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Manjistha(Rubia Cordifolia)- A helping herb in cure of acne

  • Faculty of Ayurveda ,IMS .Banaras Hindu University
Jour. of Ayurveda & Holisti
c Medicine
Volume-III, Issue-II
Vandana Meena
Anand K Chaudhary
Rubia cordifolia Linn. commonly known as Indian
Maddar is a perennial, herbaceous prickly climber with
long and cylindrical root with a thin red bark, well
known for its versatile action. It is distributed in the
Himalayas from Kashmir eastwards and Nilgiris and
other hilly districts of India.
One of its unique action is
anti-acne effect through anti-bacterial, anti-
inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-androgen action.
The roots and stems are well known source of
Anthraquinones, the roots have also been reported as
antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer,
immunomodulator and hepatoprotective and are
extensively used against blood, urinary and skin
In ancient world, Manjistha is reputed as
an efficient blood purifier and hence is extensively used
against blood, skin and urinary diseases.
[4 ]
Manjistha was applied on major burns, mixed with
honey on freckles and blemishes. It remained a potent
drug for obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas,
leucoderma, and oedema also used as febrifuge and
against blood disorders in Ayurveda. Traditionally, it is
used in many polyherbal formulations for various
ailments and cosmetic preparations because
of its
inflammatory, antiseptic and galacto-purifier activity.
Root is used externally and internally to gain lustre and
glow of the skin and aids to remove pimples, freckles
and discoloration.
Traditionally the roots are used to
treat various systemic problems and pigmentation
anomalies of skin and is an excellent aid in the
promotion of complexion. Dried and crushed orange
peels, powders of sandal, turmeric and Manjistha
makes an excellent face pack. The finely crushed root
powder along with little honey applied to face for
healing skin tissues damaged by injury or infection. The
root powder mixed with ghee, for the medicament of
Vanraji tribes of Kumaun Himalaya use the
whole plant pulp rubbed with honey as a cure for acne
and dark spots on face.
Acne, as a family of skin disorder is one of the most
prevalent dermatologic diseases in the world. It usually
affects almost everybody during the life.
pathogenesis of acne is complex but dependent on four
key factors including androgen-mediated stimulation of
sebaceous gland activity, follicular hyperkeratinisation,
colonization of the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes
and inflammation.
Mainly three types of acne:
comedonal, nodular and papulopustular. Comedonal is
non- inflammatory while nodular and papulopustular
are the inflammatory types.
There is a variety of
medication for acne vulgaris including topical agents,
oral antibiotics, oral retinoid and oral hormonal
therapies. The use of natural remedies, particularly
herbal medicine, dates back thousands of years. Over
the last decade, in view of increasing resistance to
existing anti-microbial agents, side effects and
sometimes high cost of treatment, interest in medicinal
herbs has been progressively increased.
There are
so many herbal drugs for ant- acne effect, which shows
Acne is one of the most prevalent skin ailment affecting almost all teenagers, as it is chronic with frequent remission and
exacerbations is often associated with negative psychological consequences, diminished self-esteem and social withdrawal.
The Modern measures regarding the treatment of acne are more or less failure. Further it has some limitations, cost
effective and many side effects. To overcome from all these, a good herbal approach should be reached. Manjistha (Rubia
cordifolia) can be proven a best remedy to cure acne, due to its Varnya, Raktashodhak, Vishaghna, Rasayana, Krimighna
properties. Certain research papers has also proven that it possess anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant and ant-
androgenic effects as these are important Pharmacotherapeutic agent to break the pathogenesis of acne.
Key Words: Manjistha, Acne, Varnya, Anti- inflammatory, Rubia cordifolia
Junior Resident,
Professor & Head. Department of Rasa Shastra,
Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu
University, Varanasi, UP, India.
Corresponding author email address:
Access this article online:
Published by Atreya Ayurveda Publications under the license CC-
Received on: 12/03/15, Revised on: 21/03/15, Accepted on:
Jour. of Ayurveda & Holisti
c Medicine
Volume-III, Issue-II
broadly four mechanism i.e. anti-inflammatory, anti-
oxidant, anti-bacterial and ant- androgenic, among
them Manjistha is one of important herbal remedy
showing all four properties.
The following are the process and eligibility criteria for
the inclusion of data pertaining to this review:
Information extracted from various Ayurvedic treatises,
text books of Ayurvedic and modern pharmaceutics,
Pharmacopoeias (Ayurvedic Formulary of India,
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India), available
dissertations/thesis were also investigated. A search
was undertaken in Google scholar, MEDSCAPE, BMC,
Science Direct, MEDLINE (
database, SCOPEMED, and other relevant databases,
using keywords like manjistha, rubia cordifolia, acne,
ayurveda etc.
Literary observation of Mukhadushika (Acne)
In Ayurveda mukhadushika is described under the
heading of Ksudrarogas. These diseases are called
ksudra (minor) as they are of lesser severity in
comparison to mahavyadhis or vyadhis
(major or medium
The silk cotton tree thorn like eruption on the
face due to vitiation of kapha, vata and rakta which are
found on the face of adolescent are called as
mukhadushika or yauvan pidika.
In Ayurvedic
samhitas a very short description is available about the
disease Mukhadushika. All the samhitas have pointed
out kapha, vata, and rakta as the causative factor of the
disease. In Sharangadhara Samhita vakrasnigdhata
(oily face) and pidika have been mentioned as due to
shukradhatumala while Bhavaprakasa mentioned due
to svabhav.
The shalmali thorn like thick or hard
painful eruption, impregnated with meda, found on the
face of adolescent are called as mukhadushika.
Description of Manjistha in Ayurvedic texts
As per ‘Charaka Samhita’ the powdered dried roots
and fruits are taken internally for the treatment of skin
diseases and disorders of spleen.
Manjistha is also
mentioned in ten varnya
drugs and as Visaghna
It is also prescribed for treatment of major
burns, fractures and dysentery,
to improve
complexion and to treat skin diseases and blood born
Manjistha paste is used along with honey
in Vyang.
It has properties of blood purifying agent
and pigment stimulant, tonic and are used in skin and
blood diseases.
Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India
therapeutically indicate it for Yoni roga (menstrual
disorder), Kustha (skin disease), Sarpavisa (snake bite),
Visarpa (herpes virus), Aksi roga (eye disease), Arsa
(haemorrhoids), Bhagna (Fracture).
containing manjistha as main ingredient used for
treating skin disease are showing in table-1.
Manjistha is found to be one of the ingredients in
majority of the formulas available in market like
Manjisthadi kwatha, Mahamanjisthadi kwatha,
Manjisthadyarka, Aravindasava, Aswagandharistha,
Usirasava, Candanasava, Manjisthadi taila,
Therapeutic indications of Manjistha
mentioned in Ayurvedic Materia Medica are showing in
Research Revelation of Manjistha
1. Anti-acne property
Methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia inhibit proliferation
of P. acne.
It is moderately effective against TNF-
alpha and show low activity against IL-8. It is regarded
as astringent and useful in external inflammations like
ulcers and skin diseases.
The anthraquinone rich
fraction of R.cordifolia in a gel formulation showed The
anti-acne activity against Propionibacterium acne,
Staphylococcus epidermidis, Malassezia furfur when
compared with standard Clindamycin gel.
2. Anti-inflammatory activity
The aqueous extract of R. cordifolia showed anti-
inflammatory effect in rats.
The anti-inflammatory
action is because of the presence of rubimallin. The
aqueous extract showed anti-inflammatory activity in
rats with carrageenan paw oedema in a dose
dependent manner, which is comparable to that of
It also inhibited the lipoxygenase
enzyme pathway, which catalyses the production of
various inflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes
that are involved in asthma, arthritis, and other
inflammatory disorders and the production of cumene
Notable nitric oxide scavenging
activity was exhibited in vitro by some extracts of R.
A formulation of munjistin and purpurin
from cell culture manifested to have and ant-
proliferative action during the rapid development of a
model oedema.
3. Anti-microbial activity
Extract of R. cordifolia showed a significant inhibitory
activity against P. acnes standardized culture. The
evaluation was carried out by both dilution method as
suggested in MIC, there R. cordifolia extract was taken
600 μg/ml. The evidence of anti-acne activity of R.
cordifolia was further supported by Cup-plate
Rubia cordifolia was effective against
Klebsiella pneumonia. The root extracts of R. cordifolia
have been studied for their antimicrobial activity
against various pathogenic bacteria. Sitosterol and
daucosterol possess antibacterial activity. The root
extracts constituents such as anthraquinones and
flavonoids suppressed the activity phytopathogens of
Aldehyde aceate, dihydromollugin and
rubimallin reported to have significant antibacterial
Jour. of Ayurveda & Holisti
c Medicine
Volume-III, Issue-II
activity against Klebsiella pneumonia.
extract inhibited ß-Lactamase producing uro-
pathogenic E. coli.
The chloroform and the methanol
extracts reported to have antibacterial activity on gram-
positive strains, although gram negative Pseudomonas
aeruginosa was also inhibited by the methanol extracts
in a dose dependent manner. According to Basu et al.,
the aqueous extract is active against Bacillus subtilis
and Staphylococcus aureus compared with
streptomycin and penicillin G.
The ethanolic whole
plant extract also showed same result.
A reported to have considerable antimicrobial activity
against Gram-positive bacteria like Bacillus subtilis,
Streptococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus.
The green
synthesized silver nanoparticles using R. cordifolia plant
root extract was highly inhibiting the bacterial
pathogens like Vibrio alginolyticus, Pseudomonas
aeroginosa, Shigella spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides and
Vibrio parahaemolyticus. They had highest
antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas aeroginosa
and Plesiomonas shigelloides.
4. Anti-oxidant activity
Alcoholic extract of root of Rubia cordifolia and its
constituent rubiadin were found antioxidant
Hydroxyanthraquinones were the
predominant antioxidant phenolic constituents in the
root of R. cordifolia.
The antioxidant properties of R.
cordifolia extract for protection against lipid
peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) content in
rat liver homogenate compared with vitamin E and
parabenzoquinone (PBQ).
Table 1: Formulations containing Manjistha as main
ingredient used for treating skin disease.
No. Formulation Action References
kwatha, Brihat
t of skin
Bhav Prakash
t of skin
a tailam
Useful in
mkar lepa
of face
Chakradatta 55/45
of face
Chakradatta 54/53-
Kanak tailam Cure
Chakradatta 54/56-
of face
Chakradatta 54/58-
Chakradatta 54/61-
with honey
4 Raktachandan
adi lepa
of face
Uttar khand 11/9
Acne vulgaris is an extremely common skin disorder
that affects virtually all individuals at least once during
life. The incidence of acne peaks at teenage, but
substantial numbers of men and women between 20-40
years of age are also affected by the disorder. Acne can
have important negative psychosocial consequences for
the affected individual, including diminished self-
esteem, social withdrawal due to embarrassment and
The use of natural remedies, particularly
herbal medicine, dates back thousands of years. Over
the last decade, in view of increasing resistance to
existing anti-microbial agents, side effects and
sometimes high cost of treatment, interest in medicinal
herbs has been progressively increases.
[63 ]
The anti-acne
effects of Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia) include four
mechanism i.e. anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-
oxidant, and anti-androgen activities. The microbiology
of the pilosebaceous unit involves three coexisting
groups of microorganisms: Gram-positive, coagulase-
negative cocci (staphylococci and micrococci);
anaerobic diphtheroids (Propionibacterium acnes and
Propionibacterium granulosum); and lipophilic yeasts
(Pityrosporum species). The microflora of comedones is
qualitatively identical to that of the normal sebaceous
follicle. The staphylococci and micrococci are aerobes;
therefore, their site of growth within the sebaceous
unit is superficial, and these organisms are unable to
reside in the anaerobic conditions of the infra-
infundibulum where the inflammatory reaction occurs
in acne.
The chloroform and the methanol extracts
reported to have antibacterial activity on gram-positive
strains, although gram negative was also inhibited by
the methanol extracts in a dose dependent manner.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are subsequently
generated from the hypercolonization of P. acnes
in addition to metabolism in living organisms and from
UV exposure. Although ROS perform a useful function
in the skin barrier against acne microbes
formation affects skin condition by activating neutrophil
infiltration. ROS including singlet oxygen, superoxide
Jour. of Ayurveda & Holisti
c Medicine
Volume-III, Issue-II
anion, hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, lipid
peroxide and nitric oxide (NO) play an important role in
inflammatory acne as well as in tissue injury. ROS
stimulate the formation of nuclear factor jB (NF-jB)
promote TNF formation
and consequently activate T
lymphocytes and keratinocytes. The cytokines IL, TNF,
IFN, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), transforming growth
factor (TGF) and prostaglandin (PG) are then produced
and released.
In summary, skin inflammation is
initiated by CD4+ in T lymphocytes, regulated by TLRs
following neutrophil infiltration which generates ROS
and protease enzymes leading to follicular wall rupture
of sebaceous glands. This consequently changes the
composition of sebum, particularly linoleic acid.
Hyperkeratinization is initiated as well as a reduction in
desquamation. Subsequently, the proinflammatory
cytokines, NF-jB, IL, TNF, IFN, LPS, TGF, PG and GM-CSF
are released causing microcomedones. The resulting
microcomedones further develop into comedones and
inflammatory lesions.
Rubia cordifolia contains a wide variety of antioxidants
like alizarin, hydroxyl anthraquinones
and rubiadin
which have been using in various medicaments.
Hydroxy groups on one benzene anthraquinones to
show the activity; its ortho-dihydroxy structure could
greatly enhance their effect. The study of in vivo
antioxidant activity and its influence on ethanol-
induced immuno-supression showed that the
concurrent daily administration of madder prevented
the decrease of humoral and cell-mediated immune
response, phagocytosis index, leukocyte count,
glutathione content, catalase and superoxide dismutase
activities etc., which were comparable with that of the
combination of vitamin E and C.
Rubiadin prevented
lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 and butyl
hydroperoxide in a dose dependent manner.
Hexane and ethyl acetate fraction of root showed
maximum free radical scavenging activity due to
anthraquinones and their glycosides present in it. R.
cordifolia extracts can protect peroxidation and
reduced glutathione content in rat liver homogenate
compared with vitamin E and parabenzoquinone.
In present scenario, there is a trend of prescribing
combination therapy for many diseases including skin
disease. This leads to an increase chances of drug
interaction and adverse effects, means there is need to
evaluate individual herbal therapy. Manjistha (Rubia
cordifolia) has multiple actions to combat this problem
and this will become a new approach in the
management of acne. The role of Manjistha in
supporting skin health is evidenced by traditional and
reported activities, which show that it act as potent
blood purifier, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-
stress, antimicrobial which can play an important role
to cure acne and improve skin health.
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S. No.
Therapeutic effect
Sanskrit Term
Therapeutic effect
in Medical Term
1 Varnya
Remove toxins
Blood purifier
6 Rasayana Rejuvenative
7 Vranaropaka Wound healing
9 Sonitasthapana Haemostatic
10 Pittasamsamana
Pacifies pitta
12 Krmighna
Antibacterial and
15 Caksusya Improves vision
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Cite this article as: Vandana Meena, Anand K Chaudhary.
Manjistha (Rubia Cordifolia) - A helping herb in cure of Acne,
J of Ayurveda and Hol Med (JAHM).2015;3(2):11-17.
Source of support: Nil, Conflict of interest: None Declared.
... The roots and stems of this plant are well known source of Anthraquinones, Several compounds like alizarin, 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone, 1, 3, 6-trihydroxy-2methyl-9, 10-anthra-quinone-3-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-alpha-L-rhamnosyl(1-2)-beta-D-glucoside, 1, 3, 6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthraqueinone-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnosyl (1-2)-beta-Dglucoside, 1, 3, 6-trihydrozy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthraquinone-3-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-beta-Dglucoside, 2-carbomethyoxy-3-prenyl-1, 4-naphthohydroquinone di-beta-D-glucoside, rubimallin, beta sitosterol and daucosterol are isolated from the root of Rubia cordifolia and their structures are spectroscopically proven and contain potent anti-inflammatory activity while 1, 3, 6-trihydroxy-2-methyl-9, 10-anthra-quinone-3-O-(6'-O-acetyl)-alpha-Lrhamnosyl (1-2)-beta-D-glucoside, beta-sitosterol and daucosterol contain antibacterial activity (43) . Rubiacordone A, rubiadin and Hydroxyanthraquinones showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activity (41) . ...
... Manjishtha is reputed as an efficient blood purifier and hence is extensively used against blood, skin and urinary diseases in ancient world. It remained a potent drug for obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, leucoderma and oedema also used as febrifuge and against blood disorders in Ayurveda (41) . Manjistha is applied Externally on major burns, mixed with honey on freckles and blemishes (45). ...
In this review an attempt has been made to give a holistic report of the anti-acne phytoconstituents which has been reported possess anti-acne activity in different research work. It was also tried to explain different associated properties of phytoconstituent to analyze the constituents completely. The effort was also made to give the biological sources, family, different constituent and the research work done to identify the vital potential of phytoconstituent which has been utilized or which will be utilized in the development of Ayurvedic anti-acne formulation. Attempt was also made to explain different type of Acne, their causes and pool of information related to them.
... Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia L.) is well-known as an excellent blood purifier and is used for blood, skin and urinary diseases (Shrotri et al. 2005;Gupta et al. 2005). It's stems and roots are rich sources of Anthraquinones which show anti-acne properties in gel (Meena and Chaudhary 2015). The root has a distinctive anti-acne effect through anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-androgen properties as these agents are chief pharmacotherapeutic agents to break the pathogenesis of acne. ...
Plants have an immense contribution to improving the lifestyle of human beings. They have been used for healing and curing purposes. Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda, documents over hundreds of plants for their medicinal properties. Advances in science and technology has helped to identify over thousands of these medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) that traditionally were also used as cosmetics, for preparing creams and formulations for skin and/or hair applications. Sophisticated chromatographic tools have led to the identification of unique bioactive compounds from individual plants. These bioactives offer a great potential for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. This book chapter deals with the history of MAPs with a focus on their cosmetic applications, briefly highlighting important Indian plants with their past and present potential for the cosmetic industry.
... Further antihemolytic properties of the Rubia species have been established in traditional Chinese medicine in curing various blood circulation complications like dysmenorrhea and blood stasis (Chen et al. 2021;Gong et al. 2017;Hu et al. 2020). Nevertheless, the R. cordifolia shows promising benefits in Ayurveda against various circulatory, urinary, and integumentary complications (Deshkar et al. 2008;Meena 2015). The plant also called munjeet/Manjeet (R. cordifolia L.) remains a prominent dye (red, scarlet, brown, and mauve) in the cotton and woolen fabric industries of the Asian subcontinent (Deshkar et al. 2008;Gleba et al. 2016). ...
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Rubia cordifolia represents the pivotal plant resource belonging to traditional Chinese medicine and Indian Ayurveda. The present study aims to synthesize biocompatible copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using R. cordifolia bark extracts, characterize the incumbent chemical transitions, and explore their biomedical and environmental applications. The absorbance peak between 250 and 300 nm clearly demonstrates the formation of CuONPs in the UV–visible spectrum. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of functional groups essential for copper ion reduction. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and dynamic light scattering analysis revealed that the CuONPs are spherical-shaped with a mean particle size of 50.72 nm. Additionally, the zeta potential demonstrates its robustness at 11.2 mV. X-ray diffraction pattern showed mixed phases (Cu, Cu2O, and CuO) of cubic monoclinic crystalline nature. CuONPs exhibited noticeable antibacterial activity against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial cell damages were affirmed through FE-SEM imaging when treated with CuONPs. Further, CuONPs demonstrated considerable antioxidant activities by quenching free radicals such as DPPH (60.75%), ABTs (70.88%), nitric oxide (65.48%) and reducing power (71.44%) in a dose-dependent way. CuONPs showed significant larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti (65 ± 8.66%), Anopheles stephensi (80 ± 13.69%), and Culex quinquefasciatus (72 ± 13.04%) mosquito larvae. The photocatalytic activity of the CuONPs demonstrates the methylene blue (81.84%) and crystal violet (64.0%) dye degradation potentials, indicating the environmental bioremediation efficacy. Hence the present study is the first report in accounting for the versatile applications of the phyto-CuONPs. Moreover, the green synthesis of CuONPS has future applications in designing the drug for life-threatening diseases and various environmental issues.
... [14] The antiacne effects of Rubia cordifolia include four mechanisms i.e., antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiandrogen activities. [15] Kaishor guggulu having Guduchi, Triphala, and Guggulu as main ingredients has Kaphaghna and Medoghna effect due to Katu, Tikta, and Kashaya Rasa dominance. It helps in eliminating the vitiated Kapha which is mainly responsible for increased sebum production and thus obstructing the ducts of the sebaceous glands. ...
Introduction: Acne vulgaris has always been one of the most burning problems of the young population. Acne vulgaris like presentation in Ayurveda has been described as Shalmali thorn like eruptions on the face due to vitiation of Kapha, Vata, and Rakta under the heading of Mukhadushika. Very less scientific data is available depicting the effect of Ayurvedic intervention in such cases. Main Clinical Finding: Present case reports a 26 years old female having multiple acne for the past 6 months. She had papules and pustule with itching, pain, and blackish spots on cheeks. Diagnosis: Condition was diagnosed as Acne vulgaris (Ayurvedic diagnosis – Pitta-Kapha dominant Tridoshika Mukhadushika). Interventions: The patient was treated with Kaishor Guggulu, Raktaprasadakahima, and the local application of Terminalia arjuna powder mixed with honey daily for 1 month. Outcome: The patient had relief in all the symptoms after 15 days of treatment with no new eruptions. Complete remission of the disease was observed after 1 month of treatment with the improved skin condition. Conclusion: This case study demonstrates the potential and usefulness of Ayurveda in the management of acne vulgaris.
... It is used as an efficient blood purifier and hence is extensively used against blood, skin, and urinary diseases. It remained a potent drug for obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, leucoderma in Ayurveda (Meena and Chaudhary 2015). The root is alterative astringent and tonic. ...
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Rubia manjithRoxb. ex Fleming: Rubia cordifolia var. khasiana G.Watt; Rubia cordifolia var. munjista (Roxb.) Miq.; Rubia cordifolia f. tetramera Makino
... It is used as an efficient blood purifier and hence is extensively used against blood, skin, and urinary diseases. It remained a potent drug for obstinate skin diseases, erysipelas, leucoderma in Ayurveda (Meena and Chaudhary 2015). The root is alterative astringent and tonic. ...
... Rubia cordifolia Linn. is a well-known medicinal plant which is used for the treatment of various ailments in the Ayurvedic system and is commonly known as Indian madder, Manjishtha, belonging to the family Rubiaceae (Devi Priya & Siril, 2014). R. cordifolia has been reported as an efficient blood purifier, widely used for blood disorders (Meena, 2015). It has antigenotoxic, anticancer and antitumor activities (Shoemaker, Hamilton, Dairkee, Cohen, & Campbell, 2005) and also anti-inflammatory (Kasture, Kasture, & Chopde, 2001), immunomodulatory (Tripathi, Chitra, Sheikh, Mohale, & Dewan, 2010) and hepatoprotective (Rao, Rao, Pushpangadan, & Shirwaikar, 2006) activities. ...
Polymerization of Hemoglobin S is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease, which leads to sickling and destruction of Red Blood Cell. Alizarin a bioactive compound from Rubia cordifolia is reported blood purifier. The present study investigates the potential of alizarin as an anti-sickling agent showing a significant decrease in the rate of polymerization, therefore inhibiting the rate of sickling with increasing concentration. Interaction studies indicated that the fluorescence intensity of Hb S decreases gradually with increasing alizarin concentration. This suggests the static quenching, where binding constant and the number of binding sites were deduced a different temperature. The negative values of Gibbs energy change (ΔG⁰) strongly suggest that it is entropy driven spontaneous and exothermic reaction. Negative enthalpy (ΔH⁰) and positive entropy (ΔS⁰) stipulated that hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding forces were in interfering in a hydrophobic micro-environment of β6Val leading to Hb S polymerization inhibition. In CD spectra, Hb S in the presence of alizarin shows helical structural changes leading to destabilization of Hb S polymer. These findings were also supported by molecular docking simulation studies using DOCK6 and GROMACS. So, from these findings, we may conclude that alizarin interacts with Hb S through hydrogen bonding, and leading to inhibition of Hb S polymerization. Consequently, alizarin may have potential use as an anti-sickle cell medication for sickle cell disorder.
... This plant is reported to have medicinal properties like anti-acne, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12). ...
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Aswagandharishtam is classical medicine for diseases pertaining to nervous system and digestive system prepared by a number of plants and plant parts. The present work is to know the types of biomolecules present in it by GC MS analysis. Aswagandharishtam was procured from standard Ayurvedic outlet and was subjected to Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry after due processing.The GC MS analysis of Aswagandharishtam has shown some promising molecules like Prostaglandin A2, Cholesterol, Piperine, Gentamicin a, d-Mannose, Eugenol, Pipradrol among others, which have activities similar to that of Aswagadharistham. This is a preliminary report where some clue about the various types of biomolecules present in Aswagandharishtam was obtained. Further work is on to prove the efficacy of this medicine by other parameters. Published by Oriental Scientific Publishing Company.
... [29] Mañjiṣṭhā (Rubiacordifolia Linn) which is one of the important ingredient of Mahāmañjiṣṭhādi kvātha acts as a potent blood purifier, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti stress, antimicrobial which can play important role to cure furuncle like skin infections and improve skin health. [30,31] Avipattikara Cūrṇa is indicated in all pitta vikāras. Pitta and rakta has āśrayāśrayībhāva (inter relationship of doṣawith dhātu) if pitta gets vitiated rakta also gets vitiated and this is the root cause of Nasāruṇaśikhā. ...
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Nasal vestibular furunculosis is a common bacterial skin infection among the general population mostly affecting adults and children.It is characterized by acute localized infection of hair follicle in the skin lining of the nasal vestibule caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Immunodeficiency also plays an important role in recurrent skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) including Nasal furunculosis. Though, the lesion is small, it is extremely painful and tender. Treatment is mostly conservative which consists of warm compresses, analgesics to relieve pain, topical and systemic antibiotics directed against staphylococcus. With rapidly increasing resistance to antibacterial agents, management of these bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult. In Ayurveda, it can be correlated with Nāsāruṇaśikhā (Nasal furunculosis). Morphologically, it appears like pīḍikā (Furuncle) which is characterized by Rāgayuktaśotha (inflammation with reddening. Jalaukāvacaraṇa (Leech therapy) is one of the ancient and important parasurgical procedures described in Ayurveda for treatment of various diseases. In this case, a leech has been applied at the affected area. After leech treatment, throbbing pain was reduced in its intensity followed by gradual reduction in swelling and reddening in two days.This case suggests the utility of leech application in Nasal vestibular furunculosis.
Natural products and plant components have been in use since ancient times as topical applications for their wound healing potential. Wound care continues to evolve with upcoming medical advancements, but there are still many barriers in the research of the best wound healing agent and the dressing material that wound care practitioners encounter. When multidrug-resistant microbial species such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus evolved and modern pharmaceutical technologies unsuccessful, wound care practitioners reworked the old healing approaches using complementary and alternative wound care remedies. There has been a rising awareness in the users with a positive understanding of traditional and alternative medicines. The idea of traditional care and related formulations for wound care was well known and this approach has been introduced into the mainstream to improve the healing of wounds. Numerous studies have been published using herbal and traditional approaches from different parts of the world for wound care and management. For instance, turmeric, aloe, cannabis, Picrorhiza kurroa, Shorea robusta, garlic, and honey have been used to great results in wound care treatment. Owing to their multidimensional activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and painkiller effects, natural compounds like curcumin, oleo gum resin of sal, picrosides, and many flavonoids have been reported to act effectively in the treatment of skin wounds and scar management. The therapeutic efficacy of these compounds has been established in various in vitro and in vivo studies using both animal and human models, evidenced from different research reports in the literature. Integration of traditional medicines and practices with the conventional treatment options for wound healing offers new solutions for skin disorders, enhances access to medical care and resolve other limitations associated with modern drugs and therapeutics, such as high costs, long manufacturing times and increasing resistance to bacteria. This article highlights overall therapeutic aspects of wound management from ancient times to modern science with a wide range of attention to recover the wound healing practices. This article also focuses on the factors affecting mainstreaming of herbal and traditional drugs like developmental issues and validation along with the safety and efficacy related factors to put forth important future aspects.
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The study attempted to explore the antibacterial properties of Rubia cordifolia, a medicinal plant known for its healing values for wounds, skin infections, gynaecological disorders and urinary problems, against ESBL (Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase) producing urinary E.coli. Ethanolic extract of the plant, with 7.5% yield was obtained by soxhlet extraction of 20g dried powder in 70% ethanol. Different E.coli strains were isolated from urine samples collected from patients attending tertiary care hospital using standard methods. All the isolates were tested for different antibiotics and screened for their ESBL production based on NCCLS guidelines. Total 7 different ESBL producing E.coli were obtained. All the seven isolates were tested against the ethanolic extract of Rubia cordifolia using Kirby Bauer method and were found to be inhibited variably by the extract. Thus, the findings are suggestive of inhibitory properties of ethanolic extract of R. cordifolia against ESBL producing E.coli. The plant could be a potential candidate as an alternative antibacterial agent to combat the invasion of drug resistant organisms. However, further studies and optimizations could establish scientifically validated process and product to harness the beneficial effects of Rubia cordifolia.
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Monographs on 1. Caesalpinia sappan Linn. (Heart wood), p.37-46. 2. Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (Rhizome), p.67-77. 3. Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) K. Schum (Fruit), p.86-93. 4. Garcinia indica Choisy (Fruit), p.123-132. 5. Illicium griffithii Hook. f. & Thoms. (Fruit), p.142-151. 6. Nymphaea nouchali Burm. f. (Flower), p.181-189. 7. Nymphaea pubescens Willd. (Flower), p.190-197. 8. Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq.) W.F. Wight. (Pod), p.235-241. 9. Solanum villosum Mill. Ssp. villosum Edmonds (Whole plant), p.266-277. 10. Tamarindus indica Linn. (Fruit pulp), p.304-309. 11. Vernonia conyzoides DC. (Whole plant), p.310-320.
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Objective: To evaluate the in vivo antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of the roots of Rubia cordifolia Linn. (RC) and to study its influence on ethanol-induced impairment of immune responses. Methods: The ethanol-treated (2 g/kg, 20% w/v, p.o., daily for four weeks) rats concurrently received either RC or a combination of vitamin E and C (each 100 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for the same period. The parameters like phagocytosis, total leukocyte count (TLC), humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were assessed. Results: Chronic administration of ethanol decreased the humoral and cell-mediated immune response, phagocytosis, phagocytosis index, TLC, GSH, CAT and SOD activities and increased the LPO. These influences of ethanol were prevented by concurrent daily administration of RC and the effect was comparable with that of the combination of vitamin E and C. Conclusion: The ethanol-induced immunosuppression is due to oxidative stress and Rubia cordifolia can prevent the same by virtue of its in vivo antioxidant property.
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Acne vulgaris, a common skin disorder speculated in the age group of 15-25 years begins with increased production of sebum followed by the attack of Propionibacterium acne (Kathryn et al). Most of the synthetic anti-acne drugs tend to exhibit mild to severe side effects along with peeling and darkening of skin, ultimately leading to social withdrawal. Hence, there arises a need to develop a safe and effective anti-acne formulation that would cure and also prevent recurrence of acne. Considering the fact that roots of R. cordifolia (Rubiaceae) are rich in anthraquinones characterized for their anti-inflammatory as well as wound healing property, (Singh, 2004) a gel formulation of anthraquinone rich fraction was developed and evaluated for its anti-acne potential using Cup plate diffusion method. A gel formulation containing 0.1 % of anthraquinone rich fraction exhibited optimum anti-acne activity against P.acne, S.epidermidis, M. furfur (zone of inhibition- 28.9, 20.4, 24.6 mm respectively) when compared with standard i.e. Clindamycin gel (zone of inhibition- 36.7, 35.3, 32.7 mm respectively). Thus anthraquinone rich fraction in a gel formulation is proved to have a better potential in treating acne. Industrial relevance: Rubia cordifolia, often known as Common Madder, Indian Madder or Manjistha is highly recommended in skin diseases associated with edema and oozing (Yuangang Zu et al, 2010). The root powder was found to work well with ghee, for the medicament of acne. Used externally as a paste by itself or with honey, it heals inflammation and gives the skin an even tone and smoothness. Since the roots are claimed to be rich in anthraquinones, in this research work anthraquinone rich fraction from the roots R. cordifolia were extracted and formulated into an herbal gel and evaluated for its anti-acne activity. Topical gels are very useful as palliative products and prove to be economical and safe; hence it was decided to formulate a simple yet effective anti-acne gel of anthraquinone rich fraction of R. cordifolia with a carbomer as a best gelling agent.
Concentration on renewable resources, sustainability and replacement of oil based products are driving forces to reassess the potential of natural resources including natural colorants. The growing consumer interest in purchasing "green" products, which exhibit an improved environmental profile, can be seen as the break-through force needed to reintroduce natural colorants into the modern markets. Written by scientists with specialised knowledge in the field, Handbook of Natural Colorants provides a unique source of information, summarising the present knowledge of natural colorants in depth. Supporting researchers in this emerging field of sustainable chemistry, it provides easy access to the theory and practice of natural colorants from different viewpoints, including agricultural, economic and legislative aspects. Topics covered include: History of coloration technology.Present position of natural colorants.Regional plant source availability. Specific application techniques. Chemical properties that professional dyers and chemists have to consider Agricultural sourcing of dyes with an emphasis on renewable resources.Discussions on energy and material balance issues arising from the sourcing of materials. Production aspects of colorants, leading on to the key applications. Environmental and economic aspects. Also included are the pros and cons of natural dyestuffs, presenting some promising results and evaluating the potential use of vegetable dyes as alternatives to chemical-based ones with a focus on green chemistry.
Acne vulgaris (acne) is probably the most common dermatological complaint in the U.S. Acne has a range of presentations and manifestations, thus apparently comprising many disease states. Although acne is not an infectious disease, specimens of bacteria such as Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be obtained for culture from the eruptions of acne. Other common associations of acne include hormonal imbalances and follicular hyperkeratinization. Therapies for acne are varied. The most cost-effective treatment option is benzoyl peroxide; for comedonal acne, the most effective therapy consists of retinoids. Isotretinoin remains the most potent therapy. Other treatments include oral and topical antibiotics, topical sulfur agents, topical azelaic acid, and oral contraceptives.
The antibacteria properties of Indian medicinal plant extracts of syzygium alternifolium, phyllanthus niruri and rubia cord folia against six bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella Pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and proteus vulgaris have been studies, Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from leaves fo Syzygium, phyllanthus and Rubia plants, it was observed that methanol and ethanolic extracts fo Synygium have significant activity against gram positive bacteria. Klebsiella pneumonia and proteus vulgaris were more sensitive to the extracts of phyllanthus niruri and Rubia cordifolia respectively.