Article

Does Variety Among Activities Increase Happiness?

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Abstract

Does variety increase happiness? Eight studies examine how the variety among the activities that fill people's day-to-day lives affects subsequent happiness. The studies demonstrate that whether variety increases or decreases happiness depends on the perceived duration of the time within which the activities occur. For longer time periods (like a day), variety does increase happiness. However, for shorter time periods (like an hour), variety instead decreases happiness. This reversal stems from people's sense of stimulation and productivity during that time. Whereas filling longer time periods with more varied activities makes the time feel more stimulating (which increases happiness), filling shorter time periods with more varied activities makes the time feel less productive (which decreases happiness). These effects are robust across actual and perceived variety, actual and perceived time duration, and multiple types of activities (work and leisure, self-selected and imposed, social and solo). Together the findings confirm that “variety is the spice of life”—but not of an hour.

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... Thus, historically, the main function of variety seeking is to increase overall consumption utility, or as mentioned above, to add the cherry (or excitement) on top of the sundae. However, recently, researchers have explored the idea of choosing variety as a primary goal in a more "meta" fashion, suggesting that variety as a goal in and of itself will contribute to overall consumer well-being (e.g., Etkin, 2016;Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Kara & Vredevel, 2020;Levav & Zhu, 2009;Su et al., 2017;Yoon & Kim, 2018). Thus, these researchers are suggesting that consumers may choose variety, not just in a pedestrian fashion to enhance consumption utility but also more fundamentally because of what that choice of variety might signal about themselves. ...
... Researchers have also found a complicated relationship between the way time is spent and how variety-seeking activities affect experienced stimulation. Etkin and Mogilner (2016) found that when participants filled a longer time period with varied activities, the time felt more stimulating. However, for shorter time periods, where participants were more concerned with getting things done and less worried about being stimulated, more variety did not necessarily affect stimulation. ...
... Similarly, the hedonic adaptation prevention model establishes that varied, unexpected, or surprising experiences serve to continually stimulate and promote well-being. Etkin and Mogilner (2016) also show the variety can affect ultimate happiness, but it depends on the duration of time in which the variety is consumed. For longer periods of time (like a day), variety can increase happiness; but if the time is short and the focus is on productivity, too much variety can decrease happiness. ...
Article
We consider the role of variety or diversity as a main goal for consumer experiences. We argue that consumers may incorporate variety in their choices of product or experiences for reasons other than merely increasing the consumption utility over time. Specifically, we develop a framework that shows two new roles that variety can play in consumer choice. First, it can serve as a signal to oneself and others that the consumer is able to accept change and be flexible. Second, we show that the meta role of variety, or diversity as a goal in and of itself, is beneficial because more variety in consumers' choice sets (a) provides a more optimal portfolio for future choices under uncertainty, (b) facilitates creative thinking and adoption of innovation, and (c) allows for the consumption of a fuller set of attributes, which satisfies goals of balancing and completeness.
... It is further defined in the literature as the experience of life satisfaction coupled with positive influence Delle Fave et al., 2016;Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Pavot, 2013;Diener, 1984 (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Veenhoven, 2013). However, Fors and Kulin (2015) argue that life satisfaction is merely one dimension (cognitive) of happiness and that happiness cannot be evaluated without considering the second dimensionaffective wellbeing, which reflects the balance between unpleasant and pleasant feelings (Fors & Kulin, 2015;Diener, 1984). ...
... It is further defined in the literature as the experience of life satisfaction coupled with positive influence Delle Fave et al., 2016;Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Pavot, 2013;Diener, 1984 (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Veenhoven, 2013). However, Fors and Kulin (2015) argue that life satisfaction is merely one dimension (cognitive) of happiness and that happiness cannot be evaluated without considering the second dimensionaffective wellbeing, which reflects the balance between unpleasant and pleasant feelings (Fors & Kulin, 2015;Diener, 1984). ...
... However, work's influence on happiness exceeds financial benefits as it creates social status, provides structure to daily lives, aids in accomplishing goals and building social relationships, which all exert influence on a person's happiness . Variety of the tasks performed and the ability of workers to learn new skills lead to higher job satisfaction Etkin & Mogilner, 2016). Furthermore, the future prospects that a workplace offers can influence the intention to stay (Mache et al., 2014;McCann et al., 2013) and the well-being of employees (ACME, 2013). ...
Thesis
Happiness is a new field of study in various healthcare fields. Researchers indicated that although there are numerous studies investigating mental well-being amongst veterinarians, scientific research into happiness in veterinary medicine has not begun and that happiness levels of veterinarians are unknown. This treatise is the first known study examining the happiness levels of South African veterinarians and the implications that increased happiness levels can have for organisations who employ veterinarians. An in-depth literature review was conducted and the two main constructs of happiness – eudaimonia and hedonism were examined. Additionally, the three theories of happiness, namely set-point theory, social comparison theory and the affect theory were explored and the importance of happiness in the workplace was established. The literature further laid the foundation for the conceptual model that proposed influence in the workplace, social relationships, satisfaction with work-life balance, purpose, optimism, work satisfaction, work stress and leisure to lead to happiness of South African veterinarians. A mixed method study, with 360 respondents, was conducted. Various descriptive and inferential statistical tests, factor analysis and finally structural equation modelling were completed to analyse the conceptual model. Hereafter, a proposed model to measure the happiness levels of South African veterinarians was constructed. This model consists of influence in the workplace, social relationships, satisfaction with work-life balance, purpose, optimism, work satisfaction and work stress as either independent or intervening variables that determine the happiness of South African veterinarians. The study concludes with managerial recommendations that veterinary practice owners can implement to increase the happiness levels of their veterinarians so that they can have social, financial and personal gain. Some of the recommendations are regular practice meetings, which can be held where veterinarians will be more strategically involved in decision-making, team building activities and regular feedback sessions between employees and managers. Additionally, managers should implement better scheduling for veterinarians so that 40-hour weeks can be worked and they should encourage their employees to pursue leisure activities. Life coaches or industrial psychologists can be used to bridge the generational gap between veterinarians and to minimise interpersonal conflict. Moreover, managers need to have conversations with their employees to understand their needs and to help them achieve their professional goals. Other recommendations are that veterinary management courses can be added to the undergraduate courses at Onderstepoort so that veterinarians can make better business decisions and efforts should be made to add practice management courses as part of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) courses for veterinarians. Key Words: Veterinarians, Happiness, Subjective Well-being, Eudaimonia, Hedonism, Affect Theory.
... Its sub-fields include product acquisition, product mix, product ownership, product consumption, product maintenance and product disposal [17]. In addition, some empirical studies have confirmed the need for satisfaction [6] [18]. Secondly, the happiness of consumers brought by products or services also includes positive emotions. ...
... In addition, the researchers found that the diversity of consumer activities can affect consumers well-being. Etkin and Mobilner conducted eight experiments to show that the impact of activity diversity on consumers well-being depends on the duration of perception [18]. For long cycles (such as a day), activity diversity increases happiness by making people feel more stimulated; for short cycles (such as an hour), activity diversity reduces happiness by making people feel less productive. ...
... Consumer well-being is conducive to personal physical and mental health, which can not only cause health, but also inhibit unhealthy state. For health status, clinical trials have found that happiness therapy can produce more positive outcomes than drug therapy, such as higher creativity, energy [18], more social relationships and prosocial behavior [43]. Consumer well-being has a similar impact. ...
... Furthermore, the activity features matter. Lyubomirsky and Layous [11] argue in their positive activity model that, among other features, dosage and variety of activities associated with individuals with a high SWB affect the strength of those activities' effects on SWB (see also [12]). Whereas most current research attempts to assess the relationship between actual activities and SWB, here, our aim is to examine individuals' own subjective understandings of the relationship between everyday activities (whether performed or not) and SWB. ...
... Activities. Research on activities and SWB often lack a clear and elaborate definition of what constitutes an activity [8,12,15,16]. Despite this, in general, researchers regard activities as what people spend their time doing [12] and how people behave [8]. ...
... Research on activities and SWB often lack a clear and elaborate definition of what constitutes an activity [8,12,15,16]. Despite this, in general, researchers regard activities as what people spend their time doing [12] and how people behave [8]. We define activity as anything a person does or has done during a given time span. ...
Article
Full-text available
Activities and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) have been shown to be intricately related to each other. However, no research to date has shown whether individuals understand how their everyday activities relate to their SWB. Furthermore, the assessment of activities has been limited to predefined types of activities and/or closed-ended questions. In two studies, we examine the relationship between self-reported everyday activities and SWB, while allowing individuals to express their activities freely by allowing open-ended responses that were then analyzed with state-of-the-art ( transformers-based ) Natural Language Processing. In study 1 ( N = 284), self-reports of Yesterday’s Activities did not significantly relate to SWB, whereas activities reported as having the most impact on SWB in the past four weeks had small but significant correlations to most of the SWB scales ( r = .14 –.23, p < .05). In Study 2 (N = 295), individuals showed strong agreement with each other about activities that they considered to increase or decrease SWB (AUC = .995). Words describing activities that increased SWB related to physically and cognitively active activities and social activities (“football”, “meditation”, “friends”), whereas words describing activities that decreased SWB were mainly activity features related to imbalance (“too”, “much”, “enough”). Individuals reported both activities and descriptive words that reflect their SWB, where the activity words had generally small but significant correlations to SWB ( r =. 17 –.33, p < .05) and the descriptive words had generally strong correlations to SWB ( r = .39–63, p < .001). We call this correlational gap the well-being/activity description gap and discuss possible explanations for the phenomenon.
... These findings are often criticized, however. For example, the conceptualization of consumer happiness is commonly limited to hedonic, pleasure-based forms of happiness (e.g., Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Guevarra & Howell, 2015), but eudaimonic, meaning-based forms of happiness are also important and distinct aspects of well-being in general (Huta & Waterman, 2014;Ryan & Deci, 2001) and consumer happiness in particular (Catapano, Quoidbach, Mogilner, & Aaker, Zarantonello, 2015). We address these issues in this research by investigating how experiences of FF and FT achieved through consumption (both material and immaterial) affect the hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of happiness. ...
... The way consumers spend their time also has consequences on their happiness. Etkin and Mogilner (2016) examine whether variety among activities increases consumer happiness and find that, over time, variety can increase happiness while too much variety at any given moment can decrease it. They note that "variety is the spice of life -but not of an hour" (p. ...
... In consumer behavior, however, researchers investigating consumer happiness generally take a unilateral approach, focusing on hedonic, pleasure-based forms of happiness rather than eudaimonic, meaning-based forms of happiness. This hedonic dimension, often called "consumer happiness," is traditionally measured with one item ("How does this purchase contributes to your happiness today?" Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Guevarra & Howell, 2015) or is coupled with additional measures of positive and negative emotions (e.g., La Barbera & Gürhan, 1997). This traditional conceptualization of consumer happiness, however, is increasingly criticized. ...
Article
This research investigates the relevance, characteristics, and influence of experiences of freedom as a source of consumer happiness. A qualitative study (Study 1) underscores the existence of two types of experiences of freedom in consumption that bring happiness to consumers: “freedom from” worries, stress, or everyday life and “freedom to” explore, decide, and enact who they are or want to become. A content analysis (Study 2) and an experiment (Study 3) show how these two types of experiences of freedom have different characteristics and are related to happiness in different ways: “freedom from” experiences are related to low positive emotional arousal (calm) and are more likely to foster hedonic, pleasure-based happiness, while “freedom to” experiences are more frequently associated with high positive emotional arousal (excitement) and are more likely to foster eudaimonic, meaning-based happiness. The results are discussed in terms of research, consumer and managerial implications.
... Second, the consumption involves fewer varieties of things. People get fed up only by consuming monotone things (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Galak et al., 2009). No variation, as well as any other option, makes people avoid further consumption. ...
... Moreover, psychologically, consumption of things on a hand indicates production of meanings on the other hand at the same time. People do not consume mindlessly, but they think about what is worthier (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Galak & Redden, 2018). People know what they consume, why it matters, and how that option is meaningfully possible for them. ...
... However, losing satisfaction is getting out of pleasure. That will come to annihilat ion of being pleasant as the needs no longer have its appetite (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Galak et al., 2011). It is closely similar to having joy that will be gone if stating pleasure and being pleasant are no longer involved at all. ...
Article
Full-text available
Literature examines differences among classes especially the powerful-the non-powerful and the rich-the poor through literary conditions. Imogayu is Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s short story that tells Goi, a poor samurai. He is astonished with imogayu (yam gruel) and wishes more of it, but his fellows and master laugh at him for wishing so. The master asks Goi to follow him eat more imogayu and he agrees. In a village, his master tells his servants to cook imogayu then tells Goi to eat. Seeing many people cooked it then looking at plentiful imogayu, he loses appetite as he is fed up. Thus, the research question is, how is satiation reflected on Ryunosuke Akutagawa’s Imogayu? Through qualitative method on economic, socio-political, and psychological points, this study underlines changing condition of Goi from wanting imogayu to becoming satiated. Through psychology of satiation by Jeff Galak, behavior could change when consumption face hedonistic enjoyment. Class difference is seen in how Goi’s wish does come true but its abundant amount makes him sick of seeing wasted material used. In conclusion, Goi’s satiation comes from how his simple wish faces lavish reality. His satisfaction changes into satiation after seeing luxury that he never senses at all.
... For instance, prior research has identified socializing and active leisure as particularly positive uses of time (Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003;Kahneman et al., 2004;Mogilner, Whillans, & Norton, 2018). Research has also shown that being productive with one's time produces greater subjective well-being (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Keinan & Kivetz, 2010). To explore whether the type of discretionary time moderates the relationship between amount of discretionary time and subjective well-being, we reexamined the data from the American Time Use Survey. ...
... nonproductive), revealing that only when people spent large amounts of discretionary time nonproductively did they report lower subjective well-being. In light of prior work showing that people enjoy increased satisfaction from feeling productive and busy (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Hsee et al., 2010), this finding suggests that a lacking sense of productivity may be one underlying mechanism driving the negative effect of having too much time. We further examine this finding in the subsequent two studies. ...
... On the other end of the continuum, in light of the moderating role of discretionary time spent productively (vs. nonproductively) in Study 2, as well as work showing the benefits of being productive (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Hsee et al., 2010;Keinan & Kivetz, 2010), we proposed that compared to having a moderate amount of discretionary time, having too much discretionary time would make people feel unproductive and thus experience lower subjective well-being. After being presented with the definition of discretionary time, "time spent on leisure activities or on other pursuits where the primary function is the use of time for pleasure or some other intrinsically worthwhile purpose," participants were led to mentally simulate having a given amount of discretionary time every day for at least 6 months of their lives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many people living in modern society feel like they do not have enough time and are constantly searching for more. But is having limited discretionary time actually detrimental? And can there be downsides of having too much discretionary time? In two large-scale data sets spanning 35,375 Americans and two experiments, we explore the relationship between the amount of discretionary time individuals have and their subjective well-being. We find and internally replicate a negative quadratic relationship between discretionary time and subjective well-being. These results show that whereas having too little time is indeed linked to lower subjective well-being caused by stress, having more time does not continually translate to greater subjective well-being. Having an abundance of discretionary time is sometimes even linked to lower subjective well-being because of a lacking sense of productivity. In such cases, the negative effect of having too much discretionary time can be attenuated when people spend this time on productive activities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Recent research in consumer behavior reveals that a less varied usage experience leads consumers to overestimate their usage frequency, and thus increase satisfaction and repeat purchases (Etkin and Sela 2016). Etkin and Mogilner (2016) also find more varied activities make people feel less productive, echoing the finding of feature fatigue (Thompson et al. 2005), which occurs when consumers are overwhelmed by products overloaded with too many features. This study unpacks the usage behaviors into both frequency and variety, as shown in Figure 1, and adds substantive findings to the literature on the role of usage frequency and variety of the free trial on conversions. ...
... That is, when a consumer increases the variety of her software exploration, she is less likely to convert. Such a negative impact has been found in consumer behavioral research, where more varied usage experiences cause consumers to overestimate their usage (Etkin and Sela 2016) and feel less productive (Etkin and Mogilner 2016). ...
... However, as consumers use a more diverse set of software, their current clicks on display ads, emails, and paid search ads, and the persuasive and featured content all decrease. The negative impact of usage variety is consistent with findings in consumer behavior research that consumers can be overwhelmed by a greater degree of variety (Thompson et al. 2005), which causes them to feel less productive and less satisfied (Etkin and Mogilner 2016), and thus be less engaged. ...
Article
Full-text available
As Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) becomes an increasingly popular business model, free-trial acquisition, which allows prospective consumers to explore and assess the service at no charge, also becomes a norm for SaaS companies. However, empirical research on the role of marketing communications, consumers' free-trial usage, and their interactions is still lacking. This study utilizes the granular data from a leading SaaS firm that provides prospects with free trials and examines the impact of and interactions among various marketing touchpoints, different types of message content, and the frequency and variety of free-trial usage on consumers' subscription decisions. Given the high data dimension, regularization is imposed on the model to avoid overfitting and multicollinearity. Regarding advertising effectiveness, this study finds the consumer-initiated touchpoints with all message content enhance conversion, but the firm-initiated touchpoints conveying persuasive messages discourage conversion. Meanwhile, free-trial usage does not always follow the old adage 'the more the merrier.' When usage is unpacked as frequency and variety, more frequent free-trial usage encourages conversion, but exploring a greater variety of software leads to a lower conversion rate. For the focal firm, advertising and free-trial usage attenuate each other in leading to conversion, except for the persuasive messages sent to frequent users and featured messages to variety-seeking users. The robustness of these findings is tested, and two simulations demonstrate how the model helps firms determine when to contact consumers with additional display ads or emails. This research provides guidance to SaaS managers on the impact of advertising, free-trial usage, and the interplay between both on conversion, which facilitates decisions on marketing strategies and resource allocations.
... Furthermore, the activity features matter. Lyubomirsky and Layous [11] argue that, among other features, the dosage of and variation in activities associated with happy people, affect the strength of the effect on SWB (see also [12]). Whereas most current research is attempting to assess the relationship between (actual) activities and SWB, we here aim to examine individuals' own subjective understanding of the relationship. ...
... of what constitutes an activity [8,12,15,16]. Although not defined, researchers regard activities in general as what people spend their time doing [12], and people's behaviors [8]. ...
... of what constitutes an activity [8,12,15,16]. Although not defined, researchers regard activities in general as what people spend their time doing [12], and people's behaviors [8]. ...
Preprint
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Activities and Subjective Well-Being (SWB) have been shown to be intricately related. However, the literature leaves an open question about whether individuals understand how their everyday activities relate to their SWB. The assessment of activities has been limited to predefined types of activities and/or closed-ended questions. In two studies, we examine the relationship between self-reported everyday activities and SWB, while allowing individuals to express their activities freely with open-ended responses analyzed with state-of-the-art (transformers-based) Natural Language Processing. In study 1 (N=284), Yesterday’s reported activities did not significantly relate to SWB, whereas activities reported as having the most impact on one’s SWB in the past four weeks had small significant correlations to most of the SWB scales (r = .14 – .23, p < .05). In Study 2 (N=295) individuals showed strong agreement in which activities they consider increasing versus decreasing SWB (AUC = .995), where words describing activities increasing SWB related to physically and cognitively active activities and social activities (“football”, “meditation”, “friends”), whereas words describing activities decreasing SWB mainly illustrated activity features related to imbalance (“too”, “much”, “enough”). Individuals reported both activities and descriptive words that reflect their SWB, where the activity words had generally small significant correlations to SWB (r =. 17 – .33, p < .05) and the words had generally strong correlations to SWB (r = .39 – 63, p < .001). We infer this correlational gap as a well-being – activity description gap and discuss potential explanations for the gap.
... In contrast, those with a monochromic orientation prefer to engage in a single leisure activity. Etkin and Mogilner (2016) suggested that activity diversity affects an individual's level of happiness, depending on the perceived length of time within which the activities occur. Stalker (2011) indicated that individuals' ability has an impact on the polychromicity of leisure activity. ...
... The fourth factor is polychronic orientation, which represents an individual's active attitude toward leisure time. Etkin and Mogilner (2016) showed that stimulation leads to multiple leisure activities. Mullens and Glorieux (2020) noted that leisure activities could bring time pressure if they were combined with other activities. ...
Article
Time perspective refers to individuals’ attitude toward leisure time and leisure time use. Although the time perspective has been discussed over the years, the concept and measurement of time perspective in leisure contexts remains scant. This study proposed a construct of leisure time perspective and developed a scale to explore perception of time for leisure participation. Both metropolitan and non-metropolitan populations in Taiwan were surveyed for scale development. The research method started with a literature review and focus-group interviews to identify the initial items. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to facilitate scale purification and factor extraction, and confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure. The result showed that the leisure time perspective comprised seven dimensions: structured routine, time-use meaning, effective organization, polychronic orientation, pace preference fit, persistence, and social orientation. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings and suggestions for future studies are presented in this study.
... Theoretically, since both saving money and seeking variety are among the motives identified as drivers of access-based service use Smith, 2016;Böcker and Meelen, 2017;Fritze et al., 2021), emphasizing either may be expected to build consumer happiness. However, though prior research has studied the effects of these two types of framing separately (e.g., affordability: Garbinsky et al., 2014;Sharma and Keller, 2017;Snow et al., 2017;Lee-Yoon et al., 2020;variety: Ratner and Kahn, 2002;Chancellor and Lyubomirsky, 2011;Etkin and Mogilner, 2016), little is known about their relative impact, or if this impact differs across levels of consumer financial constraint. ...
... Following this, participants reported how happy/satisfied they would feel if they got their clothing in the way described to them (variety-based access v. affordability-based access v. ownership) on a seven-point scale (1 = "Not happy/satisfied at all"; 7 = "Very happy/satisfied"; happiness index, ρ = 0.87, Etkin and Mogilner, 2016). For exploration purposes, we also measured participants' sense of fulfillment (1 = "Not fulfilled at all"; 7 = "Very fulfilled"), another component of subjective well-being driven by the perceived meaningfulness of a task and achieved by satisfying higher-level needs (Diener and Lucas, 2000); additional emotions commonly measured in the consumer financial constraint literature (i.e., pride, shame, embarrassment; scale: 1 = "Not at all"; 5 = "Very"; see a brief summary: Goldsmith et al., 2020); and participants' word-of-mouth tendency related to their acquisition of clothing [item 1: "I would want to talk with them about it"; item 2: "I would want nobody to know it" (reverse-code); scale: 1 = "Not at all"; 5 = "Very"]. ...
Article
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Access-based services allow financially-constrained individuals to consume a variety of goods and services without the cost of sole ownership. But might there be dangers in communicating about access-based consumption in terms of its affordability, particularly among this segment of consumers? To answer this question, we investigate the effects of framing access-based consumption in terms of two primary benefits: affordability and variety. Results from four studies suggest that although affordability might rationally be of most interest to financially-constrained individuals, framing access-based consumption’s benefits in terms of affordability undermines the happiness they may extract from their consumption relative to framing in terms of variety. This difference emerges because communications focused on affordability re-affirm the negative self-identity financially-constrained individuals perceive as a result of their financial situation. Given these findings, we make clear recommendations for communications related to the access-based economy and this vulnerable set of people.
... People clearly want to be happy, but what form of happiness do they want? While one form is experienced on a moment-to-moment basis where people feel happy during that time (Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003;Kahneman, Krueger, Schkade, Schwarz, & Stone, 2004;Killingsworth & Gilbert, 2010;Mogilner, 2010;Galak, Redden, & Kruger, 2009;Nelson, Meyvis, & Galak, 2009); the other is a reflective evaluation where people feel happy looking back on that time (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985;Easterlin, 1995;Lyubomirsky & Lepper, 1999;Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Ratner, Kahn, & Kahneman, 1999;Redden, 2008). Kahneman (2011) describes this distinction as experienced happiness (being happy in your life) vs. remembered happiness (being happy about your life). ...
... Notably, however, an opposing perspective might argue that because moments are fleeting, people should pursue a course that provides something to show for their time and allow them to feel good when reflecting back. Indeed, rooted in the Puritan work ethic (Weber, 1930), many Americans have an aversion to being idle (Hsee, Yang, & Wang, 2010) and an incessant desire to be productive throughout their hours and days (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016). Some individuals, in fact, choose less enjoyable but more memorable experiences (e.g. ...
Article
Consider two types of happiness: one experienced on a moment-to-moment basis, the other a reflective evaluation where people feel happy looking back. Though researchers have measured and argued the merits of each, we inquired into which happiness people say they want. In five studies (N = 3351), we asked people to choose between experienced happiness and remembered happiness – for shorter timeframes (e.g. one’s next hour) and longer timeframes (e.g. one’s lifetime). The results revealed a consistent pattern: most people choose experienced happiness for longer timeframes, but not for shorter timeframes. Since people typically live hour-to-hour, these findings imply that people may end up living a different version of happiness than what they believe is a happy life.
... Risk-taking behavior involves choosing between unfamiliar alternatives that are perceived as risky (Baumgartner and Steenkamp, 1996;Kareklas et al., 2018). Variety-seeking behavior is expressed in the buyer switching between familiar alternatives, including brand switching, and a tendency toward unusual behaviors (Etkin, 2016). Finally, curiosity-motivated behavior stems from the desire for information and knowledge (Beck and Crié, 2018;McAlister and Pessemier, 1982) and can be expressed by greater preferences for window-shopping or an interest in detailed knowledge about products (Streicher et al., 2020). ...
... Please choose from the following activities: watch a film, take a walk, cook a meal, exercise, eat out, or go shopping."; adopted from Etkin (2016). Finally, participants' demographic information was collected, and they were asked to guess the purpose of the study. ...
Article
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This study aims to bridge a gap in the extant research by examining consumer behavior that is unrelated to, but elicited by, service robots. The results of six studies showed that participants primed with robots (vs. humans) were more likely to engage in exploratory consumption behaviors. This effect was mediated through the elicitation of a sense of novelty, affected by the degree of service robots' intelligence and moderated by consumers' subjective knowledge. The study also examines different types of exploratory buying behaviors that have implications for marketers' and retailers’ use of service robots to promote exploratory consumption.
... Variation can be stimulating (McAlister and Pessemier 1982;Pessemier and Handelsman 1984), and this stimulation, in turn, can have beneficial effects. Doing more varied activities over the course of an hour can make that time feel more stimulating and exciting, for example, which increases how happy people were with that time (Etkin and Mogilner 2016). While we are unaware of work demonstrating that similar effects occur with hedonic variation, research on thrill rides shows something similar. ...
Article
Some cultural products (e.g., books and movies) catch on and become popular, while others fail. Why? While some have argued that success is unpredictable, we suggest that period-to-period shifts in sentiment—what we term sentiment volatility—enhances engagement. Automated sentiment analysis of over 4,000 movies demonstrates that more volatile movies are evaluated more positively. Consistent with the notion that sentiment volatility makes experiences more stimulating, the effect is stronger in genres where evaluations are more likely to be driven stimulation (i.e., thrillers rather than romance). Further, analysis of over 30,000 online articles demonstrate that people are more likely to continue reading more volatile articles. By manipulating sentiment volatility in follow up experiments, we underscore its causal impact on evaluations, and provide evidence for the role of stimulation in these effects. Taken together, the results shed light on what drives engagement, the time dynamics of sentiment, and why some cultural items are more successful.
... Under limited time horizons, such as when people approach the end of life (e.g., Carstensen et al., 1999) and also more temporary endings like the last day of desserts before starting a diet (e.g., Winet & O'Brien, 2020), people become more likely to prefer familiar, personally meaningful activities-in other words, they seem to become more likely to seek out and enjoy repeat consumption. Related findings show that experiencing too much variety within an overly restricted window of time can backfire for enjoyment (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016). Temporal markers writ large, such as an emphasis on fresh starts (e.g., Dai et al., 2014) ...
Article
Repeat consumption refers to re‐experiencing an enjoyable stimulus in order to enjoy it again. We rewatch the same shows, reread the same stories, and revisit the same cities; we play our favorite songs on loop and stick to our secret spots in town. When and why do people engage in repeat consumption, and what actually happens in our psychological experience (e.g., attention, enjoyment) upon doing so? This article reviews burgeoning research shedding light on these questions. First, I establish repeat consumption as a distinct construct. Second, I highlight an emerging perspective: Repeat consumption is not so repetitive after all. Not only does repetition reveal new things within the stimulus—dubbed stimulus‐level novelty (e.g., upon rewatching a movie, we notice missed details and new connections)—but we also learn new things about ourselves in the process—dubbed self‐level novelty (e.g., “I must really be committed!”). This model qualifies traditionally grim understandings of hedonic adaptation and exposure effects; people derive greater utility from the old and familiar than assumed. Third, I highlight future research directions, including the need for a clearer taxonomy of repeat value and implications for maximizing utility. Exciting discoveries lie ahead if we return to where we have already been.
... Those findings are also consistent with clinical studies certifying that physical activity releases more serotonin (Kavetsos, 2011;Wipfli, Landers, Nagoshi, & Ringenbach, 2011), known as the hormone of happiness or well-being, and thus confirm that physical activity has antidepressant effects (Hamer, 2012). Etkin and Mogilner (2016) further found that the variety of activities plays an important role in generating happy feelings and is positively associated with happiness. Thus, because one of most important UAE initiatives is to create a 'happy community', investing in more sporting events and increasing participation could be considered as a future action. ...
Article
The present study proposes a combined effort of a theory of media portrayal implemented into the ‘Event-tourist career trajectory model’ developed by [Getz, D., & Andersson, T. D. (2010). The event-tourist career trajectory: A study of high-involvement amateur distance runners. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10(4), 468–491]. The relation between sport and media has been mainly concentrated in studies of the history of sport, gender studies, cultural and leisure studies, but little is known about media influence on event-participating athletes. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from athletes at two community events organized in Abu Dhabi, Zayed Marathon and TriYas Triathlon in 2016. The questionnaire constituted 4 sections: motivational factors, media influence, travel style and behavioural changes, event and destination choice. Descriptive statistics (mean, SD and t-test) were calculated to understand statistically significant differences between runners and triathletes. Moreover, a factor analyses was performed for the 9 items measuring media influence in order to identify underlying dimensions of media items. Results show that athletes from different sport disciplines differ in some items, which confirm the fact that not all athletes have the same motivation, media preferences, travel styles and behaviour, but they may have a very similar attitude towards event and destination choices. Factor analyses also gives meaningful findings; it shows that active participants of community events participate more at sport events when they see a possibility to become popular via media. Theoretical and practical implementations are further researched.
... For instance, participants enjoyed a comedic video less when they knew that they would next watch another enjoyable video compared to those who were unaware of the future activity. Such a result is in line with prior work showing that being more in-the-moment, or mindful, improves enjoyment [48], as well as work showing that packing a variety of activities into short periods of time can undermine happiness [49]. ...
Article
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Feeling time-pressed has become ubiquitous. Time management strategies have emerged to help individuals fit in more of their desired and necessary activities. We provide a review of these strategies. In doing so, we distinguish between two, often competing, motives people have in managing their time: activity maximization and outcome maximization. The emerging literature points to an important dilemma: a given strategy that maximizes the number of activities might be detrimental to outcome maximization. We discuss such factors that might hinder performance in work tasks and enjoyment in leisure tasks. Finally, we provide theoretically grounded recommendations that can help balance these two important goals in time management.
... For example, people can split the work associated with the organization of the event as well as the financial costs. Additionally, group experiences provide greater opportunity for information sharing (Ariely & Levav, 2000) and varied experiences (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Etkin 2016). ...
Chapter
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Every day people engage in numerous shared experiences – from having lunch with colleagues to going on a vacation with family. Despite the ubiquity of such experiences, little is known about how consumers organize and manage such experiences. In this chapter, we review past literature as well as our own research to answer two main questions: (1) why do consumers choose to share ownership over an experience by co-creating it with others, and (2) how could shared experiences be managed by the group in order to maximize the satisfaction obtained for all participants?
... Another way variety can be used is not necessarily to mitigate the actual satiation involved in the consumption of the options, but to make the planned time feel more stimulating. For example, Etkin and Mogilner (2016) find that planning to fill longer time periods with more varied activities makes the time feel more stimulating, which also leads to increased happiness. This is in contrast to filling shorter time periods with more varied activities, which makes the time feel less productive and decreases happiness. ...
... Some evidences from previous research may indirectly confirm this assumption (e.g. Etkin and Mogilner 2016;Kim and Drolet 2003;Sheldon and Lyubomirsky 2012). Happiness researchers have speculated that variety across people's experiences may increase their happiness. ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that self-presentation could be a relevant motive in explaining variety-seeking behavior. Individuals anticipate that sticking to a limited range of one’s favorites would make a negative impression on others, and others might conclude that they are boring or narrow-minded (Ariely and Levav Journal of Consumer Research, 27, 279–290, 2000; Ratner and Kahn The Journal of Consumer Research, 29, 246–257, 2002). In our research, we wanted to investigate this lay assumption. We also hypothesized the moderating role of a consumer’s gender. The results of study 1 (N = 211) confirmed that incorporating variety in consumer behavior may be a cue for social perception. Consumers who preferred non-variety in consumer choices were evaluated as less socially attractive than those who preferred variety. However, female consumers who preferred variety were evaluated as less responsible. These results were replicated in study 2 (N = 276). The study also revealed the mediational role of the evaluation of a consumer’s predictability in the relationship between her variety seeking and social attractiveness. Study 2 also showed the moderating role of participant gender in the evaluation of a consumer’s responsibility. The female consumer who incorporated variety in her consumer choices was evaluated as less responsible, but only when she was described as a mother and wife and only by female participants.
... For example, people can split the work associated with the organization of the event as well as the financial costs. Additionally, group experiences provide greater opportunity for information sharing (Ariely & Levav, 2000) and varied experiences (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Etkin 2016). ...
... Similarly, in studies of organization, dissimilarity-driven behavior is frequently associated with trouble-making or reform, where such so-called mavericks often lead to innovation, provided their views are at least moderately appealing to the main stream 57 . Research has also shown that happiness is elevated and can be preserved over longer periods of time if variation in behavior or emotional stimuli is provided 58 . In groups, individuals with positions opposite to the majority are often seen as confident and innovative, which can in turn exert a remarkable influence on the majority via the so-called minority influence [59][60][61][62] . ...
Article
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In this paper, we explore the impact of four different types of dissimilarity-driven behavior on the evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game. While it is commonly assumed that individuals adapt their strategy by imitating one of their more successful neighbors, in reality only very few will be awarded the highest payoffs. Many have equity or equality preferences, and they have to make do with an average or even with a low payoff. To account for this, we divide the population into two categories. One consists of payoff-driven players, while the other consists of dissimilarity-driven players. The later imitate the minority strategy in their group based on four different dissimilarity-driven behaviors. The rule that most effectively promotes cooperation, and this regardless of the multiplication factor of the public goods game, is when individuals adopt the minority strategy only when their payoff is better than that of their neighbors. If the dissimilarity-driven players adopt the minority strategy regardless of the payoffs of others, or if their payoff is the same, the population typically evolves towards a neutral state where cooperators and defectors are equally common. This may be beneficial when the multiplication factor is low, when defectors would otherwise dominate. However, if the dissimilarity-driven players adopt the minority strategy only when their payoff is worse than that of their neighbors, then cooperation is not promoted at all in comparison to the baseline case in the absence of dissimilarity-driven behavior. We explore the pattern formation behind these results, and we discuss their wider implications for the better understanding of cooperative behavior in social groups.
... Because product category did not interact with the depiction form, we aggregated across the three product types for the remaining mediation analysis (cf. Etkin and Mogilner, 2016;Mandel and Johnson, 2002;Shapiro and Nielsen, 2013). To test the proposed underlying role of processing fluency we conducted two mediation analyses (PROCESS model 4;Hayes, 2013 Both mediation analyses reveal an indirect effect but no direct effect ("full mediation", see Figure 2) and thus provide strong evidence for the underlying theoretical model (Baron and Kenny, 1986;Zhao et al., 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Online shops almost always display products in isolation (i.e. with no background and shadow). As a result, products do not appear natural because they do not rest on a surface but rather appear to be floating in the air. The overall objective of this research is to explore the negative consequences of displaying products in isolation in online shops. Moreover, we aim to show how such unnatural product images can shape customer attitude and affect purchase intention. Drawing on scene perception theory, we hypothesize that products depicted in isolation impede processing fluency and thus negatively influence customers' attitude towards the product and purchase intentions compared to products depicted on a spatial background (i.e. with a shadow). The results of an experimental study with three products (furniture and table items) show that isolated product depictions negatively affect customer attitude towards the product and purchase intention. Moreover, consistent with theory, these relationships are fully mediated by processing fluency. Our research contributes to literature on product depictions and points to future research paths in the area of scene perception in information systems and human behavior. Further, the results have practical implications in terms of abandoning the common practice of displaying products in isolation in favor of displaying products with a simple (computer generated) spatial background.
... According to Etkin and Mogilner (2016), people feel happier with a combination of both ordinary and extraordinary experiences. Th erefore, it is necessary to explore the values of both experiences and the reasons they are chosen. ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to explore the perceived value of extraordinary experience and compare it with an ordinary one in the context of food consumption. We examine how Japanese and Thai people perceive local ordinary food and foreign extraordinary food. We used a perceived value scale and past experience for independent variables and customers’ general attitudes for dependent variable. We collect survey data in Japan and Thailand and conduct analyses by PLS-SEM. Five factors are extracted as elements of perceived value. The most influential factor of Japanese attitudes toward local food is conditional value , followed by emotional and epistemic value and menu variety . Conversely, value for money is the only factor that affects Thai customers’ attitudes. In the case of foreign food, Japanese respondents are most affected by emotional and epistemic value , followed by functional value (quality) , and menu variety . Past experience has a significant negative effect on consumers’ attitude. For Thai respondents, emotional and epistemic value is the most influential factor, followed by functional value (value for money) , and past experience . We found significant differences of perceived value of local food and foreign foods.
... Study depicts that brands can make consumers happy. It therefore makes strong support to the argument that situations and circumstances can affect happiness of consumer (Etkin and Mogilner, 2016;Zhong and Mitchell, 2013). Placing the findings of this study in the literature, the current study contributes in de-confusing the mixed claims relating to this relationship. ...
Happiness has been topic of research since ancient times. This study explores the theory of consumer happiness grounded in the tenets of mass prestige (Masstige), self-consciousness and social ideal self by linking it with brand-induced happiness (Brand Happiness). The relationship is explored in light of self-consciousness and social ideal self by taking them as moderators. Data was collected from a European country using a standard questionnaire measuring brand happiness, masstige, self-consciousness and social ideal self from 346 respondents for three mobile phone brands from America, South Korea and China-iPhone, Samsung and Huawei. Exploratory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modelling, and Moderation Analysis revealed that the consumption of masstige brands lead to brand happiness. This relationship is moderated by self-consciousness, whereas social ideal self is not moderating the relationship. The study also revealed that only iPhone is a masstige brand. Implications of the findings and managerial applications along with theoretical contributions are discussed.
... First, diversification can increase stimulation (Etkin 2016;Gullo, Berger, Etkin, & Bollinger 2018;Huang, Liang, Weinberg, & Gorn 2019) and thus slows satiation (Galak, Kruger & Loewenstein 2013). It also confers a sense of control and productivity (Etkin & Mogilner 2016;Yoon & Kim 2018) and ameliorates decision anxiety (Jeong, Christensen, & Drolet 2016), in part, by hedging against the risk that future tastes will change (Salisbury & Feinberg 2008). ...
Article
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To explain trade-offs in choice, researchers have proposed myriad phenomena and decision rules, each paired with separate theories and idiosyncratic vocabularies. Yet most choice problems are ultimately resolved with one of just two types of solutions: mixed or extreme. For example, people adopt mixed solutions for resolving trade-offs when they allow exercising to license indulgence afterward (balancing between goals), read different literary genres (variety seeking), and order medium-sized coffees (the compromise effect). By contrast, when people adopt extreme solutions for resolving these exact same trade-offs, they exhibit highlighting, consistency seeking, and compromise avoidance, respectively. Our review of the choice literature first illustrates how many seemingly unrelated phenomena actually share the same underlying psychology. We then identify variables that promote one solution versus the other. These variables, in turn, systematically influence which of opposite choice effects arise (e.g., highlighting versus balancing). Finally, we demonstrate how several mistakes people purport to make can potentially instead be reinterpreted as mixed solutions for resolving trade-offs. We conclude with guidance for distinguishing mistakes from mixed solutions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 72 is January 4, 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Variety refers to the pursuit and experience of various activities, behaviors, and opportunities in one's given circumstance . A variety of exercises might lead individuals to perceive the exercise as stimulating, exciting, fun, interesting, and novel (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016). In the exercise psychology field, the provision of opportunities for people to experience variety was found to be related to their enjoyment and intrinsic motivation (Dimmock et al., 2013). ...
Article
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A 5-month exercise intervention using self-determination theory was conducted for a physically inactive male adult with a body mass index >25 kg/m ² to overcome perceived exercise barriers and increase autonomous motivation to exercise through a variety of exercise programs. The participant underwent three different forms of exercise programs: trainer guided, self-guided via YouTube channels, and accustomed exercises for 3 hr weekly. The participant completed a questionnaire and body mass index measurement at baseline and during the second, fourth, and fifth months of intervention and kept an exercise log throughout the 5 months. Consultations were conducted during the second and fourth months. At the end of the program, a semistructured interview was conducted. The data showed that psychological needs satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and exercise behavior had improved, while perceived barriers had decreased. This case study provides insight into how a theory-based intervention could effectively promote exercise behavior by targeting psychological factors.
... 63) and consumers' positive emotions (Hudders and Pandelaere, 2012). Moreover, researchers find it synonymous with a pleasurable experience, attaining a feeling of satisfaction (Etkin, 2016;Diener et al., 2009), experiencing feelings of life fulfilment (Hofmann et al., 2014) and a sensation of reward (Mukhopadhyay and Johar, 2009). Several studies have indicated that individuals appear to be happy if they acquire more things than their significant others have (Caporale et al., 2009). ...
Consumers no longer consider luxury as an absolute goal. Even though previous studies have primarily linked luxury with consumers' extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivational factors have seen few studies. As a result of this gap, this study attempts to investigate the intrinsic factors that influence consumers' experiences with luxury brands. By using self-determination theory, this paper aims to assess the personal 'self' factors of luxury con-sumers' enriching experiences. An offline questionnaire from 316 luxury consumers was used to collect data for the study. AMOS SEM v 22 was then used to analyse the data. Our findings indicate that luxury consumers have shifted to luxury for 'self,' and are driven by intrinsic factors. As luxury relates to consumers' self-fulfilment, it creates an intrinsic and substantive experience for customers that assists them in their search for self-growth. The study contributes to the literature concerning personal self and enriching experiences through luxury consumption and creates an opportunity to examine the impact of consumers' happiness, which was discovered to be a critical indicator of enriched luxury experience and word of mouth, resulting in a boosting of the personal self.
... Past research has demonstrated that consumers' product-variety perception has strong impacts on subsequent consumer behavior; and variety offers individuals opportunities to satisfy their innate need for stimulation and variety-seeking (e.g., Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Inman, 2001;van Herpen & Pieters, 2002). In addition, a broader product variety can appeal to a wider range of tastes, and buffer risks from future preference uncertainty (Kahn & Ratner, 2005). ...
Article
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This study examines the impact of brand logo colorfulness on consumer judgments toward a brand and its products. Four experiments demonstrate that the colorfulness of a brand logo affects consumers' perception of the product variety offered by the brand. When consumers feel that a brand logo is colorful, they tend to infer that the brand offers a high variety of product options to its customers. Driven by the perception of product variety, logo colorfulness has downstream consequences on consumer attitudes, an effect that can be moderated by brand positioning. Together, this study introduces the effects of logo colorfulness on consumer judgments, contributes to the psychological literature on color and variety, and bears important practical implications regarding how designers and marketers can practically determine a brand logo that best serves the brand image.
... These findings are often criticized, however. The measure of consumer happiness is indeed commonly limited to the hedonic, pleasure-based form of happiness (e.g., Etkin & Mogilner, 2016;Guevarra & Howell, 2015) but it is now widely acknowledged that the eudaimonic, meaning-based form of happiness is also an important and distinct aspect of well-being, in general (Huta & Waterman, 2014;Ryan & Deci, 2001) and of consumer happiness, in particular (Schmitt, Brakus & Zarantonello, 2015;Sääksjärvi, Hellén, & Desmet, 2016). To cover this gap, we investigate how experiences of FF and FT achieved through consumption (both immaterial and material) affect the hedonic and eudaimonic dimensions of happiness. ...
Article
This research introduces two types of experiences of freedom in consumption: “Freedom From” (FF) worries and stress and “Freedom To” (FT) be oneself and self-realized. A qualitative study, a semantic analysis and an experiment investigate respectively the representations, the differences and the influence of FF and FT on consumer happiness.
... The Impulsive purchases are made without prior planning and are connected with emotional regulation (Fenton-O'Creevy et al., 2018). In recent decades, interest in achieving happiness has increased due to the desire to improve overall well-being (Etkin & Mogilner, 2016). In recent months, restrictions on outdoor social activities have increased people's need to be emotionally indulged, indirectly causing customers to lower their self-control on purchasing behavior. ...
Article
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While the debate on online service failure and recovery strategies has been given considerable attention in the marketing and information systems literature, the evolving Covid‐19 pandemic has brought about new challenges both theoretically and empirically in the consumption landscape. To fully understand customers' responses to service failure during a crisis we asked 70 millennials from three European Countries—Italy, France, and the UK—to describe their responses to service failure during the Covid‐19 pandemic (30 completed a 4‐week diary and 40 completed a 4‐week qualitative survey). Drawing on phenomenological, constructivist, and hermeneutical approaches, and utilizing an actor–network theory perspective, the current study proposes a new framework for understanding customers' responses to online service failure and recovery strategies during the Covid‐19 pandemic. Conclusions highlight implications for theory, policy, and management practice through extending comprehensions of service failure recovery processes by examining how marketing policies generate different social impacts during a crisis situation which facilitate the achievement of customer satisfaction and positive outcomes.
Article
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This review highlights recent research on time shortage, which has been broadly classified into three streams. Building upon decades of time use survey and diary findings, the trends and demographics stream document the latest longitudinal changes in perceptions of time shortage (including a recent decline) and provides an increasingly clear picture of who is hardest hit by time shortage. Meanwhile, the consequences stream has underscored that although time shortage has myriad negative outcomes, busyness and time pressure are not all bad news. Last, the nascent remedies stream has largely sought to ameliorate time shortage not by altering people's actual, objective temporal resources, but instead by offering safeguards against or shifting people's perceptions of time shortage.
Article
The variety of food items that compose a meal can influence estimates of the calories they contain. Similarly, the variety of activities in an exercise program might influence estimates of the calories they burn. In each case, however, the nature of this influence can depend on the mental process that underlies these estimates. When consumers directly make calorie estimates and consider a set of items as a whole, they make higher calorie estimates if the items vary in appearance than if are identical. When consumers imagine themselves consuming each item in turn, however, they imagine becoming satiated more quickly, and make higher estimates, if the items are identical. Five studies confirm the interactive effect of variety and consumption simulation on both consumers’ calorie estimates and their downstream consequences.
Article
Under growing pressure to demonstrate its societal value, marketing research has the opportunity to focus more on increasing our understanding of consumer happiness. The present research uses topic modeling to interpret and categorize comments from Yelp.com reviews about travel dimensions. In addition, sentiment analysis was used to capture the number of positive and negative words in each review. The data analysis is used to extract and explore the dominant consumer emotions surrounding travel. This research contributes to the practice of marketing and society more broadly by providing an understanding of how memorable experiences are shaped in the travel context and also by demonstrating how machine learning (text mining) can help better understand concepts relating to consumer happiness and well-being.
This research evaluates the interplay of emotion, cognition, and individual differences such as productivity orientation. Two experimental design studies using Mturk participants test the proposed effects of curiosity evoked by advertising stimuli with mystery on positive affect and preference for curated subscription boxes. The results show that advertising stimuli with mystery can have a negative influence on positive affect unless people feel high curiosity. We further demonstrate that people with high productivity orientation are more likely to experience high positive affect and to prefer “curated for you” items compared to low productivity-oriented people, after viewing advertising stimuli with mystery.
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Advertising has become one of the major sources of game apps revenues and interstitial ads, in particular, are the most used monetization method among the types of in‐game mobile ad formats. Interstitial ads overlaid on top of a mobile game app have more obvious advertising intent and a higher degree of forced exposure and perceived intrusiveness. This study examined how the degree of congruity (high vs. moderate vs. low) between the promoted products in interstitial ads and the mobile game app environment affects consumers’ responses. The moderating effects of media‐context factors (i.e., excited– or calm–happiness game types and game immersion) were further assessed. The results of two experiments revealed that game‐product congruity lead to better consumers’ responses toward ads and advertised products. The positive effects of game‐product congruity were more salient when consumers played calm–happiness games and were less immersed in the game. Theoretical implications on integrating perspectives across disciplines such as schema theory, happiness, and immersion within the media‐context framework, as well as practical suggestions are discussed.
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The recent rise of consumer happiness research in marketing literature is noticeable. This article presents a systematic review of consumer happiness research from 1991 to 2020. From an initial pool of 600 articles on consumer happiness from 158 marketing journals in the ABS and ABDC lists, 71 articles were selected. The procedure was as follows: (1) search of articles, (2) quality assessment, (3) extraction of data from articles, and (4) thematic synthesis. The review concluded that the term “consumer happiness” does not have a standardized definition in the existing literature. However, happiness has been studied in a variety of contexts, and consumer research is one of these contexts. Further, the review concluded that consumer happiness research is largely segregated across three themes: marketing beyond satisfaction, marketing for health and mind, and digital felicity. Seven areas of future research on consumer happiness are also proposed. The authors present academic and managerial contributions with scholarly implications for the literature in the areas of consumer well-being, the role of marketing/interactive marketing, and the positive side of marketing. The authors also suggest that marketers not only seek consumers’ need fulfillment and satisfaction from their product or service consumption but also try to elicit hedonic associations with their products or services.
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Variety-seeking research has examined antecedents in terms of contextual factors and individual differences. However, it does not consider the interaction of individual difference factors such as regulatory focus (promotion vs. prevention) and regulatory mode (locomotion vs. assessment) to predict variety-seeking. Drawing on regulatory fit theory, this study introduces a new kind of regulatory fit based on the interaction between regulatory focus and mode (i.e., regulatory focus-mode fit), thereby extending previous work examining fit based on either regulatory focus or regulatory mode in isolation. Results from five studies, including field data from 10,547 music app consumers (text analysis), two preregistered studies, and two online experiments, show that regulatory focus-mode fit (vs. nonfit) decreases variety-seeking. Engagement and attitude certainty serially mediate regulatory focus-mode fit effects. Findings provide implications for consumer segmentation and message framing. The article is available at https://doi.org/10.1002/jcpy.1317
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The author wrote this book in an attempt to address a wide audience, ranging from experts in the area of tourism, to students and tourism/hospitality practitioners. The author merges findings from empirical studies with instances from the tourism/hospitality sector, covering different types of hotels, restaurants, airlines, museums, national parks and theme parks. The author uses contemporary cases drawn from the international scene. A more philosophical approach to tourism can help all of us understand that there is more to life than taking advantage of the natural environment, customers, employees, or hosts, for the sake of profiteering or self-indulgence. Therefore, the acquisition and channelling of certain rudiments and notions such as philanthropy are deemed crucial at a personal, organisational and societal level. The cultivation and circulation of virtues such as love, kindness, patience and charity in tourism are of the utmost importance if organisations are to be associated by their guests with terms such as 'anthropocentric', 'extraordinary', 'unexpected', 'quality' and 'satisfaction'. The author hopes to cast light on the rather perplexing and multifaceted nature of tourism in order to help practitioners, students of tourism/hospitality, and general tourism bibliophiles truly to become 'friends of (tourism) wisdom' ('philosophy' literally meaning love of wisdom).
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Studies scrutinizing the tangible and intangible factors regarding the length of stay (LOS) in a destination are rare. The emotional factors have not always been integrated into this analysis. We have contributed to fill this gap in the literature considering the degree of happiness with the tourist destination. We used a sample of 1253 tourists and three regression models were estimated (OLS regression model, a Weibull survival model and a zero-truncated negative binomial) to study the LOS. We verified that the emotional factor related with happiness affects the LOS. Furthermore, regarding the managerial/practical implications it is important to highlight that the tourists who intend to visit the city have gastronomic and wine experiences, and, through their contact with the cultural heritage of the city, they will stay for a longer period of time. In addition to economic factors, as expenditures, there are also emotional and experiential aspects that influence LOS and these have to be included in the communication of a tourist destination. The attributes of a destination are not enough to influence the LOS. The destination must also be a set of experiences that will increase the happiness of the tourist with the destination.
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Consumer multitasking (i.e., working on multiple tasks simultaneously) is a widespread modern phenomenon, yet the literature lacks an understanding of when and why consumers multitask. We experimentally show that consumers engage in multitasking behavior as a way to compensate for feelings of low control. Specifically, across five main studies and seven Web Appendix studies using two different multitasking paradigms, we find that consumers feeling low (vs. high) control volitionally choose to multitask more on subsequent tasks, rather than do the tasks sequentially (i.e., one task at a time). Mediation and moderation evidence demonstrate that this effect is driven by increased motivations to use time resources efficiently for those feeling low (vs. high) control. We also find that multitasking generally results in suboptimal consumer decision making and decreased task performance. An intervention that altered consumer lay beliefs regarding multitasking and time efficiency was effective in lowering multitasking behavior for consumers experiencing low control during the COVID-19 pandemic. By investigating a cause of consumer multitasking and the underlying mechanism, our studies contribute to research on consumer multitasking, perceptions of control, and resource allocation with important implications for advertisers and marketing managers.
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between attending arts and cultural activities and individual happiness. We classify arts and cultural activities into four categories according to their characteristics: visual arts, performing arts, movies, and sporting events. Our results show that arts and cultural activities have a positive relationship with individual happiness. More specifically, the coefficient for attending performing arts is the highest, and the fall in marginal utility of participation is the lowest for movies. In addition, the benefit from arts and cultural activities is greater in the low-income group than in the high-income group; however, visual arts activities are statistically significant in the high-income group. Through the interaction between household types and cultural activities, we find that the utility increments for performing arts and movies occur in the high-income group. Our results can provide insight for government organizations involved in the promotion of the arts and cultural activities.
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Over the last two decades, global wealth has risen. Yet material affluence has not translated into time affluence. Most people report feeling persistently ‘time poor’—like they have too many things to do and not enough time to do them. Time poverty is linked to lower well-being, physical health and productivity. Individuals, organisations and policymakers often overlook the pernicious effects of time poverty. Billions of dollars are spent each year to alleviate material poverty, while time poverty is often ignored or exacerbated. In this Perspective, we discuss the societal, organisational, institutional and psychological factors that explain why time poverty is often under appreciated. We argue that scientists, policymakers and organisational leaders should devote more attention and resources toward understanding and reducing time poverty to promote psychological and economic well-being.
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Research on alternate masculinity from India that emphasize consumption and consequent SWB is primarily about gay men. However, our research points to different marginal masculinity, alternate consumption, and consecutive SWB. The present study uses in-depth interview methods to uncover the ‘marginal’ masculinity of a group of urban, upper-middle-class, heterosexual Indian men. We probe their consumption as a part of their identity project referred to as cathartic. We further argue that this ‘cathartic masculinity,’ as evident through their consumption, may impact the fledging gender-fluid marketplace of tomorrow. [ acceptance only-language editing due]
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Variety-seeking is a fundamental aspect of choice. But given circadian rhythms in chronobiology, might variety-seeking vary by time of day? Four studies, including an empirical analysis of millions of purchases, demonstrate diurnal variation in variety-seeking. Variety-seeking is lower in the morning than other times of day. People pick less varied flavors of yogurt, for example, when choosing in the morning. Further, the results demonstrate the underlying role of circadian changes in physiological stimulation and arousal. The effect is mediated by a physiological measure of arousal (i.e., body temperature) and moderated by factors that shape physiological arousal (i.e., sunlight and individual differences in circadian preferences). These findings shed light on drivers of variety-seeking and the biological basis of consumer behavior more generally.
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From dating profiles and social media accounts to online streaming services, consumers are often asked to express who they are by constructing an assortment. Apple Music, for example, asks new users to indicate “two or more” of their favorite types of music when they create an account. But while consumers might create such self-expressive assortments to communicate who they are, could the composition of these assortments also affect how people see themselves? Seven studies demonstrate that perceiving greater variety in a self-expressive assortment undermines self-continuity. This occurs because variety leads consumers to infer that their preferences are less stable, thereby decreasing the belief that their identity stays the same over time. Variety’s effect generalizes across multiple domains of self-expression (e.g., books, music, television) and has downstream consequences for service evaluation and even unrelated decision-making (e.g., intertemporal tradeoffs). The findings advance understanding of how choice shapes identity, the role of variety in consumers’ lives, and factors that affect self-continuity. The results also have implications for the marketers who encourage (and the consumers who construct) self-expressive assortments.
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"By now, it has become a bromide that the U.S. constitution and culture are built on the pursuit of happiness (Myers, 1992). According to this political philosophy, government should allow citizens to strive towards their own conception of happiness, and should assist them as much as possible to reach this goal. In return, citizens ought to make the most of the opportunity, ultimately contributing to the common good of all. The enduring appeal of this American ideal rests on the very plausible assumption that happiness is the fundamental objective of all human effort and activity, in all cultures, whether people are aware of it or not. By taking action, humans aim towards more positive conditions and feelings than they currently experience, or towards more positive future feelings than what they might otherwise experience if they failed to act (Carver & Scheier, 1998). Accordingly, becoming happier is not only a hugely popular topic on the self-help shelves, it is increasingly becoming a stated policy goal of world governments, with the gross national happiness of the country (rather than its gross domestic product) as the primary quantity to be maximized "
Article
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Product usage experiences have a significant impact on postpurchase evaluation and subsequent behavior. Consumers look to their own experiences, as well as those of others, when deciding what to buy and what to recommend. Contrary to the intuition that varied experiences should enhance evaluation, five studies demonstrate that in some situations, perceiving usage experiences as less-not more-varied improves postpurchase product evaluation. Less varied usage experiences make consumers think that products are used more frequently. As a result, perceiving usage experiences as less varied makes consumers more satisfied with their purchase, more likely to buy it again, and more likely to recommend it. In addition to their practical implications, the findings make important theoretical contributions to the variety literature and toward understanding frequency and numerosity judgments.
Article
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The popularity of New Year's resolutions suggests that people are more likely to tackle their goals immediately following salient temporal landmarks. If true, this little-researched phenomenon has the potential to help people overcome important willpower problems that often limit goal attainment. Across three archival field studies, we provide evidence of a "fresh start effect." We show that Google searches for the term "diet" (Study 1), gym visits (Study 2), and commitments to pursue goals (Study 3) all increase following temporal landmarks (e. g., the outset of a new week, month, year, or semester; a birthday; a holiday). We propose that these landmarks demarcate the passage of time, creating many new mental accounting periods each year, which relegate past imperfections to a previous period, induce people to take a big-picture view of their lives, and thus motivate aspirational behaviors. Data, as supplemental material, are available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.2014.1901.
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Although a great deal of research has shown that people with more money are somewhat happier than are people with less money, our research demonstrates that how people spend their money also matters for their happiness. In particular, both correlational and experimental studies have shown that people who spend money on others report more happiness. The benefits of such prosocial spending emerge among adults around the world, and the warm glow of giving can be detected even in toddlers. These benefits are most likely to emerge when giving satisfies one or more core human needs (relatedness, competence, and autonomy). The rewards of prosocial spending are observable in both the brain and the body and can potentially be harnessed by organizations and governments.
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Consumers often choose how quickly to consume things they enjoy. The research presented here demonstrates that they tend to consume too rapidly, growing tired of initially well-liked stimuli such as a favorite snack (experiments 1 and 4) or an enjoyable video game (experiments 2 and 3) more quickly than they would if they slowed consumption. The results also demonstrate that such overly-rapid consumption results from a failure to appreciate that longer breaks between consumption episodes slow satiation. The results present a paradox: Participants who choose their own rate of consumption experience less pleasure than those who have a slower rate of consumption chosen for them.
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Although a substantial amount of research has examined the link between money and happiness, far less has examined the link between time and happiness. This paper argues, however, that time plays a critical role in understanding happiness, and it complements the money-spending happiness principles in Dunn, Gilbert, and Wilson (2011) by offering five time-spending happiness principles: 1) spend time with the right people; 2) spend time on the right activities; 3) enjoy the experience without spending the time; 4) expand your time; and 5) be aware that happiness changes over time.
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In the present article, we propose a three-stage memory marker model of memory for experience. The human mind generates and encodes “memory markers” of specific episodes, stores them in memory, and after a temporal delay retrieves these markers to reconstruct the experience and make relevant judgments. Rich experiences characterized by vivid stimuli seem to pass by quickly, yet feel longer when recalled after a period of time because the number of retrieved memory markers is large. We also examine situations in which key predictions of the memory marker model can be moderated. A field study and five laboratory experiments were conducted to test various aspects of the memory marker model and provide process support.
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Six studies demonstrate that interrupting a consumption experience can make pleasant experiences more enjoyable and unpleasant experiences more irritating, even though consumers avoid breaks in pleasant experiences and choose breaks in unpleasant experiences. Across a variety of hedonic experiences (e.g., listening to noises or songs, sitting in a massage chair), the authors observe that breaks disrupt hedonic adaptation and, as a result, intensify the subsequent experience.
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Consumers often have a variety of products that they may use to help them pursue their goals. These products constitute a set of means toward consumers’ goal attainment. This article investigates (1) how the amount of variety (high vs. low) among a set of means affects motivation to pursue the associated goal and (2) how this relationship changes over the course of goal pursuit as progress is made toward goal attainment. Five studies demonstrate that when progress toward goal attainment is low, having more variety within a set of means to goal attainment increases motivation to pursue the goal. However, when progress toward goal attainment is high, having less variety within a set of means to goal attainment increases motivation to pursue the goal. These findings suggest perceived variety among means is an important determinant of motivation in goal pursuit.
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This research provides the first support for a possible psychological universal: Human beings around the world derive emotional benefits from using their financial resources to help others (prosocial spending). In Study 1, survey data from 136 countries were examined and showed that prosocial spending is associated with greater happiness around the world, in poor and rich countries alike. To test for causality, in Studies 2a and 2b, we used experimental methodology, demonstrating that recalling a past instance of prosocial spending has a causal impact on happiness across countries that differ greatly in terms of wealth (Canada, Uganda, and India). Finally, in Study 3, participants in Canada and South Africa randomly assigned to buy items for charity reported higher levels of positive affect than participants assigned to buy the same items for themselves, even when this prosocial spending did not provide an opportunity to build or strengthen social ties. Our findings suggest that the reward experienced from helping others may be deeply ingrained in human nature, emerging in diverse cultural and economic contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recent research has revealed a pattern of choice characterized as diversification bias: If people make combined choices of quantities of goods for future consumption, they choose more variety than if they make separate choices immediately preceding consumption. This phenomenon is explored in a series of experiments in which the researchers first eliminated several hypotheses that held that the discrepancy between combined and separate choice can be explained by traditional accounts of utility maximization. On the basis of results of further experiments, it was concluded that the diversification bias is largely attributable to 2 mechanisms: time contraction, which is the tendency to compress time intervals and treat long intervals as if they were short, and choice bracketing, which is the tendency to treat choices that are framed together differently from those that are framed apart. The researchers describe how the findings can be applied in the domains of marketing and consumer education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We administered the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) to 217 monozygotic and 114 dizygotic reared-together adult twin pairs and 44 monozygotic reared-apart adult twin pairs. A four-parameter biometric model (incorporating genetic, additive versus nonadditive, shared family-environment, and unshared environment components) and five reduced models were fitted through maximum-likelihood techniques to data obtained with the 11 primary MPQ scales and its 3 higher order scales. Solely environmental models did not fit any of the scales. Although the other reduced models, including the simple additive model, did fit many of the scales, only the full model provided a satisfactory fit for all scales. Heritabilities estimated by the full model ranged from .39 to .58. Consistent with previous reports, but contrary to widely held beliefs, the overall contribution of a common family-environment component was small and negligible for all but 2 of the 14 personality measures. Evidence of significant nonadditive genetic effects, possibly emergenic (epistatic) in nature, was obtained for 3 of the measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Experiences generally provide less pleasure as we repeat them---they satiate. Although satiation lowers consumer welfare and limits the consumption of a marketer's product, researchers have identified few techniques to reduce satiation. This paper proposes that satiation depends on perceptions of repetition within a particular category of experiences. By subcategorizing episodes, people can slow the decline in enjoyment from additional consumption. Subcategorization focuses people's attention on aspects that differentiate the episodes, making generally similar episodes seem less repetitive and consequently less satiating. Four studies demonstrate this specificity effect for measures of concurrent and retrospective evaluations of enjoyment, the desire to continue a repeated experience, and predicted satiation.
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Consumers often make choices for joint consumption with committed relationship partners, and these choices may include more or less variety. When planning a weekend for oneself and one's spouse, for example, a person could choose more varied activities (e.g., going out to dinner, to a movie, and to a concert) or less varied activities (e.g., seeing several different movies). What might affect how much variety people choose? Five experiments demonstrate that how much variety consumers prefer for joint consumption in committed relationships depends on their relationship time perspective (i.e., the perceived time ahead in the relationship). When consumers perceive more (vs. less) time ahead in a committed relationship, they prefer more variety for joint consumption with their partners. This increased preference for variety is driven by a shift in how much excitement is valued within the relationship and is unique to choices for joint consumption with the specific relationship partner. The findings demonstrate that variety preferences depend not just on personal or situational factors but also on aspects of consumers' social relationships.
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The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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In this chapter, we shall compare a group of high school students from the US and from Italy, when answering the following questions bearing on the issue of happiness. First, does happiness have the same phenomenological meaning in the two cultures? Second, are external conditions-the kind of activities pursued, the type of companions present-related in the same way to moment-by-moment fluctuations of happiness in the two groups? Third, does the perception of the ratio of challenges and skills have the same effect on happiness in the two groups? Fourth, are there differences between happy and less happy individuals in the choice of situations (i.e. types of activities and companions) and in subjective interpretations of experience (i.e. degree of perceived choice, and perception of the challenges and personal skills in daily activities)? © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
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This chapter is about the effects of successively shifting between conflicting stimulus-response (S-R) mappings in speeded selective response tasks. Even after some time to prepare for a shift of task, there can still be a large reaction time (RT) cost on the first trial of the shifted task, generally referred to as a "residual switch cost." In five experiments, subjects performed Stroop color naming (in response to incongruent combinations of color and a distractor color word) and word reading. The word-reading task was in response to both "Stroop" and "neutral" word stimuli. Our results show that at least a large component of the so-called switch costs results from a form of negative priming - or negative transfer of learning - arising from earlier performance of the competing selection task (Stroop color naming), interfering with the execution of the current task (word reading). The competing task need not have been performed on the immediately preceding trial to generate these effects. Hence these interference effects cannot be due to a time-consuming "switch of set" on the current trial. The data also point to the special status of the first trial, in any run of speeded RT trials, even without any shift of task. In our experiments, the first trial of each block of speeded-response trials was consistently slower (and more accurate) than later trials. (We refer to this as the "restart" effect.) Following the Stroop color-naming task, however, word-reading RT was hugely increased, not only on the first trial of the next word-reading block (i.e., the "switch" trial), but also on the first trial of later (pure task) blocks of word reading without any switch of task. Some of the negative priming - or negative transfer - from the Stroop color-naming task to subsequent word reading turns out to be stimulus specific, depending on the occurrence of the same individual stimulus items (as distractors, in one task; as target stimuli in the other), rather than on competing, abstract "task sets." The results are interpreted in terms of a process of stimulus-response (S-R) binding in selection-for-action. Later S-R events can trigger retrieval of previously formed (conflicting or consistent) S-R bindings, resulting in positive or negative priming.
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Why do consumers often feel pressed for time? This research provides a novel answer to this question: consumers' subjective perceptions of goal conflict. The authors show that beyond the number of goals competing for consumers' time, perceived conflict between goals makes them feel that they have less time. Five experiments demonstrate that perceiving greater conflict between goals makes people feel time constrained and that stress and anxiety drive this effect. These effects, which generalize across a variety of goals and types of conflict (both related and unrelated to demands on time), influence how consumers spend time as well as how much they are willing to pay to save time. The authors identify two simple interventions that can help consumers mitigate goal conflict's negative effects: Slow breathing and anxiety reappraisal. Together, the findings shed light on the factors that drive how consumers perceive, spend, and value their time.
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To live in the developed world is to live in a consumerist society. Although the broader forces that created this society have led to unprecedented material abundance, scholars have maintained that these benefits have come at a significant psychological cost. An important question, then, is how these psychological costs can be minimized. With that in mind, we briefly review research showing that people derive more satisfaction from experiential purchases than material purchases. We then summarize the findings of an extensive program of research on the psychological mechanisms that underlie this difference. This research indicates that experiential purchases provide greater satisfaction and happiness because: (1) Experiential purchases enhance social relations more readily and effectively than material goods; (2) Experiential purchases form a bigger part of a person’s identity; and (3) Experiential purchases are evaluated more on their own terms and evoke fewer social comparisons than material purchases. It also appears that experiential purchases are less likely to be evaluated in monetary (market exchange) terms. We conclude by discussing how social policy might be altered to take advantage of the greater hedonic return offered by experiential investments, thus advancing societal well-being.
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Prior research indicates that experiences bring greater happiness than material possessions, but which experiences result in the greatest happiness? The current investigation is one of the first to categorize types of experiences and highlights one important distinction: the extent to which an experience is ordinary (common and frequent) versus extraordinary (uncommon and infrequent). Eight studies examine the experiences individuals recall, plan, imagine, and post on Facebook finding that the happiness enjoyed from ordinary and extraordinary experiences depends on age. Younger people, who view their future as extensive, gain more happiness from extraordinary experiences; however, ordinary experiences become increasingly associated with happiness as people get older, such that they produce as much happiness as extraordinary experiences when individuals have limited time remaining. Self-definition drives these effects: although extraordinary experiences are self-defining throughout one’s life span, as people get older they increasingly define themselves by the ordinary experiences that comprise their daily lives.
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Compatibility between the degree of similarity among means to goal attainment and the anticipated timing of goal pursuit increases goal-directed motivation. Six studies demonstrate that consumers are more motivated and willing to pay for means to goal attainment in the near term when they plan to use a set of different (vs. similar) means. In contrast, consumers are more motivated and willing to pay for means to goal attainment in the long term when they plan to use similar (vs. different) means. For example, consumers paid more for a personal training session when told it would include exercises for different (similar) muscle groups and would take place this week (next month). These effects are driven by the ease of processing differences (similarities) when considering the near (far) future. Similar results were obtained across various domains, including health and fitness, saving money, and academic performance.
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This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
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The relationship between money and happiness is surprisingly weak, which may stem in part from the way people spend it. Drawing on empirical research, we propose eight principles designed to help consumers get more happiness for their money. Specifically, we suggest that consumers should (1) buy more experiences and fewer material goods; (2) use their money to benefit others rather than themselves; (3) buy many small pleasures rather than fewer large ones; (4) eschew extended warranties and other forms of overpriced insurance; (5) delay consumption; (6) consider how peripheral features of their purchases may affect their day-to-day lives; (7) beware of comparison shopping; and (8) pay close attention to the happiness of others.
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Two studies are reported that examine the relationships between optimum stimulation level (OSL), selected personality traits, demographic variables, and exploratory behavior in the consumer context. The results show several significant correlations between OSL and the other variables examined. Research and managerial implications of the results are outlined.
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Grocery retailers have been informed that, to remain competitive, they must reduce the number of stockkeeping units (SKUs) offered, in line with consumer demand, or, in other words, adopt "Efficient Assortment." Retailers have resisted this principle on the basis of a fear that eliminating items would lower consumer assortment perceptions and decrease the likelihood of store choice. In two studies, the authors examine how consumers form assortment perceptions in the face of SKU reduction with a particular emphasis on two heuristic cues: the availability of a favorite product and the amount of shelf space devoted to the category. Results indicate that retailers might be able to make substantive reductions in the number of items carried without negatively affecting assortment perceptions and store choice, as long as only low-preference items are eliminated and category space is held constant. Thus, the potential risk inherent in item reduction might be more limited than initially thought. The authors then discuss the implications of these findings for retailers, as well as additional measurement considerations.
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Interference between tasks in a task-switching situation was interpreted in terms of theoretical models of time-sharing. Controlled processing of two separate tasks in a time-sharing situation was hypothesized to require a strategy of management whose ease of execution depends on the complexity of the task involved. Switching from one task to the other requires activation • of the resources required for performance of the new task and inhibition of the resources engaged in the first task. Failures in either of these two processes will interfere with the performance of the second task. This hypothesis was tested in a situation in which subjects had to switch from one detection task to another. Interruption of one task to carry out another task increased both processing time and error rate in the second task. The types of error (intrusions, confusions and omissions) were considered to be specific to timesharing.
Article
Two consumer strategies for the purchase of multiple items from a product class are contrasted. In one strategy (simultaneous choices/sequential consumption), the consumer buys several items on one shopping trip and consumes the items over several consumption occasions. In the other strategy (sequential choices/sequential consumption), the consumer buys one item at a time, just before each consumption occasion. The first strategy is posited to yield more variety seeking than the second. The greater variety seeking is attributed to forces operating in the simultaneous choices/sequential consumption strategy, including uncertainty about future preferences and a desire to simplify the decision. Evidence from three studies, two involving real products and choices, is consistent with these conjectures. The implications and limitations of the results are discussed.
Article
Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Recent evidence indicates that spending discretionary money with the intention of acquiring life experiences-events that one lives through-makes people happier than spending money with the intention of acquiring material possessions-tangible objects that one obtains and possesses. We propose and show that experiences are more likely to be shared with others, whereas material possessions are more prone to solitary use and that this distinction may account for their differential effects on happiness. In 4 studies, we present evidence demonstrating that the inclusion of others is a key dimension of how people derive happiness from discretionary spending. These studies showed that when the social-solitary and experiential-material dimensions were considered simultaneously, social discretionary spending was favored over solitary discretionary spending, whereas experiences showed no happiness-producing advantage relative to possessions. Furthermore, whereas spending money on socially shared experiences was valued more than spending money on either experiences enacted alone or material possessions, solitary experiences were no more valued than material possessions. Together, these results extend and clarify the basic findings of prior research and add to growing evidence that the social context of experiences is critical for their effects on happiness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Reports results for the 1st sibling adoption study of temperament in infancy, using tester ratings on the Infant Behavior Record (IBR) at 1 and 2 yrs of age for a sample of 95 pairs of nonadoptive siblings and 80 pairs of adoptive siblings. Twin data reported by A. P. Matheny (1980) for 85 identical and 50 fraternal twin pairs on the same measure at the same ages were combined with the sibling adoption data in maximum-likelihood model-fitting analyses for 3 IBR factors (affect-extraversion, activity, and task orientation). Both the sibling adoption and twin data yielded evidence for significant genetic influence for the 3 IBR factors at 12 and 24 mo: Heritability estimates ranged from 35–57%. Shared environment contributed little to the total variance for any of the 3 traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hedonic adaptation refers to a reduction in the affective intensity of favorable and unfavorable circumstances. This chapter discusses the purposes, underlying mechanisms, and most common functional representations of hedonic adaptation. The authors then examine some of the methodological problems that hamper research in this area and review the literature on adaptation in 4 negative domains (noise, imprisonment, bereavement, and disability), and 4 positive domains (foods, erotic images, increases in wealth, and improvements in appearance produced by cosmetic surgery). Following this review, the authors discuss several circumstances that promote or impede hedonic adaptation. They conclude by discussing the dark side of hedonic adaptation—the negative consequences for individuals and society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Dependent variables such as preference, hedonic tone, aesthetic appreciation, stimulus generalization, degree of interest or attention, exploratory behavior, developmental stages, and intensity of attitudes are frequently observed to be single-peaked functions of the independent variables. The problem of deriving, from more elementary underlying processes, a preference function that rises monotonically to a peak and then falls monotonically is discussed. Psychological principles are proposed for the perception and processing of good and bad attributes such as pleasure and pain and an elimination principle that affects the options that are available. It is shown that single-peakedness is inevitable if there is only 1 component, is quite likely if there are 2, and must be contrived if there are 3 or more components. Results are generalized for approach-avoidance, approach-approach, and avoidance-avoidance conflict in individuals and bear upon the resolution of social choice problems of a particular class. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)