Working PaperPDF Available

Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of North America, North of Mexico

Authors:
Annotated taxonomic checklist of
the Lepidoptera of North America, North of Mexico
Gregory R. Pohl, Bob Patterson, and Jonathan P. Pelham
May 2016
Dedicated to Ron W. Hodges, who compiled the previous checklist
of North American Lepidoptera.
NOTICE TO USERS - this is an non-reviewed, provisional checklist, made available by
the authors as a working paper. Our hope is to formally publish a peer-reviewed version
of this document after it has been reviewed by the Lepidopterists' community at large.
Please send comments, corrections and additions to the North American fauna to Greg
Pohl at micromothman@gmail.com.
This work should be cited as:
Pohl, G.R., Patterson, B., & Pelham, J.P. 2016. Annotated taxonomic checklist of the Lepidoptera of
North America, North of Mexico. Working paper published online by the authors at ResearchGate.net.
766 pp.
-- 2 --
Table of Contents
Preface ............................................................................................................ 3
Acknowledgements ......................................................................................... 6
Introduction ..................................................................................................... 7
Format of the list ........................................................................................... 10
- - - - -
THE CHECKLIST:
Micropterigidae .............................................................................................. 22
Eriocraniidae ................................................................................................. 22
Hepialidae ..................................................................................................... 23
Acanthopteroctetidae .................................................................................... 24
Nepticulidae .................................................................................................. 24
Opostegidae .................................................................................................. 29
Prodoxidae .................................................................................................... 30
Tridentaformidae ........................................................................................... 32
Incurvariidae .................................................................................................. 32
Heliozelidae ................................................................................................... 33
Adelidae ........................................................................................................ 34
Tischeriidae ................................................................................................... 35
Meesiidae ...................................................................................................... 36
Psychidae ...................................................................................................... 36
Dryadaulidae ................................................................................................. 38
Tineidae ........................................................................................................ 38
Tineoidea-unplaced ....................................................................................... 49
Bucculatricidae .............................................................................................. 49
Gracillariidae ................................................................................................. 51
Yponomeutidae ............................................................................................. 61
Ypsolophidae ................................................................................................ 62
Plutellidae ...................................................................................................... 64
Glyphipterigidae ............................................................................................ 65
Argyresthiidae ............................................................................................... 67
Lyonetiidae .................................................................................................... 68
Attevidae ....................................................................................................... 69
Praydidae ...................................................................................................... 69
Heliodinidae .................................................................................................. 70
Bedelliidae ..................................................................................................... 71
unassigned Apoditrysia ................................................................................. 71
Douglasiidae ................................................................................................. 71
Autostichidae ................................................................................................. 71
-- 3 --
Lecithoceridae ............................................................................................... 73
Oecophoridae ................................................................................................ 73
Depressariidae .............................................................................................. 76
Cosmopterigidae ........................................................................................... 84
Gelechiidae ................................................................................................... 89
Elachistidae ................................................................................................. 120
Coleophoridae ............................................................................................. 124
Batrachedridae ............................................................................................ 128
Scythrididae ................................................................................................ 129
Blastobasidae .............................................................................................. 131
Stathmopodidae .......................................................................................... 134
Momphidae ................................................................................................. 134
Pterolonchidae ............................................................................................ 136
Lypusidae .................................................................................................... 136
Alucitidae ..................................................................................................... 136
Pterophoridae .............................................................................................. 137
Copromorphidae ......................................................................................... 143
Carposinidae ............................................................................................... 143
Schreckensteiniidae .................................................................................... 144
Epermeniidae .............................................................................................. 144
Urodidae ...................................................................................................... 145
Choreutidae ................................................................................................. 145
Galacticidae ................................................................................................ 147
Tortricidae ................................................................................................... 147
Cossidae ..................................................................................................... 200
Dudgeoneidae ............................................................................................. 202
Sesiidae ...................................................................................................... 203
Epipyropidae ............................................................................................... 210
Lacturidae ................................................................................................... 211
Dalceridae ................................................................................................... 211
Limacodidae ................................................................................................ 211
Megalopygidae ............................................................................................ 215
Zygaenidae ................................................................................................. 216
Thyrididae ................................................................................................... 218
Hyblaeidae .................................................................................................. 219
Hesperiidae ................................................................................................. 219
Papilionidae ................................................................................................. 245
Pieridae ....................................................................................................... 253
Lycaenidae .................................................................................................. 267
Riodinidae ................................................................................................... 289
-- 4 --
Nymphalidae ............................................................................................... 292
Pyralidae ..................................................................................................... 330
Crambidae ................................................................................................... 366
Mimallonidae ............................................................................................... 415
Doidae ......................................................................................................... 415
Drepanidae .................................................................................................. 416
Lasiocampidae ............................................................................................ 417
Apatelodidae ............................................................................................... 420
Bombycidae ................................................................................................ 421
Saturniidae .................................................................................................. 421
Sphingidae .................................................................................................. 427
Uraniidae ..................................................................................................... 438
Sematuridae ................................................................................................ 439
Geometridae ............................................................................................... 439
Notodontidae ............................................................................................... 516
Erebidae ...................................................................................................... 525
Euteliidae .................................................................................................... 588
Nolidae ........................................................................................................ 589
Noctuidae .................................................................................................... 592
- - - - -
Excluded taxa .............................................................................................. 719
Notes ........................................................................................................... 722
Literature cited ............................................................................................ 744
-- 5 --
Preface
This is a list of all the butterfly and moth (Lepidoptera) species that are known to occur
in Canada, Greenland, and the United States of America excluding Hawaii. It is an
update of the last published checklist by Hodges et al. (1983), which is hereafter
referred to as "MONA (1983)". This list is not a technically a catalog, because it does
not include full literature citations to all original descriptions and types. Rather, it is an
annotated taxonomic checklist, including synonyms of species, subspecies, genera, and
subgenera.
This list grew out of independent efforts by the authors to compile current lists of
Lepidoptera names. JPP compiled and published a comprehensive catalog of the
butterflies of North America (Pelham 2008), with online updates released since then,
including the latest in March 2016 (Pelham 2016). The names included in that list are
captured here. The moth names were originally being compiled independently by GRP
(as a taxonomic framework for a forthcoming Canadian distributional checklist) and BP
(for cataloging images for the Moth Photographers Group website (2013). GRP and BP
combined their efforts in 2012, and incorporated the work of JPP to produce the current
list. Final editing, proof-reading and formatting was carried out by GRP.
The list was assembled by obtaining an electronic version of the MONA (1983) list,
which was then reconciled with all the Lepidoptera names in Nomina Insecta Nearctica,
a list of names of North American insects (Poole 1995). This was then further updated
by extracting and incorporating all new taxa and new arrangements from relevant
taxonomic papers published since 1979. Information was checked against world
catalogs, for particular taxonomic groups for which comprehensive catalogs and
checklists exist.
We have endeavored to include information from all publications up to the end of 2015,
with some newer works included as well, published as recently as April 2016. We are
aware of a few relevant papers that we were not able to obtain, and undoubtedly there
are others, likely ones dealing primarily with other regions of the world, that we have
missed entirely. Nevertheless, this is a virtually complete list of the species known from
North America, as of the end of 2015.
This list has been extensively checked for errors and edited for consistency, but aside
from the butterfly section, and more recent (since 1979) moth publications, we have not
checked the original descriptions to verify the information presented here. Many
nomenclature uncertainties were checked against the Global Lepidoptera Names Index
website of the Natural History Museum (Beccaloni et al. 2003), and the Lepidoptera
database hosted by the Finnish IT center for science (Savela 2016). Some sections of
the list have been reviewed by taxonomic experts, but overall this publication has not
been thoroughly peer-reviewed as yet. Rather than delaying its publication for many
months to do so, during which time it would become further out of date, we have chosen
-- 6 --
to make it available now in its current form. We hope that feedback from you, the end
users, will serve as a crowd-sourced peer review for the next iteration of the list.
Acknowledgements
The authors were assisted in our work by many people, who were generous with their
knowledge and their time. People who provided information and answered our
questions include Gary Anweiler, John Brown, Richard Brown, Charles Covell, Lars
Crabo, Don Davis, Jeremy deWaard, Jason Dombroskie, Clifford Ferris, Todd Gilligan,
Cris Guppy, Jim Hayden, Ron Hodges, Dave Holden, Christi Jaeger, Ole Karsholt,
Norbert Kondla, Don Lafontaine, Bernard Landry, Jean-François Landry, David Langor,
Sangmi Lee, Doug Macaulay, Eric Metzler, Vazrick Nazari, Olle Pellmyr, Jerry Powell,
Chris Schmidt, Jae-Cheon Sohn, Bill Taft, Jim Troubridge, and Erik van Nieukerken. If
we have failed to mention anyone who has contributed to this work, we apologise for the
oversight.
The authors thank our families for support in our entomological endeavors. GRP thanks
his supervisor David Langor, for his immense patience with this interminable project.
-- 7 --
Introduction
Almost 40 years have passed since MONA (1983) was compiled, and our knowledge of
North American Lepidoptera and their relationships has advanced dramatically since
then. Available computing power and our ability to locate information and organise data
has also advanced dramatically, which has undoubtedly made this list much easier to
compile than the last one.
The MONA (1983) list included 11279 species (species were numbered from one to
11233 but the list included several dozen decimal numbers). The current list includes
12766 recognised North American species, an increase of over 13%.
A total of 848 of the species listed in MONA (1983) are no longer recognised as valid
species, so in total there are 2334 new valid names in the current list. A total of 1481 of
these species have been newly described since the end of 1978, the approximate cutoff
date for inclusion in the previous list. Others have been recently introduced and/or
discovered. Since the publication of MONA (1983), the number of recognised
micromoth species (excluding Pyraloidea) has increased by 21%, whereas the
macromoths and butterflies have increased 8.5% and 9.6% respectively (Figure 1). The
chronological accumulation of published names is depicted in Figure 2.
Figure 1. Comparison of total valid species included in the Lepidoptera checklists of
McDunnough (1938-39), Hodges et al. (1983), and the present (P3) list. Pyraloidea are
included in the macromoths.
-- 8 --
Figure 2. Cumulative accumulation of North American Lepidoptera species descriptions
from 1758 to 2016. Pyraloidea are included in the macromoths.
A summary of the current number of species known in each family appears in Table 1.
See below for details on the source of the current classification scheme.
-- 9 --
Table 1. Valid species counts for the 89 North American Lepidoptera families.
Micropterigidae 3 Alucitidae 3
Eriocraniidae 13 Pterophoridae 162
Hepialidae 19 Copromorphidae 5
Acanthopteroctetidae 4 Carposinidae 11
Nepticulidae 104 Schreckensteiniidae 3
Opostegidae 10 Epermeniidae 12
Prodoxidae 64 Urodidae 2
Tridentaformidae 1 Choreutidae 34
Incurvariidae 6 Galacticidae 1
Heliozelidae 30 Tortricidae 1393
Adelidae 18 Cossidae 46
Tischeriidae 46 Dudgeoneidae 1
Meesiidae 3 Sesiidae 135
Psychidae 28 Epipyropidae 1
Dryadaulidae 2 Lacturidae 6
Tineidae 190 Dalceridae 1
Tineoidea-unplaced 1 Limacodidae 49
Bucculatricidae 103 Megalopygidae 11
Gracillariidae 306 Zygaenidae 27
Yponomeutidae 34 Thyrididae 12
Ypsolophidae 39 Hyblaeidae 1
Plutellidae 16 Hesperiidae 294
Glyphipterigidae 48 Papilionidae 41
Argyresthiidae 54 Pieridae 77
Lyonetiidae 18 Lycaenidae 166
Attevidae 1 Riodinidae 29
Praydidae 3 Nymphalidae 229
Heliodinidae 31 Pyralidae 682
Bedelliidae 2 Crambidae 864
[unassigned Apoditrysia] 2 Mimallonidae 4
Douglasiidae 9 Doidae 2
Autostichidae 25 Drepanidae 21
Lecithoceridae 2 Lasiocampidae 35
Oecophoridae 37 Apatelodidae 6
Depressariidae 200 Bombycidae 1
Cosmopterigidae 185 Saturniidae 76
Gelechiidae 902 Sphingidae 131
Elachistidae 156 Uraniidae 13
Coleophoridae 152 Sematuridae 1
Batrachedridae 26 Geometridae 1441
Scythrididae 44 Notodontidae 137
Blastobasidae 73 Erebidae 956
Stathmopodidae 5 Euteliidae 17
Momphidae 46 Nolidae 39
Pterolonchidae 4 Noctuidae 2522
Lypusidae 1
-- 10 --
Format of the List
Scope and coverage:
We treat species occurring in Canada, the continental United States, Alaska, and
Greenland; essentially all of North America north of Mexcio. This corresponds closely
with the Nearctic Ecozone, and, with apologies to Mexican and Central American
residents, is referred to henceforth as "North America" (abbreviated as NA) for
convenience.
For the purposes of this list, our definition of a "North American species" is a species
that occurs for at least part of its life cycle in the wild in NA. This includes strays which
have arrived without human intervention. We also include species that have become
established in human environments, such as homes and greenhouses, and species
kept in culture such as silkworms. We exclude species that have been brought in by
humans and intercepted with no evidence of a viable population ever having been
established. Many such interceptions are listed here as "excluded species", but they are
not considered part of the NA fauna and they are excluded from the total numbers in the
summary figures and tables.
Classification scheme:
Taxa are presented here following the most recent published taxonomic scheme for the
group in question, with a few deviations as detailed in the accompanying notes. The
overall classification scheme for the order Lepidoptera as far down as the family level is
derived from van Nieukerken et al. (2011). At the subfamily level, it is derived from
Kristensen (1999). Modifications to those schemes have been made to recognise
subsequent changes presented in newer works. Notes and details on higher-level
classification are as follows:
Micropterigidae
- nomenclature follows Davis & Landry (2012).
Hepialidae
- genus sequence follows Nielsen et al. (2000).
Acanthopteroctetidae
- moved to superfamily Neopseustoidea following Regier et al. (2015).
Nepticulidae
- follows Puplesis & Diškus (2003) and Doorenweerd et al. (2015), although the species
are listed alphabetically rather than in chronological order of description, within each
genus or species group.
Opostegidae
- follows Davis & Stonis (2007).
Prodoxidae
- placed at the beginning of Adeloidea following Regier et al. (2015).
-- 11 --
Tridentaformidae
- erected as a family in the Adeloidea by Regier et al. (2015).
Tischeriidae
- follows Puplesis & Diškus (2003).
Tineoidea
- family and subfamily composition and arrangement follows Regier et al. (2014);
species-level nomenclature issues were checked against Robinson (2003).
Tineidae
- the genera Euprora, Corythophora and Philonome were excluded from the
Yponomeutoidea and provisionally placed in Tineidae by Sohn et al. (2013).
unplaced Tineoidea
- Doleromorpha was excluded from Yponomeutoidea, and flagged as belonging to
Tineoidea by Regier et al. (2014).
Gracillariidae
- species-level nomenclature follows de Prins & de Prins (2005), with selected taxa
checked against de Prins & de Prins (2016).
Yponomeutoidea
- family and subfamily composition and arrangement follows Sohn et al. (2013).
Plutellidae
- the generic scheme by Baraniak (2007) has not been widely adopted in NA, so it is not
followed here.
Glyphipterigidae
- follows Heppner (1995).
Lyonetiidae
- inclusion of the subfamily Cemiostominae by van Nieukerken et al. (2011) is followed
here provisionally, although the group is problematic (Sohn et al. 2013).
Attevidae
- species-level nomenclature follows Wilson et al. (2010).
Heliodinidae
- follows Hsu & Powell (2004).
unassigned Apoditrysia
- genus Cycloplasis excluded from Heliodinidae by Hsu & Powell (2004); it was further
excluded from Yponomeutoidea by Sohn et al. (2013).
Douglasiidae
- removed from Gracillarioidea by Kawahara et al. (2011). Species sequence follows
Gaedike (1990).
Gelechioidea
- family and subfamily composition and scheme follows Heikkilä et al. (2014), with some
composition issues resolved by Karsholt et al. (2013).
Cosmopterigidae
-- 12 --
- species-level nomenclature follows Sinev (2002).
Gelechiidae
- species-level nomenclature follows Lee et al. (2009).
Elachistidae
- genus and species-level taxonomy follows Kaila (1999a).
Coleophoridae
- species-level taxonomy follows Baldizzone et al. (2006). A lengthy list of Palaearctic
synonyms of Coleophora, described by Capuse and Falkovich, have not been used
widely in NA, and are omitted from this list.
Scythrididae
- species-level taxonomy follows Landry (1991).
Blastobasidae
- follows Adamski & Hodges (1996).
Alucitidae
- follows Gielis (2003).
Pterophoridae
- follows Gielis (2003).
Tortricidae
- higher classification follows Regier et al. (2012a); genus and species-level taxonomy
follows Brown (2005) with selected nomenclature issues checked against the online
catalog by Gilligan et al. (2014) [checked in December 2015]. The Cochylina genus and
species-level taxonomy follows Metzler & Brown (2014).
Sesiidae
- follows Eichlin & Duckworth (1988). Selected nomenclature issues have been checked
against the online catalog of Pühringer (2016).
Zygaenidae
- tribal and lower classification follows Tarmann (1984).
Papilionoidea
- species numbers are from Pelham (2008); taxonomy and sort order follows Pelham
(2016), although synonymy of Hesperioidea within Papilionoidea follows van
Nieukerken et al. (2011) and Kawahara & Breinholt (2014).
Pyraloidea
- higher-level classification follows Regier et al. (2012b), with modifications from
Scholtens & Solis (2015). Genus and species-level nomenclature follows Scholtens &
Solis (2015), but species order is taken from various revisionary works published since
MONA (1983). Scholtens & Solis (2015) simply reiterate the MONA (1983) species
order, which has been significantly updated herein. The Crambini genus sequence
follows Landry (1995). Composition of tribes within the Glaphyriinae are uncertain, as
no definitive works were available to the authors. Genus groups in Spilomelinae follow
Munroe et al. (1995), although a few genera were not listed in that work, and they have
-- 13 --
been provisionally placed by the authors herein. Selected species-level nomenclature
issues were resolved by checking against the online Pyraloidea database (Nuss et al.
2015).
Doidae
- moved from Noctuoidea to Drepanoidea by van Nieukerken et al. (2011).
Saturniidae
- genus and species-level taxonomy follows Tuskes et al. (1996).
Sphingidae
- genus and species-level taxonomy follows Tuttle (2007).
Geometridae
- tribal classification within Ennominae primarily follows Young (2006) and Ferguson
(2008), but the synonymy of Speranza with Macaria follows Sihvonen & Skou (2015).
Genus and species-level nomenclature follows Scoble (1999) in the absence of newer
works.
Noctuoidea
- species numbers, and higher and lower classification follow Lafontaine & Schmidt
(2010, 2011, 2013, 2015). Species-level nomenclature issues were resolved by
checking against Poole (1989), in the absence of newer works.
The current higher classification scheme used in the checklist:
ZEUGLOPTERA
Micropterigoidea Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
Micropterigidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
GLOSSATA
DACNONYMPHA
Eriocranioidea Rebel, 1901
Eriocraniidae Rebel, 1901
EXOPORIA
Hepialoidea Stephens, 1829
Hepialidae Stephens, 1829
NEOPSEUSTINA
Neopseustoidea Davis, 1978
Acanthopteroctetidae Davis, 1978
HETERONEURA
NEPTICULINA
Nepticuloidea Stainton, 1854
Nepticulidae Stainton, 1854
Nepticulinae Stainton, 1854
Opostegidae Meyrick, 1893
Opostegoidinae Kuroko, 1982
Oposteginae Meyrick, 1893
EULEPIDOPTERA
INCURVARIINA
Adeloidea Common, 1975
Prodoxidae Riley, 1881
Lamproniinae Heslop, 1938
Prodoxinae Riley, 1881
Tridentaformidae Davis, 2015
Incurvariidae Spuler, 1898
Heliozelidae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Adelidae Bruand, 1850
Adelinae Bruand, 1850
ETIMONOTRYSIA
Tischerioidea Spuler, 1898
Tischeriidae Spuler, 1898
DITRYSIA
Tineoidea Latreille, 1810
Meesiidae Capuše, 1966
Psychidae Boisduval, 1828
Naryciinae Tutt, 1900
Taleporiinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Psychinae Boisduval, 1829
Oiketicinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
Dryadaulidae Bradley, 1966
Tineidae Latreille, 1810
Hapsiferinae Gozmány, 1968
-- 14 --
Myrmecozelinae Capuše, 1968
Setomorphinae Walsingham, 1891
Acrolophinae Fracker, 1915
Nemapogoninae Hinton, 1955
Tineidae "clade B" Regier et al., 2014
Tineinae Latreille, 1810
Tineidae "clade A" Regier et al., 2014
Erechthiinae Meyrick, 1880
Hieroxestinae Meyrick, 1893
Scardiinae Eyer, 1924
Tineidae-unplaced
Tineoidea-unplaced
Gracillarioidea Stainton, 1854
Bucculatricidae Fracker, 1915
Gracillariidae Stainton, 1854
Gracillariinae Stainton, 1854
Lithocolletinae Stainton, 1854
Phyllocnistinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Yponomeutoidea Stephens, 1829
Yponomeutidae Stephens, 1829
Yponomeutinae Stephens, 1829
Yponomeutidae-unplaced
Saridoscelinae Moriuti, 1977
Ypsolophidae Guenée, 1845
Ypsolophinae Guenée, 1845
Ochsenheimeriinae [unknown author, date]
Plutellidae Guenée, 1845
Glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854
Glyphipteriginae Stainton, 1854
Acrolepiinae [unknown author, date]
Argyresthiidae Bruand, 1850
Lyonetiidae Stainton, 1854
Lyonetiinae Stainton, 1854
Cemiostominae [unknown author, date]
Attevidae Mosher, 1916
Praydidae Moriuti, 1977
Heliodinidae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Bedelliidae Meyrick, 1880
APODITRYSIA
unassigned Apoditrysia
Douglasiidae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Gelechioidea Stainton, 1854
Autostichidae Le Marchand, 1947
Autostichinae Le Marchand, 1947
Oegoconiinae Leraut, 1992
Symmocinae Gozmány, 1957
Glyphidocerinae Hodges, 1998
Deocloninae Hodges, 1998
Lecithoceridae Le Marchand, 1947
Martyringa group Heikkilä et al., 2014
Oecophoridae Bruand, 1850
Oecophorinae Bruand, 1850
Pleurotinae Toll, 1956
Oecophoridae-unplaced
Depressariidae Meyrick, 1883
Depressariinae Meyrick, 1883
Ethmiinae Busck, 1909
Peleopodinae Hodges, 1974
Stenomatinae Meyrick, 1906
Depressariidae-unplaced
Cosmopterigidae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Chrysopeleiinae Mosher, 1916
Cosmopteriginae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Antequerinae Hodges, 1978
Gelechiidae Stainton, 1854
Anacampsinae Bruand, 1850
Dichomeridinae Hampson, 1918
Apatetrinae Meyrick, 1947
Thiotrichinae Karsholt et al., 2013
Anomologinae Meyrick, 1926
Gelechiinae Stainton, 1854
Elachistidae Bruand, 1850
Elachistinae Bruand, 1850
Agonoxeninae Meyrick, 1926
Coleophoridae Bruand, 1850
Batrachedridae Heinemann & Wocke, 1876
Scythrididae Rebel, 1901
Blastobasidae Meyrick, 1894
Holcocerinae Adamski, 1989
Blastobasinae Meyrick, 1894
Stathmopodidae Janse, 1917
Momphidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Pterolonchidae Meyrick, 1918
Pterolonchinae Meyrick, 1918
Coelopoetinae Hodges, 1978
Lypusidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1857
Chimabachinae Heinemann, 1870
Alucitoidea Leach, 1815
Alucitidae Leach, 1815
Pterophoroidea Latreille, 1809
Pterophoridae Latreille, 1802
Agdistinae Tutt, 1907
Deuterocopinae Gielis, 1993
Pterophorinae Zeller, 1841
Carposinoidea Walsingham, 1897
Copromorphidae Meyrick, 1905
Carposinidae Walsingham, 1897
Schreckensteinioidea Fletcher, 1929
-- 15 --
Schreckensteiniidae Fletcher, 1929
Epermenioidea Spuler, 1910
Epermeniidae Spuler, 1910
Urodoidea Kyrki, 1988
Urodidae Kyrki, 1988
Choreutoidea Stainton, 1858
Choreutidae Stainton, 1858
Millieriinae Heppner, 1982
Choreutinae Stainton, 1858
Galacticoidea Minet, 1986
Galacticidae Minet, 1986
Tortricoidea Latreille, 1803
Tortricidae Latreille, 1803
Tortricinae Druce, 1912
Olethreutinae Walsingham, 1895
Chlidanotinae Meyrick, 1906
Cossoidea Leach, 1815
Cossidae Leach, 1815
Zeuzerinae Boisduval, [1828]
Hypoptinae Neumögen & Dyar, 1894
Cossinae Leach, 1830
Dudgeoneidae Berger, 1858
Cossulinae [unknown author, date]
Sesiidae Boisduval, 1828
Tinthiinae Le Cerf, 1917
Sesiinae Boisduval, 1828
Zygaenoidea Latreille, 1809
Epipyropidae Dyar, 1903
Lacturidae Heppner, 1995
Dalceridae Dyar, 1898
Limacodidae Duponchel, 1845
Limacodinae Duponchel, 1845
Megalopygidae Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
Megalopyginae Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
Trosiinae [unknown author, date]
Zygaenidae Latreille, 1809
Procridinae Boisduval, 1828
Zygaeninae Latreille, 1809
OBTECTOMERA
Thyridoidea Herrich-Schäffer, 1846
Thyrididae Herrich-Schäffer, 1846
Striglininae [unknown author, date]
Thyridinae Herrich-Schäffer, 1846
Siculodinae [unknown author, date]
Hyblaeoidea Hampson, 1903
Hyblaeidae Hampson, 1903
Papilionoidea Latreille, [1802]
Hesperiidae Latreille, 1809
Eudaminae Mabille, 1877
Pyrginae Burmeister, 1878
Heteropterinae Aurivillius, 1925
Hesperiinae Latreille, 1809
Papilionidae Latreille, [1802]
Parnassiinae Duponchel, [1835]
Papilioninae Latreille, [1802]
Pieridae Swainson, 1820
Dismorphiinae Schatz, 1886
Coliadinae Swainson, 1821
Pierinae Swainson, 1820
Lycaenidae [Leach], [1815]
Miletinae Reuter, 1896
Lycaeninae [Leach], [1815]
Theclinae Swainson, 1831
Polyommatinae Swainson, 1827
Riodinidae Grote, 1895
Euselasiinae [unknown author, date]
Riodininae Grote, 1895
Nymphalidae Rafinesque, 1815
Libytheinae Boisduval, 1833
Danainae Boisduval, [1833]
Heliconiinae Swainson, 1822
Limenitidinae Behr, 1864
Apaturinae Boisduval, 1840
Biblidinae Boisduval, 1833
Cyrestinae Guenée, 1865
Nymphalinae Rafinesque, 1815
Charaxinae Guenée, 1865
Satyrinae Boisduval, [1833]
Pyraloidea Latreille, 1809
Pyralidae Latreille, 1809
Galleriinae Zeller, 1848
Chrysauginae Lederer, 1863
Pyralinae Latreille, 1809
Epipaschiinae Meyrick, 1884
Phycitinae Zeller, 1839
Crambidae Latreille, 1810
Schoenobiinae Duponchel, 1846
Acentropinae Stephens, 1836
Lathrotelinae [unknown author, date]
Crambinae Latreille, 1810
Scopariinae Guenée, 1854
Musotiminae [unknown author, date]
Glaphyriinae Forbes, 1923
Odontiinae Guenée, 1854
Spilomelinae [unknown author, date]
Pyraustinae Meyrick, 1890
Mimallonoidea [unknown author, date]
Mimallonidae Burmeister, 1878
-- 16 --
MACROHETEROCERA
Drepanoidea Boisduval, 1828
Doidae Donahue & Brown, 1987
Drepanidae Boisduval, 1828
Thyatirinae [unknown author, date]
Drepaninae [unknown author, date]
Lasiocampoidea Harris, 1841
Lasiocampidae Harris, 1841
Lasiocampinae Harris, 1841
Macromphaliinae Franclemont, 1973
Bombycoidea Latreille, 1802
Apatelodidae Neumögen & Dyar, 1894
Bombycidae Latreille, 1802
Bombycinae Latreille, 1802
Saturniidae Boisduval, 1837
Ceratocampinae Harris, 1841
Hemileucinae Grote & Robinson, 1866
Saturniinae Boisduval, 1837
Sphingidae Latreille, 1802
Sphinginae Latreille, 1802
Smerinthinae Grote & Robinson, 1865
Macroglossinae Harris, 1839
Geometroidea Leach, 1815
Uraniidae Leach, 1815
Epipleminae [unknown author, date]
Uraniinae Leach, 1815
Sematuridae Guenée, 1858
Sematurinae Guenée, 1858
Geometridae Stephens, 1829
Larentiinae Duponchel, 1845
Sterrhinae Meyrick, 1892
Geometrinae Stephens, 1829
Archiearinae Fletcher, 1953
Ennominae Duponchel, 1845
Noctuoidea Latreille, 1809
Notodontidae Stephens, 1829
Pygaerinae Duponchel, [1845]
Notodontinae Stephens, 1829
Phalerinae Butler, 1886
Dudusinae Matsumura, 1925
Hemiceratinae Guenée, 1852
Heterocampinae Neumögen & Dyar, 1894
Nystaleinae Forbes, 1948
Dioptinae Walker, 1862
Notodontidae-unplaced
Erebidae Leach, [1815]
Lymantriinae Hampson, [1893]
Arctiinae Leach, [1815]
Herminiinae Leach, [1815]
Pangraptinae Grote, 1882
Hypeninae Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]
Rivulinae Grote, 1895
Scoliopteryginae Herrich-Schäffer, [1852]
Calpinae Boisduval, 1840
Hypocalinae Guenée, 1852
Scolecocampinae Grote, 1883
Scolecocampinae (incertae sedis) Grote, 1883
Hypenodinae Forbes, 1954
Boletobiinae Guenée, [1858]
Anobinae Holloway, 2005
Toxocampinae Guenée, 1852
Erebinae Leach, [1815]
Eulepidotinae Grote, 1895
Euteliidae Grote, 1882
Euteliinae Grote, 1882
Nolidae Bruand, 1846
Diphtherinae Fibiger & Lafontaine, 2005
Nolinae Bruand, 1846
Chloephorinae Stainton, 1859
Eligminae Mell, 1943
Risobinae Mell, 1943
Collomeninae Zahiri, Lafontaine et al., 2012
Afridinae Kitching & Rawlins, [1998]
Noctuidae Latreille, 1809
Dyopsinae Grote, 1895
Plusiinae Boisduval, [1828]
Bagisarinae Crumb, 1956
Cydosiinae Kitching & Rawlins, [1998]
Eustrotiinae Grote, 1882
Acontiinae Guenée, 1841
Pantheinae Smith, 1898
Raphiinae Beck, 1996
Balsinae Grote, 1896
Acronictinae Harris, 1841
Metoponiinae Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]
Cuculliinae Herrich-Schäffer, [1850]
Amphipyrinae Guenée, 1837
Oncocnemidinae Forbes & Franclemont, 1954
Agaristinae Boisduval, 1833
Condicinae Poole, 1995
Heliothinae Boisduval, [1828]
Eriopinae Herrich-Schäffer, [1851]
Bryophilinae Guenée, 1852
Noctuinae Latreille, 1809
-- 17 --
Below the subfamily level, we follow the most recent published scheme, including the
order of species and subspecies. Deviations from the most recent published schemes
are detailed in the notes. Where no recent published scheme exists, we default to the
composition and order of MONA (1983), or to alphabetical order if many new taxa have
been added recently. New additions are inserted below their closest known relative
(based on information in new species descriptions and other published taxonomic
works), or at the end of the next highest taxon (genus, subgenus, etc.) if no such
information is available.
Species numbers:
The "P3 numbers" employed here are based on a system devised by BP for the Moth
Photographers Group website (Beccaloni et al. 2003), and modified in 2016 by GRP to
follow the most recent higher classification scheme. They consist of a two-digit
superfamily number (in smaller font), followed by a four-digit species number. The
superfamily numbers originated from a taxonomic list of world superfamilies, numbered
with intervals of two or three to allow space for future insertions and rearrangements.
The species numbers begin at one for each superfamily. The superfamily number (in 8-
point font) and the species number (in 10-point fornt) are combined to form a unique six-
digit P3 number. This allows for future reorganisation and reallocation of species
numbers for an individual superfamily, without upsetting the overall numbering scheme
for the Lepidoptera.
Each unique species epithet will be more or less permanently attached to a particular
P3 number, unless the entire superfamily is renumbered to reflect major changes in our
understanding of relationships. Thus, all valid taxa in the list have a unique six-digit
number; new taxa can be easily inserted; and portions of the list can be modified
following a major taxonomic rearrangement. We hope this numbering system will work
well and will be adopted widely by the Lepidopterists' community.
The original MPG numbering scheme was adopted by Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010) for
their checklist of Noctuoidea of NA, resulting in the superfamily number "93", and six-
digit species numbers from 930001 to 933693. We have adopted their numbers for all
species still recognised as valid, with a few minor modifications to decimal number
insertions that were made in their subsequent updates (Lafontaine & Schmidt 2011,
2013, 2015). As well, we have adopted the butterfly species numbers published in
Pelham (2008), for all butterfly species still recognised as valid. Those numbers, from 1
to 800, are converted here to P3 numbers from 770001 to 770800. A consequence of
using these previously published numbers for butterflies and noctuoids, is that a few P3
numbers appear out of numeric sequence in the current list, wherever very recent
taxonomic changes have moved a species into a new position since the publication of
Pelham (2008) and Lafontaine & Schmidt (2010).
-- 18 --
In the butterflies and Noctuoidea, recently added species have been inserted with
decimal numbers, typically using ".10" for insertions within a genus, and ".50" for
insertions of new genera and higher categories. Multiple insertions are inserted at
intervals of 0.1, to allow room in between for more future insertions.
MONA (Hodges et al. 1983) numbers:
We have included the widely used species numbers from MONA (1983), so that users
familiar with that numbering scheme can easily locate taxa in the current scheme. The
original MONA numbers were from 1 to 11233. Five numbers were not used (1751,
2789, 7511, 8289, 9324), four were duplicate entries (1393, 1424, 1461, 1953), and 37
single-digit decimal numbers were used as well, for a total of 11279 species. All taxa
that were recognized as valid species in MONA (1983) are included here in one form or
another, with the MONA number. Some taxa from the 1983 list are no longer considered
to be part of the NA fauna; they are included in the main list here as "excluded species",
see below.
Additionally, all currently-valid species that were not considered as such in MONA
(1983) are given a two-digit decimal MONA number placing them in an approximate
position in the MONA sequence (or at least after their closest relative). Thus, a
database or "EXCEL"-type spreadsheet version of this list (which may be made
available online) could be sorted and manipulated in either "P3 order" or "MONA order".
Higher classification entries:
Higher taxa are listed in capital letters in larger and/or bold font. Below the subtribe
level, genera and subgenera are listed in regular sized capital letters. Species groups
and species complexes are listed in regular sized font. Synonyms of genera and
subgenera are listed in italics below the valid taxon. Synonyms are listed alphabetically
below the valid species, then by author and date. See the section on synonyms, below,
for more information on genus-level and subgenus-level synonyms.
References to identification keys:
At the family level and below, we have listed useful identification keys that cover most or
all of the NA species of the group in question. These are listed immediately below the
most inclusive taxonomic group covered by the reference. This list of references is
extensive, but it is not exhaustive, and does not include general works such as Forbes
(1923, 1948, 1954, 1960).
Species level entries:
Below the valid higher-level categories, each species-level line entry consists of the
genus initial, valid species epithet, the author and publication date of the name, and the
-- 19 --
genus in which the species name was originally described, in brackets. If the original
genus is different from the current valid genus, the author and date are also placed in
brackets, following zoological convention. To separate species citations from publication
citations, the author and publication date are separated by a comma and space (in
publication citations, the author and date are separated only by a space). If the actual
author and/or publication date differs from that printed in the original publication, it is
placed in square brackets. No initials or abbreviations are used with author names. We
have endeavored to standardize variable spellings and use of accent marks.
All species-level epithets in the list follow original orthography; they are not changed to
match the gender of the current valid genus (note that we have not systematically
checked all original descriptions for original spellings; some may be incorrectly listed in
gender-conforming spellings here). All recognised species in the list are valid species,
except for a very small number of undescribed species that are widely known and have
been discussed in other publications.
Subspecies entries:
We have endeavored to capture all valid subspecies that occur in NA. These are listed
below the valid species, preceded by the term "ssp.". They are listed in the taxonomic
order in which they were presented in the most recent taxonomic revision or catalog.
We also list nominate subspecies that do not occur in NA. These are indicated with the
term "extralimital" in brackets following the original genus. Note there may be taxa for
which we are unaware of valid subspecies divisions, in some cases where only the
nominate subspecies occurs in NA. (Nominal subspecies were not explicitly listed in
MONA (1983) so we may have missed capturing this information if nothing else has
been published on the species in many years).
Synonym entries:
Synonyms of genera, subgenera, species and subspecies are listed below the valid
taxon, in italics. They are listed in alphabetical order, then alphabetically by author, and
then by date. Synonyms of higher taxa above the genus level are not included. We do
not track the taxonomic position of "synonyms of forms or varieties", or other such
infrasubspecific categories; these are all treated equally as synonyms of the valid parent
taxon - the species or subspecies.
Generally all available genus synonyms are included (exception: Coleophora, for which
dozens of European synonyms have been omitted). Emendations and misspellings of
genus synonyms are generally excluded, unless they have been in use in significant
works, or are less than 100 years old. However, many are still present in the list as we
have not systematically checked all names for availability or recent usage.
-- 20 --
We endeavor to list all available synonyms of all native genera, subgenera, and
species. Many unavailable names are listed as well, but we do not strive to list all of the
latter. We do not generally include extralimital synonyms of introduced taxa, although
they have not been systematically removed from the list in all taxonomic groups. Some
extralimital synonyms that have been retained were considered valid species in MONA
(1983) or in other major recent works. For naturally holarctic species or species of
uncertain origin, we have generally included extralimital synonyms; they are indicated
as such with the term "extralim." after the original genus. (exception to inclusion of all
holarctic species synonyms: Acleris hastiana - dozens of Palaearctic forms and
varieties, that have never been used in NA, were removed from the list).
Note that synonyms from Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean are not flagged
as extralimital. This differs from our criteria for inclusion of valid species, which is
continental NA north of Mexico. We have not systematically checked the type localities
of all taxa, so the list may contain extralimital synonyms that are not flagged as such.
Misspellings:
Published misspellings are treated as synonyms, and are listed with the original authors
and dates, if known. If they have been widely used by various workers, the author is
listed as "of authors, [no date]". Trivial old misspellings and misspellings of synonyms
are not generally listed unless they were used in a significant work in NA in the past 100
years.
Misidentifications:
Misidentifications are listed and treated as synonyms, with the term "of authors" as an
integral part of the species epithet, and the term "not" preceding the author name, to
distinguish the misidentification from the 'correct' usage of the name.
Misidentifications are not exhaustively listed here. We list misidentifications that were
considered to be the valid species names in MONA (1983), and names that have been
used in significant works in the past 100 years.
Extralimital taxa:
A total of 105 species that have been erroneously reported from NA, or have not been
confirmed from NA, are included in the list as "excluded species". They are clearly
noted as such, with an "E" following the P3 number, and the word "excluded" appearing
after the name. All these excluded species are also listed together in a separate section
of this publication. As well, over 200 nominal subspecies that are extralimital are
currently included in the list, and are clearly noted as such.
-- 21 --
Notes:
An asterisk after the taxon name indicates that there is a note with more information on
the taxon, in the "Notes" section following the list. These are organised by higher taxon,
and by P3 number. They include details on taxonomic interpretations, and information
sources.
-- 22 --
List of Lepidoptera of North America:
Suborder ZEUGLOPTERA Chapman, 1917
01 Superfamily MICROPTERIGOIDEA Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
Family MICROPTERIGIDAE Herrich-Schäffer, 1855
key to species: Davis & Landry (2012)
Genus EPIMARTYRIA Walsingham, 1898
010001 E. auricrinella Walsingham, 1898 (Epimartyria) 1
010002 E. bimaculella Davis & Landry, 2012 (Epimartyria) 1.1
010003 E. pardella Walsingham, 1880 (Epimartyria) 2
Suborder GLOSSATA Fabricius, 1775
(all groups following)
Infraorder DACNONYMPHA Hinton, 1946
07 Superfamily ERIOCRANIOIDEA Rebel, 1901
Family ERIOCRANIIDAE Rebel, 1901
key to species: Davis (1978a)
Genus DYSERIOCRANIA Spuler, 1910
MNEMONICA Meyrick, 1912
070001 D. griseocapitella (Walsingham, 1898) (Eriocrania) 3
070002 D. auricyanea (Walsingham, 1882) (Micropteryx) 4
cyanosparsella (Williams, 1908) (Eriocrania)
Genus ERIOCRANIA Zeller, 1851
070003 E. semipurpurella (Stephens, 1834) (Lampronia) 5
ssp. a. semipurpurella (Stephens, 1834) (Lampronia)
amentella (Zeller, 1850) (Micropteryx)
inconspicuella (Wood, 1890) (Micropteryx)
ssp. b. pacifica Davis, 1978 (Eriocrania)
070004 E. breviapex Davis, 1978 (Eriocrania) 6
Genus ERIOCRANIELLA Viette, 1949
Subgenus ERIOCRANIELLA Viette, 1949
070005 E. aurosparsella (Walsingham, 1880) (Micropteryx) 7
070006 E. xanthocara Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 8
070007 E. longifurcula Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 9
-- 23 --
070008 E. platyptera Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 10
Subgenus DISFURCULA Davis, 1978
070009 E. variegata Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 11
070010 E. trigona Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 12
070011 E. falcata Davis, 1978 (Eriocraniella) 13
070012 E. mediabulla Davis & Faeth, 1986 (Eriocraniella) 13.1
Genus NEOCRANIA Davis, 1978
070013 N. bifasciata Davis, 1978 (Neocrania) 14
Infraorder EXOPORIA Common, 1975
11 Superfamily HEPIALOIDEA Stephens, 1829
Family HEPIALIDAE Stephens, 1829
Genus GAZORYCTRA Hübner, 1820
key to species: Barnes & Benjamin (1925)
HEPIALUS Fabricius, 1775
EPIALUS Lederer, 1852
110001 G. hyperboreus (Möschler, 1862) (Epialus) 23
110002 G. sciophanes (Ferguson, 1979) (Hepialus) 23.1
110003 G. confusus (Edwards, [1885]) (Hepialus) 24
110004 G. roseicaput (Neumögen & Dyar, 1893) (Hepialus) 25
demutatus (Barnes & Benjamin, 1925) (Hepialus)
mutatus (Barnes & Benjamin, 1925) (Hepialus)
110005 G. pulcher (Grote, [1865]) (Hepialus) 26
110006 G. mcglashani (Edwards, 1886) (Hepialus) 27
110007 G. mathewi (Edwards, 1874) (Hepialus) 28
110008 G. novigannus (Barnes & Benjamin, [1926]) (Hepialus) 29
mackiei (Barnes & Benjamin, 1925) (Hepialus)
110009 G. wielgusi Wagner & Tindale, 1988 (Gazoryctra) 29.1
110010 G. lembertii (Dyar, 1894) (Hepialus) 32
Genus KORSCHELTELLUS Börner, 1820
110011 K. gracilis (Grote, [1865]) (Hepialus) 31
furcatus (Grote, 1883) (Hepialus)
labradoriensis (Packard, 1864) (Hepialus)
mustelinus (Packard, 1864) (Hepialus) 30
110012 K. lupulina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Noctua) H? 31.1
Genus PHYMATOPUS Wallengren, 1869
110013 P. behrensi (Stretch, 1872) (Sthenopis) 33
anceps (Edwards, 1881) (Hepialus)
desolatus (Strecker, 1875) (Hepialus)
montana (Stretch, 1872) (Sthenopis) 34
tacomae (Edwards, 1874) (Epialus)
110014 P. californicus (Boisduval, 1868) (Hepialus) 35
baroni (Behrens, 1876) (Hepialus)
mendocinolus (Behrens, 1876) (Hepialus)
rectus (Edwards, 1881) (Hepialus)
-- 24 --
sequoiolus (Behrens, 1876) (Hepialus)
110015 P. hectoides (Boisduval, 1868) (Hepialus) 36
inutilis (Edwards, 1881) (Hepialus)
lenzi (Behrens, 1876) (Hepialus)
modestus (Edwards, 1873) (Hepialus)
sangaris (Strecker, 1877) (Hepialus)
Genus STHENOPIS Packard, 1864
110016 S. argenteomaculatus (Harris, 1841) (Hepialus) 18
alni (Kellicott, 1885) (Cossus)
argentata Packard, 1864 (Sthenopis)
los (Strecker, 1893) (Hepialus)
perdita Dyar, 1893 (Sthenopis)
110017 S. purpurascens (Packard, 1863) (Gorgopis) 19
quadriguttatus (Grote, 1864) (Gorgopis) 20
semiauratus Neumögen & Dyar, 1893 (Sthenopis)
110018 S. thule (Strecker, 1875) (Hepialus) 21
110019 S. auratus (Grote, 1878) (Hepialus) 22
Infraorder NEOPSEUSTINA Davis & Nielson, 1980
13 Superfamily NEOPSEUSTOIDEA Davis, 1978
Family ACANTHOPTEROCTETIDAE Davis, 1978
key to species: Davis (1978a, 1984)
Genus ACANTHOPTEROCTETES Braun, 1921
130001 A. tripunctata Braun, 1921 (Acanthopteroctetes) 15
tripunctella Davis, 1969 (Acanthopteroctetes)
130002 A. bimaculata Davis, 1969 (Acanthopteroctetes) 16
130003 A. unifascia Davis, 1978 (Acanthopteroctetes) 17
130004 A. aurulenta Davis, 1984 (Acanthopteroctetes) 17.1
Infraorder HETERONEURA Tillyard, 1918
(all groups following)
Clade NEPTICULINA Meyrick, 1928
16 Superfamily NEPTICULOIDEA Stainton, 1854
Family NEPTICULIDAE Stainton, 1854
identification keys: van Nieukerken (1986) (genera); Wilkinson & Scoble (1979) (species)
Subfamily NEPTICULINAE Stainton, 1854
-- 25 --
Tribe NEPTICULINI Stainton, 1854
Genus ENTEUCHA Meyrick, 1915
ARTAVERSALA Davis, 1978
JOHANSSONIA Borkowski, 1972
JOHANSSONIELLA Kocak, 1981
160001 E. gilvafascia (Davis, 1978) (Artaversala) 118
Genus MANONEURA Davis, 1979
OLIGONEURA Davis, 1978
160002 M. basidactyla (Davis, 1978) (Oligoneura) 117
Genus STIGMELLA Schrank, 1802
key to species: Newton & Wilkinson (1982)
ASTIGMELLA Puplesis, 1984
DYSNEPTICULA Börner, 1925
NEPTICULA Heyden, 1843
lapponica group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160003 S. confusella (Wood & Walsingham, 1894) (Nepticula) H 95.3
barbata group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160004 S. plumosetaeella Newton & Wilkinson, 1982 (Stigmella) 95.5
betulicola group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160005 S. betulicola (Stainton, 1856) (Nepticula) H 95.6
160006 S. corylifoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 92
exasperata (Braun, 1930) (Nepticula)
minimella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
opulifoliella (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula)
paludicola (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula)
virginiella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula)
160007 S. juglandifoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 95
160008 S. longisacca Newton & Wilkinson, 1982 (Stigmella) 95.1
160009 S. microtheriella (Stainton, 1854) (Nepticula) I 95.2
160010 S. ostryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 93
caryaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula)
obscurella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula)
prunifoliella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160011 S. ceanothi (Braun, 1910) (Nepticula) 71
160012 S. cerea (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 77
160013 S. diffasciae (Braun, 1910) (Nepticula) 75
160014 S. heteromelis Newton & Wilkinson, 1982 (Stigmella) 75.1
160015 S. intermedia (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 72
160016 S. prunifoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 70
bifasciella (Clemens, 1862) (Nepticula)
serotinaeella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
160017 S. rhamnicola (Braun, 1916) (Nepticula) 74
rhamnella of authors, (not Herrich-Schäffer, 1860) (Nepticula) extralim.
160018 S. rhoifoliella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 73
paradoxa group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160019 S. stigmaciella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Stigmella) 68
160020 S. taeniola (Braun, 1925) (Nepticula) 69
-- 26 --
tiliella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160021 S. tiliella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 98
oxyacanthella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160022 S. crataegifoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 62
160023 S. minusculella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1855) (Nepticula)* H? 65
chalybeia (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula)
embonella (Klimesch, 1978) (Nepticula) extralim.
stettinensis (Heinemann, 1871) (Nepticula) extralim.
160024 S. oxyacanthella (Stainton, 1854) (Nepticula) I 65.1
160025 S. pomivorella (Packard, 1870) (Micropteryx) 64
160026 S. purpuratella (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 67
160027 S. scinanella Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Stigmella) 66
160028 S. scintillans (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 63
anomalella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160029 S. anomalella (Goeze, 1783) (Phalaena) I 78.1
160030 S. centifoliella (Zeller, 1848) (Nepticula) I 78.2
160031 S. rosaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 78
ssp. a. rosaefoliella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula)
ssp. b. pectocatena Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Stigmella)
saginella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160032 S. castaneaefoliella (Chambers, 1875) (Nepticula) 90
160033 S. flavipedella (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula) 91
160034 S. macrocarpae (Freeman, 1967) (Nepticula) 88
latifasciella (Chambers, 1878) (Nepticula)
160035 S. nigriverticella (Chambers, 1875) (Nepticula) 89
maculosella (Chambers, 1880) (Nepticula)
160036 S. saginella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 87
fuscocapitella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
quercicastenella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
160037 S. sclerostylota Newton & Wilkinson, 1982 (Stigmella) 87.1
salicis group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160038 S. fuscotibiella (Clemens, 1862) (Nepticula) 82
ciliaefuscella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
discolorella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula)
furcotibiella (Riley, 1891) (Nepticula)
160039 S. populetorum (Frey & Boll, 1878) (Nepticula) 84
quercipulchella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160040 S. altella (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula) 101
160041 S. quercipulchella (Chambers, 1878) (Nepticula) 99
terminella (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula)
160042 S. variella (Braun, 1910) (Nepticula) 100
[Stigmella ungrouped] Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160043 S. alba Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Stigmella) 103
160044 S. amelanchierella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 106
160045 S. apicialbella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula) 81
leucostigma (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula)
160046 S. argentifasciella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 105
160047 S. aromella (Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979) (Nepticula) 85
160048 S. belfragrella (Chambers, 1875) (Nepticula) 108
belfrageella (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula)
-- 27 --
belfragella Poole, 1995 (Stigmella)
160049 S. braunella (Jones, 1933) (Nepticula) 104
160050 S. condaliafoliella (Busck, 1900) (Nepticula) 97
160051 S. gossypii (Forbes & Leonard, 1930) (Nepticula) 76
160052 S. inconspicuella Newton & Wilkinson, 1982 (Stigmella) 76.1
160053 S. myricafoliella (Busck, 1900) (Nepticula) 94
160054 S. pallida (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 86
160055 S. procrastinella (Braun, 1927) (Nepticula) 102
160056 S. resplendensella (Chambers, 1875) (Nepticula) 111
160057 S. slingerlandella (Kearfott, 1908) (Nepticula) 79
160058 S. unifasciella (Chambers, 1875) (Nepticula) 96
160059 S. villosella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 80
dallasiana (Frey & Boll, 1876) (Nepticula)
Tribe TRIFURCULINI Scoble, 1983
Genus ECTOEDEMIA Busck, 1907
key to species: Wilkinson & Newton (1981), Wilkinson (1981)
Subgenus ZIMMERMANNIA Hering, 1940
160060 E. acanthella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 56.1
160061 E. castaneae Busck, 1913 (Ectoedemia) 56
160062 E. chlorantis Meyrick, 1908 (Ectoedemia) 54
160063 E. coruscella Wilkinson, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 54.1
160064 E. grandisella (Chambers, 1879) (Nepticula) 109
160065 E. heinrichi Busck, 1914 (Ectoedemia) 55
160066 E. helenella Wilkinson, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 55.1
160067 E. mesoloba Davis, 1978 (Ectoedemia) 58
160068 E. obrutella (Zeller, 1873) (Nepticula) 53
bosquella (Chambers, 1878) (Nepticula)
160069 E. phleophaga Busck, 1914 (Ectoedemia) 57
160070 E. piperella Wilkinson & Newton, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 57.1
160071 E. reneella Wilkinson, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 57.2
Subgenus ECTOEDEMIA Busck, 1907
DECHTIRIA Beirne, 1945
populella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160072 E. argyropeza (Zeller, 1839) (Lyonetia) I 39
downesi Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Ectoedemia)
160073 E. canutus Wilkinson & Scoble, 1979 (Ectoedemia) 40
160074 E. populella Busck, 1907 (Ectoedemia) 52
subbimaculella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160075 E. quadrinotata (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 51
160076 E. trinotata (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula) 41
platanella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160077 E. clemensella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula) 44
160078 E. platanella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 43
maximella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula)
160079 E. similella (Braun, 1917) (Nepticula) 45
160080 E. virgulae (Braun, 1927) (Nepticula) 46
angulifasciella group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160081 E. andrella Wilkinson, 1981 (Ectoedemia) 50.1
-- 28 --
160082 E. canadensis (Braun, 1914) (Nepticula) 83
160083 E. marmaropa (Braun, 1925) (Nepticula) 42
160084 E. nyssaefoliella (Chambers, 1880) (Nepticula) 50
160085 E. occultella (Linnaeus, 1767) (Tinea)* H 47.01
argentipedella (Zeller, 1839) (Lyonetia) extralim.
flexuosella (Fologne, 1859) (Nepticula) extralim.
lindquisti (Freeman, 1962) (Nepticula) 47
mediofasciella (Haworth, 1828) (Tinea) extralim.
mucidella (Hübner, 1817) (Tinea) extralim.
strigilella (Thunberg, 1794) (Tinea) extralim.
160086 E. rubifoliella (Clemens, 1860) (Nepticula) 48
160087 E. ulmella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 49
[Ectoedemia ungrouped]
160088 E. anguinella (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 107
160089 E. platea (Clemens, 1861) (Nepticula) 110
Genus FOMORIA Beirne, 1945
key to species: Wilkinson (1979)
LAQUEUS Scoble, 1983
weaveri group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160090 F. hypericella (Braun, 1925) (Nepticula) 61
160091 F. pteliaeella (Chambers, 1880) (Nepticula) 60
160092 F. weaveri (Stainton, 1855) (Nepticula)* H 60.1
Genus ACALYPTRIS Meyrick, 1921
MICROCALYPTRIS Braun, 1925
NIEPELTIA Strand, 1934
WEBERIA Müller-Rutz, 1934
WEBERINA Müller-Rutz, 1934
160093 A. bicornutus (Davis, 1978) (Microcalyptris) 113
160094 A. bipinnatellus (Wilkinson, 1979) (Microcalyptris) 113.1
160095 A. distaleus (Wilkinson, 1979) (Microcalyptris) 113.2
160096 A. lotella (Wagner, 1987) (Microcalyptris) 113.3
160097 A. postalatratus (Wilkinson, 1979) (Microcalyptris) 113.4
160098 A. punctulata (Braun, 1910) (Nepticula) 114
160099 A. scirpi (Braun, 1925) (Nepticula) 116
160100 A. tenuijuxtus (Davis, 1978) (Microcalyptris) 115
160101 A. thoracealbella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula) 112
badiocapitella (Chambers, 1876) (Nepticula)
Genus GLAUCOLEPIS Braun, 1917
FEDALMIA Bierne, 1945
SINOPTICULA Yang, 1989
160102 G. saccharella (Braun, 1912) (Nepticula) 59
Genus ETAINIA Beirne, 1945
OBRUSSA Braun, 1915
sericopeza group Puplesis & Diskus, 2003
160103 E. ochrefasciella (Chambers, 1873) (Nepticula) 37
160104 E. sericopeza (Zeller, 1839) (Lyonetia) I 38
-- 29 --
Family OPOSTEGIDAE Meyrick, 1893
key to species: Davis & Stonis (2007)
Subfamily OPOSTEGOIDINAE Kuroko, 1982
Genus OPOSTEGOIDES Kuroko, 1982
160105 O. scioterma (Meyrick, 1920) (Opostega) 125
Subfamily OPOSTEGINAE Meyrick, 1893
Genus PSEUDOPOSTEGA Koslov, 1985
OPOSTEGA Zeller, 1839
lateriplicata group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160106 P. floridensis Davis & Stonis, 2007 (Pseudopostega) 123.1
spatulata group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160107 P. albogaleriella (Clemens, 1862) (Opostega) 121
bistrigulella (Braun, 1918) (Opostega) 120
napaeella (Clemens, 1872) (Opostega)
nonstrigella (Chambers, 1881) (Opostega) 123
triangularis group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160108 P. kempella (Eyer, 1967) (Opostega) 124
160109 P. cretea (Meyrick, 1920) (Opostega) 119
saltatrix group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160110 P. parakempella Davis & Stonis, 2007 (Pseudopostega) 119.1
duplicata group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160111 P. acidata (Meyrick, 1915) (Opostega) 119.2
divaricata group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160112 P. texana Davis & Stonis, 2007 (Pseudopostega) 122.1
160113 P. quadristrigella (Chambers, 1875) (Opostega) 122
accessoriella (Frey & Boll, 1876) (Opostega)
brachybasis group Davis & Stonis, 2007
160114 P. venticola (Walsingham, 1897) (Opostega) 122.2
-- 30 --
Clade EULEPIDOPTERA Kiriakoff, 1948
(all groups following)
"subclade" INCURVARIINA Börner, 1939
21 Superfamily ADELOIDEA Common, 1975
Family PRODOXIDAE Riley, 1881
Subfamily LAMPRONIINAE Heslop, 1938
Genus LAMPRONIA Stephens, 1829
TANYSACCUS Davis, 1978
210001 L. russatella (Clemens, 1860) (Incurvaria) 175
tripunctella Walsingham, 1880 (Lampronia)
210002 L. oregonella Walsingham, 1880 (Lampronia) 176
gilletella (Busck, 1915) (Incurvaria)
210003 L. capitella (Clerck, 1759) (Phalaena) 177
flavimitrella (Hübner, 1817) (Tinea)
210004 L. corticella (Linnaeus, 1758) (Phalaena) I 180
multipunctella (Duponchel, 1838) (Incurvaria)
rubiella (Bjerkander, 1781) ([none])
variella (Fabricius, 1794) (Tinea)
210005 L. taylorella (Kearfott, 1907) (Incurvaria) 178
quieta Braun, 1921 (Lampronia)
210006 L. trimaculella (Duponchel, 1838) (Incurvaria) 179
mesopiella (Herrich-Schäffer, 1851) (Incurvaria)
quadrimaculella (Höfner, 1900) ([none])
210007 L. aenescens (Walsingham, 1888) (Incurvaria) 184
210008 L. sublustris Braun, 1925 (Lampronia) 185
210009 L. humilis (Walsingham, 1888) (Incurvaria) 186
humulis of authors, [no date] (Lampronia)
Genus TETRAGMA Davis & Pellmyr, 1992
key to species: Davis et al. (1992)
210010 T. gei Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Tetragma) 186.5
Subfamily PRODOXINAE Riley, 1881
Genus GREYA Busck, 1903
key to species: Davis et al. (1992)
GRAYA Dietz, 1905
210011 G. punctiferella (Walsingham, 1888) (Incurvaria) 189
speculella Blackmore, 1926 (Greya)
210012 G. piperella (Busck, 1904) (Incurvaria) 189.1
210013 G. mitellae Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 189.2
210014 G. obscura Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 189.3
210015 G. obscuromaculata (Braun, 1921) (Lampronia) 187
augustella Blackmore, 1926 (Greya)
210016 G. sparsipunctella (Walsingham, 1907) (Tinea) 188
210017 G. politella (Walsingham, 1888) (Incurvaria) 194
-- 31 --
210018 G. enchrysa Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 194.1
210019 G. variabilis Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 194.2
210020 G. pectinifera Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 194.3
210021 G. variata (Braun, 1921) (Lampronia) 190
210022 G. subalba Braun, 1921 (Greya) 191
210023 G. solenobiella (Walsingham, 1880) (Incurvaria) 192
210024 G. suffusca Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 192.1
210025 G. reticulata (Riley, 1892) (Prodoxus) 193
210026 G. powelli Davis & Pellmyr, 1992 (Greya) 193.1
Genus TEGETICULA Zeller, 1873
key to species: Pellmyr (1999)
PROMIBA Kirby, 1874
PRONUBA Riley, 1872
THELETHIA Dyar, 1893
THIA Edwards, 1888
VALENTINIA Coolidge, 1909
210027 T. synthetica (Riley, 1892) (Pronuba) 196
paradoxa (Trelease, 1893) (Pronuba)
210028 T. maculata (Riley, 1881) (Pronuba) 197
apicella (Dyar, 1903) (Pronuba)
aterrima (Trelease, 1893) (Pronuba)
extranea (Edwards, 1888) (Thia)
210029 T. yuccasella (Riley, 1872) (Pronuba) 198
alba Zeller, 1873 (Tegeticula)
intermedius (Riley, 1881) (Prodoxus)
mexicana Bastida, 1962 (Tegeticula)
yuccaella (Boll, 1876) (Pronuba)
210030 T. altiplanella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.1
210031 T. baccatella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.11
210032 T. carnerosanella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.12
210033 T. cassandra Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.13
210034 T. corruptrix Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.14
210035 T. elatella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.15
210036 T. intermedius (Riley, 1881) (Prodoxus) 198.16
210037 T. maderae Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.17
210038 T. mojavella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.18
210039 T. rostratella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.19
210040 T. superficiella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.2
210041 T. treculeanella Pellmyr, 1999 (Tegeticula) 198.21
Genus PARATEGETICULA Davis, 1967
key to species: Davis (1967)
210042 P. pollenifera Davis, 1967 (Parategeticula) 199
Genus PRODOXUS Riley, 1880
key to species: Davis (1967), Pellmyr et al. (2005)
AGAVENEMA Davis, 1967
210043 P. quinquepunctella (Chambers, 1875) (Hyponomeuta) 200
paradoxica Chambers, 1878 (Prodoxus)
210044 P. decipiens Riley, 1880 (Prodoxus)* 200.1
210045 P. praedictus Pellmyr, 2009 (Prodoxus) 200.2
210046 P. phylloryctus Wagner & Powell, 1988 (Prodoxus) 200.3
210047 P. ochrocarus Davis, 1967 (Prodoxus) 203
210048 P. marginatus Riley, 1881 (Prodoxus) 205
pulverulentus Riley, 1892 (Prodoxus) 206
-- 32 --
210049 P. cinereus Riley, 1881 (Prodoxus) 207
210050 P. aenescens Riley, 1881 (Prodoxus) 208
210051 P. barberella Busck, 1915 (Prodoxus) 210
210052 P. pallida (Davis, 1967) (Agavenema) 211
210053 P. gypsicolor Pellmyr, 2005 (Prodoxus) 211.1
210054 P. y-inversum Riley, 1892 (Prodoxus) 201
210055 P. sonorensis Pellmyr & Balcazar-Lara, 2005 (Prodoxus) 201.1
210056 P. carnerosanellus Pellmyr & Balcazar-Lara, 2005 (Prodoxus) 201.2
210057 P. tamaulipellus Pellmyr & Balcazar-Lara, 2005 (Prodoxus) 201.3
210058 P. sordidus Riley, 1892 (Prodoxus) 204
210059 P. weethumpi Pellmyr, 2005 (Prodoxus) 204.1
210060 P. californicus Pellmyr, 2005 (Prodoxus) 204.2
210061 P. coloradensis Riley, 1892 (Prodoxus) 202
confluens Cockerell, 1897 (Prodoxus)
lautus Cockerell, 1897 (Prodoxus)
rheumapterella (Dietz, 1905) (Incurvaria)
210062 P. mapimiensis Pellmyr & Balcazar-Lara, 2005 (Prodoxus) 202.1
210063 P. atascosanellus Pellmyr & Balcazar-Lara, 2005 (Prodoxus) 202.2
Genus MESEPIOLA Davis, 1967
key to species: Davis (1967)
210064 M. specca Davis, 1967 (Mesepiola) 209
Family TRIDENTAFORMIDAE Davis, 2015
key to species: Davis (1978b)
Genus TRIDENTAFORMA Davis, 1978
210065 T. fuscoleuca (Braun, 1923) (Lampronia) 195
Family INCURVARIIDAE Spuler, 1898