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Análisis de la evolución de la igualdad de oportunidades en educación media, una perspectiva internacional. El caso de Colombia

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... And in particular, sociological studies on IEO, addressing empirically the association between ascribed factors and individuals' educational outcomes, are hard to find in the national literature. In recent years, scholars have been increasingly interested in the development of measures of IEO and have, for the most part, conducted works from an economic perspective (e.g., Gamboa, 2012;Gamboa & Waltenberg, 2012). ...
... One of the first studies in the country on the basis of standardized achievement test scores (Cox & Jimenez, 1990) had already showed a clear trend of private schools' being at an advantage. Results consistently indicate a marked positive effect of the private sector on the students' academic performance in both national and international standardized tests, once individual family background is controlled (Barrera et al., 2012;Gamboa, 2012;Núñez, Steiner, Cadena, & Pardo, 2002). Likewise, Gaviria and Barrientos (2001a) concluded that public schools in Bogotá have an adverse effect on performance, especially in the case of high scoring students. ...
... Since the focus of this study is not on social mobility per se -which is a concept that does not apply to individuals but to societies -this section does not intend to review these studies as part of the state of the art. However, it is worth mentioning that recent literature on this area has approached the phenomenon from the inequality of opportunities perspective within the economic discipline (Ferreira & Meléndez, 2012;Gamboa, 2012;Núñez, Ramírez, & Taboada, 2006;Ruiz, 2011). One of the advantages of this perspective, in contrast to the abovementioned studies, is that it extends the bivariate analysis, that is, the overall association between origin and destination without mediating factors (O-D) (Torche, 2014). ...
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Inequality of educational opportunities (IEO) is a recurring topic in both public debate and academic research. This book contributes to the contemporary discussion on IEO with a focus on individual trajectories over the life course. It provides empirical evidence on the magnitude and the mechanisms of IEO in Colombia, a country with extreme, persistent levels of social inequality. Using national administrative databases, the author examines the effect of social origin on academic and labor market outcomes among university graduates. Drawing on a comprehensive theoretical approach to stratification and higher education, this volume discusses how the interaction between family background and segmentation of educational institutions might influence individuals’ outcomes. As such, it will appeal to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners with interests in education, social inequality, social policy, higher education research, and international/comparative education.
... And in particular, sociological studies on IEO, addressing empirically the association between ascribed factors and individuals' educational outcomes, are hard to find in the national literature. In recent years, scholars have been increasingly interested in the development of measures of IEO and have, for the most part, conducted works from an economic perspective (e.g., Gamboa, 2012;Gamboa & Waltenberg, 2012). ...
... One of the first studies in the country on the basis of standardized achievement test scores (Cox & Jimenez, 1990) had already showed a clear trend of private schools' being at an advantage. Results consistently indicate a marked positive effect of the private sector on the students' academic performance in both national and international standardized tests, once individual family background is controlled (Barrera et al., 2012;Gamboa, 2012;Núñez, Steiner, Cadena, & Pardo, 2002). Likewise, Gaviria and Barrientos (2001a) concluded that public schools in Bogotá have an adverse effect on performance, especially in the case of high scoring students. ...
... Since the focus of this study is not on social mobility per se -which is a concept that does not apply to individuals but to societies -this section does not intend to review these studies as part of the state of the art. However, it is worth mentioning that recent literature on this area has approached the phenomenon from the inequality of opportunities perspective within the economic discipline (Ferreira & Meléndez, 2012;Gamboa, 2012;Núñez, Ramírez, & Taboada, 2006;Ruiz, 2011). One of the advantages of this perspective, in contrast to the abovementioned studies, is that it extends the bivariate analysis, that is, the overall association between origin and destination without mediating factors (O-D) (Torche, 2014). ...
Book
Full-text available
Inequality of educational opportunities (IEO) is a recurring topic in both public debate and academic research. This book contributes to the contemporary discussion on IEO with a focus on individual trajectories over the life course. It provides empirical evidence on the magnitude and the mechanisms of IEO in Colombia, a country with extreme, persistent levels of social inequality. Using national administrative databases, the author examines the effect of social origin on academic and labor market outcomes among university graduates. Drawing on a comprehensive theoretical approach to stratification and higher education, this volume discusses how the interaction between family background and segmentation of educational institutions might influence individuals’ outcomes. As such, it will appeal to scholars, policy makers, and practitioners with interests in education, social inequality, social policy, higher education research, and international/comparative education.
... De ese modo, es posible discutir acerca de cuáles son las medidas necesarias para compensar las diferencias iniciales y que todos los estudiantes logren obtener la misma meta (Formichella, 2011a). Esta visión ha servido como punto de partida para el análisis de la desigualdad de oportunidades educativas en algunos estudios empíricos cuyo objeto es evaluar el grado de influencia que tienen las circunstancias no controladas sobre la educación de los individuos (Bonilla, 2010;Ferreira & Gignoux, 2011;Ferreira & Gignoux, 2014;Formichella, 2011b;Gamboa, 2012;Gamboa & Londoño, 2014). ...
... En Colombia existe evidencia del efecto del tipo de institución educativa sobre el desempeño del estudiante (Gamboa, 2012;Gamboa & Londoño, 2014;Gaviria & Barrientos, 2001;Iregui, Melo & Ramos, 2007). En específico, se evidencia que los estudiantes de instituciones educativas privadas presentan mejor rendimiento que los que asisten a escuelas públicas. ...
... Para el caso de Chile,Bellei (2009) estima la incidencia en el desempeño educativo de incrementar la jornada académica a jornada completa. A través de estimaciones de diferencias en diferencias y haciendo uso del puntaje en las pruebas SIMCE de 2001 y 2003 en matemáticas y lenguaje, encuentra que la jornada completa tuvo mayor impacto en estudiantes pertenecientes a zonas rurales, a colegios públicos y que se encontraban en la parte superior de la distribución de puntajes.Para el caso colombiano, hay relativamente pocos estudios sobre desigualdad de oportunidades educativas, siendo uno de los primeros trabajos bajo este enfoque el deGamboa (2012), el cual hace uso por separado de la información de las pruebas Saber 11 • y PISA. El autor considera como circunstancias del estudiante el nivel educativo alcanzado por sus padres, su género y el tipo de colegio al que asiste (público-privado); en este estudio se establece que las diferencias de rendimiento son explicadas en un 26 % por estas circunstancias. ...
Article
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Education is a means to equalize opportunities among individuals and to improve their welfare and future income. Nevertheless, there is limited literature assessing the degree of educational inequality in Colombia, and more so regarding public education. In this sense, this paper presents a comparative analysis of inequality of opportunity in academic achievement of two models of public education in Bogotá: traditional and concession. To do this, propensity score matching estimations are used on a dataset collected from a sample of students who took the Saber 11 test in 2012. The results indicate that concession schools exhibit a lower degree of inequality of opportunities compared with traditional public schools.
... Como lo expone Junca (2017) existe una relación negativa entre el desempeño académico medido por las pruebas Saber y el nivel de pobreza, donde a mayor grado de pobreza se encuentra menor rendimiento académico por parte de los estudiantes. De igual forma, Gamboa (2012) expone que el 26% de las diferencias de los rendimientos académicos son explicadas por circunstancias como el nivel educativo alcanzado por los padres, el género y el tipo del colegio en que se asiste. Entonces, en términos de acceso es válido reflexionar sobre aquellos jóvenes que, si quisieron obtener un buen resultado en las pruebas y poder formarse, pero no pudieron por las mismas condiciones del sistema educativo. ...
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Education is one of the indicators of development and social progress in a country and constitutes a fundamental tool for achieving social equity. However, higher education is the most unequal level of education in Latin America and the Caribbean. In Colombia only 22% of people between 25 and 64 years old have a university degree. In recent years, programs have been developed in the country that looking to promote access to higher education through forgivable credits, such as Ser Pilo Paga and Generación E. This paper has a purpose to analyze how these programs contribute to promoting equity in the country. The research has a qualitative methodological design whose data collection method is the document review. To analyze equity, an adaptation of Espinoza's multidimensional equity model is used (2013, 2014). As results, it’s found that, although these programs manage to improve the chances of access to young people with lower socioeconomic levels in the country, they present some shortcomings that generate situations of inequity for the beneficiaries and the population in general. It is concluded that to generate equitable access programs to higher education, it’s necessary to integrate public policies at all educational levels, since the inequities that are present since the beginning of schooling are reflected at all levels and stages of the educational process.
... Para Ferreira (2017), el nivel de educación de los padres del estudiante es una de las principales variables que afectan el acceso a la educación superior. Del mismo modo Gamboa (2012), indica que además de la educación de los padres, el tipo de institución de la cual procede el estudiante, así como los resultados en las pruebas saber 11, son determinantes en el acceso a créditos educativos en el país. ...
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This work aims to find the determinants of access to educational loans in higher education in Colombia, for students who are in the final stage of their career, taking a sample of those students who presented the Saber Pro test in 2016 and 2018. Using a logistic probability model, the direction and effect of each of the variables on the probability of having accessed educational loans is obtained. The results include that the variables of tuition fees, number of dependents, hours worked, being a woman and being married turn out to be significant and positive when choosing an educational credit. On the other hand, the mother's education, the stratum and studying in a public university, presented a negative relationship. Finally, age and area of residence were not significant in the model. Keywords: Educational loans, access, restriction, human capital, higher education, coverage. JEL: G00, C01, A22.
... Ante esta situación, el estado colombiano viene impulsando nuevas propuestas de evaluación y de seguimiento anuales a los estudiantes, con la intención de identificar de forma específica las causas, con sus posibles alternativas de solución, para mejorar la calidad y que se vea reflejado en estos indicadores; para ello [19] y [20] plantean, que para disminuir esas grandes brechas y desigualdades en el sistema educativo colombiano es necesario compensar a aquellos grupos sociales que se encuentran en desfavorabilidad, igualmente deben crearse políticas de estímulo para la capacitación y actualización permanente de los docentes. Así mismo, otro indicador de la calidad educativa que viene adquiriendo validez, reconocimiento y aceptación ante la sociedad colombiana, son los resultados en las pruebas saber para los grados tercero, quinto, noveno y once, las cuales evalúan los conocimientos y habilidades de los estudiantes colombianos en las áreas de matemáticas, lenguaje, ciencias naturales, ciencias sociales y competencias ciudadanas de tercero a noveno y para grado once pruebas equivalentes agregando el idioma extranjero. ...
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23 Resumen-El presente artículo de revisión, plantea de forma concreta algunos elementos epistemológicos de la formación del pensamiento matemático para el nivel de educación básica y media en Colombia, con los posibles errores metodológicos que se cometen en los procesos de transformación del lenguaje común hacia el lenguaje matemático estructurado; igualmente presenta algunas nuevas tendencias de formación que son punto de partida para la investigación que actualmente se desarrolla. Palabras clave-aprendizaje, didáctica, lógica formal, lógica natural, pensamiento matemático, robótica. Abstract-This review article presents some epistemological concretely training elements of mathematical thinking to the level of primary and secondary education in Colombia, within the possible methodological errors made in the transformation processes in common language towards the structured mathematical language; It also presents some new training trends as a starting point for a research that is currently being developed.
... En el marco de las reformas educativas recientes, el cambio de paradigma hacia el avance de constituir y operacionalizar el Modelo Educativo Basado en Competencias (MEBC) en este nivel ha demandado trabajar en una estrategia nacional de formación docente. En el caso de México, dentro de las metas de formación contenidas en la reforma educativa para media superior, se encontró la necesidad de formar a los docentes en la inserción de tecnología en el aula (Gamboa y Maldonado, 2012;SEMS, 2014). ...
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Se presenta un estudio en el marco de un proceso de cambio educativo en relación con la técnica Aula Invertida con apoyo de la herramienta de aprendizaje Living Class (LC) para apoyar el estudio de las disciplinas de química y ciencias sociales en educación media superior. El proceso de cambio se define a partir de dos aportaciones teóricas que integran cinco pasos: iniciación, planeación, implantación, evaluación e institucionalización. Se realizaron tres sub-estudios para indagar a profundidad el proceso de cambio que se suscitaba en la institución: uno sobre usabilidad de la herramienta LC y dos sobre percepción alrededor del proceso de cambio y apoyo en la herramienta, los cuales se enfocaron en colectar la percepción de docentes y estudiantes respectivamente. Participaron en total 4,708 estudiantes y 154 docentes. El estudio se enmarcó en el diseño metodológico de Métodos mixtos. Las conclusiones conllevaron a afirmar que el proceso de cambio educativo se encuentra en la fase de implantación. La discusión apunta a diagnosticar el estadio en el que se encuentra un proceso de cambio educativa de forma holística. Se realizan sugerencias para estudios futuros.
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This paper evaluates the impact of a financial education program consisting of three different learning tools, for children (6–18) in Bogota, Colombia, in 2018. This randomized experiment offers the opportunity to examine the impact of those three learning tools (Game, Guide, Website) on students’ financial knowledge and literacy on a sample of 1337 students from four Colombian schools, and four academic grades. We did not find a significant general treatment effect; however, we did find an improvement in treated public school students. Regarding the efficacy of the tools, we found several heterogeneous effects among the types of schools and grades. The type of school (public/private) is relevant in terms of knowledge improvement and still represents a pre-existing condition that leads to differences in children’s performance, but implementing a program can help mitigate these differences. We found that differentiated instruction in the learning process can be effective even if significant pre-existing differences still prevail. This study contributes to creating a framework for the current situation of Colombian children’s financial literacy and serves as insight for future programs.
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