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This research targets the design of a wind turbine that will be mounted on the electric car to generate electrical power to charge the car batteries when in motion. The turbine is positioned on the roof of the car near the wind screen, where the velocity of air flowing around the car is highest due to its aerodynamic nature. A portable horizontal axis diffuser augmented wind turbine is adopted for the design since that is able to produce a higher power output as compared to the conventional bare type wind turbine. The air current is generated by the car when it begins to move. A frame is provided on the roof of the car to serve as a support for the turbine. Through the theoretical calculation on the power generated from the wind, a significant amount of electrical power (about 3.26 kW) is restored to the batteries when the car is moving at a speed of 120 km/h.
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Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.org
ISSN 2224-3232 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0573 (Online)
Vol.4, No.3, 2014
19
Generation of Electrical Power by a Wind Turbine for Charging
Moving Electric Cars
Gideon Quartey*, Stephen Kwasi Adzimah
Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Mines and Technology, Trakwa, P. O. Box 237, Tarkwa
Ghana.
* E-mail of the corresponding author: quartey3@gmail.com
Abstract
This research targets the design of a wind turbine that will be mounted on the electric car to generate electrical
power to charge the car batteries when in motion. The turbine is positioned on the roof of the car near the wind
screen, where the velocity of air flowing around the car is highest due to its aerodynamic nature. A portable
horizontal axis diffuser augmented wind turbine is adopted for the design since that is able to produce a higher
power output as compared to the conventional bare type wind turbine. The air current is generated by the car
when it begins to move. A frame is provided on the roof of the car to serve as a support for the turbine. Through
the theoretical calculation on the power generated from the wind, a significant amount of electrical power (about
3.26 kW) is restored to the batteries when the car is moving at a speed of 120 km/h.
Keywords: Wind Turbine, Diffuser, Power, Electric Car, Batteries.
1. Introduction
1.1 History of Electric Cars
The electric vehicle has been around for over 100 years, and it has an interesting history of development that
continues to the present. France and England were the first nations to develop the electric vehicle in the late
1800s. It was not until 1895 that Americans began to devote attention to electric vehicles. Many innovations
followed and interest in motor vehicles increased greatly in the late 1890s and early 1900s. In 1897 the first
commercial application was established as a fleet of New York City taxis. The early electric vehicles, such as the
1902 Wood's Phaeton (Fig.1), were little more than electrified horseless carriages and surreys (Anon., 2013a).
Since the invention of electric car, it has been developed till date. Despite this fact, the major challenge which is
their short driving range still exists.
Fig. 1 1902 Wood’s Electric Phaeto Fig. 2 Typical 2011 Model of Electric Car
(Source: Anon., 2013a) (Source: Anon., 2011)
1.2 Major Components in an Electric Car Driving System
Electric vehicle driving system is made up of three main parts; namely, the motor, the controller and the battery.
1.2.1 Electric motor
The motor (Fig. 3) is the most important part of the vehicle; it is the part responsible for the propelling of the car.
There are three different types of electric motors; these include, DC wound, Permanent magnet DC and AC
motor (Altaf, 2010).
1.2.2 Battery
The number two major component of electric car parts is the battery (Fig. 4). While some cars would use the
standard car batteries as a source of energy, the more advanced ones use the Li-ion batteries as more efficient
energy source that gives extra range of operation for the vehicle. They require less time to be charged and
provide more energy for the motor attached (Altaf, 2010).
1.2.3 Controller
The third part of the electric car parts is the controller (Fig. 5). This part is responsible for power management; it
senses the amount of energy needed by the motor and supplies it directly from the batteries in order to get the car
moving. The controller is very important because it synchronizes the operation of both the motor and the battery
(Altaf, 2010).
1.3 Electric Car Charging
Electric car chargers are responsible for charging the battery pack in an electric car. These chargers are installed
in homes, offices, shopping stores and public places to enable one to charge his/her car. Fully charging an
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.org
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Vol.4, No.3, 2014
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electric car can take 6 8 hours.
Fig. 3 Electric Car Motor Fig.4 LiFePO4 Battery Pack (24 V-300 AH)
(Source: Anon., 2013b) (Source: Anon., 2013c)
Fig. 5 Electric Car Controller Fig. 6 On-street Electric Car Charging Station
(Source: Anon., 2013d) (Source: Anon., 2010)
Electric car chargers are responsible for charging the battery pack in an electric car. These chargers are installed
in homes, offices, shopping stores and public places to enable one to charge his/her car. Fully charging an
electric car can take 6 8 hours.
1.4 Velocity Distribution Around a Moving Car
Fig. 7 shows a simulation conducted by Hu and Wong (2011), which reveals that the velocity distribution of air
around a moving car is highest at the top of the roof. This helps to position the turbine at the point where the
highest air velocity can be realised.
Fig. 7 Distribution of Velocity on the Symmetric Plane of a Typical Car
(Source: Hu and Wong, 2011)
1.5 Wind Turbines
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical
energy is used to produce electricity, the device is called a wind generator. If the mechanical energy i s used to
drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or pumping water, the device is called a windmill or wind pump. The
smallest turbines are used for applications such as battery charging or auxiliary power on sailing boats, while
large grid-connected turbines are becoming large sources of commercial electric power. Wind turbines can be
put into two basic categories: namely, vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines.
1.5.1 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine
The vertical axis wind turbine has its blades rotating on an axis perpendicular to the ground. Examples of this
type of turbine are the Darrieus (Fig. 8) and the Savonius wind turbines (Fig. 9).
Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy www.iiste.org
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Fig. 8 Darrieus Wind Turbine Fig. 9 Savonius Wind Turbine
(Source: Anon., 2006) (Source: Anon., 2012
1.5.2 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
The horizontal axis machine has its blades rotating on an axis parallel to the ground. This type of turbine has the
main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower and must be pointed into the wind. Small turbines
are pointed by a simple wind vane, whiles large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor.
Fig.10 Danish Wind Turbine Fig.11Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine
(Source: Anon., 2006) (Source: Yuji and Takashi, 2010)
Fig.12 Details of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
Source: (Alexander, 2008)
1.5.3 Main Parts of a Wind Turbine
There are three major components that made up a wind turbine. These include, the rotor, the generator and the
tower.
1.5.3.1 Rotor
The portion of the wind turbine that collects energy from the wind is called the rotor. Therotor usually consists
of two or more wooden, fiberglass or metal blades which rotateabout an axis (horizontal or vertical) at a rate
determined by the wind speed and the shapeof the blades. The blades are attached to the hub, which in turn is
attached to the mainshaft (Anon., 2013e).
1.5.3.2 Generator
This part is what converts the turning motion of a wind turbine's blades into electricity. Inside this component,
coils of wire are rotated in a magnetic field to produce electricity. Different generator designs produce either
alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), and they are available in a large range of output power ratings.
The generator's rating, or size, is dependent on the length of the wind turbine's blades because more energy is
captured by longer blades (Anon., 2013e).
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1.5.3.3 Tower
The tower on which a wind turbine is mounted is not just a support structure. It also raises the wind turbine so
that its blades safely clear the ground and so it can reach the stronger winds at higher elevations. Maximum
tower height is optional in most cases, except where zoning restrictions apply. The decision of what height tower
to use will be based on the cost of taller towers versus the value of the increase in energy production resulting
from their use. Studies have shown that the added cost of increasing tower height is often justified by the added
power generated from the stronger winds. Larger wind turbines are usually mounted on towers ranging from 40
to 70 meters tall (Anon., 2013e).
2. Proposed Design of the Wind Turbine
(a) (b)
Fig.13 Isometric Views of the Wind Turbine
The assembled turbine, Fig. 13 is fastened to a frame-like structure provided on the roof of the vehicle as shown
in Fig. 14 by a set of bolts with the inlet facing the front of the vehicle. The shrouded diffuser augmented wind
turbine is chosen for the design since that is the most efficient wind turbine.
Fig.14The Wind Turbine on a Fig. 15 Exploded View of the Wind
Model of Electric Car Turbine showing the Main Parts
The main components of the proposed design are the rotor, main shaft, main bearing coupling, generator, top
shroud, base shroud, inlet safety guard, exhaust safety guard. The rotor (1) is coupled to the main shaft (2) by a
set of four hexagonal head bolts. The main shaft (3) and the generator (5) are fastened to t he supports on the base
shroud (6) by a set of hexagonal head bolts.
2.1 Rotor
The rotor (Fig. 16) collects the kinetic energy from the wind and converts it to rotational motion. The rotor
consists of three blades and a hub made of fiber glass which rotates about an axis (horizontal) at a rate
determined by the wind speed.
Air Inlet
Exhaus
t
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Fig. 16 Rotor (All Dimensions are in mm)
2.2 Main Shaft
The main shaft, Fig. 17, transmits the rotational energy of the rotor to the generator with the help of the main
bearing (Fig. 19). In addition to the aerodynamic loads from the rotor, the main shaft is exposed to gravitational
loads and reactions from the main bearings and the generator shaft. The purpose of the threaded end of the main
shaft is to help detached the coupling during assembling of the main bearing on to the shaft. The material
selected for the shaft design is SAE 1006 HR (carbon steel).
Fig. 17 Main Shaft with Coupling Fig. 18 Alternator
(All Dimensions are in mm)
4.3 Generator
A high speed brushless alternator is used for the design. This is because; it has fewer moving parts. There is
therefore less wear, and hence longer life span.
2.4 Main Bearing
The main bearing supports the main shaft and transmits the reactions from the rotor loads to the supports on the
shroud. On account of the relatively large thrust (axial) and radial loads in the main shaft and the high speed
involved, the spherical roller bearing is often used, see Fig. 19.Spherical roller bearings have two rows of rollers
with a common sphere raceway in the outer ring. The two inner ring raceways are inclined at an angel to the
bearing axis. The bearings are self-aligning and consequently insensitive to errors in respect of alignment of the
shaft relative to the housing and to shaft bending. The material used is AISI 52100 steel because it is very hard
and hence has the ability to withstand wear.
Hub
Blade
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Fig. 19 Spherical Roller Bearing (a) (b)
(Source: Anon., 2013f) Fig. 20 Safety Guards (All Dimensions are in mm)
2.5 Safety Guards
The purpose of the inlet (Fig. 20a) and exhaust (Fig. 20b) safety guards is to prevent the rotor from coming out
of the shroud in case it removes. They are made of aluminium.
2.6 Shroud
Researches have proved that the diffuser augmented wind turbine is the most efficient wind turbine. The wind
enters the diffuser shroud (Fig. 21) at the inlet to the turbine, getting to the exit of the turbine there is a pressure
drop which creates a partial vacuum that sucks more air into the turbine, thereby increasing the amount of wind
flowing through the turbine blade and hence the output power is increased. In addition to the power
augmentation, the shroud helps in protecting the turbine blade, the main shaft, the main bearing and the
generator from external harsh conditions like rain fall and sun shine. The base of the shroud serves as the main
support of the inner components of the turbine. The material for the shroud is aluminium alloy because of its
high strength and light weight.
Fig. 21 A Third Angle Orthographic Projections of the Diffuser
(All Dimensions are in mm)
2.7 Principle of Operation
When the vehicle starts moving, it displaces the air which is directly in front of it. This causes the surrounding
air to flow relative to the moving vehicle in a direction opposite to that of the vehicle. The opposing air stream
directly in front of the turbine passes through the turbine blades thereby providing a torque which rotates the
rotor. The rotational energy of the rotor is then transferred to the generator through the main shaft. The generator
is electrically connected to the charging system of the vehicle. The batteries are therefore charged continually,
while the vehicle is moving.
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3. Design calculations
3.1 Diffuser Design
A research conducted by Phillips (2006) reveals that an augmentation of 1.38 is achievable by a diffuser of Exit-
Area-Ratio (EAR) of 2.22 and an overall length to diameter meter (L/D) of 0.35. These values are used for the
diffuser design.
(1)
where, and are the exit and inlet areas of the diffuser respectively.
With a diffuser inlet diameter (Di) of 0.44 m;
From equation (4.1),
From above, the exit diameter (De) of the diffuser is:
The diffuser is therefore having an inlet and outlet diameters of 440 mm and 656 mm respectively. The length of
the diffuser is taken to be 600 mm for it to cover the whole span of the turbine.
4.2 Power Calculation
It is assumed that the velocity of the natural wind is zero (still air), and hence the velocity of the air current
flowing around the moving vehicle is equal to the vehicle’s velocity. Also, the density of air is assumed to be
(the standard atmospheric value).
Fig. 4.1 Graph of Tip Speed Ratio against Power Coefficient
(Source: Anon., 2007)
The maximum tip speed ratio is given by:
(2)
where B is the number of blades.
From the graph (Fig. 4.2) above, corresponds to a power coefficient:
With an augmentation of 1.38, , where CPs is the shaft power coefficient.
Kinetic Energy , Mass flow rate ,
Wind Power ,
(3)
where, Ps = shaft power.
= density of air, A = swept area of the rotor blades,Cp = power coefficient, V = air velocity.
(4)
With a rotor diameter (d) of 0.4 m:
For design sake, a car speed of 120 km/h (33.33 m/s) is assumed.
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Fig. 4.2 Graph of Speed of Car against Shaft Power
3.2 Torque on Rotor
(5)
where, T and are the torque and the angular velocity of the rotor respectively.
(6)
where, R = the blade length.
3.3 Rotor Design
3.3.1 Rotor Solidity
Solidity (S) is the ratio of the rotor projected area perpendicular to the flow to the rotor swept area (A). Low
solidity, produces high speed and low torque and high solidity, produces low speed and
high torque.
(7)
The rotor projected area, measured in Autodesk Inventor is 0.033 m2.
4.3.2 Blade Calculation
(8)
where, and N are the blade angle of twist and rotational speed of the rotor respectively.
(9)
From equation (4.10):
Lift force, (10)
Drug force, (11)
where, , and are the blade surface area, coefficients of lift and coefficient drug respectively.
The blade surface area, measured in Autodesk Inventor is;
From a designfoil workshop DEMO program, using altitude , angle of attack, , and a wind
speed of 33.33 m/s yielded;
Renolds number , Mach number , ,
(12)
where, = thrust on each blade.
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The total thrust on the three blades,
3.4 Main Shaft Design
The main loadings on the main shaft are the torque on the rotor, and the weight of the rotor blades and hob. SAE
1006 CD (carbon steel) with an ultimate tensile strength (Sut)of 330 MPa is chosen for the shaft design.
Fig. 4.3 Free-body Diagram of the Main Shaft
Fig. 4.3 shows the Free-body Diagram of the Main Shaft. R1 and R2 are the respective reactions at the bearing
and generator supports.
By summing all vertical forces and taking moment about point :
(13)
Substituting into equation (4.15) above:
By using singularity functions:
(14)
(15)
(16)
where, x is the length of the main shaft. q, V, and M are the load, shear force and bending moment at distance a
on the shaft respectively.
Table 1 Shear Forces (V) and Bending Moments (M) at Distances (a)
a (m)
0
0.076
V (N)
-23.29
9.568
M (Nm)
0
-1.77
0
Fig. 4.5 Load, Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams
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From the diagrams (Fig. 4.5) above, the magnitudes of the maximum shear force and bending moment are
and respectively.
SAE 1006 HR (carbon steel) with an ultimate tensile strength (Sut)of 300 MPa is chosen for the shaft design.
By using DE-Goodman’s criterion for shaft design:
(17)
where, d = Shaft diameter, Factor of safety (n) = 3
Stress concentration factor for bending and shear respectively, Surface
condition modification factor Size modification factor,
Rotary-beam test specimen endurance limit, Se = Endurance limit at the critical location of a machine part
in the geometry and condition of used.
(Budynas and Nisbett,2011)
For hot-rolled metals: and (
,
A standard shaft diameter of 20 mm is selected for the shaft design.
3.5 Bearing Selection
The design of a spherical roller bearing depends on the magnitude of the radial load, the thrust load and the
design life.
(18)
where, Pd = Equivalent load, V = Rotation factor, X = Radial factor, R = Applied radial load
Y = Thrust Factor, FT = Applied thrust load
For rotating inner race bearing, Y = 1.5, V = 1, X = 1 and R = 32.858 N (the bearing reaction)
(19)
where, C = Basic dynamic load rating, fl = Life factor and fn = Speed factor
For a design life of 50000 hours, ,
Summary of data for selected spherical roller bearing:
Bearing number: 21304E, double roll, cylindrical bore, spherical bearing.
Bore, d = 20 mm, Outside diameter, D = 52 mm, Width, B = 15 mm, Maximum fillet radius, r = 1.1 mm and
Basic dynamic load rating, C = 47 kN
3.6 Generator Selection
From catalogue, an alternator speed , , power output of , an efficiency of and a mass
of is selected.
(20)
where, Pe is the electrical power and are the generator and transmission efficiencies respectively.
For direct transmission (no gearbox), ,
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
4.1 Conclusion
The wind turbine is appropriately designed to extract maximum amount of energy from the wind to power the
electric car. Through the theoretical calculation on the power generated from the wind, a significant amount of
electrical power (about 3.26 kW) is restored to the batteries when the car is moving at a speed of 120 km/h.
4.2 Recommendations
It is recommended that another research should be conducted to find out the extent to which the power generated
by the turbine can increase the driving range of the electric car.
It is also recommended that more research should be done in order to incorporate the turbine design into the
body of the electric cars.
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The new energy vehicle is a robust measure to solve the problem of global warming. However, the new energy vehicle generally has the disadvantages of short mileage and difficulty in finding public chargers. The combination of wind energy harvest and new energy vehicle can be conducive to the promotion of the new energy vehicle. This paper proposes a novel adjustable Savonius vertical axis wind turbine (SVAWT). It contains three parts: an energy absorption module, an energy recovery module, and an energy conversion module. The energy absorption module includes four blades with staggered distribution in two layers. The overlap ratio of the blades can be adjusted by the wind speed, which can ensure the SVAWT has a higher energy transfer efficiency. The energy recovery module adjusts the overlap ratio of the blades without interruption by utilizing the self-rotation and the orbital revolution of the gears. The energy conversion module converts mechanical energy into electric energy and supplies power for the vehicle after adjustment by the voltage regulator module. Based on actual operating data, it can be found that the variation trend of power of the blades absorbing is consistent with wind speed and increases with the wind speed. Under four actual operating conditions, the root mean square value of the blades absorbing power are 7.0 W, 7.1 W, 3.9 W, and 5.1 W, respectively. These results reveal that the proposed novel adjustable SVAWT has high recovery power potential and can provide a valuable solution to the practical applications of wind energy harvesting.
... Their study shows that the extended bumper seems to be the ideal place to mount a wind turbine and their investigation shows that the aerodynamic performance of the car has improved thanks to the lower drag coefficient i.e. of the order of 0.39 identical with that of the vehicle alone compared to 0.45 for the wind turbine on the hood and 0.51 for that mounted on the roof. Quartey and Adzimah (2014) highlight in their work the production of electrical energy by a wind turbine to charge moving electric cars. Their model consists of a portable wind turbine with a horizontal axis diffuser positioned on the roof of the car near the windshield, where the speed of the air circulating around the car is the highest due to its aerodynamic nature. ...
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This work presents° the results of numerical simulations of the airflow around a Notchback type vehicle on which two different models of wind turbines are mounted in three positions with the aim of determining the model and the most aerodynamic position. The models are made up of two horizontal circular Savonius turbines with the following configurations: the models A with the right generators and the models B with the lateral generators. Incompressible 3D numerical simulations at the stationary state of the equations of Navier-Stokes as well as the realizable k-ε turbulence model with Menter-Lechner wall functions were performed using the Fluent solver. The results have shown that for the drag and lift coefficients of the base vehicle we, respectively, have 0.301 and 0.142. The results related to Turbine A models show that the drag coefficients for the roof position is 0.567; they are 0.457 for the tailgate position and 0.32 for the front of the vehicle; concerning the turbine B models the results are, respectively, 0.586, 0.457, and 0.329 for the same positions and all obtained at 90° turbine angles. We have also obtained a maximum Cp of 0.219 at TSR = 0.8 for our turbine. Configuration A is the most aerodynamic and the most optimal front position.
... However, there was limited work has been carried out covering the electrical aspects. Quartey et al. [16] first presented the concept for charging a mobile car in which a wind turbine is mounted on the top of the car to charge the car's battery using the wind energy striking on the car. The practical results had drawbacks in terms of the increase in the drag force on the car which affected the efficiency of the car [17]. ...
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Electric vehicles (EVs) have recently gained momentum as an integral part of the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) when authorities started expanding their low emission zones (LEZs) in an effort to build green cities with low carbon footprints. Energy is one of the key requirements of EVs, not only to support the smooth and sustainable operation of EVs, but also to ensure connectivity between the vehicle and the infrastructure in the critical times such as disaster recovery operation. In this context, renewable energy sources (such as wind energy) have an important role to play in the automobile sector towards designing energy-harvesting electric vehicles (EH-EV) to mitigate energy reliance on the national grid. In this article, a novel approach is presented to harness energy from a small-scale wind turbine due to vehicle mobility to support the communication primitives in electric vehicles which enable plenty of IoV use cases. The harvested power is then processed through a regulation circuitry to consequently achieve the desired power supply for the end load (i.e., battery or super capacitor). The suitable orientation for optimum conversion efficiency is proposed through ANSYS-based aerodynamics analysis. The voltage-induced by the DC generator is 35 V under the no-load condition while it is 25 V at a rated current of 6.9 A at full-load, yielding a supply of 100 W (on constant voltage) at a speed of 90 mph for nominal battery charging.
... The invention of Small-scale Wind Energy Portable Turbine (SWEP) enables the incorporation of wind energy harvesting into daily routine, for example, wind turbine on the vehicles and highway [100,101]. Surprisingly, a small simple vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) made up of 3-D printed components was introduced and reported to be feasible. This enables the wind energy to be available for personal, families and small communities use [102,103]. ...
... A lot of advancements in the technological development and miniaturized devices have made the human life as simple, easier and more comfortable. The electrical energy plays an important role in the modern lifestyle of humanity, and mostly, it is obtained from either renewable (wind [1], thermal [2], solar [3], nuclear [4]) or non-renewable sources (coal [5], oils [6], etc.) using different conversion technologies. The demand of electrical energy is increasing day-by-day due to the inflating number of electronic devices and human beings [7][8][9]. ...
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We have developed a new wind turbine system that consists of a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery and a wind turbine inside it. The shrouded wind turbine with a brimmed diffuser has demonstrated power augmentation by a factor of about 2–5 compared with a bare wind turbine, for a given turbine diameter and wind speed. This is because a low-pressure region, due to a strong vortex formation behind the broad brim, draws more mass flow to the wind turbine inside the diffuser shroud.
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The paper presents an engineering design model for innovative design (i.e. variation of working principles), which represents a deep knowledge of an expert system for configuring technical systems (i.e. from simple to complex assemblies). A knowledge base contains functional descriptions of building blocks (i.e. components of different level of complexity). An expert system can also synthesize functional structures which are used then as shallow knowledge to configure technical systems with equivalent models of shape. Also a flexible functional structure is used to manage models of shape properly.
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The simulation of external aerodynamics is one of the most challenging and important automotive CFD applications. With the rapid developments of digital computers, CFD is used as a practical tool in modern fluid dynamics research. It integrates fluid mechanics disciplines, mathematics and computer science. In this study, two different types of simulations were made, one for the flow around a simplified high speed passenger car with a rear-spoiler and the other for the flow without a rear-spoiler. The standard k-ε model is selected to numerically simulate the external flow field of the simplified Camry model with or without a rear-spoiler. Through an analysis of the simulation results, a new rear spoiler is designed and it shows a mild reduction of the vehicle aerodynamics drag. This leads to less vehicle fuel consumption on the road.
Cardboard Savonius Wind Turbine " http://cleangreenenergyzone.com/cardboard-savonius-windturbine
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