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The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout

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The Associations Between Long Working Hours, Physical Inactivity, and Burnout

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Objective: To examine the correlations between long working hours, physical activity, and burnout. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1560 full-time employees, who underwent periodic health examinations in the year 2013. The subjects were divided into upper, middle, and lower tertiles according to the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) score. Results: The comparison of the high- and low-burnout groups revealed that long working hours were significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner. Long working hours were more significantly associated with burnout among individuals younger than 50 years, females, and physically inactive employees. Conclusions: Long working hours are correlated with burnout when working over 40 hours per week and is even stronger when working over 60 hours per week. Limiting working hours to 40 weekly may be beneficial for the prevention of burnout. Physical activity helps reduce the risk of burnout.

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... Burnout is an occupational condition resulting from longterm and unmanaged work-related stress and is characterized by exhaustion of physical/emotional strength, feelings of cynicism and disengagement from work, or reduced professional efficacy [1,2]. Healthcare professionals are especially at high risk for burnout due to high patient volume, working long hours, chronic exposure to human suffering, and facing life or death situations on a regular basis as well as the lack of work-life balance and poor social support [3][4][5]. Beyond its negative effect on the mental health and well-being of physicians, burnout can also contribute to reduced physician performance and quality of life, failure of quality of interactions with patients and other members of the healthcare team, and increased medical errors, which ultimately affects the quality of care and patient-related outcomes [1,2,[6][7][8]. In addition, burnout is associated with increased rates of depression, abuse of alcohol and other substances, and risk for suicidal behaviors [1,9]. ...
... The first part of the questionnaire consisted of 13 items that assessed demographic factors, such as age, sex, marital and children status; practice characteristics, including academic title, workplace, work hours per week [3,15], and sleep duration [16]; and leisure activities, such as hobbies and socializing. The last question, which is an optional, open-ended, and free response, was about suggestions on how to combat burnout (Supplementary file 1). ...
... Additionally, the authors would like to thank the participants who took the time to complete the survey. 1 Department of General Surgery, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ibn-i Sina Hospital, 06100 Ankara, Turkey. 2 Department of General Surgery, Gulhane Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. 3 Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. ...
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Background Burnout resulting from long-term and unmanaged workplace stress is high among healthcare professionals, especially surgeons, and affects both individuals and the quality of patient care. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors for burnout among attending general surgeons and to identify possible preventive strategies. Methods A national cross-sectional survey using a 35-item questionnaire was conducted among members of the Turkish Surgical Society. The survey evaluated demographics, professional and practice characteristics, social participation, and burnout as well as interventions to deal with burnout. Burnout was defined as a high score on the emotional exhaustion (EE) and/or depersonalization (DP) subscales. Surgeons with high scores on both the EE and DP and a low score on personal accomplishment (PA) were considered to have severe burnout. Results Six hundred fifteen general surgeons completed the survey. The median EE, DP, and PA scores were 34 (IQR, 20–43), 9 (IQR, 4–16), and 36 (IQR, 30–42), respectively. Overall, the prevalence of burnout and severe burnout were 69.1 and 22.0%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with burnout were working in a training and research hospital (OR = 3.34; P < 0.001) or state hospital (OR = 2.77; P = 0.001), working ≥ 60 h per week (OR = 1.57; P = 0.046), and less frequent participation in social activities (OR = 3.65; P < 0.001). Conclusions Burnout is an important problem among general surgeons with impacts and consequences for professionals, patients, and society. Considering that burnout is a preventable condition, systematic efforts to identify at-risk populations and to develop strategies to address burnout in surgeons are needed.
... Working overtime refers to extended working hours that exceed the legal requirement (Tan, Sim, Goh, Leong, & Ting, 2020). With the accelerating pace of work, long working hours have become a primary source of pressure in the workplace (Blagoev, Muhr, Ortlieb, & Schreyögg, 2018;Hu, Chen, & Cheng, 2016). However, to our knowledge, most studies on working overtime focused on other specific occupational groups (Hu et al., 2016;Tan et al., 2020;Taylor, 2018), and there is still a research gap among social workers. ...
... With the accelerating pace of work, long working hours have become a primary source of pressure in the workplace (Blagoev, Muhr, Ortlieb, & Schreyögg, 2018;Hu, Chen, & Cheng, 2016). However, to our knowledge, most studies on working overtime focused on other specific occupational groups (Hu et al., 2016;Tan et al., 2020;Taylor, 2018), and there is still a research gap among social workers. Social work is a helping profession specialized in making a difference for individuals, families, and communities. ...
Article
Working overtime is one of the risk factors for turnover intention; however, little is known about its mediating and moderating mechanisms, especially among social workers. This study adds to the knowledge through investigating the mediating role of burnout and the moderating role of person-organization value congruence. A sample of 5,930 Chinese social workers (Mean age = 30.4 years old, SD = 7.9) is obtained from the China Social Work Longitudinal Study (CSWLS) 2019. Results illustrate that burnout mediates the relationship between working overtime and turnover intention. Additionally, the direct effect of working overtime on turnover intention is moderated by person-organization value congruence, with the effect being weaker for social workers with high person-organization value congruence than for those with low person-organization value congruence. These findings provide new insights for explaining how working overtime influences turnover intention. Implications for policy and practice are also discussed.
... One result of this study which was consistent with a previous study [45] was that the rates of severe job burnout were higher as working hours increased. On average, Chinese doctors work over 10 h per day [50]. In situations where the pressure to work longer hours is high, doctors have less time for sleep, personal relationships, and family activities [10]. ...
... Therefore, doctors may omit many duties and obligations from their family roles, which can contribute to higher stress and fatigue, greater work-life imbalance, and more work-family conflicts, [48] further aggravating burnout [51]. Moreover, doctors consume a large amount of physical and mental energy during their long hours of overtime, which facilitates the development of negative attitudes toward their work [52] and increases physiological fatigue and emotional exhaustion [46,50,53]. ...
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Background: The main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among doctors, (2) establish associations with demographic factors in China, and (3) examine the mediating role of psychological attachment in the relationship between job burnout and career calling. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted by administering an online questionnaire in May 2016. The survey was performed across Thirty provinces. In total, A total of 3016 Chinese doctors were selected as participants, of which 2617 completed valid questionnaires (effective response rate: 86.77%). Results: The overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese doctors was 85.79%. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to age (Waldχ2 = 6.843, P < 0.05, OR < 1), professional title (Waldχ2 = 13.110, P < 0.05, OR > 1), and daily working hours (Waldχ2 = 7.226, P < 0.05, OR > 1). However, the burnout of Chinese doctors was found to be associated with psychological attachment (B = - 0.6433, P < 0.0001) and career calling (B = 0.3653, P < 0.0001); furthermore, psychological attachment (B = 0.2350, P < 0.001) mediated the relationship between job burnout and career calling. Conclusion: Burnout symptoms among Chinese doctors were prevalent and associated with age, professional title, and long working hours. Chinese doctors aged 20-30 experienced a much higher level of burnout symptoms. The longer hours doctors worked, the more likely they were at risk of burnout symptoms, especially among attending physicians. Doctors who endured high-level burnout tended to exhibit decreasing psychological attachment, which threatened their sense of career calling. Finally, this paper proposed related explanations for the function mechanisms based on both theoretical and practical perspectives.
... Various studies prove the relation between exercise such as aerobic and anaerobic physical activities and its relationship with burnout (Jonsdottir et al., 2010;Toker and Biron, 2012;Lindwall et al., 2014;Hu et al., 2016;Dreher et al., 2018). According to Hu et al. (2016), workers who work more than 60 h a week and do not engage in any physical activity have the highest risk ratio of developing burnout. ...
... Various studies prove the relation between exercise such as aerobic and anaerobic physical activities and its relationship with burnout (Jonsdottir et al., 2010;Toker and Biron, 2012;Lindwall et al., 2014;Hu et al., 2016;Dreher et al., 2018). According to Hu et al. (2016), workers who work more than 60 h a week and do not engage in any physical activity have the highest risk ratio of developing burnout. It was demonstrated that professionals who are engaged in light physical activity or moderate physical activity are less likely to report high levels of burnout and perceived stress compared to professionals who are not engaged in physical activity (sedentary lifestyle) (Stenlund et al., 2009;Jonsdottir et al., 2010;Gerber et al., 2013;Tsai et al., 2013;Dreher et al., 2018). ...
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Background: Burnout is a widespread, multifactorial, and mainly psychological phenomenon. The pathogenesis of burnout is commonly described within the bio-psycho-social model of health and disease. Recent literature suggests that the phenomenon of burnout may be broader so that the three dimensions might not reflect the multifaceted and complex nature of the syndrome. Consequently, this review aims to identify the diversity of factors related to burnout, to define overarching categories based on these, and to clarify whether the bio-psycho-social model adequately describes the pathogenesis of burnout—holistically and sufficiently. Method: Five online databases (PubMed, PubPsych, PsychARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and Google Scholar) were systematically searched using defined search terms to identify relevant studies. The publication date was set between January 1981 and November 2020. Based on the selected literature, we identified factors related to burnout. We aggregated these factors into a comprehensible list and assigned them to overarching categories. Then, we assigned the factors to the dimensions of an extended model of health and disease. Results: We identified a total of 40 burnout-related factors and 10 overarching categories. Our results show that in addition to biological, psychological, and socio-environmental factors, various factors that can be assigned to a spiritual and work cultural dimension also play an important role in the onset of burnout. Conclusion: An extended bio-psycho-socio-spirito-cultural model is necessary to describe the pathogenesis of burnout. Therefore, future studies should also focus on spiritual and work cultural factors when investigating burnout. Furthermore, these factors should not be neglected in future developments of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention options.
... Long working hours can have a negative impact on well-being [10,11] as well as physical and mental health [12][13][14][15][16]. Evidence suggests that risk of work-related stress and burnout increase with the number of working hours per week [17]. Nevertheless, it can be difficult for teachers to limit their working hours. ...
... The data show that teachers who work more than 45 h per week are significantly more frequently affected by signs of inability to recover and emotional exhaustion compared to those who work less than 40 h per week. The results presented offer additional evidence that long working hours inhibit recovery processes and increase the risk of emotional exhaustion [17,50,51]. ...
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Background The work of teachers has changed due to an increase in the range of tasks. However, there is a lack of current information on working hours, task distribution and the possible health effects. Methods For the first time for Germany as a whole, a cross-sectional survey determined how long teachers at upper-level secondary schools work per week, what influences their working hours and how different recording methods affect the total working hours. To this end, 6,109 full-time teachers estimated their working hours based on twelve categories and then documented these daily over 4 weeks. Afterwards, the effects of long working hours on teachers' ability to recover and emotional exhaustion were analysed. Results The article shows the large interindividual variance in the working hours of teachers and a significant influence of sex, age, and subject profile. Self-reported working hours varied substantially by method used to record working time with work time reported via daily diaries totaling 2 h per week more than hours recorded by a single estimation. A substantial proportion of the teachers (36%) work longer per week than European guidelines allow (> 48 h); 15% work even more than 55 h per week. Teachers who work more than 45 h per week suffer more often from inability to recover (46%) and emotional exhaustion (32%) than teachers who work less than 40 h per week (26% and 22% respectively). Conclusions Taking professional experience and teaching subjects into account could in future contribute to a fairer distribution of workload among teachers. This could protect individual teachers from long working hours, ensure sufficient recovery and also reduce the risk of emotional exhaustion. In order to identify teachers whose health is at risk at an early stage, voluntary preventive care offers would be considerably helpful.
... In addition, entrepreneurs often have long and intense workdays to ensure that their company is maintained in the market and achieve established objectives. These circumstances, among others, make the appearance of burnout syndrome more likely [3]. In research on entrepreneurship, the most accepted definition of burnout conceptualizes this syndrome as a process of progressive and continuous accumulation of chronic stress, characterized by emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and lack of professional efficacy, which appears among those professionally involved with others [4]. ...
... Long working hours, which are common amongst entrepreneurs, limit the amount of time available for other leisure activities and, in the long term, generate significant interference with family life. These two relationships have been identified as sources of burnout [3]. On the other hand, gender helps to explain cynicism and emotional exhaustion, and the level of studies achieved contributes to explaining entrepreneurs' level of emotional exhaustion. ...
Article
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Burnout is a mental disorder that leads to difficulties for the entrepreneur in controlling his or her personal and professional life. The most common consequences of entrepreneurial burnout include the subject experiencing low motivation, low organizational commitment, loss of energy, demoralization in connection with their work, poor quality of work, feeling of failure, and the perception that his or her company is performing poorly. We used a sample of 157 Spanish entrepreneurs selected at random from the Iberian Balance Sheet Analysis System database. We employed the Spanish version of the Reflective Functioning Questionnaire to measure mentalizing and the Spanish version of the Maslach-Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) to measure burnout. This research showed that entrepreneurial burnout could be avoided in part if the entrepreneur achieved a good capacity for mentalizing. Hypomentalizing contributed to explaining entrepreneurs’ levels of professional efficacy, cynicism, and emotional exhaustion. In contrast, the explanatory power of hypermentalizing was not significant for any of the dimensions of burnout. This study provides new evidence of burnout in entrepreneurs; a professional group with an important economic, politic, and social role has been little studied.
... [4] Previous studies have found relationships among long working hours, burnout, low staff well-being, and increased errors. [16][17][18] Fewer days off might cause the well-being of healthcare workers to deteriorate and lead to a deterioration of patient safety culture. Improving low staff well-being due to long working hours or fewer days off may reduce errors and improve patient safety culture. ...
... Improving low staff well-being due to long working hours or fewer days off may reduce errors and improve patient safety culture. [5,6,16,17,18] The presence of a hospital mission statement on patient safety correlated positively with the scores of 5 composites and the Patient Safety Grade. More than half of the hospitals in the United States place a greater emphasis on quality than on access, cost, or community benefit in their mission statements. ...
Article
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Improvement in patient safety culture requires constant attention. This study aimed to identify hospital-level elements related to patient safety culture, such as patient safety management systems, activities and work environments.Two questionnaire surveys were administered to hospitals in Japan in 2015 and 2016. The first survey aimed to determine which hospitals would allow their staff to respond to a questionnaire survey. The second survey aimed to measure the patient safety culture in those hospitals. Patient safety culture was assessed using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS). The relationship of hospital-level patient safety culture with the aforementioned elements in each hospital was analyzed.The response rate to the first survey was 22% (721/3270), and 40 eligible hospitals were selected from the respondents. The second survey was administered to healthcare workers in those 40 hospitals, and the response rate was 94% (3768/4000). The proportion of respondents who had 7 or more days off each month was related to the scores of 7 composites and the Patient Safety Grade of HSOPS. Both the presence of a mission statement describing patient safety and the proportion of respondents who participated in in-house patient safety workshops at least twice annually were related to the scores of 5 composites and the Patient Safety Grade of HSOPS.Our study suggests that the number of days off each month, the presence of a hospital patient safety mission statement, and the participation rate in in-house patient safety workshops might be key factors in creating a good patient safety culture within each hospital.
... One study reported that stress levels of female managers were as high after work as during work, whereas among male managers, stress levels rapidly decreased when the working day ended [7]. Even when physical inactivity was controlled for in the analysis, gender differences existed in the presentation of burnout [8]. Exhaustion was consistently found to be more prevalent among women than men [9]. ...
... A high number of work hours was positively associated with burnout in the present study. This finding is in line with another study conducted in Taiwan; a comparison of high-and low-burnout groups found that long working hours was significantly correlated with burnout in a dose-dependent manner even when physical inactivity was controlled [8]. However, in the present study, the significant association between work hours and WFC disappeared when the difficulty in leaving work on time was considered. ...
Article
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The present study explores the relations between work hours and the difficulty in leaving work on time to both work-to-family conflict (WFC) and burnout among female workers in Taiwan. A cross-sectional research design and questionnaire were employed to obtain the research data. In total, 738 full-time female workers took part in the study. The results of regression analyses showed that when age, marital status, economic status, occupation, parental status, and housework responsibilities were controlled, more work hours were positively associated with WFC and burnout. When the difficulty in leaving work on time was also considered in the analysis, long working hours were still significantly associated with burnout; however, the significant relation with WFC disappeared. It is surmised that if female employees work overtime voluntarily, the perception of WFC diminishes; nevertheless, the adverse effect of long working hours on health remains unabated. This study concludes that female employees who work overtime on a voluntary basis are at risk of health problems, which should be a focus of concern.
... DP was classified as low burnout (≤5), average burnout (6-9) and high burnout (≥10). PA was defined as high burnout (≤33), average burnout (34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39), and low burnout (≥40) (inverse scale). ...
... Daily working hours was identified as a significant predictor of cynicism which resonates in a national survey of burnout among US general surgery residents [32] Some researchers have suggested that working hours alone may not have a bearing on the burnout, but when coupled with other factors like high workloads, sleep deprivation and physical inactivity, this may cause depersonalisation and other dimensions of burnout. [33,34] This is corroborated by findings of this study; we observed that residents who sleep for more than 6 hours are protected against high burnout in the depersonalisation dimension, although other dimensions remain unaffected. A growing base of research has linked disturbances of sleep duration to burnout, [35][36][37] In this study, residents who used anti-anxiety medication reported a high degree of DP. ...
Article
Background: Burnout is a workplace phenomenon and is high among healthcare workers, particularly physicians. It brings in significant negative impact on patient care and physicians. Considerable number of studies have highlighted burnout issues on residents of other specialties; however, scarcity of data exist on burnout among family medicine residents. Objectives: This study aimed to measure the prevalence of burnout, and its predictors amongst family medicine residents in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 133 family medicine residents using a custom-designed and validated Self administered questionnaire. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) was used to measure the three dimensions of burnout: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and personal accomplishment (PA). Results: The overall prevalence of burnout was 84.2%. In terms of three dimensions of burnout, 29.3% of respondents scored high for EE burnout, 19.5% for DP and 79.7% for PA. High burnout in all three dimensions was found to be strongly associated with a number of variables under study. Male gender (aOR = 3.41, 95% CI 1.1-11.10; P = 0.042), married residents (aOR = 3.32, 95% CI 1.1-10.48) and use of anti-anxiety drugs (aOR = 3.75,95% CI = 2.0-21.26) were identified as predictors of high emotional exhaustion. A work schedule of more than 8 hours per day (aOR = 3.79, 95% CI 1.12-10.87) and young age (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.12-10.87) were identified predictors for high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of burnout in this study exhibits that it is a common problem in family medicine residents. There is a need for a nationwide longitudinal study targeting the family medicine residents to study the effects of burnout on physician well-being and patient care.
... 77). The significance of these findings is that multiple studies (Innstrand, Langballe, Falkum, & Aasland, 2011;Hu, Chen, and Cheng, 2016) note that female exhaustion is tied to gender inequalities regarding family expectations. The survey also found that female and third gender/nonbinary individuals are experiencing a work-life imbalance. ...
Article
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In the Spring of 2018, the authors administered the highly validated and reliable Copenhagen Burnout Inventory work-related sub-scale to 1,628 academic librarians employed within the United States. Academic librarians reported a total work-related burnout score of 49.6. Overall, female participants who were 35–44 years of age reported the highest levels of work-related burnout with males and older individuals reporting the lowest levels of work-related burnout. This study also revealed some interesting information about non-binary/third-gender librarians that suggests further research is warranted.
... Urologists in training are a known population at risk of burnout [8][9][10]. Long working hours constitute one of the most important sources of stress in the workplace and a dose-dependent relationship is known between the number of weekly working hours and burnout score [11]. ...
Article
Introduction: With the COVID-19 outbreak activities of urology departments have been limited to non-deferrable procedures impacting the daily program of residents in urology. We assessed the psychological impact of the lockdown on Belgian residents in urology and their resounding on the quality of the training. Material and methods: A self-administered anonymous questionnaire assessing the risk of burnout in a pandemic situation and its impact on the quality of the training was e-mailed to the members of the European Society of Residents in Urology of Belgium (ESRU-B). We used the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory score which assesses the different dimensions of burnout (personal (CBIP), professional (CBIPro), relational (CBIR)). Several questions evaluating impact on residents' health and apprehension of the future were included. The survey lasted for 5 days. Comparison of parameters before and during the coronavirus crisis was made using paired samples t-test or Chi2 test were. Results: Fifty percent (62/126) of the ESRU-B members replied to the questionnaire. If 93% of the responders reported a negative impact on the quality of their practical training (CI95=[0.07-1.10]; P=0.83), 56% and 61.7% reported a positive impact of the crisis on their life and on their theoretical training respectively. Burnout risk scores were significantly reduced (P<0.001) for each dimension 7.26 to 3.40 (CBIP), 9.02 to 4.35 (CBIPro) and 4.42 to 3.03 (CBIR) respectively. Conclusion: Despite a negative impact on the daily work quality, the decrease in activity induced by the lockdown did not have a negative psychological impact on Belgian residents in urology but stress the opportunity to review the current training system to be better balanced between practice and theoretical formation.
... So, these nurses may experience fewer job burnout. Our findings found no correlation between working hours/week and burnout this results not agreement with [58] who found length hours work are associated with burnout when at work above 40 hours each week and is even stronger once working above 60 hours each week. Moreover, it was established that no correlation between age and total score of burnout this result inconsistent with [59]. ...
Article
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Abstract Background: Burnout is a grave problem for critical care workers because they are exposed to prolonged psychosocial stressors, including advanced technology, high responsibilities and great patient acuity. The aim of this study was to investigate burnout, its associated factors and its effect on self-care among critical care nurses. Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was carried out with 170 critical care nurses at Buraydah Central Hospital at Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire including socio-demographic and work-related characteristics was used, as well as the Short Form SF12 to assess the quality of life, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess the level of burnout. Results: The three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales, high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, low personal accomplishment and moderate total burnout score were used. The quality of life measure (sF12) showed moderate levels of physical, mental component score and total score of quality for the critical care nurses. Factors associated with burnout include age, nationality, and years of experience and the wish to change department showed statistical significance. Burnout and quality of life score had a significant negative correlation. Conclusion: Age, nationality, years of experience and wish to change department are all significantly associated with burnout. Finally, burnout and quality of life score of these critical care nurses had a negative significant correlation.
... So, these nurses may experience fewer job burnout. Our findings found no correlation between working hours/week and burnout this results not agreement with [58] who found length hours work are associated with burnout when at work above 40 hours each week and is even stronger once working above 60 hours each week. Moreover, it was established that no correlation between age and total score of burnout this result inconsistent with [59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Burnout is a grave problem for critical care workers because they are exposed to prolonged psychosocial stressors, including advanced technology, high responsibilities and great patient acuity. The aim of this study was to investigate burnout, its associated factors and its effect on self-care among critical care nurses. Methods: A descriptive correlational research design was carried out with 170 critical care nurses at Buraydah Central Hospital at Qassim Region in Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire including socio-demographic and work-related characteristics was used, as well as the Short Form SF12 to assess the quality of life, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) to assess the level of burnout. Results: The three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales, high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, low personal accomplishment and moderate total burnout score were used. The quality of life measure (sF12) showed moderate levels of physical, mental component score and total score of quality for the critical care nurses. Factors associated with burnout include age, nationality, and years of experience and the wish to change department showed statistical significance. Burnout and quality of life score had a significant negative correlation. Conclusion: Age, nationality, years of experience and wish to change department are all significantly associated with burnout. Finally, burnout and quality of life score of these critical care nurses had a negative significant correlation.
... Previous studies have reported that the range of prevalence of resident burnout in Japan is 18%-33% (7,8). The risk factors of burnout include long working hours (9)(10)(11)(12)(13), lack of sleep (14), and little career experience (15); however, some studies have reported no correlation between long working hours (7,16) or little career experience and burnout (7,17). Haoka et al. (18) reported that mental workload and interpersonal relationship problems are job stressors, and reward from work buffers against depressive symptoms in medical residents. ...
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Objectives We examined the prevalence of burnout among resident doctors and its relationship with specific stressors. Methods We conducted a nationwide, online, cross-sectional survey in Japan with 604 resident doctors in 2018-2019. Participants and Materials Participants completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey to evaluate burnout and provided details of their individual factors and working environmental factors. Chi-square tests and t-tests were conducted for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. The association between burnout and resident-reported causes of stress, ways of coping with stress, number of times patient-safety incidents were likely to occur, and individuals who provide support when in trouble was analyzed using logistic regression analyses after controlling for confounding variables. Results A total of 28% met the burnout criteria, 12.2% were exhausted, 2.8% were depressed, and 56.9% were healthy. After adjusting for sex, postgraduate years, type of residency program, marital status, number of inpatients under residents' care, number of working hours, number of night shifts, number of days off, and resident-reported causes of stress-excessive paperwork (odds ratio [OR]: 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32-3.80), excessive working hours (OR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.24-6.04), low autonomy (OR: 3.92, 95% CI: 2.01-7.65), communication problems at the workplace (OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.05-4.76), complaints from patients (OR: 6.62, 95% CI: 1.21-36.1), peer competition (OR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.25-3.93), and anxiety about the future (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.28-3.56)-were independently associated with burnout. The burnout group had more reported patient-safety incidents that were likely to occur per year (>10) (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.01-6.95) and a lack of individuals who could provide support when in trouble (OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.34) than the non-burnout group. Conclusions This study described the prevalence of burnout among residents who responded to our survey. We detected an association between burnout and resident-reported causes of stress, patient-safety incidents, and a lack of individuals who provide support when in trouble. Further interventional studies targeting ways to reduce these concerns are warranted.
... Fourteen observational studies found a negative association between physical activity and risk of burn-out, or one of its components, and one did not find a relationship. More specifically, ten studies assessed the relationship between physical activity and risk of burn-out generally [21,61,63,64,[66][67][68][69], of which nine found a negative association and one did not find a significant relation between both [65]. One observational study assessed both the relationship between physical activity and risk of burn-out and all three dimensions separately and found negative associations between physical activity and risk of burn-out, emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a positive association between physical activity and professional efficacy [57]. ...
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Although it is believed that physical activity, sedentary, and dietary behavior (i.e., energy balance-related behavior) may decrease the risk of burn-out, the association between both is currently not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize studies investigating the relationship between energy balance-related behavior and burn-out risk. A systematic literature search was conducted in four databases, resulting in 25 included studies (ten experimental and 15 observational studies). Nine out of ten experimental studies showed that exercise programs were effective in reducing burn-out risk. Fourteen out of fifteen observational studies found a negative association between physical activity and burn-out risk, whereas one study did not find a relation. Two of the 15 observational studies also showed that being more sedentary was associated with a higher burn-out risk, and two other studies found that a healthier diet was related to a lower burn-out risk. No experimental studies were found for the latter two behaviors. It can be concluded that physical activity may be effective in reducing burn-out risk. The few observational studies linking sedentary and dietary behavior with burn-out risk suggest that being more sedentary and eating less healthy are each associated with higher burn-out risk. More high-quality research is needed to unravel the causal relationship between these two behaviors and burn-out risk.
... Weekly workload is a factor strongly related to burnout. It has been demonstrated that general workers who work >40 h/w and >60 h/w and have ORs of 1.58 and 2.29 (p < 0.01) were considered positive for burnout [13]. ...
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Introduction Burnout syndrome is a major cause of decreased life quality, mental health, and productivity for physicians. It is strongly related to work overload and has been a scarcely studied topic in pediatric urology. During the COVID-19 pandemic, authorities’ recommendations have led to big changes in pediatric urology practice worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the level of burnout in Ibero-American pediatric urologists (IPUs) during this pandemic. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted by applying an electronic survey during the COVID-19 pandemic peak to members of the two major associations of pediatric urology in Ibero-America (the Ibero-American Society of Pediatric Urology [SIUP] and the Brazilian School of Pediatric Urology [BSPU]) to evaluate demographic, pre-pandemic, and pandemic data. Burnout levels were assessed using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) questionnaire. Results A response rate of 40% was obtained (182 out of 455 IPU respondents). Participants were from 14 different countries in Ibero-America and 75.4% were male. Data showed that during the pandemic there was a significant decrease in weekly workload, that is: > 40 hours per week (h/w) (91.4% to 44.6%, p < 0.001); and > 6 h/w (94.9% to 45.1%%, p < 0.001) in operating room time (ORT). Personal (Pe-BO), work-related (W-BO), and patient-related (Pa-BO) burnout levels among IPUs were 26.3%, 22.3%, and 7.4%, respectively (Summary table). An important difference by gender was seen, with women suffering more from the syndrome (odds ratio of 2.67 [95% confidence interval, 1.285.58; p = 0.013] for Pe-BO and OR of 3.26 [95% CI, 1.52-7.01; p = 0.004] for W-BO). Conclusion A significant decrease in workload for IPU during the pandemic was observed, as well as a low level of burnout syndrome during this time. However, the predominance of burnout in women found in this study is notable.
... This is evident in the total work PA when compared to the other IPAQ-LF domains examined in this study. Previous studies evaluated PA levels across settings and reported that employees are spending the least amount of time engaging in PA at work, particularly office-based employees(Alkhajah et al., 2012;Ashe, 2012;Chau et al., 2013;Gilson et al., 2009;Hu, Chen, & Cheng, 2016;Thivel et al., 2018), which is illustrated in the current findings for Administration Services. Previous research recommended a goal setting strategy effective for improving PA in office staff such as walking up and down the stairs, standing for the period of a phone call, and walking during a break(McGuckin, Sealey, & Barnett, 2017). ...
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Approximately 60% of the world’s population do not meet the physical activity (PA) guidelines. Physical inactivity is increasing in occupations, with work-related health issues becoming more prevalent. University employees’ work in a range of job roles and PA levels in this population is unclear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate PA levels amongst university employees in a UK Higher Education institution. Four hundred employees (male = 131, female = 269) partook in this quantitative study and completed an online International Physical Activity Questionnaire Long Form (IPAQ-LF) to assess total moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and work-related MVPA. A Mann-Whitney U test examined differences in total MVPA and work-related MVPA between genders and a Kruskal-Wallis H test examined differences in total MVPA and work related MVPA between job roles. The findings showed that university employees engaged in a median of 330 minutes and 1770 METs of MVPA across all domains of IPAQ-LF. Further, the median time spent in total work PA was 30 minutes and 123 METs. There was a significant difference between genders, as males engaged in 150 minutes more total MVPA compared to females (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in total MVPA and work-related MVPA across job roles (p > 0.05). Findings suggest that job role does not affect PA levels within university workplace, although they do propose that males engage in more MVPA compared to females. As a result of the subjective nature of this research, objective research is required to confirm current findings.
... OT work hours are closely correlated with burnout development in a dose-dependent manner [39]. IRS work is related to a significantly higher level of burnout [40]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Burnout affects approximately half of all nurses, physicians, and other clinicians. Alcohol use may impair performance in work-related tasks, leading to decreased productivity and morale. The present study’s aim was to determine whether a causal relationship existed between alcohol use, work-related burnout (WB), and musculoskeletal pain. Materials and Methods: A total of 1633 members from a hospital affiliated with a medical university in Taichung, Taiwan, completed questionnaires in 2021, where 1615 questionnaires were declared valid. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on basic demographic variables, and the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory were used. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS Enterprise Guide 6.1 software, and significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Work experience, being married, parenthood, leisure activities with family and friends, and regular weekly exercise were negatively associated with WB. In addition, overtime work, irregular and regular shift work, the physician and nurse medical profession, chronic disease (heart disease, diabetes, etc.), neck and both shoulders pain (NBSP), both ankles pain (BAP), and alcohol use frequency (AUF) were positively associated with WB. NBSP could explain the residual effect of AUF on WB. AUF was determined to mediate the relationship between NBSP and WB. In addition, NBSP was found to mediate the relationship between AUF and WB. Conclusions: The individuals who used alcohol to cope with NBSP or those with NBSP who often consumed alcohol had worsened WB due to a vicious circle of musculoskeletal pain and alcohol use. Therefore, medical staff should not consider alcohol use as an option to reduce burnout.
... Telecommuters also may not have as many natural breaks built into the day (e.g., walking to a meeting, chatting with coworkers). This is an important concern because employees will be more likely to burn out if they are constantly working, and breaks have been shown to help reduce stress and increase work engagement (Hu et al., 2016;Kühnel et al., 2017). To compensate for this lack of built-in breaks, managers should encourage their employees to be intentional about taking breaks throughout the workday and avoid scheduling multiple back-to-back meetings. ...
Article
Rudolph etal. (2021) highlight 10 areas of industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology that are relevant to the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on work. They also briefly describe the prototypical media headlines that highlight these different topics. Indeed, since the beginning of the pandemic, many popular press articles have been written on how managers and organizations should handle and address a multitude of changes brought on by COVID-19. Although these articles offer a host of practical recommendations, they often lack a theoretical foundation that would provide decision makers with greater understanding of why certain recommendations might be effective. Without an explanation of why recommendations might work, managers might feel uncertain as to which recommendations to try, and if they find that a recommendation does not apply to their context, they might dismiss the suggestions completely. The current work extends etal.’s focal article by focusing on telecommuting and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model (Demerouti etal., 2001), using job demands and resources to provide a framework that underlies the many recommendations provided for managers and organizations during COVID-19. By providing this framework, we hope to empower decision makers to better adapt existing recommendations to their unique work contexts in order to maintain employee well-being and performance while telecommuting.
... In contrast with previous studies [11,27,28], we did not find significant differences in burnout risk due to gender, age, type of employment and weekly working hours. ...
Article
Background: The Health & Safety Executive Indicator Tool (HSE-IT) is a standard-based questionnaire commonly used to assess work-related stress in organizations. Although the HSE-IT validity has been well documented and significant relationships have been observed between its scales and several work-related outcomes, to date there is no evidence concerning the relationships between the HSE-IT and burnout among healthcare workers. Aims: To investigate the relationships between the HSE-IT subscales and burnout dimensions as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) in a sample of Italian rehabilitation professionals employed in healthcare institutions. Methods: An anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to a sample of Italian rehabilitation professionals including physical therapists, occupational therapists, psychiatric rehabilitation technicians and developmental psychomotor therapists. Associations between the HSE-IT and the MBI were analysed with multiple linear regression models. Results: A total of 432 rehabilitation professionals completed the questionnaire and 14% of them showed high levels of burnout risk. Significant differences in the HSE-IT scores were found between workers at high risk of burnout and workers at low risk of burnout. Hierarchical regressions showed an association between the HSE-IT scales and the MBI factors: emotional exhaustion was associated with 'demands' and 'role', and both depersonalization and personal accomplishment were associated with 'control' and 'role'. Conclusions: This preliminary study showed the HSE-IT subscales are sensitive to burnout risk as measured by the MBI. The association found between the HSE-IT 'demands', 'role' and 'control' subscales and the MBI dimensions is significant but small. These findings might inform targeted burnout prevention.
... Among dental graduate students, the job burnout rate was 41.0%. Long hours of work and little sleep time also cause burnout [20] . In our research, we found that the burnout of participants who studied for more than 55 hours per week on average reached 46.5%, and the burnout of participants who slept for less than 6 hours a day on average reached 60.4%. ...
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Background: In China, the shortage of doctors leads to an increase in workload. Especially after the new crown epidemic(COVID-19), excessive workload may lead to both physical and mental fatigue of doctors. Students' choices and opinions about the doctoral (health care)industry are particularly important. However, we don't know much about the work and living conditions of postgraduates in Stomatology. The purpose of this research is to investigate the depressive symptoms, job burnout and job satisfaction of individual dental graduate students and their personal professional characteristics after the outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019. Methods: The study directed to the correlations between depressive symptoms, burnout and career choice regret and their factors. The questionnaire covers demographic information, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and added programs to evaluate career choice regret. Results: There are 580 dental graduate students who will return to complete the questionnaire in 2021. After excluding partial questionnaires, the data of 558 participants were analyzed. In total, 44.1% of the participants had symptoms of depression. 41.0% of the participants experienced symptoms of burnout and 41.6% of the participants had regrets about their career choices. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the average daily sleep time was associated to depressive symptoms (P<0.05). At the same time, job burnout (OR = 5.38, 95% CI 3.67–7.88) and career choice regret (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.41–3.05) were risk factors for depressive symptoms. There was a relationship between job burnout, average study time per week and average daily sleep time(all P<0.05). Depressive symptoms were the biggest risk factor for burnout (OR = 5.28, 95% CI3.62-7.69). There was a relationship between career choice regret, postgraduate entrance examination score and average daily sleep time(all P<0.05). Job burnout (OR = 1.82, 95% CI1.24-2.66) and depressive symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI1.48-3.14) were both risk factors for career choice regret. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms, job burnout, and career choice regrets are common in postgraduates majoring in Stomatology . An in-depth understanding of relevant factors is essential to determine the reduction and prevention of burnout and career choice regrets in this group.
... At the same time, doctors accepted by training programs must pay annual training fees to the SMSB, posing a significant financial burden on resident physicians and forcing them to work extra hours in private hospitals or clinics to cover their daily living expenses. Therefore, this affects their training quality and their time for academic achievement, which poses an additional risk for stress and BOS [20]. Depending on the specialty, the training period can last four to five years. ...
Article
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Background: Resident physicians in Sudan face a variety of physical and psychological stressors. Nevertheless, the prevalence of burnout syndrome among this critical population remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence rate of burnout and its associated factors in a sample of resident physicians in Sudan. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to assess the burnout syndrome among resident physicians at the teaching hospitals of Wad-Medani in Gezira state, east-central Sudan. Three hundred resident physicians at the dermatology, general surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, ear, nose and throat (ENT), oncology, urology, and internal medicine departments, were approached and invited to participate in the study. The Arabic version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was distributed to respondents from July to October 2021. Results: From the 300 resident physicians, 208 (69.3%) responded. The average age of the study population was 29.99 ± 3.01 years, with more than half were females (56.7%), single (59.6%), and with more than three years of residency experience (50.5%). In total, 86.1% met the criteria for burnout in at least one dimension and 13.9% in all three dimensions. On the dimension of emotional exhaustion (EE), 70.7% reported high levels of burnout. While, 44.2% reported high levels of depersonalization (DP), and 73.1% experienced a sense of decreased professional accomplishment (PA). There were significant differences in burnout, EE, and DP levels among different specialties, with the pediatrics-specialty trainees reported higher levels. Burnout syndrome was associated with the working hours per single duty; participants who reported working for more than 24 hours had experienced higher levels of burnout, EE, and DP. Conclusion: Large-scale studies are required to assess the determinants of burnout syndrome among resident physicians in Sudan. In addition, Stakeholders should urgently implement effective remedies to protect the mental health of resident physicians.
... In der Studie von Unterbrink et al. (2007) wurde für teilzeit-gegenüber vollzeitbeschäftigten Gymnasiallehrkräften eine eingeschränktere Leistungsfähigkeit ermittelt. Bannai et al. (2015) weisen für Lehrkräfte sowie Hu et al. (2016) ...
Chapter
Die berufliche Bildung leidet seit Jahren unter Lehrer:Innenmangel (Kalisch & Kaiser, 2019; OECD, 2021). Daher rückt die Frage, wie Arbeitstätigkeiten von Berufsschullehrer:Innen gestaltet sind und welche Verbesserungen der Arbeitsbedingungen und der Qualifizierung zum/r Berufsschullehrer:In möglich sind, in den Fokus von Politik und Forschung. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der Frage nach der Gestaltung der Arbeitstätigkeiten. Zur Beantwortung wurden bei 21 Lehrkräften zweier Berufsschulen über einen gesamten Arbeitstag hinweg Beobachtungsinterviews durch geschulte Expert:Innen durchgeführt. Genutzt wurde das Verfahren „Tätigkeitsanalyse und -gestaltung – Mentale Anforderungen (TAG-MA; Rau et al., 2021), welches auf der Handlungsregulationstheorie basiert und die Anforderungen unabhängig vom Erleben der Lehrer:Innen erfasst. Das TAG-MA besteht aus inhaltlich verankerten ordinalen Bewertungsskalen, die jeweils ein bestimmtes Arbeitsmerkmal beschreiben (z.B. Freiheitsgrade, Jobfeedback, kognitives Anforderungsniveau). Im Ergebnis der Analysen werden Vorschläge für die Gestaltung der Arbeitsbedingungen und für die Qualifikationsmöglichkeiten von Lehrkräften abgeleitet. https://www.pabst-publishers.com/shop-checkout/detailansicht.html?tt_products%5BbackPID%5D=21&tt_products%5Bsword%5D=M%C3%BChlpfordt&tt_products%5Bproduct%5D=1925&cHash=cb3bd7e308fa6157e4e5dbb95ec561db
... It is known that long working hours have a negative effect on health, such as hypertension (Cheng et al., 2021), cardiovascular diseases (Lin et al., 2018), and diabetes (Baek et al., 2019). In addition, poor mental health such as job burnout (Hu et al., 2016), occupational stress (Lee et al., 2016), and depression (Virtanen et al., 2018) are also associated with long working hours. Therefore, long working hours have become one of the important factors affecting the physical and mental health of work population. ...
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Objective This study aimed to examine the association between long working hours, occupational stress, depression, and well-being, and to explore the intermediary effect of occupational stress and well-being between working hours and depression among couriers in Zhejiang, China. Methods The study used a cluster random sampling method to select 1,200 couriers from mainstream express companies in Zhejiang, China. The data were collected and analyzed using the Core Occupational Stress Scale (COSS) to measure occupational stress, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale to evaluate depression, and the World Health Organization five-item Well-Being Index (WHO-5) scale to assess well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesized relationship among the variables. Results The phenomenon of long working hours (75.1%) was quite common among couriers in Zhejiang, China. Working hours had a direct positive effect on depression ( β = 0.008, p < 0.001) and on occupational stress ( β = 0.009, p < 0.001), and working hours had a negative effect on well-being ( β = −0.013, p < 0.001). Occupational stress had a direct positive effect on depression ( β = 0.272, p < 0.001), but well-being had no significant direct effect on depression. Working hours had an indirect effect on depression through the mediating effect of occupational stress while the mediating effect of well-being was not found. Conclusion Long working hours is associated with occupational stress, well-being, and depression. Our results confirmed that working hours, occupational stress, and well-being were strong predicators of depression. Working hours had a significant indirect effect on depression via occupational stress. The result of this study showed that decreasing working hours and reducing occupational stress would be effective for couriers to prevent depression. However, more studies are needed to verify the relationship between working hours and depression.
... There are scientific publications which confirm relationships between long working hours, occupational burnout, and the incidence of somatic diseases [42]. The critical point may be reached when the 40 h working week is exceeded [43]. In our study, this point was exceeded in the case of most, or even all, examined women. ...
Article
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According to scientific research, emergency call-takers and dispatchers (ECD) are particularly vulnerable to burnout syndrome. It can be observed that this occupation is predominantly performed by women. Moreover, the studies on occupational burnout indicate its different causes depending on employees' gender. The aim of this research was to apply a Person-Oriented approach in order to examine the relationships between particular risk factors, the level of burnout, and its health consequences in a group of women. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted on 296 women (call-takers and dispatchers) from public-safety answering points in Poland. The Link Burnout Questionnaire and a sociodemographic questionnaire were used to gather information. The method of latent profile analysis (LPA) was employed in the study. The study revealed burnout patterns without full symptoms as well as four different burnout profiles. The findings partially confirmed initial assumptions about correlations between the length of service as ECD, marital status, motherhood, burnout symptoms, and body mass index (BMI). Sociodemographic variables differentiated the examined women in terms of their emotional exhaustion and BMI. Three groups of women at risk of burnout and overweight were identified: those with the shortest job experience, those with the longest job experience, and an intermediate group. In each of these groups, symptoms indicating a possible risk of burnout-related health issues could be observed. The application of a Person-Oriented approach allowed for assessing possible correlations between burnout risk factors, its symptoms, and health consequences.
... Following the guidelines of Bernerth and Aguinis (2016), control variables were added at employee-and leader-level. At the employee-level, we controlled for variables that altered emotional exhaustion and turnover intention in past research, such as, whether the teacher has a permanent or a temporary contract (e.g., De Cuyper et al., 2014) and the number of teaching hours during an average week (e.g., Hu et al., 2016). Furthermore, we controlled for the teachers' age, not only because age can alter emotional exhaustion (e.g., Antoniou et al., 2006) and turnover intention (e.g., Guarino , 2013). ...
Article
Currently, the public sector is undergoing a major digital transformation. Although this digitization is seen as a positive transformation, digital tools can also put additional job demands on employees, resulting in negative HR outcomes. An example of a job demand resulting from such digital tools is red tape. By building on the job demands-resources model, we developed a theoretical model investigating the relationship between red tape originating from digital tools and turnover intention. Our data analysis (N = 779 teachers; 91 school leaders) provides evidence for a positive indirect relationship between red tape originating from digital tools and turnover intention, through emotional exhaustion. Additionally, our results also suggest that the amount of red tape perceived by an employee’s leader will exacerbate the strength of this indirect relationship, hereby providing evidence that a factor at leader-level can exacerbate effects on a lower level.
... We found several demographic differences in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and career satisfaction. Consistent with previous research [19,25,26] we found that women physicians, physicians working longer hours, and those in primary care have higher odds of reporting burnout (both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.) We found male physicians, physicians who are married or in a committed relationship, and those with longer work experience have higher satisfaction in both time use and career satisfaction. ...
Article
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Background: Physicians report increasing burnout and declining career-related satisfaction, negatively impacting physician well-being and patient care quality. For physicians with academic affiliations, these issues can directly affect future generations of physicians. Previous research on burnout and satisfaction has focused on factors like work hours, gender, race, specialty, and work setting. We seek to contribute to the literature by examining these associations while controlling for demographic, family, and work-related characteristics. Furthermore, we aim to determine any differential effects of faculty rank. Methods: We analyzed data on practicing physicians in the U.S. from the Association of American Medical College's (AAMC) 2019 National Sample Survey of Physicians (NSSP,) which includes variables adapted from the Maslach Burnout Inventory. We used ordinal logistic regressions to explore associations between academic affiliation and burnout. We conducted a factor analysis to consolidate satisfaction measures, then examined their relationship with academic affiliation using multivariate linear regressions. All regression analyses controlled for physicians' individual, family, and work characteristics. Results: Among respondents (n = 6,000), 40% were affiliated with academic institutions. Physicians with academic affiliations had lower odds than their non-affiliated peers for feeling emotional exhaustion every day (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79-0.96; P < .001) and reported greater career-related satisfaction (0.10-0.14, SE, 0.03, 0.02; P < .001). The odds of feeling burnt out every day were higher for associate professors, (OR 1.57; 95% CI: 1.22-2.04; P < .001) assistant professors, (OR 1.64; 95% CI: 1.28-2.11; P < .001), and instructors (OR 1.72; 95% CI, 1.29-2.29; P < .001), relative to full professors. Conclusions: Our findings contribute to the literature on burnout and career satisfaction by exploring their association with academic affiliation and examining how they vary among different faculty ranks. An academic affiliation may be an essential factor in keeping physicians' burnout levels lower and career satisfaction higher. It also suggests that policies addressing physician well-being are not "one size fits all" and should consider factors such as academic affiliation, faculty rank and career stage, gender identity, the diversity of available professional opportunities, and institutional and social supports. For instance, department chairs and administrators in medical institutions could protect physicians' time for academic activities like teaching to help keep burnout lower and career satisfaction higher.
... A possible explanation for these results is that the current number of hours worked has reached excessive levels in terms of the actual demands for improving efficiency. Previous studies have shown that long work hours contribute to burnout and even suicide [42][43][44]. Indeed, employee loss would decrease organizational performance [45]. ...
Article
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Work is a cornerstone of social development. Quantifying the impact on development of fluctuations in work hours is important because longer work hours increasingly seem to be the norm. Based on an integrative perspective that combines individual, organizational, and social factors, we constructed a model using data from 31 member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The proposed model was used to test the effect of work hours on different levels and to propose feasible suggestions accordingly. The results show that people in developing countries work more hours per week than those in developed countries, and that males work longer hours than females. Furthermore, regression analysis shows that current work hours are having a negative impact on development in OECD countries, especially in developing countries where people are working longer hours. Longer hours, in other words, do not promote development effectively. Specifically, work hours at the individual level are negatively related to health. At the level of organization, work hours are a reverse indicator of organizational performance, and at the level of society, there is a negative relationship between work hours and economic development. This study provides support for the proposition by the International Labour Organization to reduce work hours, and it facilitates our understanding of the relationship between work hours and social development.
... At the same time, doctors accepted by training programs have to pay annual training fees to the SMSB, posing extreme financial burden on resident physicians and forces them to work extra-hours in private hospitals or clinics to cover their daily living expenses. This in turn affects their training quality and the time they have for academic achievement, which pose further risk for stress and burnout [18]. The training period ranges from four to seven years depending on the chosen specialty. ...
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Background Resident physicians in Sudan suffer multiple physical and psychological stressors. Nevertheless, the prevalence of burnout among this critical population remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of burnout and its related factors in a sample of Sudanese resident physicians. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used to assess burnout among resident physicians at the teaching hospitals of Wad-Medani, Gezira state in Sudan. All resident physicians across nine hospitals were asked to join the study. The Arabic version of Maslach Burnout Inventory was distributed to respondents from July to October 2021. Results: Out of 300 resident physicians 69.3% responded. The study population had a mean age of 29.99 years, more than half were females (56.7%) and single (59.6%). In total, 86.1% met the criteria for burnout in at least one dimension, and 13.9 % in all three dimensions.70.7% suffer from a high level of burnout on the dimension of emotional exhaustion (EE), while 44.2% reported a high level on depersonalization (DP) and 73.1% experienced a sense of decreased professional accomplishment (PA). There were significant differences in the levels of burnout, EE and DP among different specialties. Burnout syndrome was associated with working hours per single duty; with participants working for more than 24 hours had experienced higher levels of burnout, EE and DP. Conclusions: High prevalence of burnout syndrome was found in this sample of resident physicians in Sudan. Stakeholders should urgently implement effective remedies to protect the mental health of resident physicians.
... Burnout in the context of this pandemic is multifactorial. Burnout associates with fatigue and workload, particularly when working longer and out-of-hours [11,36]. Nearly 12 months on from our initial work, working pattern alterations remain common; 59% of those in adapted roles continue to work longer shifts with more out-of-hour shifts compared with prepandemic, with associated fatigue. ...
Article
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Background The COVID-19 pandemic is placing a significant strain on healthcare. We conducted a national survey of the UK nephrology workforce to understand its impacts on their working lives. Methods An online questionnaire incorporating the Maslach Burnout Inventory Score was distributed between 31st March and 1st May 2021, with a focus on COVID-19 and long COVID incidence, vaccine uptake, burnout, and working patterns. Data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively; multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations. Results 423 responses were received. 29% had contracted COVID-19, more common among doctors and nurses (OR 2.18, 95%CI 1.13–4.22), and those under the age of 55 (OR 2.60, 95%CI 1.38–4.90). 36% of those who contracted COVID-19 had symptoms of long COVID, more common among ethnicities other than White British (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.09–6.05). 57% had evidence of burnout, more common amongst younger respondents (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.10–3.35) and those with long COVID (OR 10.31, 95% CI 1.32–80.70). 59% with reconfigured job plans continue to work more hours. More of those working full-time wished to retire early. 59% experienced remote working, with a majority preference to continue this in the future. 95% had received one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine; 86% had received two doses by May 2021. Conclusions Burnout and long COVID is prevalent with impacts on working lives. Some groups more at risk. Vaccination uptake is high, and remote and flexible working were well received. Institutional interventions are needed to prevent workforce attrition.
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Background Seafarers are often reported to be engaged in a dangerous physical and psychosocial work environment. However, mental health status among seafarers has not been focused on compared with physical health issues. Systematic, comprehensive reviews of mental health problems and their relevant factors are lacking. This review aimed to clarify beneficial approaches to the mental health problems faced among seafarers using a scoping review to systematically map the evidence regarding mental health issues and their related factors. Methods Studies were searched on MEDLINE/PubMed, Science Direct, Academic search complete using EBSCOhost databases, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of science on 20, August 2020. This scoping review was conducted based on the framework of Arksey and O’Malley and Preferred Reporting items for Scoping Reviews flow diagram. The inclusion criteria were studies which determined the relationship between factors relevant to working conditions or working environment, and mental health in seafarers, and etc. Data were narratively summarized and reported. Results Twenty-four were included in this review while two major findings were clarified. Firstly, the prevalence of stress, depressive symptoms, and burnout have been mentioned for decades. Secondly, factors related to mental health and psychological issues can be categorized as individual and work environmental factors. The individual factors include experience, age, health status (high BMI, poor sleep, and diabetics), and resilience. The work environmental factors consist of two parts. Job demands comprise pressure from contractors/customers/time, working hours, ship department, job title, voyage episodes, period of seafaring, noise, and vibration. The job resources included instrumental support, team cohesion, shipboard caring and effort-reward imbalance. Conclusions A beneficial approach to mental health problems faced among seafarers is necessary to understand comprehensively at individual and organization levels. Promoting health behaviors, training resilience, and managing obesity and chronic diseases comprise individual level strategies. Providing seafarers with adequate instrumental support, and practical support to communicate with customers, managing their distinct work-rest hours and adequate effort-reward balance comprise organization level methods.
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Background: The main objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among doctors, (2) establish associations with demographic factors in China, and (3) examine the mediating role of psychological attachment in the relationship between job burnout and career calling. Methods:This cross-sectional survey was conducted by administering an online questionnaire in May 2016. The survey was performed across Thirty provinces. In total,A total of 3,016 Chinese doctors were selected as participants, of which 2,617 completed valid questionnaires (effective response rate: 86.77%). Results: The overall prevalence of burnout symptoms among Chinese doctors was 85.79%. Little variance was reported for burnout symptoms according to age (Waldc2 = 6.843, P 1), and daily working hours (Waldc 2= 7.226, P 1). However, the burnout of Chinese doctors was found to be associated with psychological attachment (B = -0.6433, P
Article
Compassion satisfaction (CS) among healthcare professionals is a sense of gratification derived from caring for their suffering patients. In contrast, compassion fatigue, often a consequence of burnout (BO) and secondary traumatic stress (STS), is detrimental to healthcare professionals' productivity and patient care. While several studies have examined CS, BO, and STS among healthcare professionals, the majority have assessed samples in specific disciplines. However, the comparative differences in these factors by discipline or work setting are not well known. The aims of this study were to examine the differences in CS, BO, and STS by discipline and work setting, and to assess demographic, work-related, and behavioural factors associated with these outcomes. An electronic survey was administered (N = 764) at a large academic medical centre in the southeast United States. Questions elicited demographic variables, work-related factors, behavioural/lifestyle factors, experience with workplace violence, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale. Findings of the study determined that the rates of CS, BO, and STS vary across healthcare disciplines and work settings. Demographic, work-related, behavioural, and work setting (i.e., experience of workplace violence) factors were differentially associated with experiences of CS, BO, and STS. The results of the study suggest two potential areas for research, specifically workplace violence and sleep quality as a means of further understanding reduced CS and increased BO and STS among healthcare workers. These findings have important implications for future research and policy interventions to enhance healthcare workers' health and safety.
Chapter
In this chapter, we provide an examination of how workplace environments and employers can address professional burnout and trauma-related employment stress. We examine the organizational variables (i.e., work and caseload, organizational bureaucracy, and availability of external supports) associated with these work-related injuries. From this discussion, we conclude the chapter with recommendations for the workplace environment that we judge will help to address the challenges of burnout and TRES.
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Academic labs can be difficult places to work — but why is that the case and what can be done to address the issues that lead to harmful working environments?
Article
Clergy and church leaders experience unique pressure and stressors associated with ministry. In this study, we examined protective and risk factors related to burnout, life satisfaction, and marital conflict in a sample of 124 Chinese American church leaders. We examined the role of self-compassion, self-criticism, and bicultural identity. Ministry leaders (i.e., full-time or part-time pastors, deacons, elders, ministers) aged 25 to 68 years from Chinese American churches in the United States completed surveys online. In the overall structural equation model, self-compassion and bicultural identity were associated with lower levels of burnout; both were not related to life satisfaction or marital conflict. In contrast, self-criticism was related to higher rates of marital conflict and lower levels of life satisfaction; it was not associated with ministry burnout. Self-compassion was inversely related to self-criticism. Our findings suggest that self-compassion and self-criticism have distinct implications for psychological functioning among Chinese American church leaders. Specifically, whereas self-compassion was a protective factor against ministry burnout, self-criticism was a risk factor for marital relationships and life satisfaction. Bicultural identity integration protected against ministry burnout and may be particularly helpful when working with diverse Chinese American churches. Practical implications for Chinese American clergy and ministry leaders were discussed.
Article
Objective: The aims of this study were to examine burnout among full-time workers and to investigate the effect of employment status on burnout. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study were derived from the 2015 Taiwan Social Change Survey. Burnout was measured by the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory's four core items. Employment status was categorized into employer and employee. Multivariate linear regression models were used to assess the associations between employment status and burnout. Results: Among 1,007 full-time workers, 21.65% were employers and 78.35% were employees. The multivariate linear regression model indicated that after adjusting for all possible risk factors, being an employer (b = 3.95, 95% CI: 0.40, 7.50) was associated with an increased risk of burnout among full-time workers. Conclusions: Employment status was a significant factor of burnout among workers.
Article
Objective: Examine relationships among worked hours, stress, sleep hours, burnout, PTSD, anxiety, and depression reported by academic medical center employees. Methods: Employees completed an anonymous electronic mental health survey with automated feedback that included self-help and professional local resources. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: 80% of participants reported (n=693) med/high stress, 58% reported burnout, 37%/26% screened positive for anxiety/depression, and 14% reported PTSD. SEM attained highly significant coefficients (p < 0.05) and excellent goodness-of-fit, with strong stress and PTSD positive direct associations with anxiety, burnout, and depression. The model explained 58% of variation in depression scores. A clinician only model demonstrated stronger PTSD effects, but no work hours effects. Conclusion: Workplace self-screening tools can guide employee mental health self-assessment, self-help programs, and professional resources; while also informing targets for employer programs.
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Aim: This study aimed to investigate compassion satisfaction (CS) and compassion fatigue (CF) in haematology nurses and their associated factors. Design: A cross-sectional survey. Methods: The survey was conducted on 336 haematology nurses from 21 hospitals in Sichuan, China. The CS and CF were assessed by the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5. The CF was determined by burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Results: Haematology nurses in China had moderate levels of CS and moderate-to-low CF. Better nursing competence of teaching/consultation and communication/coordination and the percentage of critically ill patients >60% predicted higher CS. The permanent nurse, better nursing competence of communication/coordination and specialized clinical practice predicted less burnout, while working >40 hr per week or more nurse-patient conflict events predicted more burnout. In addition, working >40 hr per week, more nurse-patient conflict events and having the need of psychological support predicted higher secondary traumatic stress.
Article
Objective Burnout among physicians is common and has important implications. We assessed the extent of burnout among rheumatology practitioners and its associations. Methods 128 attendees at the 2019 Rheumatology Winter Clinical Symposium were surveyed using the Maslach Burnout Index™ (MBI™) and a demographics questionnaire. Scores for emotional exhaustion (EE) ≥27, depersonalization (DP) ≥10, and personal accomplishment (PA) ≤33 were considered positive for burnout. Data regarding practitioner characteristics including age, sex, years in practice, and other demographics of interest were also collected. These data were used to determine prevalence and interactions of interest between practitioner characteristics and the risk of burnout. Results Of the 128 respondents, 50.8% demonstrated burnout in at least one MBI™ domain. Dissatisfaction with EMR was associated with a 2.86 times increased likelihood of burnout (OR=2.86 p=0.015, 95% CI: 1.23-6.65). Similar results were found for lack of exercise (OR=5.00 p= 0.016, 95% CI: 1.3 - 18.5) and work hours > 60 hour/week (OR=2.6 p= 0.019, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.6). Practitioners in group practice were 57% less likely to burnout (OR=0.43 p=0.029 95% CI: 0.20-0.92), as were those who spend > 20% of their time in personally satisfying work (OR=0.32 p=0.005 95% CI: 0.15-0.71). Conclusion In what we believe to be one of the largest studies regarding burnout among rheumatology practitioners, we found a substantial prevalence of burnout, with 51% of all respondents meeting criteria in at least one domain defined by the MBI™ and 54% of physicians meeting this same criterion.
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Teachers are at increased risk of stress-related illnesses and burnout symptoms. Thus, a cross-sectional study involving 6109 full-time and 5905 part-time teachers at upper-level secondary schools examined the influence of presumed work-related and personal characteristics on burnout risk between January and April 2018. Burnout was recorded using the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Survey (MBI-GS). Work-related characteristics were weekly working hours and work stress, operationalized with the effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model. Overcommitment and the inability to recover were determined as personal characteristics. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for age and gender. Overall, 47% of the teachers reported burnout symptoms and 3% had an indication of burnout. Full-time and part-time teachers did not differ in their risk of burnout. ERI, overcommitment, and inability to recover were identified as predictors of burnout risk (explained variance: 29%), whereby the inability to recover was the strongest predictor. In contrast, weekly working hours, extent of employment, gender and age were not related to the burnout risk. ERI was found in 33%, inability to recover in 36% and overcommitment in 39% of all the teachers studied. In particular, the inability to recover should be taken into account as an early indicator of burnout.
Book
This book presents the proceedings of the 8th International Ergonomics Conference (ERGONOMICS), held in Zagreb, Croatia on December 2-5, 2020. By highlighting the latest theories and models, as well as cutting-edge technologies and applications, and by combining findings from a range of disciplines including engineering, design, robotics, healthcare, management, computer science, human biology and behavioral science, it provides researchers and practitioners alike with a comprehensive, timely guide on human factors and ergonomics. It also offers an excellent source of innovative ideas to stimulate future discussions and developments aimed at applying knowledge and techniques to optimize system performance, while at the same time promoting the health, safety and wellbeing of individuals. The proceedings include papers from researchers and practitioners, scientists and physicians, institutional leaders, managers and policy makers that contribute to constructing the Human Factors and Ergonomics approach across a variety of methodologies, domains and productive sectors.
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Modern technology is ubiquitous i.e., “always there” – available to us when we want it and engaging us even when we don’t actively seek it. This constantly available ubiquitous technology influences people’s perception of time. This conceptual paper explores how ubiquitous technology creates a new time vision we call ubichronic time. We argue ubichronic time is qualitatively different from existing time visions and highlight the new values and behaviours associated with it. Specifically, people who have an ubichronic time vision perform disparate activities that span short durations across the day, find specific tiny units of time valuable and cram many repeated activities into a day. We also argue ubichronic time will have profound implications on the way we work and as such propose new concepts and research directions on how the way we work needs to adapt at the individual, team, and organisational levels.
Article
Objective : To study the sociodemographic and work-related factors that affect the level of burnout syndrome in Spanish dentists through an observational epidemiological study. Method : An online survey answered by 1298 Spanish dentists was used to record their gender, age, work environment, number of practices in which they work, whether they work alone or not, whether they own or co-own the practice, years of experience, working hours per week, and their answers to the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS). A univariate analysis was carried out to study the relationship between the work-related and sociodemographic factors examined for each of the three dimensions of burnout: Emotional Exhaustion (EE), Depersonalisation (DP) and Personal Accomplishment (PA). Subsequently, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted. Results : The percentage of dentists with signs of burnout classified as "Emotional Exhaustion" was higher: for women (64.4%) than men (56.7%) (p=0.005); for those working in a rural setting (70.1%) than for those working in an urban setting (59.9%) (p=0.009); for non-owners (65.6%) in comparison to owners (58.3%) (p =0.008); and for those who always or frequently work alone (63.7%), compared to dentists who never or rarely work alone (59.9%) (p=0.007). A high level of burnout was experienced by 9.8% of dentists. Conclusion : In the population studied, environment, age and working hours per week have a significant impact upon EE, while ownership of the practice, years of experience, and working hours per week significantly affect DP. Working alone brings with it a high risk of suffering from a low sense of PA. Clinical Significance : Burnout syndrome is more likely to affect young dentists who do not own a practice and work long hours each week.
Chapter
This study aimed to estimate the relationship between workload and burnout syndrome among healthcare professionals working in training or non-training healthcare organizations in Bulgaria. The study was conducted using the web-based Bulgarian Version of the Boyko’s Burnout Inventory, which contains 84 statements grouped in 12 symptoms and 3 phases, and questions related to the weekly workload. The data were exported directly to SPSS 17.0 statistical software and analyzed with descriptive statistics and Spearman’s correlation coefficient rs. The level of significance of 5% probability (p < 0.05) was adopted. Based on the responses to the Boyko’s Inventory 29.0% of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 51.6% had a high level of resistance, and 31.50% had a high level of strain. The high level of burnout was found among 27.4%. The average weekly working hours for all respondents were 43.78 ± 16.51 h. For specialists who have been diagnosed with burnout, the average weekly working time was 48.47 ± 13.72 h. For those who did not receive a positive diagnosis, the average weekly duty time was 37.72 ± 15.22 h. There were average correlations between the level of burnout and the weekly working hours (rs = 0.286; p = 0.001).
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Background Workplace burnout among healthcare professionals is a critical public health concern. Few studies have examined organizational and individual factors associated with burnout across healthcare professional groups.Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association between practice adaptive reserve (PAR) and individual behavioural response to change and burnout among healthcare professionals in primary care.DesignThis cross-sectional study used survey data from 154 primary care practices participating in the EvidenceNOW Heart of Virginia Healthcare initiative.ParticipantsWe analysed data from 1279 healthcare professionals in Virginia. Our sample included physicians, advanced practice clinicians, clinical support staff and administrative staff.Main MeasuresWe used the PAR instrument to measure organizational capacity for change and the Change Diagnostic Index© (CDI) to measure individual behavioural response, which achieved a 76% response rate. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of PAR and CDI on burnout.Key ResultsAs organizational capacity for change increased, burnout in healthcare professionals decreased by 51% (OR: 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33, 0.73). As healthcare professionals showed improved response toward change, burnout decreased by 84% (OR: 0.16; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.23). Analysis by healthcare professional type revealed a significant association between high organizational capacity for change, positive response to change and low burnout among administrative staff (OR: 2.92; 95% CI, 1.37, 6.24). Increased hours of work per week was associated with higher odds of burnout (OR: 1.07; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.10) across healthcare professional groups.Conclusion As transformation efforts in primary care continue, it is critical to understand the influence of these initiatives on healthcare professionals’ well-being. Efforts to reduce burnout among healthcare professionals are needed at both a system and organizational level. Building organizational capacity for change, supporting providers and staff during major change and consideration of individual workload may reduce levels of burnout.
Chapter
The mission of this chapter is to encourage and provide a model for leaders to lead organizations through a work-life balance (WLB)-centered holistic leadership approach. This approach begins by explaining why it is imperative to lead by considering the totality of each person from a diverse and inclusive viewpoint. The totality of each person includes one's self-care management practices and all roles one plays in life. The apex of this mission is to provide leaders with a research-based practitioner model to create an inclusive culture of organizational health and wellness. The self-care flourished living (SCFL) model coupled with a holistic leadership approach that diversifies to meet individual employee needs will be showcased in this chapter. The result of leading employees through SCFL and a holistic approach will promote living a life of balance through effective self-care.
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Some issues on constructs of MBI-GS in the burnout study has been risen. Schaufeli’s team(2019) invented the new measure of Burnout Assessment Tool(BAT) as the second version of burnout inventory, which covers the problematic issues. The present study aimed to validate the BAT among the South Korean sample. The one among 23 items of BAT were excluded based on an exploratory factor analysis using 367 South Korean employees. A four-factor structure of K-BAT (i.e., exhaustion, mental distance, impaired cognitive control, impaired emotional control) was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis using a different 345 employees. Validity tests for a convergence and a discriminativeness were tested by applying the MTMM(Multi-Traits Multi-Methods) model, along with a correlation analysis with MBI. For external discriminative validity, engagement was used. A sequential test for a criterion validity both with demands of workload and role ambiguity and with outcomes of turnover intention and depression was conducted. A convergence, an external discriminative, and a criterion validity were supported respectively, whereas an internal discriminative validity with MBI not supported. Implications and the directions for a consequential study were discussed, with considering the present study as an initial study for validating K-BAT.
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Korea is well known for its long work hours amongst employees. Because workers of the manufacturing industry are constantly exposed to extended work hours, this study was based on how long work hours affect their emotional well-being. The analysis was done using the secondary Korean Working Condition Survey (KWCS). Long work hours were defined to be more than 48 hours, and they were subcategorized into units of 52 hours and 60 hours. Based on the WHO (five) well-being index, emotional state was subdivided into three groups - reference group, low-mood group, and possible depression group- where 28 points and 50 points were division points, and two groups were compared at a time. Association between long work hours and emotional state was analyzed using binary and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Working for extended working hours in the manufacturing industry showed a statistically significant increase (t test p < 0.001) in trend among the possible depression group when compared to the reference group and the low-mood group. When demographical characteristics, health behaviors, socioeconomic state, and work-related characteristics were fixed as controlled variables, as work hours increased the odds ratio of the possible depression group increased compared to the reference group, and especially the odds ratio was 2.73 times increased for work hours between 48-52 and 4.09 times increased for 60 hours or more and both were statistically significant. In comparing the low-mood group and possible depression group, as work hours increased the odds ratio increased to 1.73, 2.39, and 4.16 times, and all work hours from working 48-52 hours, 53-60 hours, and 60 hours or more were statistically significant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis also showed that among the reference group and possible group, the possible depression group was statistically significant as odds ratio increased to 2.94 times in working 53-60 hours, and 4.35 times in 60 hours or more. Long work hours have an adverse effect on emotional well-being. A more diversified research towards variables that affect long work hours and emotional well-being and how they interact with each other and their relationship to overall health is imperative.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the rate of burnout and the contributing factors behind it among physicians in Shanghai. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 457 physicians from 21 hospitals in Shanghai completed self-reported questionnaires in June 2008. The Chinese version of the job content questionnaire (C-JCQ) and the Chinese version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire (C-ERI) were used to measure occupational stress. The Chinese version of Maslach Burnout Inventory (C-MBI) was used to measure burnout rate. We then performed regression analysis of physician burnout. Results: The MBI model revealed that 277 physicians (60.6%) were experiencing a mild degree of burnout and that 27 physicians (5.9%) were experiencing a severe degree of burnout. In the assessment of occupational stress, most physicians (64.8%) had a demand/control ratio higher than 1, and 21.9% of all physicians had an effort/reward ratio higher than 1, indicating a high level of occupational stress exposure. Regression analyses showed higher levels of burnout among physicians of younger age, less work experience, longer working hours, on shift duty, or from highergrade hospitals. Both the JCQ and ERI models showed good predictive power for physician burnout, with the ERI model performing better. Conclusions: Physicians in Shanghai were experiencing a high degree of burnout, which was significantly associated with occupational stress as well as distinctive personal and work characteristics. Interventions aiming at reducing job-related stress can be effective approaches to prevent burnout among physicians.
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Objective: The purpose of the present study was to examine whether intraindividual changes in physical activity were correlated with intraindividual changes in mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) across four measurement time-points over 6 years, both from between-person and within-person perspectives. Methods: Health care workers (N = 3717; mean age = 46.9; SD = 10.0) were the target population in this study, which is part of a larger longitudinal survey that included questionnaires on physical activity levels and mental health (depression, anxiety, and burnout) at four time points across 6 years (2004-2010). Physical activity was assessed with an adapted version of the widely used 1-item, 4-level Saltin Grimby Physical Activity Level Scale (SGPALS). Depression, anxiety, and burnout were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ). Bivariate latent growth curve models were used to analyze the associations of change between physical activity and mental health. Results: Baseline levels of physical activity were moderately associated with baseline levels of mental health (rs = -.27 to -.40, ps < .01). Changes in physical activity were moderately to strongly associated (rs = -.57 to -.79, ps <. 01) with change in mental health at the between-person (correlated change) level and significantly, but weakly (rs = -.08 to -.14, ps <.01), associated with change at the within-person (coupled change) level of analysis. Conclusions: Changes in physical activity were associated with, and traveled together with, changes in depression, anxiety, and burnout across time. Changes in physical activity, and not only current or previous levels of activity, may be important to consider in preventive work linked to mental health within this population.
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So far, the large majority of studies on burnout in the international literature have employed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). In this paper we criticize the MBI on a number of points and present a new tool for the measurement of burnout: the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). The CBI consists of three scales measuring personal burnout, work-related burnout, and client-related burnout, for use in different domains. On the basis of an ongoing prospective study of burnout in employees in the human service sector, the PUMA study (Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction; N=1914 at baseline), we analysed the validity and reliability of the CBI. All three scales were found to have very high internal reliability, and non-response rates were small. The scales differentiated well between occupational groups in the human service sector, and the expected pattern with regard to correlations with other measures of fatigue and psychological well-being was found. Furthermore, the three scales predicted future sickness absence, sleep problems, use of pain-killers, and intention to quit. Analyses of changes over time showed that substantial proportions of the employees changed with regard to burnout levels. It is concluded that the analyses indicate very satisfactory reliability and validity for the CBI instrument. The CBI is being used in a number of countries and translations into eight languages are available.
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Purpose – To identify the specific sources of occupational stress and the professional burnout experienced by teachers working in Greek primary and secondary schools. A special emphasis is given to gender and age differences. Design/methodology/approach – A cross‐sectional design was used. Two self‐report measures were administered to a sample of 493 primary and secondary school teachers, a self‐report rating scale of specific occupational stressors and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (education version). Findings – The most highly rated sources of stress referred to problems in interaction with students, lack of interest, low attainment and handling students with “difficult” behaviour. Female teachers experienced significantly higher levels of occupational stress, specifically with regard to interaction with students and colleagues, workload, students' progress and emotional exhaustion. Younger teachers experienced higher levels of burnout, specifically in terms of emotional exhaustion and disengagement from the profession, while older teachers experienced higher levels of stress in terms of the support they feel they receive from the government. Practical implications – The findings will help to implement effective primary and secondary level prevention programmes against occupational stress taking into account how males and females and younger and older teachers perceive stress at work. Originality/value – The study is a significant addition to the teacher stress and burnout literature, especially in Greece where few relevant studies exist dealing with these problems.
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Background: Although insomnia is a prevalent complaint with significant morbidity, it often remains unrecognized and untreated. Brief and valid instruments are needed both for screening and outcome assessment. This study examined psychometric indices of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) to detect cases of insomnia in a population-based sample and to evaluate treatment response in a clinical sample. Methods: Participants were 959 individuals selected from the community for an epidemiological study of insomnia (Community sample) and 183 individuals evaluated for insomnia treatment and 62 controls without insomnia (Clinical sample). They completed the ISI and several measures of sleep quality, fatigue, psychological symptoms, and quality of life; those in the Clinical sample also completed sleep diaries, polysomnography, and interviews to validate their insomnia/good sleep status and assess treatment response. In addition to standard psychometric indices of reliability and validity, item response theory analyses were computed to examine ISI item response patterns. Receiver operating curves were used to derive optimal cutoff scores for case identification and to quantify the minimally important changes in relation to global improvement ratings obtained by an independent assessor. Results: ISI internal consistency was excellent for both samples (Cronbach α of 0.90 and 0.91). Item response analyses revealed adequate discriminatory capacity for 5 of the 7 items. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between total ISI score and measures of fatigue, quality of life, anxiety, and depression. A cutoff score of 10 was optimal (86.1% sensitivity and 87.7% specificity) for detecting insomnia cases in the community sample. In the clinical sample, a change score of -8.4 points (95% CI: -7.1, -9.4) was associated with moderate improvement as rated by an independent assessor after treatment. Conclusion: These findings provide further evidence that the ISI is a reliable and valid instrument to detect cases of insomnia in the population and is sensitive to treatment response in clinical patients.
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Background Although long working hours are common in working populations, little is known about the effect of long working hours on mental health. Method We examined the association between long working hours and the onset of depressive and anxiety symptoms in middle-aged employees. Participants were 2960 full-time employees aged 44 to 66 years (2248 men, 712 women) from the prospective Whitehall II cohort study of British civil servants. Working hours, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and covariates were measured at baseline (1997–1999) followed by two subsequent measurements of depressive and anxiety symptoms (2001 and 2002–2004). Results In a prospective analysis of participants with no depressive ( n =2549) or anxiety symptoms ( n =2618) at baseline, Cox proportional hazard analysis adjusted for baseline covariates showed a 1.66-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.61] risk of depressive symptoms and a 1.74-fold (95% CI 1.15–2.61) risk of anxiety symptoms among employees working more than 55 h/week compared with employees working 35–40 h/week. Sex-stratified analysis showed an excess risk of depression and anxiety associated with long working hours among women [hazard ratios (HRs) 2.67 (95% CI 1.07–6.68) and 2.84 (95% CI 1.27–6.34) respectively] but not men [1.30 (0.77–2.19) and 1.43 (0.89–2.30)]. Conclusions Working long hours is a risk factor for the development of depressive and anxiety symptoms in women.
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To examine the association between overtime work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) among middle-aged employees. Six thousand and fourteen British civil servants (4262 men and 1752 women), aged 39-61 years who were free from CHD and worked full time at baseline (1991-1994), were followed until 2002-2004, an average of 11 years. The outcome measure was incident fatal CHD, clinically verified incident non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or definite angina (a total of 369 events). Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics showed that 3-4 h overtime work per day was associated with 1.60-fold (95% CI 1.15-2.23) increased risk of incident CHD compared with employees with no overtime work. Adjustment for all 21 cardiovascular risk factors measured made little difference to these estimates (HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11-2.19). This association was replicated in multivariate analysis with only fatal cardiovascular disease and incident non-fatal MI as the outcome (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.02-2.76). Overtime work is related to increased risk of incident CHD independently of conventional risk factors. These findings suggest that overtime work adversely affects coronary health.
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Today, performance-based pay systems, also known as variable pay systems, are commonly implemented in workplaces as a business strategy to improve workers' performance and reduce labor costs. However, their impact on workers' job stress and stress-related health outcomes has rarely been investigated. By utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of paid employees in Taiwan, we examined the distribution of variable pay systems across socio-demographic categories and employment sectors. We also examined the associations of pay systems with psychosocial job characteristics (assessed by Karasek's Demand-Control model) and self-reported burnout status (measured by the Chinese version of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory). A total of 8906 men and 6382 women aged 25-65 years were studied, and pay systems were classified into three categories, i.e., fixed salary, performance-based pay (with a basic salary), and piece-rated or time-based pay (without a basic salary). Results indicated that in men, 57% of employees were given a fixed salary, 24% were given a performance-based pay, and 19% were remunerated through a piece-rated or time-based pay. In women, the distributions of the 3 pay systems were 64%, 20% and 15%, respectively. Among the three pay systems, employees earning through a performance-based pay were found to have the longest working hours, highest level of job control, and highest percentage of workers who perceived high stress at work. Those remunerated through a piece-rated/time-based pay were found to have the lowest job control, shortest working hours, highest job insecurity, lowest potential for career growth, and lowest job satisfaction. The results of multivariate regression analyses showed that employees earning through performance-based and piece-rated pay systems showed higher scores for personal burnout and work-related burnout, as compared to those who were given fixed salaries, after adjusting for age, education, marital status, employment grade, job characteristics, and family care workloads. As variable pay systems have gained in popularity, findings from this study call for more attention on the tradeoff between the widely discussed management advantages of such pay systems and the health burden they place on employees.
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The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the effects of burnout on risk factors for arteriosclerotic disease. Baseline data were collected from 442 male middle managers working for a manufacturing company in Japan. All participants had a physical health check-up and completed the Japanese Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. We calculated the Japanese-specific cut-off points of the MBI-GS and applied "exhaustion +1" criterion to define subjects as healthy or burnout at baseline. Follow-up measures were collected 4-5 yr later for 383 middle managers. Changes in the subjects' waist circumference, body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, fasting insulin, HOMA-R, and HbA1c over a time period of 4 to 5 yr were compared between the healthy and burnout groups. New cases of large waist circumference, high BMI, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, and impaired fasting glucose were detected at follow-up. Changes in waist circumference, body weight, and BMI were significantly greater in burned-out managers than in healthy managers. Furthermore, compared to other variables (age and health behaviors such as smoking), burnout was a significant explanatory variable. The odds ratio of the burnout group was 2.80 for hypercholesterolemia with statistical significance after adjusting for age. After adjusting for age, health behaviors, and baseline total cholesterol, the results were similar. Burnout, which results from prolonged exposure to chronic work stress, may be associated with risk factors for arteriosclerotic disease.
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The burnout syndrome denotes a constellation of physical fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and cognitive weariness resulting from chronic stress. Although it overlaps considerably with chronic fatigue as defined in internal medicine, its links with physical illness have not been systematically investigated. This exploratory study, conducted among 104 male workers free from cardiovascular disease (CVD), tested the association between burnout and two of its common concomitants--tension and listlessness--and cardiovascular risk factors. After ruling out five possible confounders (age, relative weight, smoking, alcohol use, and sports activity), the authors found that scores on burnout plus tension (tense-burnout) were associated with somatic complaints, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, and, marginally, with ECG abnormalities. Workers scoring high on tense-burnout also had a significantly higher low density lipoprotein (LDL) level. Conversely, scores on burnout plus listlessness were significantly associated with glucose and negatively with diastolic blood pressure. The findings warrant further study of burnout as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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There is considerable international interest in Japanese production management (JPM), known in the West as "lean production." Advocates of this new form of management argue that it improves both economic productivity and health. In Japan, however, the relationship between JPM and sudden death due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease has been an important topic of debate since the 1970s. Japanese have named these types of deaths karoshi, which means "death from overwork." In North America and Western Europe a number of studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between high job strain (high production demands and low levels of control and social support) and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews the elements of JPM and examines their potential health consequences. The authors present an overview of karoshi, discuss its possible connections to specific ideological and organizational characteristics of JPM, and suggest the job strain mechanism as a possible pathway between karoshi and JPM. They conclude by discussing the need for comparative research that examines the health effects of work organization and management methods cross-culturally.
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Burnout is characterized by emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, resulting from prolonged exposure to work-related stress. The authors review the accumulated evidence suggesting that burnout and the related concept of vital exhaustion are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular-related events. The authors present evidence supporting several potential mechanisms linking burnout with ill health, including the metabolic syndrome, dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis along with sympathetic nervous system activation, sleep disturbances, systemic inflammation, impaired immunity functions, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and poor health behaviors. The association of burnout and vital exhaustion with these disease mediators suggests that their impact on health may be more extensive than currently indicated.
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Late in the 1970s, serious social concern over health problems due to long working hours has arisen in Japan. This report briefly summarizes the Japanese circumstances about long working hours and what the Government has achieved so far. The national statistics show that more than 6 million people worked for 60 h or more per week during years 2000 and 2004. Approximately three hundred cases of brain and heart diseases were recognized as labour accidents resulting from overwork (Karoshi) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) between 2002 and 2005. Consequently, the MHLW has been working to establish a more appropriate compensation system for Karoshi, as well as preventive measures for overwork related health problems. In 2001, the MHLW set the standards for clearly recognizing Karoshi in association with the amount of overtime working hours. These standards were based on the results of a literature review and medical examinations indicating a relationship between overwork and brain and heart diseases. In 2002, the MHLW launched the program for the prevention of health impairment due to overwork, and in 2005 the health guidance through an interview by a doctor for overworked workers has been enacted as law. Long working hours are controversial issues because of conflicts between health, safety, work-life balance, and productivity. It is obvious that we need to continue research regarding the impact on worker health and the management of long working hours.
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Reviews recent literature on burnout, focusing on gender-related differences. Explanations of greater depersonalization in men include normative ones which focus on the masculine gender role and the restrictiveness resulting from its prescriptions. Additional data indicate that there are gender-related differences in precursors of burnout. While work sources appear to be the primary precursors of burnout in men, predictors of women's burnout include both work and family variables such as role conflict and marital satisfaction as well as work stress. The differential importance of work and home as stressors in men and women is sustained by a societal structure which continues to assign women (regardless of their employment status) primary responsibility for home and family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated the prospective effect of burnout as a chronic stress reaction, on cause-specific hospital admissions over 10 years in the forest industry. The data on burnout Maslach Burnout Inventory–General Survey was collected using a questionnaire at baseline (1996) and the data on hospital admissions were taken from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register between March 1996 and December 2005. The participants consisted of forest industry employees (24 per cent women, 62 percent manual work), with no recent history of a disorder in the same disorder category according to the hospital admission register (January 1986–February 1996) or the registers of prescribed medication (January 1994–February 1996) ( N varied from 4543 to 7521). The results showed an increased risk of future hospitalization due to mental and cardiovascular disorders related to burnout syndrome. They also showed that of the separate burnout dimensions, exhaustion and cynicism were predictive of these hospital admissions. This longitudinal follow-up study shows that burnout predicts future mental and cardiovascular ill health. The results illustrate the importance of preventing and alleviating burnout as a means to promote employee health. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e., overload, emotional demands, and work-home interference) and decreases in job resources (i.e., social support, autonomy, opportunities to learn, and feedback) predict burnout, (2) increases in job resources predict work engagement, and (3) burnout (positively) and engagement (negatively) predict registered sickness duration (“involuntary” absence) and frequency (“involuntary” absence), respectively. Finally, consistent with predictions results suggest a positive gain spiral: initial work engagement predicts an increase in job resources, which, in its turn, further increases work engagement. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Job burnout and depression have been generally found to be correlated with one another. However, evidence regarding the job burnout-depression association is limited in that most studies are cross-sectional in nature. Moreover, little is known about factors that may influence the job burnout-depression association, other than individual or organizational factors (e.g., gender, supervisor support). The current study seeks to address these gaps by (a) unraveling the temporal relationship between job burnout and depression and (b) examining whether the job burnout-depression association may be contingent upon the degree to which employees engage in physical activity. On the basis of a full-panel 3-wave longitudinal design with a large sample of employees (N = 1,632), latent difference score modeling indicated that an increase in depression from Time 1 to Time 2 predicts an increase in job burnout from Time 2 to Time 3, and vice versa. In addition, physical activity attenuated these effects in a dose-response manner, so that the increase in job burnout and depression was strongest among employees who did not engage in physical activity and weakest to the point of nonsignificance among those engaging in high physical activity.
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To clarify the extent to which working hours affect the risk of acute myocardial infarction, independent of established risk factors and occupational conditions. Case-control study. University and general hospitals and routine medical examinations at workplaces in Japan. Cases were 195 men aged 30-69 years admitted to hospital with acute myocardial infarction during 1990-3. Controls were 331 men matched at group level for age and occupation who were judged to be free of coronary heart diseases at routine medical examinations in the workplace. Odds ratios for myocardial infarction in relation to previous mean daily working hours in a month and changes in mean working hours during previous year. Compared with men with mean working hours of >7-9 hours, the odds ratio of acute myocardial infarction (adjusted for age and occupation) for men with working hours of >11 hours was 2.44 (95% confidence interval 1.26 to 4.73) and for men with working hours of <=7 hours was 3.07 (1.77 to 5.32). Compared with men who experienced an increase of <=1 hour in mean working hours, the adjusted odds ratio of myocardial infarction for men who experienced an increase of >3 hours was 2.53 (1.34 to 4. 77). No appreciable change was observed when odds ratios were adjusted for established and psychosocial risk factors for myocardial infarction. There was a U shaped relation between the mean working hours and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. There also seemed to be a trend for the risk of infarction to increase with greater increases in mean working hours.
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To examine the relation between working hours and hours of sleep and the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), with special reference to the joint effect of these two factors. Case-control study in Japan. Cases were 260 men aged 40-79 admitted to hospitals with AMI during 1996-8. Controls were 445 men free from AMI matched for age and residence who were recruited from the resident registers. Odds ratios of AMI relative to mean weekly working hours and daily hours of sleep in the past year or in the recent past were calculated. Weekly working hours were related to progressively increased odds ratios of AMI in the past year as well as in the past month, with a twofold increased risk for overtime work (weekly working hours >or=61) compared with working hours <or=40. Short time sleep (daily hours of sleep <or=5) and frequent lack of sleep (2 or more days/week with <5 hours of sleep) were also associated with a two to threefold increased risk. Frequent lack of sleep and few days off in the recent past showed greater odds ratios than those in the past year. Overtime work and insufficient sleep may be related to increased risk of AMI.
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The association between burnout and physical diseases has been studied very little. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and physical illness in a representative nationwide population health study. As a part of the "Health 2000 Study" in Finland, 3368 employees aged 30-64 years were studied. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Physical diseases were diagnosed in a comprehensive health examination by research physicians. Physical illness was more common among subjects with burnout than others (64% vs. 54%, P<.0001), and the prevalence of diseases increased with the severity of burnout (P<.0001). Burnout was an important correlate of cardiovascular diseases among men (OR=1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.61) and musculoskeletal disorders among women (OR=1.22, 95% CI, 1.07-1.38) when adjusted for age, marital status, education, socioeconomic status, physical strenuousness of work, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases increased with the severity of all three dimensions of burnout, that is, exhaustion (P<.0001 and P<.001, respectively), cynicism (P=.0001 and P<.001, respectively), and lack of professional efficacy (P<.01 and P<.0001, respectively). Burnout is associated with musculoskeletal diseases among women and with cardiovascular diseases among men. These associations are not explained by sociodemographic factors, health behavior, or depression. Physical illnesses are associated with all three dimensions of burnout and not only with the exhaustion dimension. In the future, the causal relationships between burnout and physical diseases need to be investigated in prospective studies.
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This prospective study was designed to test the hypothesis that burnout and insomnia predict each other's incidence and intensification across time. Burnout is conceptualized as representing individuals' unique affective response to their exposure to chronic stressors. Apparently healthy respondents (1356) completed questionnaires during periodic health examinations undergone at two time points T(1) and T(2), about 18 months apart. Burnout was assessed by the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, while insomnia was assessed by the Brief Athens Insomnia Scale. Depressive symptomatology, neuroticism, body mass index, age, gender, follow-up duration, and T(1) levels of the criterion were controlled. Burnout and insomnia were found to be only moderately associated at T(1). However, logistic regression results indicated that burnout significantly predicted the development of new cases of insomnia at 18-month follow-up [odds ratio (OR)=1.93; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.45-2.58], even after adjusting for depression and other potent confounders. Likewise, insomnia significantly predicted the onset of new cases of burnout at 18-month follow-up (OR=1.64; 95% CI=1.30-2.08). Hierarchical regression results indicted that T(1) burnout significantly predicted an increase in T(2) insomnia (beta=.05, P<.05), and that T(1) insomnia significantly predicted an increase in T(2) burnout (beta=.07, P<.05). The results indicate that burnout and insomnia recursively predict each other's development and intensification over time, thus suggesting that either might be a risk factor for the other across time. Possible mechanisms of link between burnout and insomnia, as well as the clinical implications of the findings, were suggested.