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Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: Review and perspectives


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Automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other fields (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e. the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benefits of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a cognitive ergonomic framework.Practitioner SummaryAutomotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers’ ability to perform primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benefits of a broad involvement from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.
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Automotive HMI design and participatory user
involvement: review and perspectives
Mathilde François, François Osiurak, Alexandra Fort, Philippe Crave & Jordan
To cite this article: Mathilde François, François Osiurak, Alexandra Fort, Philippe Crave &
Jordan Navarro (2017) Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: review and
perspectives, Ergonomics, 60:4, 541-552, DOI: 10.1080/00140139.2016.1188218
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VOL. 60, NO. 4, 541–552
Automotive HMI design and participatory user involvement: review and
Mathilde Françoisa,b, François Osiuraka,c, Alexandra Fortd, Philippe Craveb and Jordan Navarroa
aLaboratoire d’Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs (EMC EA 3082), Université de Lyon, Bron, France; bVolvo Group Trucks Technology (GTT), Saint
Priest, France; cInstitut Universitaire de France, Paris, France; dIFSTTAR-TS2-LESCOT, Bron, France
Automotive human–machine interface (HMI) design is facing new challenges due to the
technological advances of the last decades. The design process has to be adapted in order to
address human factors and road safety challenges. It is now widely accepted that user involvement
in the HMI design process is valuable. However, the current form of user involvement in industry
remains at the stages of concept assessment and usability tests. Moreover, the literature in other
elds (e.g. information systems) promotes a broader user involvement with participatory design (i.e.
the user is fully involved in the development process). This article reviews the established benets
of participatory design and reveals perspectives for automotive HMI quality improvement in a
cognitive ergonomic framework.
Practitioner Summary: Automotive HMI quality determines, in part, drivers’ ability to perform
primary driving tasks while using in-vehicle devices. User involvement in the design process is a key
point to contribute to HMI quality. This article reports the potential benets of a broad involvement
from drivers to meet automotive HMI design challenges.
1. Introduction
For a long time, the design of automotive human–machine
interfaces (HMI) was determined by technical constraints
and the extent of the features made possible by the tech-
nology. Nevertheless, the limited amounts of information
that can be handled by the driver and road safety issues
have forced a shift in design approach. Human–machine
interface design has moved from technology-centred
and feature-driven approaches to human-centred design
approaches (i.e. applying human factors and usabil-
ity knowledge). Among human-centred approaches,
user-centred design (i.e. considering the users’ perspective
to achieve a usable system) has become the standard for
automotive HMI design. Drivers are involved during usa-
bility tests for interface assessment, and it is now widely
accepted that user involvement in the HMI development
process is valuable (e.g. Bekker and Long [2000]; Preece,
Rogers and Sharp, 2011).
Another human-centred approach, participatory
design, has had great success for more than four decades
and has demonstrated clear benets in other elds (e.g.
information systems, physical ergonomics). Participatory
design implies a proactive role by the user throughout the
process, including concept design activities. Compared
to other approaches, participatory design may allow
the accessing of users’ mental models and preferences,
which would improve product quality and user accept-
ance (Spinuzzi 2005). In the HMI design eld, few articles
have reported on participatory design (e.g. Moraes and
Padovani [1998]; Bruno and Muzzupappa [2010]; Bilal
[2013]), and none of them made a cognitive ergonomic
evaluation of the product designed (e.g. measures of e-
ciency and satisfaction).
Therefore, the question arises: How could automotive
HMI design benet from participatory design compared
to user-centred design from a cognitive ergonomic per-
spective? The objective of this article was to provide a
comprehensive literature review of the benets of partic-
ipatory design and to report on the perspectives to meet
automotive HMI challenges.
In the rst section, cognitive ergonomic challenges
related to automotive HMI design are presented. Then, a
review of participatory design benets is provided in the
second section. Lastly, participatory design benets are
linked to automotive HMI challenges to highlight poten-
tial research and application perspectives. This article
© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group
Human–machine interface;
user involvement; user-
centred design; participatory
Received 16 April 2015
Accepted 3 May 2016
CONTACT Mathilde François
2.1. Usability
Nielsen (2012) dened usability as ‘a quality attribute
that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use’. It is the
leading criterion in the cognitive ergonomic literature to
dene HMI quality. Many models of usability were pro-
posed; Nielsen (1994) summarised with the following ve
constructs: learnability, eciency, memorability, errors
and satisfaction (see denition in Table 1). Besides those
constructs, many subcriteria of usability have been pro-
posed that are not really consistent across standards. Baber
(2005) highlighted this diversity by reviewing 34 dier-
ent factors of usability. The International Organization for
Standardization (1998) considered three aspects: eec-
tiveness (i.e. accuracy and completeness to complete a
task), eciency (i.e. resources expended to complete a
task) and satisfaction (i.e. comfort and pleasure of usage).
Constantine and Lockwood (1999) dened usability as a
combination of learnability, system reliability, eciency,
memorability and user satisfaction. Preece et al. (2011)
associated learnability with exibility, throughput and atti-
tude. Shackel (1986) identied four usability criteria: learn-
ability, exibility, eectiveness and user attitude. Stanton
and Baber (1992) added perceived usefulness, task match,
task characteristics and user criteria. Shneiderman (1992)
proposed ve attributes: time to learn, speed performance,
rate of errors, retention over time and subjective satisfac-
tion. Nevertheless, the dierent terms often overlap the
same characteristics. The model of Nielsen (1994) has the
advantage of presenting a global and representative view
of the main theories. The learnability criterion was also
present in the models of Constantine and Lockwood (1999),
Preece et al. (2011), and Shackel (1986) and matches the
criterion of time to learn of Shneiderman (1992). Eciency
encompasses the notions of eectiveness (Shackel 1986;
International Organization for Standardization 1998),
eciency (International Organization for Standardization
1998; Constantine and Lockwood 1999), throughput
(Preece et al. 2011) and speed performance (Shneiderman
1992). The memorability construct has already been pre-
sented by Constantine and Lockwood (1999) and matches
concludes with a discussion on the participatory design
2. Automotive HMI design
The quality of the automotive HMI determines, in part, the
driver’s ability to perform the primary driving task while
using in-vehicle devices. Various internal and external
factors (Leplat 1981) can inuence interaction quality.
Internal factors are driver characteristics (e.g. experience
level, motivation, age, emotional status and time pressure).
External factors include context characteristics (e.g. level
of emergency, task consequences and lighting conditions)
and the characteristics of the interface itself (e.g. ease of
use, menus, modality used, colours and voice recogni-
tion). Human–machine interface designers have a limited
impact on driver and context factors. However, by specify-
ing interface characteristics, HMI designers directly impact
the way the user interacts with a device and performs the
primary task. Cognitive ergonomic criteria are used by
HMI designers as design principles as well as assessment
factors to generate interfaces compatible with human
capabilities and limitations. In this article, we will focus on
three fundamental criteria for automotive HMI: usability,
distraction and acceptance.
These three criteria cover the main measures existing in
the literature to dene the quality of an interface. Usability
is the most used criterion for interface evaluations, but
driving safety and user acceptance can have critical impli-
cations for automotive HMI due to the specic context of
use. The theoretical question of interaction and weight
between these three criteria is not addressed in this article.
More detailed and specic models on the ergonomic qual-
ity of automotive HMI exist in the literature (e.g. Harvey
et al. 2011). In this article, the objective is to adopt a holistic
and practical framework in order to examine automotive
HMI design challenges and meet practitioners’ concerns.
The proposed framework based on the three criteria (i.e.
usability, distraction and acceptance) is presented in
Table 1. In the following parts, each criterion is dened
with its scope and the associated design challenges.
Table 1.A framework to qualify automotive HMI cognitive ergonomic quality.
HMI quality criterion Attribute Description
Usability (according to Nielsen 1994) Learnability The HMI enables the user to learn how to use it at first encounter
Efficiency The HMI enables the user to complete the correct task without requiring unnecessary
Memorability The HMI enables the user to remember how to use it after a period of not using it
Errors The use of the HMI does not imply errors and enables an easy recovery from an error
Satisfaction The use of the HMI is pleasant
Distraction (according to Chapon,
Gabaude, and Fort 2006)
Physical The HMI optimises required movement to perform a task
Cognitive The HMI reduces required cognitive workload to perform a task
Driver acceptance (according to
Davis, Bagozzi, and Warshaw 1989)
Perceived usefulness The degree to which a person believes that using the HMI is useful and enhances his
Perceived ease of use The degree to which a person believes that using the HMI is free from effort
Attitude User’s feelings about performing the task with the HMI
the concept of retention over time of Shneiderman (1992).
The errors’ criterion embraces the following criteria: sys-
tem reliability (Constantine and Lockwood 1999), exi-
bility (Shackel 1986; Preece et al. 2011) and rate of errors
(Shneiderman 1992). Finally, satisfaction was already pres-
ent in denition of usability (International Organization
for Standardization 1998; Constantine and Lockwood
1999) and matches the constructs of attitude (Shackel
1986; Preece et al. 2011) and subjective satisfaction
(Shneiderman 1992).
During automotive HMI design, one way to incorpo-
rate usability is to follow design principles, i.e. HMI guide-
lines (Stevens et al. 2002; JAMA 2004; Commission of the
European Communities 2005; Campbell et al. 2007) or usa-
bility heuristics (Bastien and Scapin 1992; Nielsen 1994).
Likewise, tests can be performed after concept denition
to assess HMI usability. Nevertheless, some criteria are
easier to assess than others. For example, errors can be
measured in terms of type, rate and ease of recovery, but
user satisfaction could comprise any number of dierent
subattributes. Moreover, memorability could be more
signicant for infrequently used vehicle functions (e.g.
fog lights) than for those which are used frequently (e.g.
2.2. Distraction
Distraction is dened in the literature as a diversion of
attention from the driving task to a concurrent activity
(Pettitt, Burnett, and Stevens 2005). Distraction can be
related or not to driving and due to an event, object or
person inside or outside the vehicle (Chapon, Gabaude,
and Fort 2006). The interaction with automotive HMI can
result in distraction related to driving (e.g. following a map
on a GPS) or in not related to driving (e.g. changing radio
volume). In both cases, the interaction with the HMI could
imply physical distraction (e.g. at least one hand o the
steering wheel and eyes o the road) and/or cognitive dis
traction (i.e. cognitive workload needed to perform a task;
Chapon, Gabaude, and Fort 2006). Distraction can signif-
icantly impair the driver’s visual search patterns, reaction
times, decision-making and/or driving performance (e.g.
position on the road; Young, Regan, and Hammer 2007).
Divided attention in itself leads to an increased workload;
mental workload management while interacting with
in-vehicle devices is therefore crucial to keep resources
available for the primary driving task (Young et al. 2015).
The distraction criterion is central in the automotive
HMI domain and is, for that reason, treated separately
here from usability, even though this concept is clearly
linked with eciency. Indeed, in-vehicle HMI is used under
a specic context of use. The importance of the dual task
interference (Harvey et al. 2011) and its impact on driver
distraction distinguish automotive HMI from other user
interfaces (Marcus 2004).
During design, many interface characteristics can be
considered to reduce distraction. For example, Reimer
et al. (2014) stressed that the typeface design in an auto-
motive user interface impacts on task completion time and
visual demand while driving (e.g. a dierence of more than
10% of total glance time was found between two type-
faces). However, for HMI designers, anticipating sources
of distraction during concept design is quite complex.
The distraction criterion is most often addressed through
assessment with measures such as driving performance
during interaction (Young et al. 2007), gaze away from road
(e.g. total eyes o-road time, maximum glance duration;
Larsson and Niemand 2015), cognitive workload (Stanton
et al. 2013), situation awareness (Ma and Kaber 2007) and
reaction times (Navarro, Mars, and Hoc 2007). Moreover,
a guideline has been created to assess driver distraction
(NHTSA 2012) with visual–manual distraction metrics and
acceptance thresholds (e.g. devices should be designed so
that drivers can interact without looking away from the
road for more than 2s).
2.3. Driver acceptance
Driver acceptance is dened by Adell (2010, 477) as ‘the
degree to which an individual intends to use a system and,
when available, to incorporate the system in his/her driv-
ing’. Driver acceptance covers user attitudes, their subjec-
tive experiences and their willingness to use technology
for the task for which it was intended. Acceptance contrib-
utes widely to automotive technology adoption (i.e. the
use of a device as part of a driver’s everyday life; Najm et al.
2006). Following the rapid development of technology, the
concept of acceptance and its relation to usage behaviour
has become a signicant research question. A number of
dierent models have put emphasis on dierent aspects
of user acceptance. Among the many variables that may
inuence acceptance or rejection of a technology, the
technology acceptance model (TAM; Davis, Bagozzi, and
Warshaw 1989) – based on the theory of reasoned action
(Fishbein and Ajzen 1975) – suggests that perceived use-
fulness and perceived ease of use impact on user attitudes
towards using, determining the behavioural intention
to use. More recently, Venkatesh et al. (2003) proposed
the unied theory of acceptance and use of technology.
This model states that usage behaviour is inuenced by
intention to use and facilitating conditions. The intention
to use is in turn impacted by performance expectancy,
eort expectancy and social inuence. Besides those fac-
tors, Nielsen (1994) has stressed the importance of utility
when describing practical acceptance. Indeed, a system
can be usable but not necessarily useful. Van Der Laan,
human factors. According to ISO 9241–210 (2006), the
human-centred design process splits into three stages
through an iterative process: (1) analysis (understanding
context of use and specifying user requirements), (2) con-
cept design and (3) concept assessment. Human-centred
design includes dierent design methodologies according
to their level of user involvement throughout the process.
Eason (1995) distinguished three levels of user involve-
ment for product development: a design for users, a design
with users and a design by users. Damodaran (1996) took
up those levels by characterising user involvement as
being somewhere on the continuum from informative,
through consultative, to participative. The correspondence
between those three levels of user involvement and the
stages of the human-centred design process is presented
in Figure 1.
3.1. User-centred design: a design for and with
Human-centred approaches are manifold, e.g. ethnog-
raphy (Blomberg et al. 1993), the lead user approach
(Herstatt and Hippel 1992), contextual design (Beyer
and Holtzblatt 1999), joint application design (Carmel,
Whitaker, and George 1993) and empathic design (Leonard
and Rayport 1997). Among human-centred approaches,
the user-centred design process has been widely and pre-
dominantly used for about 30years. The main goal is to
develop a product while keeping the user in mind and
Heino, and De Waard (1997) conrmed this point by identi-
fying usefulness and satisfaction as the two dimensions of
acceptance. Willingness to use is also dependent on driver
satisfaction, and some subjective criteria are suggested
such as aesthetics, emotional appeal, pleasure, fun, cool-
ness and attractiveness (Preece, Rogers, and Sharp 2011;
Baber 2005).
Although subjective attributes are recognised as play-
ing a great role in user acceptance, they are more di-
cult to translate into specications during HMI concept
design. Furthermore, the concept of acceptance relates to
the user’s attitude towards a technology, and the HMI only
partially contributes to this (e.g. Brown et al. [2015]). Driver
acceptance is therefore often addressed during concept
assessment through questionnaires and subjective reports
(e.g. Van Der Laan, Heino, and De Waard [1997]).
3. User involvement and design processes
During product development, even if designers are close
to users and know product usages, their perceptions
and reections could be modulated by their knowledge.
Nielsen (2008) reported that designers know too much
about the product, are too skilled in using computers or
tools in general and ‘care too much about their own baby’.
The ISO 13407 guideline (1999) thus recommends active
user involvement to create products compatible with users,
tasks and environment requirements. The human-centred
approach aims to take into account the context of use and
Figure 1.A correspondence between the different levels of user involvement and the phases of the human-centred design process.
Note: Figure adapted from Kaulio (1998).
Participatory design started in the Scandinavian coun-
tries in the 1970s for sociopolitical reasons (Floyd et al.
1989; Ehn 1992). Since that time, participatory design
process has evolved away from politics and has turned
into a point of interest for research. Design researchers and
company designers have conducted participatory stud-
ies in many elds (e.g. interaction systems, management,
services development, computer-supported cooperative
work and physical ergonomics).
Several ideas support this shift towards a broader
involvement of users. First, Carroll and Rosson (2007)
stated the ‘moral’ aspect of participatory design, i.e.
the fact that the user has a right to be involved in deci-
sion-making. Second, the ‘pragmatic’ aspect of participa-
tory design relies on the fact that users’ experience and
knowledge can oer insights on concepts design (Carroll
and Rosson 2007). Users are considered to be subject-
matter experts who use the product in their everyday lives
and have something to oer if designers oer them the
right tools to express themselves (Sanders 2002). Third,
a goal of participatory design is to go beyond the user’s
explicit consultation in order to elicit the user’s tacit
knowledge (Spinuzzi 2005). Tacit knowledge is the implicit
knowledge that users hold about various aspects of an
activity, including the way they interact with the product
and perform the activity. According to Sanders (2002), the
transfer of users’ tacit knowledge to a concept is made
possible by the fact that the user is in a ‘making’ situation,
with the help of adapted tools. This would oer an access
to their implicit skills and experiences that would be inac-
cessible by watching them or listening to what they say
(Sanders 2002). Spinuzzi (2005) suggested that this meet-
ing between users’ tacit knowledge and researchers’ more
abstract analytical knowledge is the key point that leads
participatory design to more successful products.
The link between user involvement and system suc-
cess represents a signicant body of the information sys-
tems literature since the late 1970s (Ives and Olsson 1981;
Cavaye 1995; Hwang and Thorn 1999; Kujala 2003; He
and King 2008; Bachore and Zhou 2009). Nevertheless, as
mentioned previously, levels of user involvement are on a
continuum from informative to participative (Damodaran
1996). Therefore, it is sometimes dicult to distinguish
clearly the boundary between consultative and partic-
ipative involvement. Moreover, Damodaran (1996, 363)
reported that ‘the term “user involvement” is sometimes
used as a synonym for participatory design’. To present rel-
evant ndings reporting benets of participative involve-
ment, this review focuses on articles reporting early user
involvement, user participation in concept design activi-
ties and studies aiming to be participatory design.
The main benets of user involvement are summa-
rised in ve key points by: (1) improved product quality
promote usability by detecting and avoiding potential
interaction issues before product implementation (Gould
and Lewis 1985; Karat 1997). User-centred design plays a
signicant role in research and practice to consider users’
needs and expectations, focus on interaction and improve
communication between designers and users.
User involvement in user-centred design is informative
and/or consultative (Bekker and Long 2000). With informa-
tive involvement, users are considered as a source of infor-
mation for the analysis stage, but the design team ensures
the concept design and assessment. Information on users
is collected using dierent tools such as surveys (Preece
et al. 1994), eld studies (Preece et al. 1994), diary keep-
ing (Poulson, Ashby, and Richardson 1996), task analysis
(Kirwan and Ainsworth 1992), user requirement interviews
(Macaulay 1996), focus groups (Caplan 1990), personas
(Olsen 2004) and scenario of use (Nielsen 1990).
With consultative involvement, users provide infor-
mation during the analysis stage but also take part in the
assessment phase. They are requested to give their feed-
back on concepts designed by the design team (e.g. with
usability tests). Dumas and Redish (1999) summarised the
main benets of usability testing: to improve the product’s
usability, involve real users, give users real tasks to accom-
plish, enable designers to observe and record users’ actions
and enable designers to make changes accordingly.
Notwithstanding, some limitations can be reported for
user-centred design. The principal criticism is that design-
ers have a controlling approach (Lee 2008). In fact, concepts
are created by engineers, and users are only consulted to
evaluate them. The implementation of user-centred design
in practice often implies an assessment with a limited set
of features covered, during a limited time, and, often, with
a small number of participants (Abras, Maloney-Krichmar,
and Preece 2004). Moreover, user-centred design focuses
principally on how the user reacts to a prototype and fails
to capture what they could bring to the concept design.
3.2. Participatory design: from a design for users to
a design by users
Another major human-centred approach, called partic-
ipatory design (or collaborative design), implies partici-
pative user involvement. With participative involvement,
users contribute directly and proactively to the concept
design phase (Sanders 2002). The user’s role is not just con-
rmatory but continuous from the analysis, throughout
the concept design, to the assessment stages. Although
user-centred design and participatory design are very
close, the active role of the user throughout the process,
including concept design activities, is a major dierence
between the two approaches (Carroll 1996; Bekker and
Long 2000; Sanders 2002; Kujala 2003).
4. From consultative to participative user
involvement: perspectives for automotive HMI
As mentioned earlier, some limitations can be addressed
to user-centred design and usability testing, it is therefore
important to explore alternative development possibilities.
Based on the benets reported, participatory design could
be benecial for automotive HMI design. First, economic
benets could be expected due to the early involvement
of users and the reduction in iterations needed. Moreover,
the potential avoidance of costly features (Damodaran
1996) would be particularly interesting for companies
wishing to develop cost-ecient HMI. For example, for a
new gauge design; with a user-centred design process,
the dierent concepts of gauges presented necessarily
restrict drivers’ alternatives, whereas with a participatory
design process, drivers are completely free to choose
another concept (e.g. only alerts indicating malfunc-
tions). Second, a better understanding of drivers’ needs
could lead to a better match with market expectations.
Drivers are experts, especially in the automotive eld,
and participatory design could allow designers to access
their insights and innovative ideas. Third, increased par-
ticipation in decision-making could be a benecial from
a marketing and brand image perspective. Furthermore,
participatory design studies report an impact on prod-
uct quality and user acceptance. These benets might be
translated for automotive HMI by an improvement in their
cognitive ergonomic quality (improved usability, improved
acceptance and reduced distraction).
4.1. Participative user involvement to increase HMI
While interacting with an interface, drivers engage work-
ing memory resources. Sweller (1988) suggested that an
eective material improves and facilitates learning by
directing cognitive resources to acquisition of mental
models. Mental models are dened as ‘a rich and elaborate
structure, reecting the user’s understanding of what the
system contains, how it works, and why it works that way’
(Carroll and Olson 1988, 51). In long-term memory, mental
models are composed of organised elements, and it allows
retrieval of subelements of information as a single element
(Kalyuga, Chandler, and Sweller 1999). For example, for
an automotive interface such as a climate control panel,
the driver develops mental a model of the way to interact
with each button and associates this with the eects on
interior temperature. This model will serve as reference
path for the driver to interpret and predict his future inter-
actions (Loup-Escande, Burkhardt, and Richir 2013). Mental
models are dynamic, contribute to user expertise and are
due to better denition of user requirements, (2) avoid-
ance of costly features that users do not need or use, (3)
better acceptance, (4) greater understanding of users
and (5) increased participation in decision-making. First,
the improvement of product quality is also reviewed by
Bachore and Zhou (2009). Kujala (2003) reported posi-
tive the eects of user involvement on system success.
Furthermore, Baroudi, Olson, and Ives (1986) suggested
that user involvement has some positive eects on prod-
uct usage. On participatory design studies, Clement and
Van den Besselaar (1993) described the well-functioning
nature of the products designed from the user perspec-
tive and their endurance over time. The improvement
of the user requirements’ denition is also reviewed by
Kujala (2003) and Bachore and Zhou (2009). Nielsen (1994)
mentioned the time wasted on certain projects arguing
about what users might want or like. Participatory design
allows the direct delivery of users’ needs and expectations.
Nielsen (1994, 88) also stated that users can bring new
questions or ideas that the development team have ‘not
even dreamed of asking’. Second, concerning economic
considerations, Karat (1997) suggested that early iden-
tication of problems can reduce time and avoid costs
related to late changes. Chatzoglou and Macaulay (1996)
supported this idea by arguing that early user involvement
can lead to a decreased number of iterations during the
design process to full requirements. Third, user accept-
ance benets due to user involvement are also reported by
Bachore and Zhou (2009) and Kujala (2003). In one of the
rst participatory design projects, called UTOPIA (1981),
results showed better communication between design-
ers and users and increased user acceptance. Other sub-
jective advantages are reported such as increased trust
and user satisfaction (Weng et al. 2007), self-condence
(Clement and Van den Besselaar 1993) and personal rele-
vance (Kujala 2003). Fourth, greater understanding of the
user mainly relies on the elicitation of tacit knowledge
and on a mutual understanding between designers and
participants (Weng et al. 2007). Finally, the increased par-
ticipation of users in decision-making can result in organ-
isational impacts (Bachore and Zhou 2009).
In parallel to this work in information systems, physical
ergonomic researchers conducted participatory studies
(McNeese et al. 1995; Nagamachi 1995; Vink et al. 1995;
Dixon and Theberge 2011; Morag and Luria 2013; Xie et al.
2015). Improvements are reported in terms of a reduction
in physical stress, health problems and development time
(Loisel et al. 2001; Sundin, Christmansson, and Larsson
2004; van Eerd et al. 2010; Gyi, Sang, and Haslam 2013).
Other authors added that participative approaches could
encourage sustainability (Martin, Legg, and Brown 2013;
Ryan and Wilson 2013).
To minimise interference with driving, a consultative
involvement relies on HMI guidelines and measures of
distraction. The key recent NHTSA distraction guideline
(NHTSA 2012) contains design recommendations and
acceptance thresholds with the aim of minimising visual–
manual distraction. Those measures are necessary even
if a participatory design approach is applied. However,
as mentioned above, user involvement during concept
design could increase HMI usability and this could imply
a decrease in distraction during HMI use. Indeed, a con-
sideration of the information that the driver needs and
the preferred layout associated could favour a low-clut-
ter design resulting in increased visual search eciency.
Moreover, a better match with drivers’ existing mental
models could automate interaction and decrease the cog-
nitive resources required to perform a task. By improving
usability, a participative involvement in the design process
could consequently decrease HMI distraction and lead to
better compatibility with the driving task. The impact of
participatory design on distraction would thus not be
direct, but the result of a usability improvement.
4.3. Participative user involvement to increase HMI
Human–machine interface acceptance is crucial because
accepted devices are more likely to be used by drivers. For
example, a driver assistance system can be disabled if its
HMI is annoying. Van Der Laan et al. stressed this point by
stating that ‘it is unproductive to invest eort in designing
and building an intelligent co-driver if the system is never
switched on, or even disabled’ (1997, 1).
Since acceptance is individual, it can only be based on
each driver’s attitudes, expectations, experiences and sub-
jective evaluation (Schade and Baum 2007). User accept-
ance is also aected by the degree of match between the
user’s initial mental model of the system and its current use
(Beggiato and Krems 2013). If the interfaces do not t the
drivers’ mental models and expectations, they may lead
to misuse, potentially hazardous situations and rejection
of the system (Maltz and Shinar 2007). Increased usabil-
ity should thus improve driver acceptance. Likewise, new
challenges for HMI designers are more linked to commer-
cial aspects such as joy, aesthetics, HMI appeal or pleas-
ure of use (Solman 2002). With consultative involvement,
those subjective aspects are addressed with question-
naires during the HMI assessment. Participatory design
benets (i.e. satisfaction, product success, personal rel-
evance, perceived ownership and intention to use) are
directly linked to user acceptance (Clement and Van den
Besselaar 1993; Kujala 2003; Weng et al. 2007). Drivers’
participative involvement in concept design could lead
to a prior consideration of those subjective aspects and
part of tacit knowledge. When a mental model is acquired,
interaction is automated, and the number of cognitive
resources needed to perform this interaction is reduced.
For example, if a map is presented on a GPS, drivers’ spatial
representations based on their previous interactions with
a map have to be considered. If the drivers’ preferred ori-
entation of the map is met, visual search and information
processing eciency will increase. The fact that part of the
user’s knowledge has become tacit through automation
represents one of the diculties of involving users and
understanding their requirements (Sanders 2002).
For automotive HMI design, it would be a great advan-
tage to have access to those implicit constructs. With a
user-centred design process, tacit knowledge is addressed
by evaluating the degree of match between the designers’
conceptual model of the interface and the users’ mental
models during usability tests (Norman 1993; Nielsen 2010).
The focus is primarily on what users do and use and on
what people say and think (Sanders 2002). With a partici-
patory design, drivers are making concepts. This allows the
consideration of skills and past experiences as resources in
the design process, which is not possible by just listening
or watching (Sanders 2002). Prototyping concepts with
‘make tools’ – so-called by Sanders (2002) – give an access
to dierent levels of driver’s needs (i.e. explicit, tacit, latent)
(Loup-Escande, Burkhardt, and Richir 2013). The projective
dimension could encourage idea generation, and the visual
dimension could help to reveal latent needs through a pos-
sible bottom-up eect. The ideas generated would be expe-
rience based rather than only object based. Drivers’ mental
models used as resources in the concept design stage could
thus lead to better eciency, learnability, memorability, a
lower error rate and therefore increased HMI usability.
4.2. Participative user involvement to decrease HMI
According to the National Highway Trac Safety
Administration (NHTSA 2012), 16% of all road accidents
are associated with a lack of driver’s attention. Research
syntheses conclude that priority should be given to mini-
mising visual–manual interaction (NHTSA 2012). A single
o-road glance (or eye closure) overlapping with a time
critical event can lead to safety issues (Victor and Dozza
2011). A major part of the distraction associated with inter-
acting with in-vehicle interfaces interaction also arises. The
degree to which drivers’ attention is diverted away from
the primary driving task while using an in-vehicle HMI is
determined in part by the design and operation of the
device. For example, too much information presented
through the wrong layout or information that is dicult
to understand can increase workload and cause hazardous
collaborative development (i.e. users’ concerns have to be
addressed in the resulting HMI concepts and must include
verication and regular group interaction) and iterative
process (i.e. involvement of users repeatedly and co-devel-
opment at dierent stages, and ensuring the appearance
of the HMI concept prototype does not turn participants’
attention to minor details, to ensure sustained reection).
Last but not least, the ability of users to add value in the
concept design phase will be discussed. Indeed, drivers
are not HMI professional designers and could experience
diculties in considering all aspects and requirements
(industrial engineering, cognitive ergonomics, technical
possibilities, project-lead times, brand image, etc.). Drivers
could tend to focus on a single interaction element and
not adopt a holistic vision. Moreover, Scariot, Heemann,
and Padovani (2012) highlighted the potential for social
desirability bias, i.e. users tend to direct answers to what
they believe the researcher wants to hear or what is more
socially accepted. Therefore, drivers could have diculty
identifying what they want until they see it. Henry Ford’s
famous quote reects this point: ‘If I had asked people what
they wanted, they would have said faster horses’ (cited in
Chandler and Van Slee [2013]). Those issues emphasise
the need to have a close collaboration with HMI design-
ers, suitable interactive prototyping tools and a rigorous
Obviously, the perspectives proposed in this article for
automotive HMI design are not applicable for all types of
projects. The form of user involvement to adopt depends
on the available features, the number of usability risks, the
gap between designers and users and the level of tacit
knowledge involved in the interaction. The conception
of an entire dashboard can take several years for HMI
designers. The design process is therefore very important
to ensure the right direction and avoid costs associated
with a step backwards. Determining the moment, the type
and the level of driver involvement are important aspects
that should receive adequate research attention.
6. Conclusion
This review presents current automotive HMI design
challenges and requirements in terms of HMI quality (i.e.
usability, distraction and acceptance). The benets of par-
ticipatory design have been reviewed and linked to HMI
cognitive ergonomic preoccupations. In addition to eco-
nomic and marketing opportunities, two key aspects have
been pointed out. First, accessing drivers’ tacit knowledge
through active involvement during concept design could
lead to an optimisation of HMI in terms of usability and
minimise distraction. Second, the consideration of drivers’
mental models and preferences from the concept design
stage may also improve drivers’ HMI acceptance.
have a direct inuence on drivers’ willingness to use and
subjective experience.
5. Limitations inherent in a participative user
The participative user involvement embraced by participa-
tory design seems a promising alternative to user-centred
design and could enrich the debate for HMI researchers
and practitioners. Nevertheless, some limitations have to
be addressed to ensure a global view. Three main limita-
tions are identied from the literature.
First, a lack of formalised methodology has been
described by many authors. a broad range of practices
is deployed (Haines et al. 2002; Spinuzzi 2005; Pilemalm
and Timpka 2008). To overcome this limitation, Spinuzzi
(2005) stated a clear methodology for participatory design.
Moreover, another reproach is that the level of involve-
ment during participative projects is often only assessed
by surveys (Ives and Olsson 1981). Notwithstanding, some
articles responded to those limitations: the denition of
user involvement has been claried (Barki and Hartwick
1989) and measures to qualify user involvement have been
proposed (Barki and Hartwick 1989; Torkzadeh and Doll
Second, the benets reviewed have been contested
in terms of validity. The main criticisms concern the lack
of rigour with standardised, reliable and validated meas-
ures that could facilitate comparison of studies on system
success, system use and user satisfaction (Ives and Olsson
1981; Cavaye 1995). Moreover, the main reviews report a
qualitative evaluation of the participatory project process
and lack signicant objective measures on the outcome
quality. Clement and Van den Besselaar (1993) added that
there is little data on the long-term eects of this type
of approach. Furthermore, Hawk and Dos Santos (1991)
called into question the economic benets by pointing
out that user involvement is costly in terms of time and
eort, and this might be even truer for participatory design
(designers’ training in this process, expensive prototypes).
More recently, Spinuzzi (2005) proposed three criteria to
assess the participatory design process involving industrial
workers: quality of life for workers (i.e. improving workers
quality of life both in terms of organisational empower-
ment and ease of performing their given task), collabo-
rative development (i.e. representative users or average
users have to be fully involved, with a determination of a
common language and common aims) and iterative pro-
cess (i.e. continual participation of workers during several
stages ensuring a sustained reection). To transfer this idea
to an HMI participatory design process, the criteria would
be: improvement of quality (i.e. the result of the participa-
tory design study should make interaction easier for users),
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This work was performed within the framework of the LABEX
CORTEX (ANR-11-LABX-0042) of University of Lyon, within the
program ‘Investissements d’Avenir’ (ANR-11-IDEX-0007) operat-
ed by the French National Research Agency (ANR). This work
has also been made possible through a CIFRE PhD convention
from the ANRT (ANRT-2013/1405), funded by the French Min-
istry of Higher Education and Research. The authors wish to
thank Eric Dutt for having been a source of reexion and Ghis-
laine Goullioud for their useful comments on an earlier version
of this paper.
This work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche
[grant number ANR-11-LABX-0042]; Association Nationale
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... Furthermore, PD approaches tackle tacit and latent needs (Sanders, 2002) such as subconscious needs or needs which one later noticed to have (Bao et al., 2020). François et al. (2017) addressed possible solutions for actively involving users in the design cycle and listed positive advantages, such as increased HMI usability and acceptance as well as decreased HMI distraction potential. ...
... Response biases can mislead solution findings by addressing non-reasonable or non-critical problems and should be carefully analyzed with respect to reasons why suggestions were made (Scariot et al., 2012). According to François et al. (2017), users may not fully address all design aspects of the product and miss critical aspects regarding safety when designing. The lack of relevant human factors knowledge and implicit understanding of designing for a user group makes it difficult to only rely on user input. ...
... Results show a positive tendency towards acceptance of active user involvement and high usability acceptance of the simulation. Our key findings of our prototypical design simulation fits with aforementioned advantages shown by other authors like (François et al., 2017;Sanders, 2002). User reports and questionnaires show potential optimization in user guidance throughout the execution. ...
Conference Paper
User-centered design (UCD) methods for human-machine interfaces (HMI) have been a key to develop safe and user-friendly interaction for years. Especially in safety-critical domains like transportation, humans need to have clear instructions and feedback loops to safely interact with the vehicle. With the shift towards more automation on the streets, human-machine interaction needs to be predictable to ensure safe road interaction. Understanding human behavior and prior user needs in crucial situation can be significant in a multitude of complex interactions for in-vehicle passengers, pedestrians and other traffic participants.While research mostly focused on addressing user behavior and user needs, the inclusion of users has often been limited to study participants with behavioral inputs or interviewees prompted for opinions. Although users do not have the knowledge and experience as professional designers and experts to create a product for others alone, unbiased insights into the future target groups’ mental models are a valuable and necessary asset. Hence, with stronger user participation and appropriate tools for users to design prototypes, the design process may deeper involve all type of stakeholders helping to provide insights into their mental models to understand user need and expectation.To extend current UCD practices in the development of automotive HMIs, our work introduces a user-interactive approach, based on the principles of participatory design (PD), to enable users to actively create and work within design process. A within-subject study was conducted based on evaluating users’ trust within an interaction with an AV and subsequently configuring the corresponding HMI. The scenario focuses on the interaction between a pedestrian (user’s point of view) deciding to cross path with an automated vehicle (AV, SAE L4). The AV would show its intention via a 360° light band HMI on its roof. The interactive simulation offered users hands-on options to iteratively experience, evaluate and improve HMI elements within changeable environmental settings (i.e., weather, daytime) until they were satisfied with the result. The addition of participation was provided by an interface using common visual user interface elements, i.e. sliders and buttons, giving users a range of variety for real-time HMI configuring.A first prototype of this interactive simulation was tested for the safety-critical use-case in a usability study (N=29). Results from questionnaires and interviews show high usability acceptance of the interactive simulation among participants as assessed by the system usability scale. Overall usability was rated high (System Usability Scale) and frustration low (NASA-TLX raw). Moreover, the interactive simulation was rated to have above average user experience (User Experience Questionnaire). Appended feedback interviews gave valuable insights on improving the simulation user interface, offering different design opportunities within the simulation and a wider parameter space. The short design session time shows the limit of customizability options within this study but needs to be further investigated to determine optimal range for longer evaluation and design sessions. Based on the study results, further requirements for PD simulative environments to assess limits for parameter spaces in virtual environments are derived.
... This result diverges from previous studies on value co-creation in platforms or games. Many studies have shown the positive impact of value co-creation on consumer word-ofmouth [67,68], but the results from this study show that value co-creation does not have a significant positive impact on audience satisfaction, possibly suggesting that users do not in fact need value co-creation at all. Accordingly, the design of service provision in virtual spaces should break away from the traditional S-D logic and, in turn, the position and role of the user in the process of experiencing the virtual space needs to be reconsidered. ...
... On one hand, the detection of IVSI and EVSI demonstrates a comprehensive view of HMI, rather than a relatively independent view of HMI [26,31]. Based on this, the discussion in this study on HMI combines the traditional technical application of HMI with its impact on audience satisfaction, which is relatively absent in the research into HMI [9,33,68]. Moreover, the configuration presented in this study, on the other hand, serves to indicate that value co-creation may not have the same position and effect as previous scholars have suggested. ...
... Moreover, the configuration presented in this study, on the other hand, serves to indicate that value co-creation may not have the same position and effect as previous scholars have suggested. Prior research into value co-creation has centered on the S-D logic, while scholars in service management have advocated the value and significance of value co-creation for companies and audiences [67,68]. Meanwhile, when the audience is enjoying the virtual space, the audience may not want to help the company to operate and maintain the virtual space. ...
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Consistent with the imminence of the metaverse, academics and industry have been paying more attention to the research into the metaverse. The viewpoint that present studies have linked the metaverse to the virtual space provides an opportunity to detect the metaverse. However, current research into virtual spaces remains undeveloped from the perspective of design, especially with a lack of an ergonomic and service viewpoint. Based on this, this study integrates ergonomics, information science and service management to determine how to build an attractive virtual space. Through 102 samples, employing qualitative comparative analysis, three main configurations are proposed, and contribute to filling this research gap. The results of this study indicate that, for designing a virtual space, human interactions with the virtual space should be taken into consideration selectively, from an internal or external perspective. As for the value-delivery process, the position of the audience should be reconsidered with the invalidity of value co-creation.
... Participatory design originated in the workplace democracy movement in Scandinavia in the 1970s and has been developed as a practical design methodology by American companies [16]. Existing research shows that the application of participatory design methods in various fields has shown clear benefits [17], and that multi-user participatory design can completely define user needs, optimize user interfaces, and improve humancomputer interaction, and other design outcomes [18]. Most existing studies have practiced and evaluated the design of human-machine interfaces through user participatory design methods, such as Mahadevan et al. who used participatory design methods to evaluate the usefulness of the outside surface of the vehicle for the question of whether autonomous vehicles can clearly communicate vehicle information to pedestrians [19]. ...
... Most existing studies have practiced and evaluated the design of human-machine interfaces through user participatory design methods, such as Mahadevan et al. who used participatory design methods to evaluate the usefulness of the outside surface of the vehicle for the question of whether autonomous vehicles can clearly communicate vehicle information to pedestrians [19]. It is now generally accepted that user involvement in the human-machine interface design process is of value [17]. ...
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In order to explore the design strategy of participatory design approach in the design of external human-machine interface (eHMI), this paper at the theoretical level researches the relevant literature and typical interfaces of eHMIs, and sorts out the basic concepts of explicit human-vehicle interaction features theory. Through the user participatory design method, we summarized the key design points of the eHMI and produced a design prototype, and optimized the prototype according to the participatory design experimental results and actual needs to obtain a design solution. The design was tested and evaluated at the practical level, and a strategy for user participation in the design of the external human-machine interface was concluded. The results show that the participatory design approach can improve the usability and acceptance of eHMIs, reduce the cognitive differences in the presentation of interface content, and provide a reference for the design of out-of-vehicle HCI in future work.
... From the perspective of the number of papers, the size of a node represents the number of papers, and the larger the node, the more papers published in the country. As shown in Table 1, the top five countries by the number of papers are Germany (87), the USA (49), China (28), Japan (23), and the UK (21). Centrality reveals the focused position of the research field; the higher the centrality, the more important the country is and the greater its dedication to the field of expertise. ...
... For example, Mathilde François et al. investigated whether external HMIs can bridge the communication gap between autonomous vehicles and pedestrians by comparing information from an e-HMI with the different driving behaviors of autonomous vehicles yielding to pedestrians to understand whether pedestrians tend to pay more attention to the motion of vehicles or e-HMIs when deciding to cross a road. Ultimately, they concluded that the two collaborate to achieve the best transfer effect [23]. In terms of early warning, Oliver M. Winzer et al. investigated the user acceptance of a preventive Car-2-X communication warning system that helps drivers avoid potential collisions with cyclists [8]. ...
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With the development of autonomous driving technology and the internet, automotive human–machine interface (HMI) technology has become an important part of contemporary automotive design. Currently, global automakers are designing a variety of innovative in-car HMIs that illustrate the direction of automotive design in the new era from the perspective of technological aesthetics and experience design. However, sleek designs and innovative experience methods must be built on the basis of safety. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize existing research in the field of automotive HMI and construct a literature review of automotive design research. In this paper, literature on automotive HMI from the Scopus database was analyzed using bibliometric methods such as descriptive analysis, keyword co-occurrence, and literature co-citation network analysis. The final mapping analysis revealed that the current automotive HMI research literature primarily focuses on user research, interface research, external environment research, and technology implementation research related to automotive HMI. The three main stages of automotive HMI research include conceptual construction, system and technology refinement, and user perception research from the perspective of driver assistance and information recognition. Additionally, burst detection suggests that future research should focus on driver assistance, trust levels, and e-HMI information communication.
... and the tactile stimulus is the main feedback. The Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) were deeply investigated in the last decade to combine a pleasant driver perception and the desired innovative design aspects [3,4]. The evolution of automotive HMIs is strictly related to the human tactile perception [3,5], specifically in haptic surfaces [6]. ...
Conference Paper
The use of touch screens and displays is quickly increasing in the automotive industry, especially for super cars. Touch-screen commands are affected by the problem of feedback to drivers, i.e. the driver cannot look at the touch-display; indeed he needs to understand if the required command is received from the car. Haptic surfaces represent the solution to this problem, hence touch screens with embedded actuators are suitable to switch from mechanical vibrations to human feeling. This paper focuses on an innovative electromechanical device called Niceclick. It is a compact and powerful actuator able to modulate the haptic surface vibrations. After an overview of the tactile perception, measurement systems, human sensibility to vibrations and psychophysical compliance are analysed to define the parameters of an ideal actuator suitable to create some specific signals, the related frequency bandwidth and the associate energy profile. The tailored tool, appropriate to get these goals is described, modelled and experimentally tested coupled to the fundamental co-system where it is applied. A comparison between rigid and deformative coupled structures is considered to define performance and aims. INTRODUCTION The increment in the number and complexity of command and settings on vehicles led the automotive OEMs to find suitable solutions and technologies [1, 2]. Perhaps, the massive use of touch screens in all everyday devices, particularly in the main interface in vehicles cab, represents a critical issue about the driver safety. In fact, the actuation of a virtual switch on a touch screen does not give any feedback to the driver, which must visually check the correctness of the desired command, diverting the attention from the road. Instead, when a driver turns on a device with a classical analogical switch, receives tactile and audible stimuli. The differences in the two sensations are not negligible. and the tactile stimulus is the main feedback. The Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs) were deeply investigated in the last decade to combine a pleasant driver perception and the desired innovative design aspects [3, 4]. The evolution of automotive HMIs is strictly related to the human tactile perception [3, 5], specifically in haptic surfaces [6]. The haptic surface is a complex interface that includes one or more actuators producing a tactile response [7]. In the state-of-the-art, several attempts have been done in finding a reliable and effective technology for this application, from electrostatic to ultrasonic actuation [6][6], employing varied system dynamics [8][8]. The driver population is wide and varied; hence, the preferred vehicle interface style is subjective, due to the different sensitivity to tactile stimuli. Therefore, the interfaces are commonly designed by analysing the typical user characteristics, and calibrating button pression feedback on statistical information. Nevertheless, user feedbacks are not objectified in the design process. Using simple devices, researchers are trying to deceive the human perception, creating fictitious sensations.
... Thus, recent research advancement is oriented towards more user-centered design approaches for in-vehicle interfaces in order to alleviate the mental effort accompanying these added features [17,37,54,77,80]. Consequently, multiple designs emerged for seamless non-intrusive in-vehicle interfaces [1,10,12,32,36,39,40,55,57,94,99]. While these previous approaches and studies focus on enhancing user experience and reducing drivers' MWL through offline pre-design feedback (e.g., gathering users' requirements and designing a universal semi-customizable interface), others focus on real-time (and semi-real-time) approaches to obtain user feedback and adapt the interface based on the user's MWL and stress levels. ...
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Several researchers have focused on studying driver cognitive behavior and mental load for in-vehicle interaction while driving. Adaptive interfaces that vary with mental and perceptual load levels could help in reducing accidents and enhancing the driver experience. In this paper, we analyze the effects of mental workload and perceptual load on psychophysiological dimensions and provide a machine learning-based framework for mental and perceptual load estimation in a dual task scenario for in-vehicle interaction ( We use off-the-shelf non-intrusive sensors that can be easily integrated into the vehicle's system. Our statistical analysis shows that while mental workload influences some psychophysiological dimensions, perceptual load shows little effect. Furthermore, we classify the mental and perceptual load levels through the fusion of these measurements, moving towards a real-time adaptive in-vehicle interface that is personalized to user behavior and driving conditions. We report up to 89% mental workload classification accuracy and provide a real-time minimally-intrusive solution.
This study investigates the differences in a driver’s visual-manual behaviour when performing secondary tasks while driving under the full-touch mode (FTM) and the conventional mode (CM). To this end, 30 participants were recruited to perform secondary tasks while driving two vehicles equipped with different HMI system interaction modes. The results show that compared to the CM, in the FTM, fewer visual-manual resources are required to perform the calling task, but for the navigation task, this requirement is higher. Additionally, in both modes, the driver exhibited self-regulation visual-manual behaviour when performing secondary tasks as the driving speed increased. However, the effect of the driving speed on visual-manual behaviour was greater in the FTM than in the CM. The main limitation of this study is that the effect of the difference between the two experimental vehicles on the findings was not considered, however, this does not affect the generalisation of the findings. Practitioner summary: Potential applications of this study include improving drivers’ knowledge about the effect of performing secondary tasks in different modes on driving safety, and this study also provides useful insights human-machine co-driving systems to develop user-friendly control strategies and for automotive companies to improve the full-touch interactive mode for automotive companies.
The automatic driving vehicle mounted system is an important direction for future development of automobile industry. At present, there are relative few user studies on autopilot HMI. Therefore, from the user's point of view, this study aims to survey users’ preferences for HMI information function, operation mode and the development vision of the next generation of HMI interface for autopilot, and guides the HMI design of automatic driving car is really meeting the needs of users. In this study, 10% of potential users selected were invited. We studied the HMI interface through separate interviews, and used cards with HMI interface elements and topics to cooperate with the interviews. Through the co-design with users, we build an easy-to-use, and safe of HMI interface to meet the needs of users. The user’s behavior and choice, the user interface and the design of principles may provide some references for the design of HMI interface of the autopilot car, and lay the foundation for future theory and practice. KeywordsConceptual design and planningHuman machine interface
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In this study, the role of collaboration in design is discussed, placing emphasis on how to include end-users in the development process. The study is based on a literature review focusing on aspects of collaboration in design, usability and human factors. Thereby, it introduces, compares and contrasts the characteristics of both collaborative and user-centered design perspectives, leading to the collaborative-participatory design approach. Finally, the advantages, disadvantages and precautions of implementing collaborative and participatory models are pointed out.
Two experiments investigated alternatives to split-attention instructional designs. It was assumed that because a learner has a limited working memory capacity, any increase in cognitive resources required to process split-attention materials decreases resources available for learning. Using computer-based instructional material consisting of diagrams and text, Experiment 1 attempted to ameliorate split-attention effects by increasing effective working memory size by presenting the text in auditory form. Auditory presentation of text proved superior to visual-only presentation but not when the text was presented in both auditory and visual forms. In that case, the visual form was redundant and imposed a cognitive load that interfered with learning. Experiment 2 ameliorated split-attention effects by using colour coding to reduce cognitive load inducing search for diagrammatic referents in the text. Mental load rating scales provided evidence in both experiments that alternatives to split-attention instructional designs were effective due to reductions in cognitive load. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
In this chapter the evaluation of human computer interaction (HCI) with mobile technologies is considered. The ISO 9241 notion of ‘context of use’ helps to define evaluation in terms of the ‘fitness-for-purpose’ of a given device to perform given tasks by given users in given environments. It is suggested that conventional notions of usability can be useful for considering some aspects of the design of displays and interaction devices, but that additional approaches are needed to fully understand the use of mobile technologies. These additional approaches involve dual-task studies in which the device is used whilst performing some other activity, and subjective evaluation on the impact of the technology on the person.
The overall aim of this paper is to outline a review of the concept of usefulness. In particular, it looks at the facets of usefulness and the methods and tools that could help to develop a useful system from the perspective of ergonomics. Firstly, we present the research context and explain our motivations for focusing on the usefulness of innovative systems. One reason is that there is no theoretical or methodological framework that explicitly addresses usefulness as a guide to design and define goals, in contrast with the concept of usability. The first section aims to clarify the concept of usefulness. We have highlighted two dimensions of usefulness: purpose-usefulness and value-usefulness. Purpose-usefulness relates to the functional and non-functional features of the artefact. Value-usefulness relates to the improvements or significant benefits that the artefact can bring to users. We then clarify the relationship between usefulness and requirements. The requirement is the original inspiration, the argument and the justification associated with the usefulness of an artefact during the design process. The second section presents usefulness from the point of view of ergonomics. First, we show the extent to which usefulness is a built and progressive feature of systems by revealing two worlds of usefulness: the prospective world and the retrospective world. The prospective world gathers all features, requirements and thinkable (although not necessarily desirable) solutions; the retrospective world puts together all the relevant experiences in terms of usefulness to inform designers of the artefact. We then specify the relationship between usefulness and other criteria of ergonomics, such as usability or acceptability. The third section provides an overview of methods and their contributions to the different facets of usefulness. We detail the contribution of methods to the production of a hypothesis and the development of prospective worlds, before moving on to prioritization, selection and the decision-making process. Finally, we examine the evaluation of usefulness. In this part, we discuss the links between the more or less conscious nature of the requirements, the two dimensions and the two worlds of usefulness. Our conclusion includes the most relevant elements for the clarification of what is underlying to the concept of usefulness in the context of the design of emerging technologies.
A review of publications on diagnosis shows that only few of them relate to systematic field studies. Experiments in laboratory or simulation conditions are more frequent, though their relation to work situations is not always really examined. This relation gives rise to difficult problems (Leplat, 1976, 1978); it is necessary, however, in order to justify experimental studies, installation of systems, realisation of work supports, and training of operators. The necessary relation between field situations and laboratory conditions shows various forms (Rouse, 1979), considering for instance the representative quality of experimental tasks or the general character as opposed to the specific nature of diagnosis skill. One of the major difficulties of such a study certainly results from the analysis of field situations because of undeniable practical difficulties and also, because of lack of adequate theoretical outlines to guide such an analysis. Our present contribution will present a summary of such an outline, using examples to illustrate its necessity.