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To asses six different leadership styles we employed a questionnaire during the development center in a manufacturing firm. Analysing the questionnaire indicates its reliability, scalability, economy, usefulness and fairness. An explorative factor analysis supports the factorial validity. A content analysis provides evidence that the transformational leadership style is perceived as the most positive and the authoritarian leadership style as the most negative one. Furthermore, we found transformational leadership style positively correlated with an aggregated measure for the competence extraversion.
The concept of a construct is central to many of the advances in the behavioral sciences during the second half of this century. Constructs serve to summarize, organize, and facilitate the interpretation of data. The concept of a construct also permits us to move directly from data analysis to theory development and testing. Factor analysis and component analysis are two very similar methods that facilitate the transition from dealing with a large number of observed variables to a smaller number of constructed or latent variables. Douglas Jackson employed factor or component analysis as an integral part of his sequential approach to the development of psychological measures (Jackson, 1970, 1971). It has become a standard part of measure development and is one of the most employed statistical procedures in the behavioral sciences.
Welcome to the first in a series of research reports from Leadership South West, which gives an introduction to some of the key issues in the field of leadership, including what is it, how can it be measured and what impact does it have upon performance? This report does not claim to be the definitive guide to all things leadership, but rather to present some of the most significant concepts and debates to have emerged in recent years. Leadership is currently one of the most talked about issues in business and organisation. It is hard to turn on the television, open a newspaper or attend a conference without coming across numerous references to leaders, leadership and leading. A search of the Amazon.com website in Spring 2003 revealed 11,686 results for the word ‘leadership’ alone and similar searches of the Ebsco business and management publications database reveal an exponential increase in the number of published articles on leadership, from 136 in 1970-71, to 258 in 1980-81, 1,105 in 1990-91, and a staggering 10,062 in 2001-02 (an average of 419 articles per month) (Storey, 2004). The recent focus on leadership is an international phenomenon, as is increased investment in leadership and management development. In the US, for example, Fulmer (1997) estimated an annual corporate expenditure of $45 billion in 1997 (up from $10 billion one decade before) and Sorenson (2002) identified 900 college or university leadership programmes (double that of four years earlier), over 100 specialist degrees and a wide range of related activities. Similar trends are occurring in the UK and Europe. Leadership is regarded as the key ‘enabler’ in the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Business Excellence Model (EFQM, 2000) and has become a central focus for numerous other public, private and voluntary sector development initiatives. Recent years have seen centres of excellence in leadership established for nearly all parts of the public sector, including health, defence, education and police. Leadership, it seems, is increasingly becoming the panacea of the 21st Century. Amidst this flurry of activity, however, a number of concerns arise. There is no widely accepted definition of leadership, no common consensus on how best to develop leadership and leaders, and remarkably little evidence of the impact of leadership or leadership development on performance and productivity. Indeed, most initiatives appear to actively avoid addressing these issues and simply opt for the feel good factor of doing something about it… whatever ‘it’ may be! Whilst action is frequently preferable to inaction, without at least some understanding of the underlying principles and assumptions about leadership and leadership development, it is likely that action may be misguided – at least reducing its possible effectiveness and at worst damaging what was there in the first place. The intention of this report, therefore, is to challenge some of the more popularist and stereotypical notions of leadership and to offer some insights into alternative ways of conceiving and addressing the issue. South West Regional Development Agency
Originaltext vom Verlag; nicht vom SfBS bearbeitet. Die Grundlagen der Testtheorie sowie der Methoden zur Fragebogenerstellung werden in diesem Buch einfach, also weitgehend "formelfrei" dargestellt. Anhand mit SPSS durchgerechneter Beispiele kann das Wissen angewandt und erprobt werden. Sowohl die klassische Testtheorie als auch die probabilistische Testtheorie werden anwendungsorientiert dargestellt. Das Buch gibt konkrete Anleitungen, wie Tests für die Praxis konstruiert werden können.
A common problem for both principal component analysis and image component analysis is determining how many components to retain. A number of solutions have been proposed, none of which is totally satisfactory. An alternative solution which employs a matrix of partial correlations is considered. No components are extracted after the average squared partial correlation reaches a minimum. This approach gives an exact stopping point, has a direct operational interpretation, and can be applied to any type of component analysis. The method is most appropriate when component analysis is employed as an alternative to, or a first-stage solution for, factor analysis.
Two data sources--self-reports and peer ratings--and two instruments--adjective factors and questionnaire scales--were used to assess the five-factor model of personality. As in a previous study of self-reports (McCrae & Costa, 1985b), adjective factors of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness-antagonism, and conscientiousness-undirectedness were identified in an analysis of 738 peer ratings of 275 adult subjects. Intraclass correlations among raters, ranging from .30 to .65, and correlations between mean peer ratings and self-reports, from .25 to .62, showed substantial cross-observer agreement on all five adjective factors. Similar results were seen in analyses of scales from the NEO Personality Inventory. Items from the adjective factors were used as guides in a discussion of the nature of the five factors. These data reinforce recent appeals for the adoption of the five-factor model in personality research and assessment.
Research on the dimensions of personality represented in the English language has repeatedly led to the identification of five factors (Norman, 1963). An alternative classification of personality traits, based on analyses of standardized questionnaires, is provided by the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness) model (Costa & McCrae, 1980b). In this study we examined the correspondence between these two systems in order to evaluate their comprehensiveness as models of personality. A sample of 498 men and women, participants in a longitudinal study of aging, completed an instrument containing 80 adjective pairs, which included 40 pairs proposed by Goldberg to measure the five dimensions. Neuroticism and extraversion factors from these items showed substantial correlations with corresponding NEO Inventory scales; however, analyses that included psychometric measures of intelligence suggested that the fifth factor in the Norman structure should be reconceptualized as openness to experience. Convergent correlations above .50 with spouse ratings on the NEO Inventory that were made three years earlier confirmed these relations across time, instrument, and source of data. We discuss the relations among culture, conscientiousness, openness, and intelligence, and we conclude that mental ability is a separate factor, though related to openness to experience.
This study provided a comprehensive examination of the full range of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership. Results (based on 626 correlations from 87 sources) revealed an overall validity of .44 for transformational leadership, and this validity generalized over longitudinal and multisource designs. Contingent reward (.39) and laissez-faire (-.37) leadership had the next highest overall relations; management by exception (active and passive) was inconsistently related to the criteria. Surprisingly, there were several criteria for which contingent reward leadership had stronger relations than did transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was strongly correlated with contingent reward (.80) and laissez-faire (-.65) leadership. Transformational and contingent reward leadership generally predicted criteria controlling for the other leadership dimensions, although transformational leadership failed to predict leader job performance.
Standards für psychologisches Testen beziehen sich aufverschiedene Bereiche psychologischen Testens,z.B. auf die Entwicklung
und Evaluation (Testkonstruktion), auf die Übersetzung und Anpassung (Testadaptation), auf die Durchführung, Auswertung und Interpretation (Testanwendung) sowie auf die Überprüfung der Einhaltung der Standards bei der Testentwicklung und-evaluation (Qualitätsbeurteilung) psychologischer Tests. Teststandards zielen in den genannten Phasen bzw. Bereichen auf größtmögliche Optimierung und wollen
dazu beitragen, dass die im Rahmen psychologischen Testens getroffenen Aussagen mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit zutreffen.
Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor
and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures,
recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures,
such as the eigenvaluesgreater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be
conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS
to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.
Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer's minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvalues-greater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.
Relations of leaders’ perceptions to personality, leadership style and selfschema
Personalpsychologische Schriften - Modelle, Instrumente, Studien. Handbuch zum IQP-Testsystem: Intelligenz- und Persönlichkeitsdiagnostik für Personalauswahl und -entwicklung
Betriebswirtschaftslehre (7. Aufl.). Zürich: Versus
Jens Nachtwei ist Personalpsychologe, forscht an der HU Berlin, lehrt an der HAM und leitet das universitäre Spin-off IQP
Prof. Dr. Jens Nachtwei ist Personalpsychologe, forscht an der HU Berlin, lehrt an der HAM
und leitet das universitäre Spin-off IQP.
Psychologe für Arbeits-und Organisationspsychologie und Projektmanager des Privat-Instituts für Qualitätssicherung in Personalauswahl und -entwicklung (IQP), einem Spinn-Off der
Sebastian Uedelhoven ist Diplom-Psychologe für Arbeits-und Organisationspsychologie und
Projektmanager des Privat-Instituts für Qualitätssicherung in Personalauswahl und -entwicklung
(IQP), einem Spinn-Off der Humboldt Universität zu Berlin. Dort verantwortet er verschiedene
Projekte in den Bereichen Kompetenzmodellevaluation sowie Assessment Center Konzeption
und Durchführung sowie Testleiterschulungen.
Sie leitet die Konzerneigene Akademie in Deutschland und ist somit u.a. für die Entwicklung, Durchführung und Evaluation der Development Center verantwortlich
Birgit Postler Ist Diplom-Pädagogin Und Personalentwicklerin
Birgit Postler ist Diplom-Pädagogin und Personalentwicklerin. Sie leitet die Konzerneigene
Akademie in Deutschland und ist somit u.a. für die Entwicklung, Durchführung und Evaluation
der Development Center verantwortlich. Auf der Grundlage der Ergebnisse der DC entwickelt
sie mit ihren Mitarbeiter passgenaue und praxisnahe Weiterbildungen für die Führungskräfte
des Konzerns, dessen Auswertungsdaten hier zugrunde liegen.
What is leadership? Exeter, UK: Leadership of West Einführung in die Test-und Fragebogenkonstruktion
R M Bolden
Bolden, R. (2004). What is leadership? Exeter, UK: Leadership of West, University of Exeter.
Bühner, M. (2011). Einführung in die Test-und Fragebogenkonstruktion: Pearson Deutschland
Relations of leaders' perceptions to personality, leadership style and selfschema. Paper presented at the Poster presentation at the 14th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Makiney, J., Marchioro, C., & Hall, R. (1999). Relations of leaders' perceptions to personality,
leadership style and selfschema. Paper presented at the Poster presentation at the 14th
Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Atlanta,
Construct explication through factor or component analysis: A review and evaluation of alternative procedures for determining the number of factors or components
W F Velicer
C A Eaton
J L Fava
Velicer, W. F., Eaton, C. A., & Fava, J. L. (2000). Construct explication through factor or
component analysis: A review and evaluation of alternative procedures for determining the
number of factors or components. In R. D. Goffin & E. Helmes (Eds.), Problems and
solutions in human assessment (S. 41-71). Boston: Kluwer.