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Approaching Secure Protocol from Quantum Perspective


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The aim of quantum cryptography is to overcome the everlasting problem of unrestricted security in private communication. The usage of the quantum principles protects the privacy of the user data during the time it is in the transmission process over the telecommunication channels. The sophisticated algorithm we have developed will make the data meaningless to eavesdroppers. The security of modern cryptography systems has been accomplished by using a long key that will require many years to launch a brute force attack. Therefore, we designed an efficient algorithm that is developed based on BB84 and B92 techniques. In this paper, we utilized the classic features of quantum mechanism, such as superposition and uncertainty principle. We present the underlining mechanisms of quantum cryptography that enhances the security of data transmission in three stages with valid results that promise a low rate of errors that leads to a strong consistent key by raising the constraint of the security concept.
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Approaching Secure Protocol from Quantum
,Abdalraouf Hassan, Wesam Batrafi, and Khaled Elleithy
Department of Computer Science Engineering
University of Bridgeport
Bridgeport, CT, 06604, USA
(abdalrah, wbatarfi),
Abstract— The aim of quantum cryptography is to overcome
the everlasting problem of unrestricted security in private
communication. The usage of the quantum principles protects
the privacy of the user’s data during the time it is in the
transmission process through the telecommunication channels.
The sophisticated algorithm we have developed will make the
data meaningless to eavesdroppers. The security of modern
cryptographic systems has been accomplished by using a long
key that will require many years to launch a brute force attack.
Therefore, we designed an efficient algorithm that was developed
based on BB84 and B92 techniques. In this paper, we utilized the
classic features of quantum mechanism, such as superposition
and the uncertainty principle. We present the underlining
mechanisms of quantum cryptography that enhances the security
of data transmission in three stages with valid results that
promise a low error rate that leads to a strong consistent key by
raising the constraint of the security concept.
Keywords— Quantum, Cryptography, Security, BB84, B92.
I. I
The revolution of Quantum mechanism occurred early in
the 20th century. Therefore, every time we use electronics
devices or transmit and receive information unconsciously, we
utilize our knowledge of the nature of quantum. Yet, in
information, technology there is still enough room for
developing quantum properties [1]. During the early 80,
scientists have acknowledged quantum aspects as a supply for
identifying with protocols banned by traditional laws of
physics. Furthermore, in modern computers, the increase in
performances goes hand in hand with decrease in size.
Consequently, more rapidly, a single transistor will be so
modest that it will be essential to account for quantum effects
to understand fully and to predict decisively its behavior [2].
The theory of quantum cryptography was developed in
1984 (BB84) by Charles H. Bennett and Gilles Brassard as part
of a research study between physics and information at IBM. It
was known at that time as quantum distribution scheme [1].
The fundamental concept of the quantum system relies on
the distribution of single particles or photons and the value of a
classical bit encodes by the polarization of a photon [2].
Actually, the quantum cryptography is based on two important
elements of quantum mechanics: The Heisenberg Uncertainty
principle and the principle of photon polarization. Based on
physical law, a photon is an elementary particle of light
carrying a fixed amount of energy, light may be polarized;
polarization is a physical property that comes forward when
light is observed as an electromagnetic wave [3]. The direction
of a photon’s polarization can be fixed to any desired angle
(using a polarizing filter) and can be measured using a calcite
While genuine algorithms have fulfilled the markets for a
practical secure system, the search for a provable secure
algorithm is still searched by scientists. Furthermore, security
of RSA, the mainly used crypto protocol today, resides on the
not disproven fact that no efficient factorization algorithm that
is able to break it in logical times is known.
We now know that if quantum computers will be ever
available, RSA could be broken by Shor’s quantum Algorithm
[4] a quantum computer could factorize large numbers in a
very efficient manner exploiting entangled states. The open
traditional problem was essentially the key distribution
process. Identical shared keys will be given to Alice and Bob
by QC protocol. Then to categorize the approximate
communication error level, the two parties have to compare
their strings [5]. The third party Eve interceptions could be the
reasons for the error, channel flaws (as losses) and detectors’
inefficiencies and/or dark counts, to make it more difficult to
differentiate among these types of errors is physically
impossible. For that reason, we assume all the errors are due to
eavesdropping. QC tries to answer the following question: Is it
actually possible to produce and distribute a sequence of truly
strings random numbers of bits to form a shared trusted key in
a provably secure way?
The Heisenberg Uncertainty principle states that, it is not
possible to measure the quantum state of any system without
disturbing that system. This means that polarization of a
photon or light particle can only be known at the point when it
is measured [9]. This principle plays an important role in
preventing the attempts of eavesdroppers in a cryptosystem
based on quantum cryptography [6].
Secondly, the photon polarization principle explains how
light photons can be polarized in a specific direction. In
addition, an eavesdropper cannot copy unknown qubits i.e.
unknown quantum states, due to the no-cloning theorem which
was first presented by [8] in 1982. The quantum cryptography
allows a bit string to be agreed between two communications
parties without having two parties to meet face to face, and yet
these two parties can be sure with a high confidence that the
agreed bit string is exclusively shared between them.
A. One Time Pad
In cryptography, a one-time pad (OTP) is an encryption
technique that cannot be broken if used correctly [10]. In this
technique, a plaintext is paired with a random, secret key (or
pad). Then, each bit or character of the plaintext is encrypted
by combining it with the corresponding bit or character from
the pad using modular addition [4]. If the key is truly random
and at least as long as the plaintext and never reused in whole
or in part and kept completely secret, the resulting cipher text
will be impossible to decrypt or break [7]. It has also been
proven that any cipher with the perfect secrecy property must
use keys with effectively the same requirements as OTP keys.
However, practical problems have prevented one-time pads
from being widely used.
Despite Shannon's proof of its security, the one-time pad
has serious weakness in practice; it requires perfectly
unpredictable random one-time pad numbers, which is a non-
trivial software requirement [5].
Secure generation and exchange of the one-time pad
material must be at least as long as the message [9]. The
security of the one-time pad is only as secure as the security of
the one-time pad key-exchange. Careful treatment must make
sure that it continues to remain secret from any adversary
Key distribution is needed bcause the pad, like all shared
secrets, must be passed and kept secure, and the pad has to be
at least as long as the message, once a very long pad has been
securely sent (e.g., a computer disk full of random data), it can
be used for numerous future messages until the sum of their
sizes equals the size of the pad [12]. Quantum key distribution
also proposes a solution to this problem.
Distributing very long one-time pad keys [11] is inconvenient
and usually poses a significant security risk. The pad is
essentially the encryption key but unlike keys for modern
ciphers, it must be extremely long and is much too difficult for
humans to remember [8]. Storage media such as thumb drives,
DVD-Rs, or personal digital audio players can be used to carry
a very large one-time-pad from place to place in a non-
suspicious way, but even so the need to transport the pad
physically is a burden compared to the key negotiation
protocols of a modern public-key cryptosystem. Finally, the
effort needed to manage one-time pad key material scales very
badly for large networks of communicants [7].
The number of pads required increase as the square of the
number of user’s increase freely exchanging messages. For
communication between only two persons or a star network
topology, this is less of a problem [14].
The key material must be securely disposed of after use to
ensure that key material is never reused and to protect the
messages sent. Because the key material must be transported
from one endpoint to another and persist until the message is
sent or received, it can be more vulnerable to forensic
recovery than the transient plaintext it protects [13].
Cryptography came to use thousands of years ago, and
since then, it has been constantly developing along with
human civilization [11]. The significantly influenced
human society and some time even the course of history.
Today cryptography has become important technology in
the internet society that each individual relies on [9].
One typical example is the RSA [7] crypto scheme; it is
often used in online shopping: The net shop prepares a
public key containing the product (N) of p and q prime
numbers. A net shop published this product (N) for its
customers and keeps the values of p and q secret [8].
The costumers encrypted their credit card information
with the purchase information with public key and sent
the encrypted data to the net shop; the net shop derives
the private key from the two primes by simple calculation
to decrypt this data [10]. Let us assume the malicious
hacker knows the public key but has no idea of the private
key. For decryption, the hacker needs to factorize (n) to
find the prime p and q. The factorization of this prime
numbers is a time consuming task when (n) is large [8].
In the end of the last century, it was said even the most
powerful computer would take thousands of years to
factorize 200 digit numbers [12]. Since then rapid
progress has been made in both software and hardware.
In December 2009, an international team of researchers
succeeded in cracking 786-bit RSA key in only two years
using a novel encryption algorithm and cluster of personal
computers [15]. If military intelligence had a method of
breaking longer keys, it would never announce this fact.
For this reason, RSA scheme today employs a public key
with at least 1024-bit key.
In recent years, the fiber tapping device [13] became
available in the market, making it easy for hacker to tap
signal for a fiber. It has been actually reported that fiber
networks in some U.S. investment firms and Frankfort
airport were intercepted in the past. Therefore, encryption
is necessary to guarantee safe transmission to sensitive
A. BB84
The first QKD protocol was introduced in 1984 [6], labeled
as BB84. It used two polarization bases, rectilinear (R) basis
and diagonal (D) basis, and the single photon that may be
polarized with four states: |h›, |v› |lcp›, and |rcp›. Polarization
state |h› (|v›) in R-basis reveals “0” (“1”) and polarization
state |lcp› (|rcp›) in D-basis reveals “0” (“1”). The italic letters
h mean horizontal, v vertical, lcp left circle polarized, and rcp
right circle polarizes [10].
Alice and Bob would like to send an encrypted message to
each other so their message securely can be made private [12].
To do this, they need a cryptographic key that is only known
to them that they will use to encrypt their message [15]. In
addition, there is Eve; she tries to intercept their message,
BB84 will allow them to come up with secret key both can use
and trust.
To follow the BB84 protocol, Alice and Bob need to use two
communication channels [11], classical channel and quantum
channel. The classical channel allows them to send individual
bits of information back and forth. As the bits travel among
the classical channel, it is possible for Eve to intercept them.
Eve can observe the bits and send a copy of them to their
regular destination. When communicating through a classical
channel, Alice and bob have no way to detect Eve.
The quantum channel [8] behaves differently. Instead of
transferring bit, it transfers qubits. The qubits represent bit,
and either of two processes can generate them. Let us call
them (A) and (B). The BB84 takes advantage of some
properties of qubits. Qubits cannot be copied and it is not
possible to determine whether if qubits were generated by
process (A) or (B). When qubits represent zero in machine
(A), it will produce a zero and when qubits represent one, the
machine will produce one [10]. In both cases the qubits will be
destroyed in the process, on the other hand, if machine (A) is
fed with qubits that were produced by machine (B), the output
will be randomly half the time is zero and half the time is one,
and the qubits is still be destroyed [9]. Likewise, a special
machine exists to observe qubits produced by process (B). Let
us call it machine (B). When it gives qubits produced by
process (B), a machine (B) will out put the correct bit, but
when is fed a qubits produced by process (A), machine (B)
output will be random and just as machine (A) qubits will be
destroyed. Therefore, when Bob receives a qubit over the
quantum channel, he will not know which machine to use to
observe it. He will decide by a coin toss [5]. Half the time he
will feed qubits to machine (A) and half the time, he will feed
it to machine (B) [9].
The protocol began [11] when Alice sent Bob a very large
number of qubits over the quantum channel. Bob recorded all
the output he received as he fed the qubits randomly to his
qubits measuring machine. He will pick the right machine half
the time; an average 50 percent of his measuring will be
correct for the remaining qubits. He will still end up half the
time just by chance. This means 75% of Bob measurement
will be correct [5].
However, if Eve intercepted [9] the qubits before they
reach Bob, she will also need to make random guesses as to
which machine to use. Thus because Eve intercepted half of
the qubits, therefore half of the qubits she will send to Bob.
Half has been generated correctly and half of them incorrectly
[5]. This means only 75% of the qubits that will reach Bob
will represent what Alice intended [9]. Now when Bob
receives the qubits, he will have to make random guesses. This
will give Bob a new accuracy of 62.5%. Bob however does
not know that yet, so he and Alice will have to communicate
some information to each other to work out what accuracy
Bob is getting. Once Bob finished measuring all the qubits he
received, he will open the classical channel and send Alice a
stream of bits that indicates to her which machines he used to
measure each of her qubits. Once she received that message
from Bob, she will review the personal record and send to Bob
telling him which of the qubits he ended up measuring
correctly [11]. Now Bob can throw away the wrong qubits and
Alice can do the same. Now they are in possession of a string
of bits that is only known to them and no one else.
If the observation accuracy [10] is below 100%, they will
know Eve intercepted some of their Qubits and the
communication is not secure. Proved that Eve was attempting
to confound their effort, they should now be in possession of
string of bits that is known only to them. They have very large
sequence of bits so they can afford to sacrifice a random
subset of them in order to determine whether Eve was
listening to them over the classical channel [7]. They need to
choose a subset of bits and compare them, and if they are
satisfied they are secure, then they can use the reaming bit to
form a secret cryptographic key. If they observe an accuracy
of 100 %, they can be reasonably confident that their share
key is secure. Now they can use them to encrypt further
communications, using this protocol allow Alice and Bob to
generate a cryptographic key and they can determine whether
secrecy has been compromised or not.
Table 1.A 8-bit sample of Alice (A) and Bob (B) for BB84
Sequence of
bits 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A’s bit 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
A’s source
basis D R R D R D D D
polarization |rc
|h› |v› |lcp› |h› |rcp› |lcp› |lcp›
B’s detector
basis D D D R R D R D
|lcp› |v› |h› |rcp› |h› |lcp›
B’s bit 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
A’s response Y N N N Y Y N Y
secret key 1 _ _ _ 0 1 _ 0
B. Protocol B92
In the B92 protocol [4], two states can be regarded as
“half” of the BB84 protocol. Alice and Bob first have to agree
that Alice uses |h›-photon and |rcp›-photon to represent “0”
and “1”. Bob uses |lcp›-basis and |v›-basis as “0” and “1”.
Table 1 and Table 2 show BB84 and B92 in detail.
Based on B92 only two states are more important than the
possible four polarization states in BB84 protocol [16], and
this is the main difference in B92. “0” can be encoded as “0”
degree in the (R) rectilinear basis and “1” can be encoded by
“45” degrees in the diagonal basis (D). Just like the BB84,
Alice transmits to Bob a random string of photons encoded
with randomly chosen bits, however now, Alice dictates which
bases she must use [1]. Bob still randomly chooses a basis by
which to measure, but if he chooses the wrong basis, he will
not measure anything (a condition in quantum mechanics that
is known as an erasure). Bob can simply tell Alice after each
bit she sends whether or not he measured it correctly.
Table 2.A 8-bit sample of Alice (A) and Bob (B) for B92
Sequence of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Alice’s bit 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1
|rcp› |rcp› |h› |h› |rcp› |h› |h› |rcp›
B’s detector |lcp› |v› |v› |v› |lcp› |lcp› |v› |lcp›
Bob’s bit 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
Shared secret
_ 1 _ _ _ 0 _ _
In Table 2, only two bits are shared by Alice and Bob (2, 6)
as the secret key, the efficiency is 2/8= 25%.
For protocol B92 [4, 17, 18], the ideal efficiency is 25%. To
analyze the +efficiency properly we tested the research and
compiled the data shown in Figure 2. Assume that Alice sent
|h›-photon, i.e., “0” (Figure 2(a)). Bob will choose randomly
|lcp› -basis or |v›-basis. If Bob selects the wrong basis, i.e., |v›-
basis, he cannot detect the photon. If Bob selects the correct
basis, i.e., |lcp›-basis, he has 50% probability to detect the
photon; however, even if he chooses the correct basis, he still
has the probability of 50%. Finally, Bob will have idealized
maximum efficiency of 25% to share the correct bits [16, 17,
V. P
In this protocol, we introduced the three stages process. The
first stage convention is similar to the BB84 protocol. Alice
will choose random strings bits through the four bases
according to the BB84 protocol and send them to Bob through
Quantum channel. Bits “0” can be encoded as |v› state in (R)
basis and as |lcp› degrees in the (D) basis and bits “1” can be
encoded as |v› state in (R) and |rcp› (D) basis [11].
A. In the first stage Bob will make his guess and use random
basis to measure Alice’s Qubits; then Bob will open a
classical channel to communicate with Alice and announce
what basis he used to measure his bits. Alice will compare
their bases and find out which is the wrong measurement
and then discard the wrong basis from the strings that she
received from Bob, and she will save what resulted from
this process.
a) In the second stage Alice will repeat the first step
again and generate another random sequence of
photon using the same polarization basis from stage
one and send it to Bob through quantum channel.
b) Bob will detect each photon that is represented in the
binary sequence using random basis from |lcp›, |rcp›-
basis or |h›, |v›-basis to measure Alice string.
c) Alice and Bob will share the results of Bob’s
measurement through classical channel. Alice will
analyze Bob’s result and proceed to the final stage.
d) Alice compares both Bob’s result with her string, and
discards the correct matched Bob’s result from his
e) Finally, Alice will combine the first stage result and
second stage result string together to generate the
final shared secret key. It will be a strong
sophisticated key that will provide more security and
reliability to their information transaction.
These key will be developed from the result of deriving the
two keys represented as one strong Encryption key, so both
user can use now to transmit their data safely.
First stage for producing the key works exactly according to
BB84 protocol
Table 3.A 8-bit sample of Alice (A) and Bob (b) 1st stage
Sequence of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A’s bit 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1
A’s basis D D R D R D R R
|rcp› |lcp› |v |rcp› |h› |rcp› |h› |v›
B’s detector R D R R R D D D
|h› |lcp› |v› |h› |h› |rcp› |rcp› |lcp›
Bob’s bit 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
Bob reports
A’s response N Y Y N Y Y N N
secret key
_ 0 1 _ 0 1 _ _
B. The Second stage for producing the secret key
Alice will generate another random string through the
quantum channel to Bob. Bob will measure the string
randomly and compare his measured bits through classic
channel with Alice. Alice here will discard the correct basis
that is matched Bob’s measurement from her string.
C. The Third stage Alice will compare both keys from first
and second stage together and combine them as one strong
secret key that will be used to transfer data between both
parties through the classic channel.
Table 3.B 8-bit sample of Alice (A) and Bob (b) 2
Sequence of
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
A’s bit 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0
A’s basis D R D R R R R D
|lcp› |h› |rcp› |h› |v› |v› |v› |lcp
B’s detector D R D R R D R D
|lcp› |v› |lcp› |h› |v› |rcp› |h› |lcp
Bob’s bit 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
Bob reports D R D R R D R D
A’s response N Y Y N N Y Y N
secret key
_ 1 0 _ _ 1 1 _
Final stage to combine 1
and 2
secret key to finalized the
shared secret key.
Table 3.C 8-bit sample of Alice (A) and Bob (b) final stage
key 0 _ 1 0 1 _ _ _ _
key _ 1 0 _ _ 1 _ 1 _
In figure 3.A, if Bob chooses the correct basis, he will detect
the correct polarized photon. However, if Bob chooses the
wrong basis, he knows that his result is inconclusive.
Therefore, the idealized maximum efficiency is 50% for
BB84. It also shows that Alice used R-basis sending |h›-
photon and |v›-photon. In B92, the efficiencies are 25% and
for BB84 its 50% and this is the price that two QKD protocol
must pay for secrecy. Here we proposed two-way transmission
over the quantum channel (Alice Bob and Alice Bob)
instead of one-way transmission. Our enhanced QKD protocol
has three stages. In the first stage, Alice sends random
sequence of photon according to BB84; in the second stage
Alice will use a modified version of BB84 to send another
large sequence of photon, and in the final stage Alice will
generate a cryptography key that resulted from previous
Our enhanced protocol enhances the efficiency to 43.8%
with the average complexity order 2.76 when using BB84 in
the first stage. In addition, when using the modified version in
the second stage the idealized maximum efficiency can reach
28.9% with average complexity of 2.4.
Quantum cryptography is a fascinating illustration because of
the uncertainty principle imposes restrictions on the capacity
of certain types of communication channels. It is not possible
for hackers to determine whether the qubits were generated by
R-basis or D-basis. Furthermore, transmitting the qubits
through the quantum channel, it leads to developing a strong
cryptographic key. However, in our proposed protocol, we
take advantage of the properties of quantum qubits twice to
generate a secret key that can be generated without any
interference from an eavesdropper. Therefore, we developed a
strong reliable key by adding more security demands without
worrying about any guesses from an intruder who might be
present. Even if the guess of the attacker in the first case was
25%, we have decreased the error rate to 15% to 18%. This is
because of` the principles of quantum mechanics that ensures
that no eavesdropper can successfully measure the quantum
state while it is being transmitted without disturbing the state
in some detectable way. Using this protocol allows Alice and
Bob to generate a secure cryptographic key, and then they can
determine whether their secrecy has been compromised.
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Quantum cryptography could well be the first application of quantum mechanics at the single-quantum level. The rapid progress in both theory and experiment in recent years is reviewed, with emphasis on open questions and technological issues.
The forty-nine papers collected here illuminate the meaning of quantum theory as it is disclosed in the measurement process. Together with an introduction and a supplemental annotated bibliography, they discuss issues that make quantum theory, overarching principle of twentieth-century physics, appear to many to prefigure a new revolution in science.Originally published in 1983.The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
If a photon of definite polarization encounters an excited atom, there is typically some nonvanishing probability that the atom will emit a second photon by stimulated emission. Such a photon is guaranteed to have the same polarization as the original photon. But is it possible by this or any other process to amplify a quantum state, that is, to produce several copies of a quantum system (the polarized photon in the present case) each having the same state as the original? If it were, the amplifying process could be used to ascertain the exact state of a quantum system: in the case of a photon, one could determine its polarization by first producing a beam of identically polarized copies and then measuring the Stokes parameters1. We show here that the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids such replication and that this conclusion holds for all quantum systems.
The cloning of quantum variables with continuous spectra is investigated. We define a Gaussian 1-to-2 cloning machine that copies equally well two conjugate variables such as position and momentum or the two quadrature components of a light mode. The resulting cloning fidelity for coherent states, namely F = 2/3, is shown to be optimal. An asymmetric version of this Gaussian cloner is then used to assess the security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution scheme that allows two remote parties to share a Gaussian key. The information versus disturbance tradeoff underlying this continuous quantum cryptographic scheme is then analyzed for the optimal individual attack. Methods to convert the resulting Gaussian keys into secret key bits are also studied. Finally, the extension of the Gaussian cloner to optimal N-to-M continuous cloners is discussed, and it is shown how to implement these cloners for light modes using a phase-insensitive optical amplifier and beam splitters. In addition, a phase-conjugate input cloner is defined, yielding M clones and M' anticlones from N replicas of a coherent state and N' replicas of its phase-conjugate (with M' - M = N' - N). This novel kind of cloners is shown to outperform the standard N-to-M cloners in some cases.
A review. Quantum detection theory is a reformulation, in quantum-mechanical terms, of statistical decision theory as applied to the detection of signals in random noise. Density operators take the place of the probability density functions of conventional statistics. The optimum procedure for choosing between two hypotheses, and an approximate procedure valid at small signal-to-noise ratios and called threshold detection, are presented. Quantum estimation theory seeks best estimators of parameters of a density operator. A quantum counterpart of the Cramr-Rao inequality of conventional statistics sets a lower bound to the mean-square errors of such estimates. Applications at present are primarily to the detection and estimation of signals of optical frequencies in the presence of thermal radiation.
Conference Paper
The last two decades have witnessed an exciting advanced research field that stems from non-classical atomic theory, the quantum mechanics. This research promises an interesting applicability in computation, known as quantum computation, and also in secure data communications, known as quantum cryptography. Quantum cryptography capitalizes on the inherent random polarization state of single photons, which are associated with binary logic values. Because the polarization state of a photon is not reproducible by an eavesdropper between the source and the destination, polarized photons are used with an intelligent algorithm to disseminate the cryptographic key with high security from the source to the destination, a process known as quantum key distribution. However, although the polarization state of a photon remains intact in free-space propagation, it does not remain so in dielectric medium and thus quantum cryptography is not problem-free. In this paper we review quantum cryptography and we identify the various steps in the quantum key identification process. We then analyze and discuss issues related to quantum key distribution that rise in pragmatic fiber-optic transmission and in communication network topologies. In addition, we identify a major weakness of the method that is prone to attacking and which incapacitates quantum cryptography in fiber communications