of fw). Concentration of anthocyanins, the most abundant class of phenolic compounds in the majority of the cultivars, varied from 8.5 to 65.9mg/100g of fw. Flavan-3-ols (11–45mg/100g of fw) and ellagitannins (7.7–18.2mg/100g of fw) contributed on average 28% and 14% to total phenolic contents in the strawberry cultivars, respectively. In three cultivars harvested at three stages of ripeness, anthocyanins and cinnamic acid conjugates were the compounds most affected by ripening. The anthocyanin profile for the individual cultivars was only slightly affected by ripening and growing conditions.
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The anthocyanin composition was analysed in strawberry fruits from five different cultivars (cv. Eris, Oso Grande, Carisma, Tudnew and Camarosa). Twenty-five defined anthocyanin pigments were detected, most of them containing Pelargonidin (Pg) as aglycone; some cyanidin (Cy) derivatives were also found. Glucose and rutinose were the usual substituting sugars, although arabinose and rhamnose were also tentatively identified; some minor anthocyanins showed acylation with aliphatic acids. A relevant aspect was the detection of anthocyanin-derived pigments, namely 5-carboxypyranopelargonidin-3-glucoside and four condensed pigments containing C–C linked anthocyanin (Pg) and flavanol (catechin and afzelechin) residues. Total anthocyanin content ranged between 200 and 600mgkg−1, with Pg 3-gluc constituting 77–90% of the anthocyanins in the strawberry extracts followed by Pg 3-rut (6–11%) and Cy 3-gluc (3–10%). A notable variability was found among the anthocyanin concentrations in samples of a same variety and harvest, indicating a strongly influence of the degree of maturity, edaphic-climatic factors and post-harvest storage.
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In this study the antioxidant composition of fresh and stored strawberries and the bioavailability of the main strawberry bioactive compounds were determined in humans. In addition we have investigated plasma total antioxidant capacity. On 13 healthy volunteers, blood samples were collected before and after acute ingestion of fresh and stored strawberries, 300 g respectively. Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) values after consumption of fresh and stored strawberries showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) at 5 and 8 hours time interval, while significantly decreased TRAP (Total Radical-Trapping Antioxidant Parameter) values (P < 0.05) were found at 8 hours respect to baseline after stored strawberries consumption. After consuming fresh strawberries, plasma levels of -carotene increased significantly (P < 0.05) respect to stored ones. Moreover, consumption of fresh and stored strawberries resulted in a significant increase of vitamin C at 2, 3 and 5 hours (P < 0.05). The bioavailable amount of strawberries antioxidant compounds reflects the variations observed in fresh and stored fruits. We could summarize that the global food quality is related to both native quantity of bioactive compounds and storage treatments.