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Comparison of in vitro antioxidant activity of infusion, extract and fractions of Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) bark

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to compare antioxidant activity of Indonesian cinnamon bark infusion, extract, its fractions and to analyse of their phytochemical constituents for antioxidant activity. The cinnamon infusion was obtained by water extraction, while the extract was by ethanol percolation. The ethanolic extract was then fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water fractions.Their in vitro antioxidant activity was assayed semiquantitatively by using DPPH method, while the phytochemical constituents were analyzed by using TLC-autography with several spray reagents.The results showed that antioxidant activity of infusion, extract and its fractions were significantly different. Among the material tested, the cinnamon bark infusion had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by ethanolic extract, its water- and ethyl acetate- fractions with IC50 value of 3.03; 8.36; 8.89; and 13.51μg/mL, respectively. Their antioxidant activities were higher than rutin, with IC50 of 15.27 μg/mL. The phytochemical analysis results indicated that polyphenol (tannin, flavonoids) and phenolic volatile oil are the major antioxidant compounds.

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... 10 grams of crushed C. burmannii bark was extrated in 100 mL of distilled water infusion at 90 ° C for 20 minutes. The results obtained are freeze-dry to evaporate the water content (Ervina, Nawu and Esar 2016). ...
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Indonesian cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) is a native plant of Indonesia that has a lot of potential. The most consumed part is the bark. This study aims to examine the antimicrobial effect of Cinnamomum burmannii bark extract on various types of pathogenic microbes, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. An experimental study using a water extract (infusion) of Cinnamomum burmannii bark and a microbial test obtained from the Faculty of Pharmacy, Widya Mandala Catholic University, Surabaya. The antimicrobial effect test was carried out by the microdilution method in 96-well-microplate to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Level (MIC) and implantation on solid media to determine the Minimum Kill Rate (KBM). The MIC and KBM against Staphylococcus aureus were 625-1,250 ppm and 1,250-2,500 ppm, respectively. MIC and KBM for Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were not found at the highest concentrations tested at 10,000 ppm. Cinnamomum burmannii extract can be used as a potential ingredient with antimicrobial effects, especially against Gram-positive bacteria. Future studies should pay attention to the quality of simplicia, particle size, and the most effective extraction methods extracting antimicrobial substances from simplicia
... Antioxidants present in CvEO may help trap ROS and peroxidation products and protect enzymes. This hypothesis is supported by the recent finding of in vitro antiradical and antioxidant activities of CvEO (Ervina et al. 2016). Chen et al. (2015) showed that Table 9. Grades of histopathological changes in kidney sections of rats treated with essential oil of Cinnamomum verum bark (CvEO), CCl 4 , silymarin (SL), or their combinations. ...
... CvEO has a high content of terpenic derivatives (carvacrol, linalool, geraniol, citronellol, menthone, terpinen-4-ol, and ␣-terpineol) and phenylpropanoid compounds (eugenol and cinnamaldehyde). These compounds could interact with the ROS induced by CCl 4 , which induce aggressive oxidants (Ervina et al. 2016). Therefore, our results show that CvEO exhibits a strong protective effect and may be a useful source of cellular defense agents in liver and kidney tissues against CCl 4 . ...
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The inner bark of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is widely used as a spice. Cinnamon plants are also a valuable source of essential oil used for medicinal purposes. The present study aimed to investigate the composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of essential oil of C.verum bark (CvEO) and its protective effects in vivo on CCl4-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in rats. Groups of animals were pretreated for 7 days with CvEO (70 or 100 mg/kg body weight) or received no treatment and on day 7 a single dose of CCl4 was used to induce oxidative stress. Twenty-four hours after CCl4 administration, the animals were euthanized. In the untreated group, CCl4 induced an increase in serum biochemical parameters and triggered oxidative stress in both liver and kidneys. CvEO (100 mg/kg) caused significant reductions in CCl4-elevated levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, γ-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, urea, and creatinine and increased the level of high-density lipoprotein compared with the untreated group. Moreover, pretreatment with CvEO at doses of 70 and 100 mg/kg before administration of CCl4 produced significant reductions in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl levels in liver and kidney tissues compared with the untreated group. The formation of pathological hepatic and kidney lesions induced by the administration of CCl4 was strongly prevented by CvEO at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Overall, this study suggests that administration of CvEO has high potential to quench free radicals and alleviate CCl4-induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats.
... This simple spice can affect diseases. Ervina et al. [36] showed that cinnamon bark infusion has high antioxidant activities due to the presence of polyphenols and volatile oil compounds. Simple preparation of extract can be applied as a high antioxidant issue [36,37]. ...
... Ervina et al. [36] showed that cinnamon bark infusion has high antioxidant activities due to the presence of polyphenols and volatile oil compounds. Simple preparation of extract can be applied as a high antioxidant issue [36,37]. ...
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... Some medicinal plants have been used to cure diabetes and contain antioxidants. Water and ethanol extracts of cinnamon bark possess strong antioxidant activity by reducing free radicals with IC 50 values of 3.03 pg / mL and 8.36 pg / mL, respectively [6]. These extracts hold antidiabetic activity through the inhibition of theglucosidase enzymes, each at 94.51 % and 90.30 %, respectively, with extract concentrations of 1.5 % [ 7 ]. ...
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... Moreover, aromatic plants of the Lauraceae family, such as Laurus nobilis, Cinnamomum burmannii, Cinnamomum verum, are rich sources of terpenoids, phenols, flavones, and flavonols, and have shown many biological properties including antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiseptic, digestive, diuretic, and antiviral, improving insulin response and lowering serum lipids (Patrakar, Mansuriya, and Patil 2012;Pandey and Chandra 2015;Ervina, Nawu, and Esar 2016). Furthermore, aromatic plants of the Myrtaceae family, such as Eucalyptus globulus and Syzygium aromaticum, are good sources of bioactive terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, flavonoid glycosides, biflorin, kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid derivatives, galloylglucose derivatives, and ellagitannins (Nassar et al. 2007;Pombal et al. 2014). ...
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... In another study, the dichloromethane, ethanol, and water extracts of C. cassia were tested to determine the antioxidant activity using CUPRAC assay in which the ethanolic extracts were found to be more effective (Boga et al., 2011). Ervina et al. (2016) compared the in vitro antioxidant activity of infusion, extracts, and fractions of Indonesian cinnamon (C. burmannii) bark by DPPH assay and calculated the IC 50 value (inhibitory concentration). ...
... The authors attributed the observed oxidative stress reduction to the content of antioxidative phenolic compounds in cinnamon. The most potent antioxidants present in cinnamon bark include polyphenols (flavonoids and tannins) as well as volatile phenolic oils [126]. Moreover, the cited authors mentioned that the highest antioxidant activity was observed for traditionally prepared cinnamon solutions. ...
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... The major antioxidant constituients in this plant are tannin, flavonoid, phenol and volatile oils. This medicinal herb is used in different traditional medicine system such as Unani, Ayurvedic, Japanese and Chinese in the treatment of dyspepsia, diabetes, brain ischemia, cancers, peptic ulcer disease and ischemic brain injury [53]. It was reported that cinnamon used as flavoring agent. ...
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Full-text available
Herbal medicinal plants are commonly intended for the cure and prevention of countless diseases for the reason that of low price, more effectiveness and no side effects. The medicinal plants consist of several types of phytochemical constituents as alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids, phenols, tannins and carbohydrates that are used for various human ailments. Such types of constituents not only have biochemical compounds but also have antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal activity and intended for the treatment of diabetes, kidney, liver and stomach ailments. The use of herbal natural plants is more economic and reliable for these types of diseases. These medicinal plants have been second-hand for different human disorders with no side effects of reoccurrence.
... Aqueous extract of C. burmannii bark has antioxidant activity higher than the ethanolic extract, the phytochemical analysis of AEC indicated that polyphenols (including flavonoid and tannin) and phenolic volatile oil compounds as the major antioxidant. 23 Aqueous extract of C.burmannii lowered serum uric acid and urea level. Prospective cohort studies provided strong evidence that high level of serum uric acid is a risk factor for developing T2DM in middle aged and older people. ...
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Abstract Background. Hyperglycemia was reported to harm liver and induce metabolic inbalance. The tree bark of Cinnamomum burmannii (C. burmanii) was potential as anti-hiperglycemic agent. The bark was rich with secondary metabolites that may lead to possess other advantages for diabetes. Objectives. To study the effect of aqueos extract of C.burmannii (AEC) on liver and metabolic condition by measuring necrotic hepatocytes, serum urea and uric acid levels in alloxan-induced diabetic rats (AIDRs). Methods. Three groups of fasted rats (free allowed to water) were intraperitoneally injected with 150 mg/Kg BW in 1 ml normal saline 6 hours prior to intraperitoneal injection of 2 ml 10% glucose to induce AIDRs, the animals were allowed to 5% glucose solution for 24 hours afterward. The AIDRs were treated with 0.5 ml, 1ml, and 2 ml of AEC respectively for 2 weeks. Hematoxyline-Eosine-stained liver slices were observed for necrotic hepatocytes by light microscope. Serum urea and uric acid levels were measured by Glutamate dehydrogenase and Uricase-PAP methods respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by LSD test, p values of < 0.05 were considered to be significant. Results. The given doses of AEC lowered urea and uric acid serum levels of AIDRs (p = 0.000) which approximated to the non diabetic rats’s serum levels (p > 0.05). Except the smallest dose, the remaining doses of AEC reduced necrotic hepatocytes number in AIDRs (p = 0.000). Conclusion. Aqueos extract of C.burmannii protected hepatocytes and corrected serum urea and uric acid levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Keywords: Cinnamomum burmanii; diabetes; necrotic hepatocytes; serum urea: serum uric acid.
... The extract of cinnamon bark, clove, fennel, fenugreek and ginger exhibited radicalscavenging potential, while cardamom and coriander showed negative response. [99] Alcoholic solutions of DPPH have been used for testing the antioxidant activity of compounds, previously separated by TLC, from ajwain, [152] Capsicum, [153] cinnamon, [11] ginger, [7] mace, [29] mustard [30] and turmeric. [51] Antibacterial/antimicrobial activity The most widely used methods for evaluation of antibacterial activity are disc diffusion, agar absorption, agar dilution and broth dilution assays, but in recent years TLC-Bioautography methods were developed, the activities being expressed as diameter (mm) of the inhibition zones. ...
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... Cinnamon bark oil is also used in the manufacture of soaps and perfumes, antibacterial and fungi, [1][2][3] antibiofilm agents, 4 Antipyretic, 5 antioxidant. 6 Cinnamon (C. burmanni Blume) leaf methanol extract is an anti-fungal and can control Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants found in Bali-Indonesia both in-vitro and ex-vivo 7 . ...
... The antioxidant substances are polyphenols and volatile phenolic oils, without including the in vivo assay on animal models. [4] Thus, it raises a question about whether the antioxidant substances present in peppermint can neutralize free radicals based on the in vitro 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and compensate for the in vivo oxidative stress using Sprague-Dawley rats at its most effective dosage. It is hypothesized that peppermint has an exogenous antioxidant effect on in vitro free radicals (IC 50 value) and in vivo oxidative stress (malondialdehyde level). ...
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This current work aims to determine phytochemicals, in vitro radical scavenging, and in vivo oxidative stress reduction activities of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) ethanolic extract (PEE). The Clule method was used to determine the phytochemical content. An in vitro antioxidant with radical scavenging activity was measured using 2,2‑diphenyl‑1‑picrylhydrazyl. An in vivo antioxidant with oxidative stress reduction was carried out for 10 days on 25 male Sprague–Dawley rats (divided into five groups). Every day, each group was given positive control, negative control, 5, 10, and 20 mg/200 gr of body weight (BW) of the extract. The blood plasma was taken for malondialdehyde analysis. A phytochemical identification of PEE revealed more compounds, such as flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, essential oils, and tannin. PEE exhibits significant in vitro radical scavenging activity, with an IC50 value of 126.695 μg/mL. In the in vivo antioxidant with oxidative stress reduction experiments, 5 mg/200 gr BW was the most effective dose, as evidenced by a considerable drop in malondialdehyde level (0.312 nmol/mL) after and before treatment. In conclusion, PPE has the potential to be developed as a herbal antioxidant based on in vitro and in vivo test results.
... According to Molyneax (2004), the lower IC 50 value showed higher antioxidant activity. According to Ervina et al. (2016), a very strong antioxidant activity has IC 50 value less than 50 ppm; strong activity if the IC 50 value between 50 to 100 ppm; medium if the IC 50 value between 101 to 150 ppm, and weak if the IC 50 value is between 151-200 ppm. The IC 50 value of H. nobilis cucumber polysaccharide in this study was 1206 ppm. ...
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... 10 The cinnamon infusion has a significant antioxidant activity as compared to ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts. 11 The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.) improved the lipid metabolism in rats fed with the high-fat diet. Additionally, C. cassia can reduce the triglyceride, cholesterol level, and fat accumulation in the liver of rats. ...
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Nickel nanoparticles (Ni-NPs) have been widely used in various industries related to electronics, ceramics, textiles, and nanomedicine. Ambient and occupational exposure to Ni-NPs may bring about potential detrimental effects on animals and humans. Thus, there is a growing effort to identify compounds that can ameliorate NPs-associated pathophysiologies. The present study examined Cinnamomum cassia (C. cassia) bark extracts (CMBE) for its ameliorative activity against Ni-NPs-induced pathophysiological and histopathological alterations in male Sprague Dawley rats. The biochemical analyses revealed that dosing rats with Ni-NPs at 10 mg/kg/body weight (b.w.) significantly altered the normal structural and biochemical adaptations in the liver and kidney. Conversely, supplementations with CMBE at different doses (225, 200, and 175 mg/kg/b.w. of rat) ameliorated the altered blood biochemistry and reduced the biomarkers of liver and kidney function considerably (p < 0.05) in a dose-dependent manner. However, the best results were at 225 mg/kg/b.w. of rat. The study provided preliminary information about the protective effect of C. cassia against Ni-NPs indicated liver and kidney damages. Future investigations are needed to explore C. cassia mechanism of action and isolation of single constituents of C. cassia to assess their pharmaceutical importance accordingly.
... Fraction VIII showed highest antioxidant potential compared to other fractions as well as ascorbic acid. This indicated that Annona senegalensis root bark could serve as good source antioxidants since IC50 value obtained in this study is <50µg/ml(Ervina et al.,2016). The results obtained in this study from all the fractions analysed were classified as very powerful antioxidants as compare to vitamin C, this result was in line with the finding ofYande et al. (2017). ...
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Annona senegalensis known as African custard apple or wild custard apple, Gwándàn dààjìì (Hausa) or dukuu-hi (Fulani) is a tropical perennial growing shrub (2-7m) or small tree (11m) growing under suitable environmental conditions. The present study aimed to compare the antioxidant potential of the fractions of methanolic root bark extract of Annona senegalensis. Methanolic root bark extract of Annona senegalensis was fractionated based on the preparative TLC. Silica gel G coated in preparative TLC plate was used as stationary phase with Chloroform: Methanol (9:1) as a mobile phase. The antioxidant potential of fractions was determined using DPPH assay. The result of preparative TLC revealed the presence of eleven bands labelled as fractions (I-XI) with different Rf value. Antioxidant activity assay of the fractions demonstrated a greater potential in the DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Fraction VIII (2.2267±0.02) has the highest antioxidant activity (p<0.05) compared to other fractions and to vitamin C standard (5.3980±0.01) while fraction I (6.2890±0.01) has the lowest antioxidant activity compared to vitamin C standard. The strong antioxidant activity possess by the root bark of Annona senegalensis could be beneficial in the treatment of ailments resulting from oxidative stress
... Globally, they represent the largest percentage of consumed drink after water, consequently different herbs or herb combinations serving as therapeutic infusions have been developed. Rodríguez-Vaquero et al. (2014) proposed the use of Argentinean herbs supplemented with lemon juice as prospective natural antioxidants and antihypertensive compounds that may possibly be used in pharmaceutical and food industries; in another study, Ervina et al. (2016) found that some phenolic compounds are the main antioxidant present in Indonesian Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmannii) bark. Al-Ghafari et al. (2016) studied the influence of lemon additions on the antioxidant activity of tea, while the study of Bhattacharyya et al. (2017) provided a valid evidence to support the existence of a boosting effect between black tea and some supplemented herbs (lemon) used to prepare infusion. ...
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Background Agricultural waste generated annually results to environmental pollution; these wastes are rich sources of important bioactive compounds and could be used therapeutically in the management of some ailments. Corn silk, a by-product of sweet corn and whole lemon were processed separately into corn silk flour (CSF) and lemon flour (LF). Flour blends formulation used were as follows: 100% CSF (A), 95% CSF and 5% LF (B), 90% CSF and 10% LF (C), 85% CSF and 15% LF (D) and 80% CSF and 20% LF (E). Chemical compositions of the blends were investigated, while the total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), polyphenol profile, antioxidant activities, α-amylase, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, nitric oxide, L-arginase, Angiotensin-I-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitions as well as the colour and sensory attributes of the infusions were investigated using standard methods. Results The moisture and total ash contents increased proportionally with increased substitution of LF as moisture content ranged from 4.83 to 8.40% and the total ash content ranged from 2.32 to 3.25%. The calculated energy values decreased from 390.48 to 361.42 kcal, with increase in LF. Potassium (K) contents also increased with values ranging from 4.65 to 5.82 mg/100 g, increase in LF incorporation promoted a decrease in the Na/K ratio from 0.8 to 0.55; the Phy:Ca and Phy:Zn ratios ranged from 1.20 to 2.86 and 2.08 to 4.04, respectively. No significant difference was observed in consumer acceptability but there were total colour differences (Δ E ) in the infusion as compared to the control samples. Samples A and B exhibited notable antioxidant properties, α-amylase, α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, nitric oxide, L-arginase and the ACE inhibitory activities compared favourably with the commercial samples. Conclusion This study revealed that corn silk–lemon infusion especially sample A (100% CSF) may be a therapeutic tool in lowering blood pressure because it possesses potent antihypertensive properties.
... Extracts from Cinnamonum stem bark or leaves have potential that can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. The antidiabetic activity shown varies, including a decrease in blood sugar levels, inhibition of the activity of the α glucosidase enzyme and control of glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during the postprandial period [16,17]. Antidiabetic mechanisms of cinnamon are thought to affect several insulin signaling pathways, including in insulin receptors, glucose 4 transporters (GLUT 4), glucose-1 transporters (GLUT 1), proliferator peroxide activator receptors (PPAR) [18]. ...
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Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that requires long-term management. There is a tendency in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients to use herbs as a complement to medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the use of herbs as a complement to medical treatment in reducing blood sugar levels of T2DM patients. This type of research is quasi-experimental, with 40 research subjects divided into 4 groups. Determination of research subjects by purposive sampling in accordance with established inclusion criteria. Data analysis using paired T test. The majority of respondents was women (77.5%) and had no genetic history (75%). The duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus majority was >5 years 72.5%). Data on random blood sugar levels before (p=0.098) and after (p=0.113) intervention were normally distributed and homogeneous p>0.05 (0.839). The treatment group (groups 2, 3, and 4) showed a significant decrease in random blood sugar levels as the control group (1) with a significance value <0.05. Giving herbs has a tendency to reduce random blood sugar levels when used as a complement to medical treatment. Bitter melon shows the effect of decreasing random blood sugar levels greater than the provision of bay leaves and cinnamon. <br /
... The effect of interaction between long immersion and storage time (PS) on the total bacteria of edible coating tomatoes could be seen in Figure 1. The research from [23] showed that part of the component in cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmannii) has the ability as antibacterial and antioxidant [24]. The cinnamon oil could destroy the bacterial cell membrane, resulting in cell lysis and death, and the cell membrane leading to the loss of nucleic acid in the cell. ...
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Tomato is one of the fruit vegetables that had perishable properties so that it needs good postharvest handling to increase their shelf life. One of among other technologies, surface coating of tomatoes with edible ingredients added with natural antimicrobials is potential to be applied. Currently, nanotechnology represents an important area and an efficient option for extending the shelf life of foods. The research aimed to investigate the effect of edible coating, containing cinnamon oil nanoemulsion, to extend the storage life and quality of tomato fruits. Treatments given were (a) dipping time in the edible coating formula (1 and 3 minutes), and the storage period of tomatoes, namely 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days at room temperature (27°C). As a control treatment, the inspection was also applied on non-coated tomatoes. The results showed that coating treatment was significantly able to delay changes in the quality attributes of tomatoes and longer shelf life compared to fruit that was not coated with an edible coating. Tomato edible coating has better in maintaining physicochemical characteristics (weight loss of 1.83%, TSS 0.34 Brix, vitamin C 59.8 mg/100g and total plate count of 7.88 × 10 ⁶ CFU/g) than control throughout the storage period. The study concludes that cinnamon oil nanoemulsion coating could be a good alternative to preserve the quality and extend the storage life of tomatoes.
... -Preparation of the water extract:Cinnamon bark powder (50gm) put in conical flask (1L) and soaked by (500ml) distil water (at ratio 1:10),the extract put in shaker for (6h) at (37C⁰),then filtered by (Whatman No.1)filter paper and the supernatant concentrated in rotary evaporator for (2h) .Extract concentrated to dryness at(40C) in oven for -Preparation of the ethanol extract(at ratio 1:10):CM powders (50gm) dissolved by (500ml) ethanol (70%) and by same steps of water extract the ethanol extract prepared and storied in dark place at (15C) until use in study. [11] ...
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Classical extraction stepsand qualitative-quantitative methods using to identification aviary antioxidant compounds from Ceyloncinnamon barks , result showed that the qualitative detection of phytochemical compounds of the extract C. Ceylon barks the presence of saponins, steroids, alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, Coumarins and Resins. The presence of major plant compounds, including phenols and flavonoids, may be responsible for the observed antioxidant activity. HPLC methods used to quantifications the phenols and vitamins in cinnamon extract barks. Result showed identification a wide broad of phenols compounds ; and cinnmaldehyde and eugenol the highest concentration between them in both the water: ethanol extract bark these two compounds considered the critical antioxidant phenols in cinnamon and have a huge role in treatment by this plants ,also result give(gallicacid,andrutin,kampferol,quercetin,lignin and pyrogallol) phenolic compounds that have antioxidant activity in different mechanisms. (Vitamins also appears interesting result by indicated (A,K,E,D3,K,C,B1,B2).Vitamins A and K have the highest concentration as a fat-soluble vitamins and vitamins B1and B2 as a water-soluble vitamins and these results give a support to more investigation research about vitamins in cinnamon cassia and their antioxidant role in therapeutic herbal.
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This study aimed to identify the essential oil compound from Cinnamomum zeylanicum barks by using GC-MS analysis and evaluate essential oil inhibition effects against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas erogenous and Staphylococcus aureus by using agar diffusion method and studied kill-time for this bacterium. The yield of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil was 5%. Cinnamaldehyde 57.83% was the main compound in the essential oil extract, followed by cyclohexane carboxylic acid 9.29% and 6-octadecenoic acid 8.41%. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were inhibited growth after addition 6, 12 and 18 μL of essential oil. Zone diameter of inhibition ranged from 17.00-30.30 mm for bacterial test. A concentration of 10, 20 and 30 μL.mL⁻¹ of the essential oil caused a rapid and steady decline in the number of viable cells from 2 to 5 Log. cycles of all strains during 24 hours.
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Introduction: Oxidative stress on tissues can cause diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Aim: This study aimed to pharmacologically evaluate the decrease in blood glucose levels and its relationship with the total antioxidant capacity of the blood compared to glibenclamide. Method: An experimental study with completely randomised designs was carried out. Rats were induced with streptozotosin followed by ethanolic extract for ten days. Results: The One-Way Anova test, showed that the increase of the total antioxidant capacity of plasma treated with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma zanthorrhiza was comparable in the same amount to glibenclamide (p=0.345), (p=0.289). There was a relationship between total blood antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels, this linear association was expressed with the following mathematical equation: y = 20,253 - 2,946x. Conclusion: The antioxidant content of Tinospora cordifolia, Curcuma zanthorrhiza, and Cinnamomum verum has the potential to control blood glucose in diabetes mellitus.
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Ekstrak etanol kayu manis memiliki kandungan fenol yang tinggi yang berpotensi sebagai antioksidan tetapi memiliki bioavailabilitas yang rendah pada kondisi ukuran partikel yang besar. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan analisis karakteristik nanopartikel ekstrak etanol kayu manis. Tujuan penelitian untuk membuat dan mengevaluasi karakteristik nanopartikel ekstrak kayu manis sebagai kandidat antioksidan secara in vitro. Preparasi nanopartikel ekstrak etanol kayu manis dengan metode gelasi ionik. Nanopartikel ekstrak etanol kayu manis memiliki ukuran partikel sebesar 400,3 nm dengan potential zeta +6,60 mV. Spektra Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) menunjukkan adanya gugus hidroksil dan gugus amida dari kitosan dan gugus fosfat dari STPP. Studi aktivitas antioksidan secara in vitro dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) dan reduksi besi III menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel ekstrak etanol kayu manis memiliki aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih kecil dibandingkan ekstrak tetapi masih dalam kategori sangat kuat. Aktivitas antioksidan yang diberikan dipengaruhi oleh kandungan total fenolik dan total flavonoid secara berturut-turut sebesar 75,685 ± 1,408 % EAG dan 60,546 ± 0,670 % EK untuk ekstrak etanol kayu manis serta 61,845 ± 0,529 % EAG dan 57,939 ± 0,446 % EK untuk nanopartikel ekstrak etanol kayu manis. Penerapan teknologi nanopartikel pada ekstrak etanol kayu manis melalui ikat silang antara kitosan-TPP dapat mempertahankan aktivitas antioksidannya.ABSTRACT Ethanol extract of cinnamon has a high phenol content which is potential as an antioxidant but has a low bioavailability under conditions of large particle size. Therefore, nanoparticles were prepared for the ethanol extract of cinnamon. The aim of this research was to make and evaluate the characteristics of cinnamon nanoparticles as antioxidant candidates in vitro. The cinnamon nanoparticles were prepared using the ionic gelation method. Cinnamon nanoparticles has a particle size of 400,3 nm with a zeta potential of +6,60 mV. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the presence of a hydroxyl and amida group from chitosan and a phosphate group from STPP. In vitro antioxidant activity studies with the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) method and ferric reducing activity power showed that cinnamon nanoparticle has smaller antioxidant activity than the extract but is still in the very strong category. The antioxidant activity given is influenced by the total phenolic and total flavonoids content 75.685 ± 1.408% EAG and 60.546 ± 0.670% EK for cinnamon ethanol extract. and 61.845 ± 0.529% EAG and 57.939 ± 0.446% EK for cinnamon ethanol extract nanoparticles, respectively The application of nanoparticle technology to the ethanol extract of cinnamon through chitosan-TPP cross-linking can maintain its antioxidant activity.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease and stroke are the most feared disease for wide society. Both of these diseases is caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occured when there is an imbalance between ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) and antioxidants. Therefore, our body needs antioxidants to prevent it. Antioxidants can be obtained from within our body (endogen) or outside the body (exogent). Exogent antioxidant can be found in herbal plants, which one of them is cinnamon bark. This research was conducted to determine the phytochemical content, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic compound, total alkaloid compound, and toxicity on methanol extracts of cinnamon bark. In this research, extraction process by maseration using methanol and in-vitro assesment and bioassay examination. The in-vitro assesment consisted of qualitative phytochemical screening (Harborne), total antioxidant capacity assesment with DPPH (Blois), total phenolic compound examination (Singelton & Rossi), total alkaloid compound examination (Trivedi et al) and bioassay examination that is toxicity test with BSLT (Meyer). In the qualitative phytochemical screening, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, terpenoids, quinones, betacyans, coumarins, and cardioglycosides are contained in cinnamon bark extract. In the total antioxidants capacity assesment, the results showed the following levels: IC50 42,61 μg/mL, total phenolics compound 2053,4 μg/mL, total alkaloids compund 3,92 μg/mL and LC50 in toxicity tests is 192,38 μg/mL. According to the value of IC50 and LC50, extract of cinnamon bark has a very strong antioxidant capacity and toxic that it can be uses as an antimitotic accordingly Extract of cinnamon bark has potential as an antioxidant and antimitotic agent. Keywords : Reactive oxygen species, Cinnamomum burmanii, Phytochemicals Screening, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT)
Chapter
Cinnamon is one of the most important tropical spices, which has different types of essential oils, bioactive compounds to help the human health in numerous ways. Cinnamic acid and cinnamaldehyde are the major derivatives present in this spice and possess antioxidants to combat several diseases and their complications. Antioxidants present in cinnamon possess valuable biological activities especially in fighting with the oxidative stress caused by free radicals. Therefore, bioactive compounds extracted from cinnamon could be used in the preparation of different types of traditional medicines and as supplements too. This chapter illustrates an outline of bioactive compounds derived from cinnamon and their potential ameliorative effects to combat the diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The increase in ROS is caused by many factors, one of which is high alcoholic beverages. An unbalanced increase in the number of ROS compared to antioxidants can result in conditions of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress conditions can damage macromolecules present in the human body, so that antioxidants are needed to fight against these ROS. Antioxidants are found endogenously and exogenously. One of the exogenous antioxidants is Srikaya Leaf (Annona Squamosa). Srikaya leaves have many benefits such as antioxidants, anti-diabetic, antifungal, anti-tumor and anti-malarial. The purpose of this study was to determine secondary metabolite compounds, total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, total alkaloid content, and the level of toxicity on the methanol extract of srikaya leaves. Extraction (Maceration) using methanol solvent. Research is experimental covering the in-vitro test consisted of a qualitative phytochemical screening (Harborne), an antioxidant capacity test with a DPPH (Blois), a phenolic content (Singelton and Rossi), an alkaloid content (Trivedi et al) and a bioassay examination is toxicity test with a BSLT (Meyer). In the qualitative phytochemical screening, srikaya leaf extract containing alkaloids, betasianin, cardioglycosides, coumarin, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, quinones, saponins, steroids, terpenoids and tannins. Srikaya leaf extract has total antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 40,57 μg/mL), total phenolic content (2,266,36 μg/mL), total alkaloid content (13,50 μg/mL) and toxicity test (LC50 = 46,60 μg/mL). This result proves that srikaya leaf extract has the potential as an antioxidant and antimitosis. Keywords: ROS, Annona squamosa, phytochemicals, DPPH, BSLT
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Abstract Minced fish (MF) is an interesting material for development of novel fish products; however, the mechanical deboning process interferes with MF quality, by increasing the lipid oxidation. This study reports the effect of Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) hydro-ethanolic bark extracts as natural antioxidants on both washed and unwashed MF of broadband anchovy during six months of storage at -18 °C. Spray-dried cinnamon extract (DC) and spray-dried cinnamon extract using maltodextrin 10DE (DCM) as a carrier were evaluated in relation to antioxidant activity in vitro. DC and sodium erythobarte were added to both washed and unwashed MF at 0.25% (w:w), whilst DCM was added at 1.055% (w:w). The DC extract presented higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to DCM extract. The addition of cinnamon extracts reduced the lipid oxidation in washed and unwashed MF compared with the controls. C. zeylanicum extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation in MF during the frozen storage and are alternatives for food industries that seek to meet the demand of consumers increasingly concerned with the consumption of healthy foods.
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Cinnamon zeylanicum is one of the species of cinnamon plant from the family of Lauraceae. It is not only the main ingredient of spices but also exhibits many medicinal properties. Anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tyrosinase, anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic are some of the activities shown by cinnamon. Radical scavenging and reducing properties of cinnamon are considered as beneficial and important in the field of medicine. Cinnamon zeylanicum consists of a variety of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in different parts of plant. These compounds play major role in antioxidant potential just because of their significant structure and moieties. Cinnamon essential oils are also used for treatment of chronic disorders and it proves to be best alternative to synthetic antioxidants. In present review article we summarized the Cinnamon zeylanicum antioxidant activity by using antioxidant assays, its chemical constituents, its beneficial effects on humans and its applications in various industries as antioxidants.
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Spices and herbs are enriched with natural antioxidant compounds which impart a higher antioxidant vigor for those products. Garlic, cinnamon and black cumin seeds are commonly used spices and their total phenolic content, radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity were evaluated. Cinnamon shows the highest total phenolic content (TPC) yielding 18.94 ± 0.46GAE mg/100g of the dry weight. It was cited highest in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and DPPH radical scavenging activity as well, yielding149.15 ± 1.73 mg/ GAE and IC50 value of 0.009 ± 0.76 respectively. Garlic showed the lowest TPC 5.46 ± 0.26 GAE mg/100g and yielded IC50 value of 2.446 ± 0.34 and 5.136 ± 0.636mg GAE/g for TAC assay. Black cumin seeds cited the highest IC50 value (2.935 ± 0.02) and lowest total antioxidant capacity (4.887 ± 0.044mg GAE/g) while yielding a moderate value for TPC (8.45 ± 1.81 mg GAE/100g of dry weight).
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The antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of water extract of Cinnamomum burmannii bark is well documented. This research aimed to optimize cinnamon water extraction process and verify active components instigating its in vitro antidiabetic activity. The study employed a Design Expert 7.0 program to derive factorial design and optimization conditions. The extraction step comprised of three factors (temperature, concentration and time of extraction)and two levels (low and high), with four responses observed (yield, total phenolic content, IC 50 DPPH antioxidant activity, and IC 50 α-glucosidase inhibition). The polynomial equations revealed influence and interaction among the selected factors to the responses and obtained overlay optimization of factors to responses. The results indicated that optimal temperature, concentration, and extraction time were 98 °C, 30% and 20 min, respectively. Corresponding DPPH, α-glucosidase, TPC, and yield values were 3.45 μg/mL, 0.50 μg/mL, 259.08 μg GAE/mg of sample, 6.28%, respectively. LCMS analysis of the optimum extract confirmed typical characteristic of C. burmannii contents (coumarins, polymers of proanthocyanidins A-type and protonated heterodimer of flavan-3-ol group). The optimized water extract of C.burmannii has the potency to assist in complementary therapy to modulate diabetes mellitus.
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Indonesia is one of the world’s most prominent producers of cocoa and cinnamon. Dark chocolate bars and Cinnamomum burmannii are rich in antioxidants. The addition of a cinnamon oleoresin to a dark chocolate bar has not been previously studied due to its strong consistency and sticky texture. Microencapsulation was used to cover the undesirable properties of oleoresin, and the addition of cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules was expected to improve the functional properties and influence the characteristics of dark chocolate bars. This study aimed to determine the effects of adding various concentrations of cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules (4%/F1, 6%/F2, and 8%/F3) to dark chocolates bars on their sensory, physical, and chemical characteristics and to define the best formula of a dark chocolate bar. The results showed that various concentrations of cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules led different trends for each evaluation, and the best formula resulted from the addition of cinnamon bark oleoresin microcapsules to a dark chocolate bar (8%) that is accepted by the panellists. This bar had the hardest texture, the highest total phenol and antioxidant activities, and the lowest moisture content, and it was classified as having a high potency of vitamin E (tocopherol).
Chapter
Cinnamon (Ceylon cinnamon or true cinnamon) is a popular, expensive aromatic condiment and flavoring agent cum medicinal plant that houses a major number of pharmaceutically active aromatic essential oils and its principal compound cinnamaldehyde, and its derivatives cinnamic acid, cinnamate, etc. In addition to its culinary use, in ancient Ayurvedic texts as well as in folkloric medicine, this plant and precisely the bark and bark powder have been reported as a remedy for respiratory, digestive, and gynecological ailments. It has been evaluated clinically and preclinically for its prominent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardio- and neuroprotective efficacies. Commercially this plant is highly valued in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. We have summarized the recent relevant scientific evidence on the botanic characterization, distribution, traditional uses, pharmacological activities, phytochemistry, qualitative and quantitative estimation and extraction of important secondary metabolites, genetic diversity assessment, biotechnological breakthroughs, cultivation, and propagation along with industrial application and clinical studies of Cinnamon species to assess future perspectives for Cinnamon as a pharmacologically leading genus of interest. Secondary metabolite extraction, isolation, and identification using HPTLC, LC-MS, HPLC, and GC-MS, along with genetic diversity assessment through molecular markers and biotechnological advancement (in vitro culture, embryo rescue, genetic transformation, molecular marker-based polymorphism assessment) contributing collectively to cinnamon improvement programs, are conclusively studied and reported in association with phytochemical and pharmacological discoveries via clinical and preclinical trials. The implementation of collective knowledge of research in areas of chemical biology, biotechnology, and pharmacology will directly benefit cost-effective breeding and cultivation program and establishment of encyclopedic database on various fields associated with Cinnamon research, aid in selection of industrially profitable elite germplasm with improved screening and harvesting protocols for Cinnamon-derived components, and elucidate a vast role of Cinnamon as an integral compound of complementary and alternative medicine.
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This study aimed to determine the optimal application of betel leaf, cloves, and cinnamon to control bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum in tomato plants. The analyze conducting at the Laboratory Park of the Faculty of Agriculture, Lambung Mangkurat Banjarbaru University. A completely randomized design with seven treatments include leaf powder (betel nut, clove, cinnamon), bokashi from leaves of the above three components, and control (no powder and bokashi). The results showed that the application of betel leaf bokashi and clove leaf bokashi was more able to suppress the intensity of R. solanacearum on tomatoes.
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