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Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in female collegiate athletes

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Abstract

Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength (1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for five sets of three repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specific, resistance training program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a significant, positive improvement from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p≤0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between groups, there was no significant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
Biology of Sport, Vol. 33 No3, 2016 251
Hang cleans and hang snatches in female athletes
INTRODUCTION
Strength and conditioning coaches routinely employ resistance train-
ing to enhance performance-based neuromuscular capabilities such
as force and power. Resistance training improves one’s ability to in-
crease force and power through both neural and morphological ad-
aptations. Neurologically, key adaptations include enhanced afferent
neural drive, motor unit recruitment and ring frequency, contractile
rate of force development (RFD), and contractile impulse at any time
point [1, 2]. During rapid movements these adaptations allow for
increased force and velocity (and therefore power) early in the force-
time curve, key to optimal sport performance in activities like sprint-
ing, jumping, and throwing. Morphologically, resistance training also
induces adaptations that increase one’s ability to generate force and
power, such as increased cross-sectional area of muscle bers, pref-
erential hypertrophy of type II bers, and a shift in ber subtype ex-
pression (e.g., IIX to IIA) [3, 4].
Weightlifting exercises, such as the snatch and clean and jerk, are
high force, high velocity movements that are routinely used in the
training of athletes for increased strength and power [5, 6, 7]. Re-
searchers have recognized that limited intervention research exists to
support the effectiveness of these movements, especially in female
Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar improvements in
female collegiate athletes
AUTHORS: Ayers JL
1
, DeBeliso M
1
, Sevene TG
2
, Adams KJ
2
1
Southern Utah University, Physical Education and Human Performance Department, Cedar City, UT, USA
2
California State University Monterey Bay, Kinesiology Department, Seaside, CA, USA
ABSTRACT: Olympic weightlifting movements and their variations are believed to be among the most
effective ways to improve power, strength, and speed in athletes. This study investigated the effects of two
Olympic weightlifting variations (hang cleans and hang snatches), on power (vertical jump height), strength
(1RM back squat), and speed (40-yard sprint) in female collegiate athletes. 23 NCAA Division I female athletes
were randomly assigned to either a hang clean group or hang snatch group. Athletes participated in two
workout sessions a week for six weeks, performing either hang cleans or hang snatches for ve sets of three
repetitions with a load of 80-85% 1RM, concurrent with their existing, season-specic, resistance training
program. Vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint all had a signicant, positive improvement
from pre-training to post-training in both groups (p0.01). However, when comparing the gain scores between
groups, there was no signicant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups for any of the
three dependent variables (i.e., vertical jump height, p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint,
p=0.46). Short-term training emphasizing hang cleans or hang snatches produced similar improvements in
power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes. This provides strength and conditioning professionals
with two viable programmatic options in athletic-based exercises to improve power, strength, and speed.
CITATION:
Ayers JL, DeBeliso M, Sevene TG, Adams KJ. Hang cleans and hang snatches produce similar
improvements in female collegiate athletes. Biol Sport. 2016;33(3):251–256.
Received: 2015-10-20; Reviewed: 2016-01-09; Re-submitted: 2016-03-03; Accepted: 2016-03-07; Published: 2016-05-10.
athletes [6, 8-13]. However, despite the lack of scientic evidence,
practitioners and researchers maintain a widespread belief that weight-
lifting exercises, and their variations (e.g., hang cleans and hang
snatches), are highly effective at improving athletic performance [5-7,
10, 11, 14-16]. Practitioners and researchers hypothesize that due
to their involvement of sport-related, explosive triple extension move-
ments (i.e., hip, knee, and ankle), weightlifting exercises mimic spe-
cic requirements involved in athletic movements (e.g., rapid agility
actions, sprinting, jumping etc.) [5-10]; and combined with weightlift-
ing’s ability to require an individual to exhibit high velocity against
heavy loads while performing complex movement, suggests high po-
tential for increasing RFD and transfer to sport performance [5-11].
Weightlifting variations, such as hang cleans and hang snatches, are
derivatives of full weightlifting movements that also involve triple ex-
tension with high velocity, high force loads. These weightlifting varia-
tions are often used in strength and conditioning programs, as these
movements likely achieve the same goals, yet require less time for the
athlete to learn and become procient [14, 17-20].
Of the many variations of weightlifting movements, the hang
positions of the clean and snatch are considered to be the “power
Original Paper
Biol. Sport 2016;33:251-256
DOI:10.5604/20831862.1201814
Key words:
weightlifting
power production
women
sport
Corresponding author:
Kent Adams
Kinesiology Department
California State University
Monterey Bay
100 Campus Center, Valley Hall
Seaside, CA 93955-8001
831-582-4114
831-582-3737 Fax
kadams@csumb.edu
- - - - -
252
Ayers JL et al.
positions”. Furthermore, it is well known that the highest peak pow-
er output and ground reaction forces occur during the explosive
pulling phase (e.g., from the mid-thigh into triple extension, which
also denes the hang position) [17, 19, 21-24]. In female athletes,
the hang position has been shown to be faster and more power
oriented than the more strength oriented rst phase of the full pull[21-
24]. For these reasons, many practitioners argue that hang cleans
and hang snatches allow the athlete to produce a high rate of force
development (RFD) and a high power output without completion of
the more technical complete lift from the oor [14, 18-20, 25].
The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature
related to weightlifting variations, since to our knowledge, despite
widespread belief of efcacy, no previous studies have investigated
performance outcomes from training that emphasized hang cleans
or hang snatches in female collegiate athletes. We assessed the ef-
fects of six weeks of training, emphasizing either hang cleans or hang
snatches, on the power, strength, and speed of female collegiate
athletes. Using actual competitive female athletes who were par-
ticipating in their sport-specic strength and conditioning programs
allowed for the investigation of a “real-world” training scenario and
helped place the results in context. We hypothesize that training with
hang cleans or hang snatches will increase the athlete’s power,
strength, and speed. Furthermore, based on similar biomechan-
ics[22] and relative loading, there will be no difference between the
training groups.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Subjects.
Participants were 23 NCAA Division I female athletes from
the teams of volleyball (n = 10) and softball (n = 13). Mean age
was 20.1 ± 1.0 yrs (range = 18 - 22 yrs); mean mass was 73.6 ±
9.3 kg; mean height was 173.6 ± 8.6 cm. As in most collegiate
teams, the athletes represented a range of training history; speci-
cally, in this case, they had a certied strength and conditioning coach
employed by the university who trained them in weightlifting, includ-
ing specic training in hang cleans and hang snatches, with indi-
vidual experience ranging from a minimum of 6 months to more than
4 years (i.e., from second semester freshman through senior status).
This ensured that all participants had a training foundation for the
specic movements used in this study. Participants were volunteers,
and all signed informed consent forms approved by the University
Institutional Review Board (IRB) prior to data collection. Permission
was also obtained from all coaches prior to recruiting the participants
for this study. Participants were asked to maintain their normal nu-
tritional and recovery practices during the six-week intervention.
However, no food logs or recovery diaries were used by participants
in this study.
Procedures
Two different sports teams were used in this study to ensure adequate
sample size. A matched pair process was used for group assignment
to ensure that each group was closely balanced and had participant
representation from each team. To do this, the randomization process
was repeated individually for both the volleyball and softball teams,
using initial vertical jump scores as the matching variable. Participants
were divided into either the hang clean group (n = 11) or hang snatch
group (n = 12) as follows: vertical jump height scores were rank
ordered from highest to lowest within each team. Participants with
the top two highest scores were then randomly assigned into the
experimental groups. The third and fourth highest scores were then
randomly assigned into groups, continuing until all participants were
assigned. Vertical jump was chosen as the matching variable due to
its practical relationship to power and simplicity in testing. Of note,
after pre-testing, the groups were reassessed and no difference ex-
isted between groups in the dependent variables (vertical jump height,
1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint). There was no control group
that performed different weightlifting movements, since the sport
coaches did not approve of having some athletes do a third type of
programmed team training. We recognize this as a limitation.
Testing
Power, strength, and speed and were measured by the vertical jump,
one-repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, and 40-yard (37 m)
sprint test[26]. These dependent variables were chosen to represent
sport-related targets for transfer of training from weightlifting move-
ments. For all testing, participants warmed up according to their
normal training program. Next, a countermovement vertical jump test
using a Vertec (Sports Imports, Columbus, Ohio) was performed.
Three maximal attempts were allowed, with 45 60 sec. rest between
attempts; the highest jump score was used for analysis. Then, the
1RM back squat. For a successful attempt, the athlete had to break
parallel (i.e., her hips had to go below her knees). Three to ve
maximal attempts took place, with three to four minutes between
each maximal effort. For the 40-yard (37 m) sprint test, after warm-
up each athlete ran a trial sprint with her next two sprints recorded.
Three to four minutes of rest occurred between sprints. Time was
recorded manually with a stopwatch by one test administrator expe-
rienced in manual timing of sprints. The average of two trials was
recorded to the nearest 0.1 second.
All training and evaluation sessions were held in campus facilities
under the instruction of the strength and conditioning coach. In order
to ensure consistency and reliability with test administration, post-
testing after the six week training program was identical to each
participant’s pre-test, including administrator, time of day, warm-up,
environment, and facilities. The aforementioned dependent variables
are all considered valid and reliable when following recommended
testing protocols [26].
Training Programs
This study was carried out during the 2013 spring semester.Hang
clean and hang snatch training sessions took place twice a week for
six weeks, with a minimum of 48 hours between each session, total-
ing 12 training sessions for this study. During each session, athletes
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Hang cleans and hang snatches in female athletes
TABLE 2.
Softball Training for Weeks 1 – 6 (exercises, sets x repetitions)
performed either hang cleans or hang snatches for ve sets of three
repetitions (5 x 3) at 80-85% 1RM as their primary movement,
representing a volume and intensity that may enhance both strength
and power simultaneously [5, 6, 16]. The 1RM was determined from
prior testing by the strength and conditioning coach, who also mon-
itored and adjusted the training load to maintain ~ 3 RM per set.
The hang position started above the knee (midthigh) for both lifts,
and the catch was employed for all repetitions (i.e., rack position in
a quarter-squat with subsequent extension into a fully upright stance).
Athletes were encouraged to be ballistic and move the loaded bar
through the range of motion with maximal acceleration during each
repetition. The volleyball team incorporated these sessions into their
strength-based, off-season workouts (Table 1). The volleyball players
also participated in routine individual and small group sport-specic
practices two to three times per week. The softball team was ap-
proaching in-season training and their peak strength and maintenance
workouts are reected in Table 2. Softball team practices also took
place ve to six times per week. As previously mentioned, the groups
were closely balanced with members of each team, thereby helping
to control for differences in team-specic training prescriptions.
Statistical Analysis
The three dependent variables in this study (i.e., vertical jump height,
1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint) were compared pre- and post-
training with a dependent t-test. A gain score was also calculated for
each dependent variable (post-pre training intervention). Dependent
variable gain scores were then compared between each group with
an independent t-test. Statistical signicance was set at p<0.05.
TABLE 1.
Volleyball Training for Weeks 1 – 6 (exercises, sets x repetitions)
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 BB Rev. Lunge 3 x 8
w/DB Bench 3 x 15
Bench Press x 3, 3, 10, 8, 6, 4 Front Squat x 3, 3, 10, 8, 6, 4 Pullup 3 x 15
w/Chinup w/Hip Stretch w/RDL 3 x 10
S-Arm DB Bench 3 x 10 Bulgarian DL 3 x 6 S-Arm OHP 3 x 10
w/Ring Row 3 x 10 w/Pistol Squat 3 x 6
External Rotation 2 x 6 Hamstring Slider 2 x 10 S-Leg DB Row 3 x 10
Face Pull 3 x 15 TKE 2 x 10 3-Way DBR 3 x 10
Note: * depending on group assignment; BB=barbell; DB=dumbbell; S=single; DL=deadlift; RDL=Romanian DL; TKE=terminal knee extension;
OHP=overhead press; DBR=DB raise
Day 1 Day 2 Day 3
Weeks 1 - 2
Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 Broad Jumps 5 x 3
Bench Press x 3, 3, 2, 2, 2 Front Squat 5 x 3 Squat x 2, 2, 1, 1, 1
Chinup 4 x 6 Glute/Ham Raise 4 x 6 RDL 4 x 6
Push Press 3 x 8 DL 3 x 5 DB Lat. Lunge 3 x 8
w/DB Row 3 x 6 w/Bulgarian Split Squat 3 x 5 DB Rev. Lunge 3 x 6
BB Rollout 3 x 10 Toes to Bar 3 x 10 Med. Ball Toss 3 x 8
Weeks 3 - 4
Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 NA
Squat 4 x 3 DL 4 x 3
w/Pullup 4 x 5
Bench Press 4 x 3 Push Press 3 x 6
w/Chinup 4 x 5 w/DB Stepup 3 x 6
BB Rev. Lunge 3 x 5 DB Crawl 3 x 20m
w/Bar Rotation 3 x 10
Weeks 5 - 6
Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 Hang Clean or Snatch* 5 x 3 NA
Squat 4 x 4 DL 4 x 3
w/Bench Press 4 x 5
Incline Press 4 x 3 Front Squat 3 x 4
w/Pullup 4 x 5 w/DB Stepup 3 x 6
BB Rev. Lunge 3 x 5 Overhead Press 3 x 5
w/Bar Rotation 3 x 10 w/Toes to Bar 3 x 10
Note: *depending on group assignment; BB=barbell; DB=dumbbell; DL=deadlift; RDL=Romanian DL.
- - - - -
254
Ayers JL et al.
Assuming an effect size of 1.2 standard deviations is meaningful, a
statistical power of .76 can be achieved with 11 participants per
study group [27].
RESULTS
Twenty-three female athletes participated (hang clean group, n = 11;
hang snatch group, n = 12). At pre-test, no difference existed between
the groups in age, mass, or height, nor (as previously stated) in the
dependent variables (vertical jump height, 1RM back squat, and
40-yard sprint). Results indicated a signicant, positive improvement
from pre-training to post-training for both groups in vertical jump
height, 1RM back squat, and 40-yard sprint (p0.01) (Figures 1-3).
When comparing the gain scores between each group, there was no
signicant difference between the hang clean and hang snatch groups
for any of the three dependent variables tested (vertical jump height,
p=0.46; 1RM back squat, p=0.20; and 40-yard sprint, p=0.46)
(Table 3).
DISCUSSION
This study investigated the effects of two movement variations of
weightlifting (i.e., hang cleans or hang snatches), on power, strength,
and speed in Division I female collegiate athletes. Original predictions
were that six weeks of either hang clean or hang snatch training would
signicantly increase the athlete’s power, strength, and speed. Our
results support this hypothesis, hang cleans and hang snatches appear
to be approximately equal in effectively improving vertical jump ( ±
9.9%), 1RM back squat ( ± 8.8%), and 40-yard sprint (- 3.5%).
These results may potentially help practitioners make science-based
decisions in training design when attempting to optimize outcomes
related to power, strength, and speed in a wide-range of female ath-
letes in terms of training experience, prociency, and training phase.
As previously stated, limited research exists on outcomes related to
weightlifting movements, such as hang cleans and hang snatches [5,
Pre Post Gain
Vertical Jump (cm)
Snatch 52.3 ± 8.6 57.2 ± 8.6 5.1 ± 3.3*
Clean 51.3 ± 7.4 56.4 ± 7.4 5.1 ± 1.8*
40-yard Sprint (sec)
Snatch 5.81 ± 0.32 5.60 ± 0.30 -0.20 ± 0.25*
Clean 5.93 ± 0.31 5.72 ± 0.31 -0.21 ± 0.25*
1RM Back Squat (kg)
Snatch 78.4 ± 11.4 84.9 ± 11.7 6.5 ± 3.2*
Clean 81.4 ± 9.6 88.9 ± 9.2 7.5 ± 2.4*
TABLE 3.
Group Scores on Vertical Jump, 40-yard Sprint, and
1RM Back Squat.
Note: *signicantly different pre to post, p0.01, with no difference in
gain scores between groups
FIG.
1.
Vertical jump height scores (cm) for each group.
Note: * Signicant improvement from pre-training to post-training,
p0.01.
FIG.
2.
1RM back squat scores (kg) for each group.
Note: * Signicant improvement from pre-training to post-training,
p0.01.
FIG.
3.
40-yard sprint scores (seconds) for each group.
Note: * Signicant improvement from pre-training to post=training,
p0.01.
* *
**
* *
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Hang cleans and hang snatches in female athletes
6, 8-13, 28]. Specically, a review of the literature revealed no stud-
ies on the effects of hang cleans or hang snatches on power, strength,
and speed in Division I female athletes. However, in agreement with
other generalized weightlifting research [8, 9, 12, 13], expert opin-
ion
[5-7, 10, 11, 14, 16, 29-33], and biomechanical observa-
tions
[21, 22], our results support that hang cleans and hang snatch-
es, performed over the short term with the same relative loads, offer
similar potential for signicant improvements in power, strength, and
speed in female collegiate athletes. Both movements require high
force at high velocity, are ballistic, require a high RFD, and have
similar biomechanics and acceleration proles as many athletic ac-
tions such as jumping and sprinting [4-7, 9, 12, 13, 15, 28]. Train-
ing intensities of both lifts can also span a wide range of the force-
velocity curve, which is critical to optimizing both the force and
velocity components of power [4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 16].
In their writings, O’Shea [11] and others [4-10, 12, 16, 28,33]
routinely discuss the relationship of these athletic-type full body lifts
to explosive-based athletic performance involving strength, speed,
and power, and this study supports their contentions. Combined with
mental focus by the athlete on the intent to be ballistic and acceler-
ate through the entire range of motion, our results support the high
potential for transfer of this type of training to athletic performance[5-
7, 10-14, 18, 19, 28, 33].
Regarding possible limitations, rst, as mentioned earlier, the lack
of a control group limits interpretation of the results. Second, this
was a six-week study that focused on a narrow window of time
representing a typical strength and conditioning training block; lon-
ger term training may reveal different results. As previously stated,
this study was conducted during real-world, university-based, com-
petitive training and as such had limitations in duration, secondary
movements, etc. Third, both teams were in different parts of their
training year, incorporating the added movements during appropriate
phases of their program [6]. While primary exercises were similar,
secondary exercises had some variation between teams. The authors
believe this limitation was practically addressed by the balanced
training groups in both team composition and performance measures.
Each training group had equal representation from the two teams
who participated in their specic team’s supplemental training and
were matched in the dependent variables. A fourth limitation may
be maturation, due to each athlete being at different levels of phys-
iological development (e.g., second semester freshman to senior).
Per this, our results demonstrate the possible effectiveness of hang
cleans and hang snatches in improving athletic-based performance
outcomes despite individual training history. Finally, assessing the
magnitude of strength changes for the two weightlifting variations
would have also helped elucidate possible meaning of this short term
study.
Practically speaking, our results support hang cleans and hang
snatches as valid choices for the strength and conditioning coach to
utilize when designing short-term training cycles for potentially in-
creasing power, strength, and speed in female collegiate athletes.
Since increases in power, strength, and speed were similar between
movements, either variation may be used interchangeably in the
training program. Practitioners who favor one movement over the
other may feel more comfortable in their training choice; and this
study supports exibility in choice as merited. For example, if an
athlete has difculty mastering the skills of a specic weightlifting
exercise, they can focus their efforts on the variation they feel more
comfortable and condent with performing; which may ultimately
provide an atmosphere more conducive to technical prociency. This
means that training of the athlete may optimize transfer of perfor-
mance improvements from practice to competition.
CONCLUSIONS
To our knowledge this is the rst study to demonstrate the athletic-
based performance responses of Division I female collegiate athletes
to a short-term training program emphasizing either hang cleans or
hang snatches. Our results demonstrate the signicant positive effects
this type of weightlifting training may have on power, strength, and
speed. Though only volleyball and softball athletes participated in
this study, it is reasonable to presume that these ndings may be
applied to female athletes of all sports which require power, strength,
and speed. More research is merited to support this notion of ath-
letic transfer of power, strength, and speed between multiple sports.
Thus we suggest that future studies on weightlifting training employ
a control group, compare weightlifting variations to the full weightlift-
ing movements, assess the effects of the catch, monitor nutrition and
recovery practices, use athletes in similar phases of training and
competition, and add pre- and post-testing on measures such as RFD,
body composition, and the changes in the specic lifts utilized.
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank the Southern Utah University Wom-
en’s Volleyball and Softball teams for their participation and coop-
eration with this study. And, a big thank you to the respective sport
and strength coaches for supporting this project. In addition, Dr. J.P.
O’Shea’s guidance related to weightlifting is not forgotten.
Conict of interests: No funding was received for this research. The
authors have no conict of interest related to this research.
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256
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REFERENCES
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... Como se aprecia en la tabla 4, en el primer estudio de Ayers et al. (2016), las dos intervenciones basadas en Hang clean y Hang Snatch mostraron mejoras significativas en CMJ pre y post intervención (p ≤ 0,01). ...
... Se ha descrito que la capacidad de salto y la potencia se correlacionan con el rendimiento deportivo, por lo tanto mejorar la fuerza máxima y/o la velocidad aumentaría la producción de potencia, lo que llevaría a mejorar el desempeño en el juego (Darmiento, Galpin, & Brown, 2012). El voleibol, uno de los deportes con más presencia en los artículos de esta revisión (Ayers et al., 2016;Helland et al., 2017;Ýnce, 2019), es una actividad con mucha demanda de la capacidad de salto, en consecuencia el rendimiento en este deporte depende altamente de la capacidad de realizar esfuerzos repetidos de potencia máxima o cercana a la máxima (Holmberg, 2013). El protocolo de Ince (2019), fue aplicado solo a jugadores de voleibol y se caracterizó por implementar ejercicios de EMH estilo Split (Split hang Snatch, Split clean, Split jerk). ...
... De particular interés son los resultados de protocolos de EMH que utilizaron derivados de tipo colgante (Hang clean, Hang Snatch, Hang high pull), los que resultaron en mejoras significativas en la capacidad de salto evaluada en CMJ y SJ (Ayers et al., 2016;Ciacci & Bartolomei, 2018;Oranchuk et al., 2019;Hermassi et al.,2019). Estos resultados confirman los beneficios de los ejercicios colgantes, como el Hang power clean que mejora la potencia del tren inferior y la RFD (Ronai & Scibek, 2016), el cual tiene una alta correlación con la capacidad de salto y esprint (Hori et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
La capacidad de generar máxima potencia neuromuscular es el factor más importante y determinante en el rendimiento atlético. Debido a esto, el entrenamiento con movimientos de Halterofilia (EMH) y sus derivados es uno de los métodos más usados, ya que la evidencia muestra que genera adaptaciones de fuerza-potencia superiores comparadas con el entrenamiento de fuerza tradicional, de salto y de kettlebells. Objetivo: Identificar los efectos del EMH en la capacidad de salto, esprint y cambio de dirección (COD) en población deportista. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en diferentes bases de datos, como PUBMED, Sportdiscus (EBSCO), Scopus y Web of Science (WOS) bajo modelo PRISMA. Los trabajos revisados fueron experimentales con y sin grupo de control, entre los años 2000 y 2020. Resultados: El EMH produce mejoras significativas en las capacidades de salto, de esprint y de COD en población deportista. Conclusión: El EMH genera mejoras significativas en el rendimiento de salto, carreras y cambio de dirección bajo distintos protocolos. Existe evidencia que sustenta la aplicación de EMH, recomendando sus derivados centrados en el segundo tirón y aquellos que utilicen el ciclo de estiramiento-acortamiento en sus variantes colgantes. Abstract: The ability to generate maximum power is the most important and determining neuromuscular function in sports performance. Therefore, weightlifting training (WT) and its derivatives is one of the most widely used methods, generating superior strength-power adaptations compared to traditional strength training, jumping and kettlebell training. Objective: To identify the effects of WT on the ability to jump, sprint and change of direction (COD) in athletes. Method: An exhaustive search was carried out in different databases, such as PUBMED, Sportdiscus (EBSCO), Scopus and Web of Science (WOS) under the PRISMA model. The reviewed papers were experimental with and without a control group, between the years 2000 and 2020. Results: The WT produces significant improvements in jump, sprint and in change of direction capacities in the sport population. Conclusion: WT generates significant improvements in jumping, running and change of direction performance under different protocols. There is evidence supporting the use of WT, suggesting its derivatives focused on the second pull and those that use the stretch-shortening cycle in their hanging variants.
... Como se aprecia en la tabla 4, en el primer estudio de Ayers et al. (2016), las dos intervenciones basadas en Hang clean y Hang Snatch mostraron mejoras significativas en CMJ pre y post intervención (p ≤ 0,01). ...
... Se ha descrito que la capacidad de salto y la potencia se correlacionan con el rendimiento deportivo, por lo tanto mejorar la fuerza máxima y/o la velocidad aumentaría la producción de potencia, lo que llevaría a mejorar el desempeño en el juego (Darmiento, Galpin, & Brown, 2012). El voleibol, uno de los deportes con más presencia en los artículos de esta revisión (Ayers et al., 2016;Helland et al., 2017;Ýnce, 2019), es una actividad con mucha demanda de la capacidad de salto, en consecuencia el rendimiento en este deporte depende altamente de la capacidad de realizar esfuerzos repetidos de potencia máxima o cercana a la máxima (Holmberg, 2013). El protocolo de Ince (2019), fue aplicado solo a jugadores de voleibol y se caracterizó por implementar ejercicios de EMH estilo Split (Split hang Snatch, Split clean, Split jerk). ...
... De particular interés son los resultados de protocolos de EMH que utilizaron derivados de tipo colgante (Hang clean, Hang Snatch, Hang high pull), los que resultaron en mejoras significativas en la capacidad de salto evaluada en CMJ y SJ (Ayers et al., 2016;Ciacci & Bartolomei, 2018;Oranchuk et al., 2019;Hermassi et al.,2019). Estos resultados confirman los beneficios de los ejercicios colgantes, como el Hang power clean que mejora la potencia del tren inferior y la RFD (Ronai & Scibek, 2016), el cual tiene una alta correlación con la capacidad de salto y esprint (Hori et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
La capacidad de generar máxima potencia neuromuscular es el factor más importante y determinante en el rendimiento atlético. Debido a esto, el entrenamiento con movimientos de Halterofilia (EMH) y sus derivados es uno de los métodos más usados, ya que la evidencia muestra que genera adaptaciones de fuerza-potencia superiores comparadas con el entrenamiento de fuerza tradicional, de salto y de kettlebells. Objetivo: Identificar los efectos del EMH en la capacidad de salto, esprint y cambio de dirección (COD) en población deportista. Método: Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en diferentes bases de datos, como PUBMED, Sportdiscus (EBSCO), Scopus y Web of Science (WOS) bajo modelo PRISMA. Los trabajos revisados fueron experimentales con y sin grupo de control, entre los años 2000 y 2020. Resultados: El EMH produce mejoras significativas en las capacidades de salto, de esprint y de COD en población deportista. Conclusión: El EMH genera mejoras significativas en el rendimiento de salto, carreras y cambio de dirección bajo distintos protocolos. Existe evidencia que sustenta la aplicación de EMH, recomendando sus derivados centrados en el segundo tirón y aquellos que utilicen el ciclo de estiramiento-acortamiento en sus variantes colgantes. Palabras claves: Entrenamiento de fuerza, Rendimiento deportivo, ejercicios derivados de la halterofilia, Entrenamiento de potencia, Taza de desarrollo de fuerza. Abstract: The ability to generate maximum power is the most important and determining neuromuscular function in sports performance. Therefore, weightlifting training (WT) and its derivatives is one of the most widely used methods, generating superior strength-power adaptations compared to traditional strength training, jumping and kettlebell training. Objective: To identify the effects of WT on the ability to jump, sprint and change of direction (COD) in athletes. Method: An exhaustive search was carried out in different databases, such as PUBMED, Sportdiscus (EBSCO), Scopus and Web of Science (WOS) under the PRISMA model. The reviewed papers were experimental with and without a control group, between the years 2000 and 2020. Results: The WT produces significant improvements in jump, sprint and in change of direction capacities in the sport population. Conclusion: WT generates significant improvements in jumping, running and change of direction performance under different protocols. There is evidence supporting the use of WT, suggesting its derivatives focused on the second pull and those that use the stretch-shortening cycle in their hanging variants.
... T he Olympic weightlifting movements (snatch, clean and jerk) and their variations (snatch and clean deadlift, high pull, etc.) have been widely used in order to improve performance in many sports [2,12,22] and in functional fitness programs [25]. Although it requires a long time to acquire the necessary skills to perform the movements with a proper technique, this modality of training has been shown to be effective in improving lower limb power, speed and agility [20]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The Olympic weightlifting movements (snatch, clean and jerk) and their variations (snatch and clean deadlift, high pull, etc.) have been widely used in order to improve performance in many sports, but there are no normative data, nor data on reliability of kinematic parameters for power snatch from recreational weightlifters. Aim of Study. This study aimed to quantify the reliability and the minimal detectable change of kinematic parameters from bar displacement during a power snatch movement in non professional (i.e., recreationally trained) weightlifters. Material and Methods. Sixteen healthy (13 male), trained, but non-competitive weightlifters, volunteeredto participate in this study. Each volunteer performed 2 power snatches at 60% of their RM. The barbell path was recorded using a high-speed camera and the data was processed offline to obtain barbell position coordinates. Elapsed time to complete the movement, trunk and knee position at catching, the kinematic parameters from horizontal and vertical bar displacements, vertical velocity and acceleration were obtained for each of the 5 movement phases (1st pull, transition, 2nd pull, turnover and drop). Descriptive data, intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) and minimal detectable change (MDC) from each studied variable were obtained and presented. Results. Our results indicated low to excellent reliability for studied variables, with the initial phases of the lift (i.e., 1st pull, transition and 2nd pull) displaying better reliability, while the later phases of the movement (turnover and drop) exhibited poorer reliability for a majority of variables. Conclusions.The presented data, with a comprehensive description of normative data obtained from the power snatch of recreational weightlifters could help coaches to evaluate power snatch performance as a conditioning tool for recreational athletes.
... Success in weightlifting exercises has been associated with the level of PVV [10]. The highest PVV value occurs during the second pull (clean or snatch exercises) after the bar passes over the knee reaching the mid-thigh position by a triple extension of the hip, knee and ankle joints [8]. Consequently, the aim of the present study was twofold: (i) to examine the ability of the OMNI-RES (0-10) scale to estimate changes in movement velocity (e.g., instances where velocity peaks, decreases by 5% and 10% from the maximum or the set terminates due to muscle failure) using moderate to heavy loads in the HPC exercise; (ii) to investigate the ability of the RPE to discriminate between relative loads across a wide range, from 60 to 100% of 1RM, divided into 10% incremental slots. ...
Article
To investigate the ability of the OMNI-RES (0-10) scale to estimate velocity and loading changes during sets to failure in the hang power clean (HPC) exercise. Eleven recreationally resistance-trained males (28.5 ± 3.5 years) with an average one-repetition maximum (1RM) value of 1.1 ± 0.07 kg body mass-1 in HPC, were assessed on five separate days with 48 hours of rest between sessions. After determining the 1RM value, participants performed four sets to self-determined failure with the following relative loading ranges: 60% < 70%, 70 < 80%, 80 < 90% and > 90%. The peak vertical velocity (PVV), and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were measured for every repetition of each set. The RPE expressed after the first repetition (RPE-1) and when the highest value of PVV was achieved during the set (RPE-max) were similar and significantly lower than the RPE associated with a 5% (RPE-5%) and 10% (RPE-10%) drop in PVV. In addition, the RPE produced at failure was similar to RPE-5% only for the heaviest range (≥ 90%). Furthermore, RPE-1 was useful to distinguish loading zones between the four assessed ranges (60 < 70%, vs. 70 < 80%, vs. 80 < 90%, vs. ≥ 90%). The RPE seems to be useful to identify PVV changes (maximal, 5% and 10% drop) during continuous sets to self-determined failure and to distinguish 10% loading zone increments, from 60 to 100% of 1RM in the HPC exercise.
... The intrinsic high-force / high-velocity nature of weightlifting exercises allows to generate high power outputs with a wide range of loading conditions (Kawamori et al., 2005). Therefore, the nature of these exercises and their similarity to the movement patterns of several sports suggest that weightlifting exercises are effective in power training (Ayers et al., 2016;Hori et al., 2005). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The influence of resistance training under hypoxic conditions (RTH) on the development of strength and muscle mass is a research area of current interest. However, there is no consensus on the beneficial influence of hypoxic training conditions on muscle functional and physiological adaptations, especially when real altitude is used. Specifically, the influence of hypobaric hypoxia on power-oriented resistance training (RT) remains unexplored, as well as its effects on technical and physical adaptations in judokas, or the evolution of those effects on athletes after returning to sea level. Moreover, transference from physical improvements to technical performance in judo has not been examined before. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis was to analyze the effect of a power-oriented RT program at moderate altitude on the leg extension capacity, on the ippon-seoi-nage performance and on the relationship between them in elite judokas. A longitudinal design, with intra- and inter-group measurements, was used to compare the effect of a lower-limb power-oriented RT at moderate altitude (hypobaric hypoxia) or sea level (normoxia) on leg extension capacity, on kinematic variables of the ippon-seoi-nage and on the relationship between them in elite judokas. Twenty-four male judokas from the Spanish Judo Training Center of Valencia, all international medalists, participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to a group that performed a 3-week training program at hypobaric hypoxia (at the High Performance Center of Sierra Nevada, 2320 m; HT; n = 13) or normoxia (at the Spanish Judo Training Center of Valencia, 15 m; NT; n = 11). Testing sessions were conducted under normoxic conditions at 4 time-points: pre-test (N1), post-test (N2), one and two weeks after training (N3 and N4, respectively). The HT undertook an additional testing session in acute hypoxia (H1) conditions immediately after the ascent to altitude. An additional intra-group design was used to assess the effect of an acute exposure to moderate altitude on the same variables (N1 vs. H1). Testing sessions comprised 1) a body composition assessment that included anthropometrical and bioelectrical impedance analysis variables, 2) an incremental countermovement jump (CMJ) test to determine leg extension load-velocity and force-velocity profile and 3) an ippon-seoi-nage test to assess the kinematic variables transferred to the uke during this technique. The 3-week power-oriented training program applied included a physical conditioning session in the morning and a judo session in the afternoon, from Monday to Saturday morning. Physical conditioning training included 3 power-oriented RT sessions per week alternated with 3 metabolic sessions. The content of the physical conditioning sessions was designed and supervised by the research team, while judo sessions were designed by the coaches. Each power-oriented RT session included 1) a velocity-based training (4-6 sets of 6 CMJ with the load associated to a mean propulsive velocity (MPV) of 1.2 m·s-1 calculated in the pre-test, on Wednesdays and Fridays, and with the load associated to a MPV of 1.2 m·s-1 adjusted each Monday at the corresponding condition, with 4 minutes of rest) and a 2) contrast training (3-4 sets of 2 repetitions of a moderate to high-load RT exercise followed by 6 repetitions of ippon-seoi-nage throws at maximal intended velocity, with 4 minutes of rest). Acute hypoxia caused small increases in leg extension peak velocity (PV) (3.67%; p < 0.05), while no changes in the kinematic variables of the ippon-seoi-nage were observed. Ippon-seoi-nage kinematic variables show a great individual reliability, which contrasts with the low reliability observed when the whole group is considered. The coefficient of variation ratio (H1/N1) of the time needed to reach the leg extension during the technique performance increased. There was a RT effect on the leg extension PV, jump height (JH) and maximal theoretical force (F0, determined using mean values of force and velocity) (p < 0.05), both at moderate altitude and sea level. PV and JH also displayed a time × altitude interaction effect (p < 0.05). A detailed analysis of this interaction showed a higher magnitude of change in PV, JH and F0 in HT than NT, which was achieved one week earlier (HT-N2 vs. NT-N3: 8.78 vs. 5.58% for PV; 8.20 vs. 1.41% for JH; 11.76 vs. 7.61% for F0; p < 0.05). The force-velocity profile of both groups displayed important imbalances due to lower current values in F0 (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.889) and higher values in maximal theoretical velocity (V0) (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.844) compared with the optimal expected. Although no significant differences were found between the imbalances of both groups at all time-points, complementary results showed a trend for a moderate reduction of this imbalance from N1 to N2 in HT and from N1 to N3 in NT (-11.96% and -7.88%, respectively, p < 0.10). An altitude main effect was registered for ippon-seoi-nage variables (p < 0.05), with the HT displaying a 22.95% smaller increase in the acceleration of the leg extension phase than NT (p = 0.03) and an increase in the time to reach the horizontal position while a decrease was observed in NT (difference between HT and NT = 18.68%, p = 0.003). The training period did not induce any changes in anthropometrical and bioelectrical impedance analysis variables, nor did the altitude condition affect these variables (p > 0.05). There was no association between the leg extension mechanical variables and the acceleration or angular velocity transferred to the uke, nor did acute exposure to hypoxia or training at different altitude conditions affect this association. These results show an increase in the leg extension capacity from the first exposure to altitude, which is in accordance with the literature. Later, after a power-oriented RT period, moderate altitude seems to increase and accelerate peak performance. A detailed analysis of the time × altitude interaction effect showed that HT achieved the highest leg extension PV and JH compared to NT and achieved it earlier (in N2 vs. N3) (p < 0.05). The technical performance variables did not show changes due to acute exposure to moderate altitude, while an impairment was observed after altitude training, due to a rise in the times and reduction in the accelerations transferred to the uke. Changes in physical condition, together with changes in the space-time pattern of the technique induced by altitude exposure, confirm the need to adjust and stabilize the technique during and after an altitude training period in sports with complex technical skills. Finally, differences between individual and within-groups coefficient of variation confirm that each judoka adapts the technique to his characteristics, always performing it in the same way. Nevertheless, the absence of association between the leg extension capacity and ippon-seoi-nage performance could indicate that, at least in the sample studied, the legs implication during the ippon-seoi-nage was not sufficient according to the technical gold standard. Future studies are needed to further analyze the technique, the nature of the strength adaptations and its transference to the technical performance as consequence of hypoxic exposure and training.
... Tricoli et al. [42] observed significant speeding of 10m sprint times in male physical education students, but no significant increases over distances of 30 m, after 8 weeks of Olympic weightlifting training. Others [43] observed significant increases in 25m sprint times in male collegiate athletes after 12 weeks of Olympic weightlifting training, and Ayers et al. [44] observed significant increases in the 36,58 m (40-yard) but not the 30 m sprint times of female collegiate athletes after 6 weeks of Olympic weightlifting training. In contrast, Helland et al. [33] saw no significant improvements in 36,58 m (40-yard) sprint times after 8 weeks of Olympic weightlifting in football players, and Hoffman et al. [45] saw no improvements in 30 m sprint times after young athletes underwent 15 weeks of Olympic weightlifting. ...
Preprint
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The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of short-term resistance training and two weeks of tapering on physical performances in handball players. Following a ten-week progressive resistance training program, subjects were divided between an experimental (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). The experimental group completed a resistance training program, followed by a two-week period when the training intensity was tapered by 60%, while the control group maintained their typical pattern of training. Muscle power (force–velocity test and squat and counter-movement jump tests), sprinting ability (10m and 30m), ability to change direction (T-half test) and throwing velocity (a 3-step throw with a run, and a jump throw) were evaluated before training, at the end of training and after tapering. The experimental group showed significantly larger interaction effects for the 10-week training period (12/15, 80%), than for the following 2 weeks of tapering (10/15, 67%), with the largest gains being in 15 m sprint times (d=3.78) and maximal muscular strength in the snatch (d=3.48). Although the performance of the experimental group generally continued to increase over tapering, the mean effect size for the training period was markedly higher (d=1.92, range: 0.95-3.78) than that seen during tapering (d=1.02, range:−0.17-2.09). Nevertheless the ten weeks of progressive resistance training followed by two weeks of tapering was an effective overall tactic to increase muscle power, sprint performance and ball throwing velocity in handball players.
... Olympic weightlifting and associated derivatives were prescribed by 87% of SCCs, similar to that reported in NBA (37) (95%), NHL (12) (91%), rugby union (21) (88%), NFL (11) (88%), rowing (17) (87%), and wrestling (14) (83%), whereas the most prescribed exercises in this study were the hang clean, power clean, and clean high pull. It is surprising the limited prescription of the snatch and snatch derivatives, given it has been shown hang cleans and hang snatches provide similar improvements in athletes' power, strength, and speed (2). Whereas, it is recommended that Olympic weightlifting movements must be performed safely and with good technique, where the use of derivatives such as the clean high pull can be just as effective in improving athletic development such as triple extension, when performed with maximal intent (40). ...
Article
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This study describes the practices of strength and conditioning coaches (SCCs) from different sports, countries, and expertise levels. One hundred fifty-six SCCs (31.9 ± 8.9 years old) completed an online survey, consisting of 40 questions (36 fixed response and 4 open-ended), with 8 sections as follows: (a) background information, (b) muscular strength and power development, (c) speed development, (d) plyometrics, (e) flexibility development, (f) physical testing, (g) technology use, and (h) programming and any additional comments. Responses were received from 48 sports and 17 countries. This study provides exploratory evidence incorporating responses primarily in soccer (45%), track and field (30%), volleyball (23%), golf (17%), and tennis (17%). A bachelor’s degree or higher were held by 99% of SCCs, of which 94% were in a sports science–related field, and 71% held a strength and conditioning related certification or accreditation. Periodization strategies and physical testing were used by 96% and 94% of SCCs respectively. The hang clean (82%), power clean (76%), and clean high pull (63%) were the most prescribed Olympic weightlifting exercises. Multiple hops/lunges (84%) were the most prescribed plyometrics exercises. For open-ended questions, 40% of SCCs wanted to integrate more technology into their programs and 30% believed technology will be the main future trend. Strength and conditioning coaches from different sports, countries, and expertise levels can use the information presented in this study to review their current practices and provide a source of new ideas for diversifying or modifying future practices too.
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Ensuring internal validity is the key procedure when planning the study design. Numerous systematic reviews have demonstrated that considerations for internal validity do not receive adequate attention in the primary research in sport sciences. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review methodological procedures in current literature where the effects of resistance training on strength, speed, and endurance performance in athletes were analyzed. A computer-based literature searches of SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Medline, and Web of Science was conducted. The internal validity of individual studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. Peer-reviewed studies were accepted only if they met all the following eligibility criteria: (a) healthy male and female athletes between the ages of 18-65 years; (b) training program based on resistance exercises; (c) training program lasted for at least 4 weeks or 12 training sessions, with at least two sessions per week; (d) the study reported maximum strength, speed, or endurance outcomes; and (e) systematic reviews, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies were excluded. Of the 6,516 articles identified, 133 studies were selected for rating by the PEDro scale. Sixty-eight percent of the included studies used random allocation to groups, but only one reported concealed allocation. Baseline data are presented in almost 69% of the studies. Thirty-eight percent of studies demonstrated adequate follow-up of participants. The plan to follow the intention-to-treat or stating that all participants received training intervention or control conditions as allocated were reported in only 1.5% of studies. The procedure of blinding of assessors was also satisfied in only 1.5% of the studies. The current study highlights the gaps in designing and reporting research in the field of strength and conditioning. Randomization, blinding of assessors, reporting of attrition, and intention-to-treat analysis should be more fully addressed to reduce threats to internal validity in primary research.
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This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effect of using weightlifting movement and their derivatives in training on vertical jump, sprint times, and maximal strength performance. Thirty-four studies were used for meta-analysis with a moderate quality on the PEDro scale. Meta-analysis showed positive effects of weightlifting training, especially when combined with traditional resistance training on countermovement jump performance, sprint times, and one-repetition maximum squat (ES = 0.41, ES = −0.44, and ES = 0.81, respectively). In conclusion, results revealed the usefulness of weightlifting combined with traditional resistance training in improving sprint, countermovement jump and maximal strength performance.
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Szyszka, P and Czaplicki, A. Analysis of record scores in the clean and its variations in the long-term training of young weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2383–2388, 2021—The main objectives of this study were to determine the time trajectories of record scores in the clean lift (C) and its derivatives achieved by young weightlifters in a 2-year training cycle and to estimate the quantitative relationships between these scores. The study involved 17 weightlifters who were tested 7 times at 3-month intervals. The computations were based on an individual growth curve approach. The study found statistically significant increases (p , 0.05) in record scores between consecutive measurements until the last measurement for the hang clean (HC), the second to last measurement for the C, and the fourth measurement for the power clean (PC) and the hang power clean (HPC). The overall mean ratios of the record scores in the C to those in the HC, PC, and HPC were approximately constant and amounted to 0.96, 0.89, and 0.80, respectively. Statistically significant differences (p,0.05) between individual time trajectories of record scores in the C and its derivatives were also identified in the 2 consecutive annual training macrocycles. The results suggest that the long-term analysis of record scores in the C and its derivatives can be useful in assessing athletes’ sport level, in predicting their performance, and in proper exercise selection in the training of young weightlifters.
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The clean grip midthigh pull and snatch grip midthigh pull are exercises that focus on reinforcing the double knee bend and triple extension involved in weightlifting movements. As a result, these pulling movements are used with the purpose of making an athlete more efficient at producing force with an overload stimulus in the peak power position. In addition, these exercises can be used as a teaching modality for the progressive development of the full clean or snatch.
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This review article examines previous weightlifting literature and provides a rationale for the use of weightlifting pulling derivatives that eliminate the catch phase for athletes who are not competitive weightlifters. Practitioners should emphasize the completion of the triple extension movement during the second pull phase that is characteristic of weightlifting movements as this is likely to have the greatest transference to athletic performance that is dependent on hip, knee, and ankle extension. The clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull are weightlifting pulling derivatives that can be used in the teaching progression of the full weightlifting movements and are thus less complex with regard to exercise technique. Previous literature suggests that the clean pull, snatch pull, hang high pull, jump shrug, and mid-thigh pull may provide a training stimulus that is as good as, if not better than, weightlifting movements that include the catch phase. Weightlifting pulling derivatives can be implemented throughout the training year, but an emphasis and de-emphasis should be used in order to meet the goals of particular training phases. When implementing weightlifting pulling derivatives, athletes must make a maximum effort, understand that pulling derivatives can be used for both technique work and building strength–power characteristics, and be coached with proper exercise technique. Future research should consider examining the effect of various loads on kinetic and kinematic characteristics of weightlifting pulling derivatives, training with full weightlifting movements as compared to training with weightlifting pulling derivatives, and how kinetic and kinematic variables vary between derivatives of the snatch.
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VOLLEYBALL IS AN EXPLOSIVE SPORT IN WHICH A SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE IS LARGELY DETERMINED BY THE CAPACITY TO DEMONSTRATE REPEATED BOUTS OF MAXIMAL OR NEAR MAXIMAL POWER. GIVEN THE RELATIVELY HIGH LEVELS OF FORCE BEING GENERATED AND ABSORBED, THE RISK FOR INJURY EXISTS WHEN PLAYING. THIS ARTICLE FOCUSES ON WEIGHTLIFTING AS THE PRIMARY MEANS WITH WHICH TO ADDRESS THOSE ATTRIBUTES THAT UNDERLIE PERFORMANCE AND REDUCE THE CHANCE FOR INJURY.
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Weightlifting is a dynamic strength and power sport in which two, multijoint, whole-body lifts are performed in competition; the snatch and clean and jerk. During the performance of these lifts, weightlifters have achieved some of the highest absolute and relative peak power outputs reported in the literature. The training structure of competitive weightlifters is characterized by the frequent use of high-intensity resistance exercise movements. Varied coaching and training philosophies currently exist around the world and further research is required to substantiate the best type of training programme for male and female weightlifters of various age groups. As competitive weightlifting is contested over eight male and seven female body weight categories, the anthropometric characteristics of the athletes widely ranges. The body compositions of weightlifters are similar to that of athletes of comparable body mass in other strength and power sports. However, the shorter height and limb lengths of weightlifters provide mechanical advantages when lifting heavy loads by reducing the mechanical torque and the vertical distance that the barbell must be displaced. Furthermore, the shorter body dimensions coincide with a greater mean skeletal muscle cross-sectional area that is advantageous to weightlifting performance. Weightlifting training induces a high metabolic cost. Although dietary records demonstrate that weightlifters typically meet their required daily energy intake, weightlifters have been shown to over consume protein and fat at the expense of adequate carbohydrate. The resulting macronutrient imbalance may not yield optimal performance gains. Cross-sectional data suggest that weightlifting training induces type IIX to IIA fibre-type transformation. Furthermore, weightlifters exhibit hypertrophy of type II fibres that is advantageous to weightlifting performance and maximal force production. As such, the isometric peak force and contractile rate of force development of weightlifters is ~15–20% and ~13–16% greater, respectively, than in other strength and power athletes. In addition, weightlifting training has been shown to reduce the typical sex-related difference in the expression of neuromuscular strength and power. However, this apparent sex-related difference appears to be augmented with increasing adult age demonstrating that women undergo a greater age-related decline in muscle shortening velocity and peak power when compared with men. Weightlifting training and competition has been shown to induce significant structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system. The collective evidence shows that these adaptations are physiological as opposed to pathological. Finally, the acute exercise-induced testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone responses of weightlifters have similarities to that of following conventional strength and hypertrophy protocols involving large muscle mass exercises. The routine assessment of the basal testosterone: cortisol ratio may be beneficial when attempting to quantify the adaptive responses to weightlifting training. As competitive weightlifting is becoming increasingly popular around the world, further research addressing the physiological responses and adaptations of female weightlifters and younger (i.e. ≤17 years of age) and older (i.e. ≥35 years of age) weightlifters of both sexes is required.
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Films taken at the first Women’s World Weightlifting Championship were analyzed to determine the average power output during the total pulling phase, and the second pull phase, for the heaviest successful snatch and clean lift of gold medalists in each of nine body-weight divisions. Comparisons were made with previously published data on power output by male lifters in World and Olympic competition. Average relative power output values were one and a half to two times greater for both men and women when only the second pull phase of each lift was analyzed. Results show that women can generate higher short-term power outputs than previously documented, but lower than for men in absolute values and relative to body mass. Male/female comparisons in other high power sport events and basic strength measures are discussed. The high power outputs suggest the value of including the types of lifts analyzed in training programs to improve short-term power output.
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