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Potential uses of Moringa oleifera and an examination of antibiotic efficacy conferred by M. oleifera seed and leaf extracts using crude extraction techniques available to underserved indigenous populations

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... Hyperglycemia, asthma, flu, heartburn, dyslipidemia, malaria, syphilis, diarrhoea, pneumonia, scurvy, headaches, bronchitis, skin disorders, and eye and ear infections are all treated using Moringa leaves. Reduces blood pressure and cholesterol levels, as well as acting as an anticancer agent (Rockwood et al., 2013;Mbikay, 2012;Ijarotimi et al., 2013;Jung, 2014). Antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-diabetic agents, neuroprotectant. ...
... Moringa seeds can be used to treat conditions such as Chrohn's disease, hyperthyroidism, rheumatism, antiherpessimplex virus arthritis, cramps, epilepsy, gout, and sexually transmitted illnesses. They can also function as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents (Rockwood et al., 2013;Thurber and Fahey, 2010;Kasolo et al., 2010;Nair and Varalakshmi, 2011;Sutalangka et al., 2013). ...
... Pods: Moringa pods are used to cure liver, spleen, and spleen disorders, as well as joint discomfort. (Rockwood et al., 2013;Kasolo et al., 2010). ...
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Details about antioxidant properties and health benefits of Drumstick.
... It is considered as a very good supplement because of its high protein value. Without that, it is known as the miracle tree because of its diversified beneficial features, e.g., 10 times more vitamins than carrots, 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 17 times more calcium than milk, and 15 times more potassium than bananas [3]. In addition, it helps to increase the blood antioxidant level [4] and reduce the blood sugar level [5] and sustained inflammation [6]. Figure 1 summarize a common scenario about global Moringa leaf powder market demand which is expected to exceed USD 6 billion up to 2025 on account of increasing demand in the dietary supplement and food applications [7]. ...
... Moringa is rich in nutrition owing to the presence of a variety of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods, and seeds. In fact, Moringa is said to provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas, and 25 times more iron than spinach [3]. The small leaves of Moringa pack a full punch of nutrients which contain more protein than eggs, more iron than spinach, more vitamin A than carrots, and more calcium than milk. ...
... Leaves Generally used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, flu, heart burn, syphilis, malaria, pneumonia, diarrhea, headaches, scurvy, skin diseases, eye and ear infections. Also it reduces, blood pressure and cholesterol, and it has anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, and antiatherosclerotic properties and it acts as a neuroprotectant agent [3,36], [85][86][87] Seeds Moringa seeds used for treating hyperthyroidism, Crohn's disease, antiherpes-simplex virus arthritis, rheumatism, gout, cramp, epilepsy, and sexually transmitted diseases, and they also act as antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents [3,20,33], [88,89] Root bark Used as a cardiac stimulant, antiulcer, and anti-inflammatory agent [89,90] ...
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Nowadays, the socioeconomic status has been changed a lot, so people are now more concerned about their life style and health. They have knowledge about the detrimental effects of synthetic products. That is why they are interested in natural products. Utilization of natural products of plant origin having fewer side effects has gained popularity over the years. There is immense scope for natural products that can intimate health benefits beyond traditional nutrients. Moringa oleifera is one such tree having tremendous nutritional and medicinal benefits. It is rich in macro- and micronutrients and other bioactive compounds which are important for normal functioning of the body and prevention of certain diseases. Leaves, flowers, seeds, and almost all parts of this tree are edible and have immense therapeutic properties including antidiabetic, anticancer, antiulcer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant. Most of the recent studies suggested that Moringa should be used as a functional ingredient in food. The aim of this review is to focus the use of Moringa oleifera as a potential ingredient in food products.
... M. oleifera contains rich compounds of zeatin, quercetin, kaempferom and many other photochemicals. Moringa is a significant source of different vitamins, minerals and proteins, and provides higher concentrations of these nutrients/minerals, even higher than their typical sources such as vitamin C (seven times greater than the oranges), vitamin A (ten times greater than carrots), proteins (nine times greater than yogurt), Calcium (seventeen times greater than milk), iron (twenty five times greater than spinach) and potassium (fifteen times greater than bananas) [4]. Different plant's components of Moringa (leaves, bark, seeds, roots, fruits, flowers and immature pods) are being used like circulatory and cardiac enhancer, antitumor (anti carcinogenic) [4] antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic and antiulcer characters [5]. ...
... Moringa is a significant source of different vitamins, minerals and proteins, and provides higher concentrations of these nutrients/minerals, even higher than their typical sources such as vitamin C (seven times greater than the oranges), vitamin A (ten times greater than carrots), proteins (nine times greater than yogurt), Calcium (seventeen times greater than milk), iron (twenty five times greater than spinach) and potassium (fifteen times greater than bananas) [4]. Different plant's components of Moringa (leaves, bark, seeds, roots, fruits, flowers and immature pods) are being used like circulatory and cardiac enhancer, antitumor (anti carcinogenic) [4] antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic and antiulcer characters [5]. M. oleifera is also being used as food resource for the ruminants in dry season when there are lower grasses and tropical legumes [6]. ...
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa oleifera leaves extract on the lipid profile of rabbit does. Total (n=24) of Oryctolagus cuniculus were divided into 4 groups randomly into A, B, C and D were treated by leaf extract of Moringa oleifera 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg to group and 0 mg/kg respectively. Blood samples were collected from all the rabbit does at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days and serum was analyzed cholesterol (mmol/l), HDL (mmol/l), LDL (mmol/l), Triglyceride (mmol/l), cholesterol/HDL ratio and glucose (mg/dl) by biochemistry analyzer model Biosystems BTS-350 made in Spain. The ANOVA (Duncan's Post Hoc Test) revealed that the overall means of, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, TG and cholesterol/HDL ratio within all groups were significantly (P≤0.05) differed and glucose had non-significantly (P≥0.05) difference. The result of correlation coefficient between various biochemical parameters showed that cholesterol had a significant positive correlation with HDL (r=0.330; P<0.01), LDL (r=0.977; P<0.01) and cholesterol/HDL ratio (r=0.783; P<0.01) also LDL had significant positive correlation with cholesterol/HDL ratio (r=0.878; P<0.01). It was concluded that the low doses of Moringa oleifera altered positively the lipid profile parameters.
... It is rich in minerals and vitamins like calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, iron, copper and vitamin A, B, C, D and E, which are essential for human growth and development. Rockwood et al. in 2013 reported that it provides seven times more vitamin C than oranges, and ten times more vitamin A than carrots (Rockwood et al., 2013). Besides beta-carotene of vitamin A, folic acid, pyridoxine and nicotinic acid of vitamin B are also present (Mbikay 2012). ...
... It is rich in minerals and vitamins like calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, iron, copper and vitamin A, B, C, D and E, which are essential for human growth and development. Rockwood et al. in 2013 reported that it provides seven times more vitamin C than oranges, and ten times more vitamin A than carrots (Rockwood et al., 2013). Besides beta-carotene of vitamin A, folic acid, pyridoxine and nicotinic acid of vitamin B are also present (Mbikay 2012). ...
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Moringa oleifera Lam., is a tree species of Moringaceae family, distributed in tropical to subtropical parts, and is indigenous to India. It is commonly known as 'drumstick tree', 'chajina' or 'sojna' in India. It is one of the most useful and multipurpose trees with high nutritive value. Every part of this tree is suitable for nutritional and economical purposes. It contains affluence of essential disease preventing nutrients. They even contain all of the essential amino acids, which is unusual for a plant source. They also have sulphur containing amino acids methionine and cystine. The tree is an exceptionally good source of vitamins A, B, C and minerals like calcium and iron. It has many therapeutic uses including antimalarial, antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anticancer properties. It is considered as a superfood in modern world because of its high nutritive contents. It plays an important role in ethnobotanical traditional medicine as well. This review paper explores the different aspects of Moringa oleifera across disciplines like nutritional value, therapeutic properties, economical and ethnobotanical uses and consumption as food around the world.
... A recent study highlighted the antimicrobial resistance to Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera using extracts prepared from moringa seeds [35]. Rockwood et al. (2013) reported the antimicrobial efficacy of M. oleifera seeds and leaves using different solventsdeionised water, inorganic ethanol and organic ethyl acetate on 14 micro-organisms [36]. They reported that leaf and seed extracts prepared with ethanol and ethyl acetate showed no inhibition. ...
... A recent study highlighted the antimicrobial resistance to Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera using extracts prepared from moringa seeds [35]. Rockwood et al. (2013) reported the antimicrobial efficacy of M. oleifera seeds and leaves using different solventsdeionised water, inorganic ethanol and organic ethyl acetate on 14 micro-organisms [36]. They reported that leaf and seed extracts prepared with ethanol and ethyl acetate showed no inhibition. ...
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The development of textile finishing with improved functional properties has been a growing interest among industry and scientists worldwide. The recent global pandemic also enhanced the awareness amongst many toward improved hygiene and the use of antimicrobial textiles. Generally, natural herbal components are known to possess antimicrobial properties which are green and eco-friendly. This research reports a novel and innovative method of developing and optimising nano-emulsions using two combinations of herbal extracts produced from Moringa oleifera, curry leaf, coconut oil (nano-emulsion 1) and other using Aegle marmelos with curry leaf and coconut oil (nano-emulsion 2). Nano-emulsions were optimised for their pH, thermal stability, and particle size, and percentage add-on. Organic cotton fabrics (20 and 60 gsm) were finished with nano-emulsions using continuous and batch processes and characterised for their surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The finished fabrics were evaluated for their Whiteness Index, assessed for antimicrobial resistance against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) using AATCC 100 and 147 methods. In addition, fabrics were assessed for their antifungal efficacy (AATCC 30), tensile strength and air permeability. Results suggested that finished organic fabrics with nano-emulsions had antimicrobial resistance, antifungal, wash fastness after 20 washing cycles, and sufficient strength. This novel finishing method suggests that organic cotton fabrics treated with nano-emulsions can be used as a durable antimicrobial textile for healthcare and hygiene textiles.
... Moringa oleifera dry leaves contain 9 times proteins than yogurt, 10 times vitamin A than carrot. 25 times iron than spinach, 15 times potassium than bananas, 17 times calcium than milk and 7 times more vitamin C than orange (Rockwood et al. 2013) [24] . Moringa [4,7,5,8] . ...
... Moringa oleifera dry leaves contain 9 times proteins than yogurt, 10 times vitamin A than carrot. 25 times iron than spinach, 15 times potassium than bananas, 17 times calcium than milk and 7 times more vitamin C than orange (Rockwood et al. 2013) [24] . Moringa [4,7,5,8] . ...
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A six months study was conducted on 40 Sirohi goat kids to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of Moringa oleifera leaves on digestibility of nutrients. The sirohi goat kids were randomly distributed in five groups of eight in each group on the basis of age and uniform conformation. The group T1 offered 60% Methi straw (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as a roughage and 40% commercially available readymade concentrate feed and in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5, the commercially available readymade concentrate feed were replaced by Moringa oleifera leaves at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% levels, respectively. During entire period of experiment, measured quantity of feed were provided to each animal every morning and the left over were weighted in next morning to assess daily consumption. At the end of feeding trial, the digestibility trials were conducted by conventional type collection method for estimation of digestibility of the different nutrients. Results showed that the dry matter intakes and digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, NFE were significantly higher (P<0.05) in group T4. The digestibility coefficient of EE and CF were non-significant (P<0.05). It can be concluded that feeding of Moringa oleifera leaves replacing commercially available concentrate feed at 75% level to improve digestibility of dry matter and gross nutrients in Sirohi goat kids.
... The leaves are loaded with minerals like calcium, potassium, iron, and zinc [93,100] which can directly substitute the mineral tablets/capsules/syrup for supplementing the body metabolism and functions. The quantity of minerals in moringa is so high that 100 g of its dried leaf powder contains twice the fiber content than in wheat, 17 times more calcium than in milk, 9 times more proteins than in yogurt, 15 times more potassium than in bananas, 14 times more iron than in beef, 25 times more iron than in spinach, and 36 times more magnesium than in eggs [85,[101][102][103] as shown in Fig. 4. Right from the child to adolescent to an old aged person, anybody can consume it in the way they like. Malnourished children (around 3 years' age) deprived of breast milk can easily be cured by just feeding 100 g of its leaf powder that supplies around 75% and 50% of its daily iron and protein requirements, respectively, besides essential minerals, vitamins, and amino acids. ...
... Beside this, moringa serves as a vital source of essential fatty acids, a prerequisite for optimal cellular health. The matured seeds contain odourless, sweet, non-drying, and healthy vegetable oil (35%-45% with 76% PUFA) which is equivalent to the olive oil rich in omega-3 fatty acids and proteins, and has a high thermal and oxidative stability [77,102,103]. This alternative source of oil becomes important as most of Africa's and Asia's poor communities are obliged to use cheaper quality oil due to inaccessibility to a healthier cooking oils and may pose severe health issues [65]. ...
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A severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) led novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak spread through China has become the biggest global public health challenge today. The virus upon several mutations has led to the resurgence of more infectious and lethal variants infecting over 298 million people with more than 5.46 million deaths worldwide by the end of December, 2021. Though vaccines are available, various preventive measures particularly a high body immunity is still extremely important which determines the likelihood of disease severity and subsequent recovery in the current and future pandemics. This review acknowledges the potentiality of miraculous Moringa oleifera Lam. against recently evolved novel coronavirus and accompanying health complications. Moringa a well-proven super-food, densely packed with an abundant quantity of 92 minerals, several vitamins, 46 antioxidants, and numerous bioactive compounds, thus own a massive therapeutic potential for healing all levels of nutritional deficiencies and poor immunities and cure above 300 diseases. Moringa acts as anti-asthmatic, anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, hypotensive, hepatic, renal and cardio-protective, and anti-viral in nature. Thus it may reduce the severity of COVID-19 infections and associated serious medical emergencies. In addition, self-isolation at home or the workplace has put people at increased risk of physical and mental sicknesses, which could be simply addressed by integrating this wonderful plant into everyday diet. Furthermore, the immune-modulatory properties and viral inhibiting nature of moringa contribute to reduced risk of COVID-19 infection and quicker recovery from its symptoms. As per the existing pieces of This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
... Drumstick tree's leaves contain numerous valued compounds, such as protein, vitamin, iron, calcium, ascorbic acid, and antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, and phenol) (Sultana and Anwar, 2008). Drumstick tree's leaves contain seven times higher vitamin C than oranges, 17 times higher calcium than milk, ten times higher vitamin A than carrots, 25 times higher iron than spinach, and 15 times higher potassium than bananas (Rockwood et al. 2013). The plant's leaves are also potential anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial agents (Saini et al. 2016;Gupta et al. 2018;Kashyap et al. 2022). ...
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Up to these days, many people globally have not yet realized the wondrous benefits of the drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera), such as citizens living in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia. Each person of the communities in the region mostly has spacious enough yards that can be optimized for drumstick tree cultivation. This community service aimed to (a) enhance motivation in gardening activities of urban communities; b) improve knowledge and skills of urban communities in cultivating, harvesting, and processing drumstick tree; c) increase greenery areas in the house; and d) improve food security and family health during the Covid-19 pandemic. Activities in the present community development were distributing gardening and education packages to the target community of Kediri citizens through online media ranging from planting, maintaining, and processing drumstick trees as a home industry business in order to enhance their income. Participants of these activities were also given some materials regarding the topic in the form of booklets and online collective assistance.
... C, ten-folds vit. A, seventeen-folds calcium, nine-folds protein, fifteen-folds potassium, and twenty-five folds iron compared to oranges, carrots, milk, yoghurt, bananas, and spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013). Immature pods are a good source of fiber (46.78%) and protein (20.66%). ...
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Background Moringa oleifera Lam (family Moringaceae) is a plant innate to India and has now been cultivated in various other regions of the world. It is extensively grown for its highly nutritious plant parts as a source of various nutrients like proteins, vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients like carotenoids, polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins, etc. It has been widely stimulated in the regions of chronic as a nutritional supplement for infants and children. Methods The search tools like Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Science Direct databases were used for a thorough literature search till 2021. Results In this review, the diversified phytochemical profile and high therapeutically potential have been documented. The current review intends to present an updated comprehensive overview of this versatile plant's nutritional value, therapeutic components, and ethnopharmacological properties. Conclusion This plant has gained immense potential and increasing exploration as a nutraceutical. The ethnopharmacological properties of various compounds, along with their mode of action, are discussed briefly. Also, relevant pre-clinical and clinical trials are highlighted, which are in great demand and need further in-depth investigation in the future.
... M. oleifera is rich in nutrition owing to the presence of a variety of essential chemical materials present in its different parts. M. oleiferacontains 7 times vitamin C more than oranges, and 10 times vitamin A compare to carrots, 17 times calcium comparedto milk, 9 times protein compare to yogurt, and 15 times potassium compare to bananas [2][3][4].The leaves define as the most nutritious part of M. oleifera, being an important source of vitamins (B complex, C, K, and A) manganese, and proteins [5]. Some ions of calcium in the leaves of Moringaare bound like oxalate crystals [6][7]. ...
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The objective of the current work was to induce histological lesions by BPA(Bisphenol A)and then diagnosis the therapeutic role of Moringa oleifera. 66 adult male rats were used in the present work and divided as following: Rats were administrated (orally) normal saline as control group. Rats group were administrated (orally) 5mg BPA and divided into 4 subgroups were each subgroup treated with Moringa oleifera (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg), respectively. Rats were administrated (orally) 10mg BPA and divided to 4 subgroups were each subgroup treated with Moringa oleifera (100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 300mg/kg and 400mg/kg), respectively. The findings of BPA groups showed significant (P<0.05) elevated in urea and creatinine with different histological lesions in the kidney include damaged glomerulus, degeneration of tubules cells, and lymphocytes infiltration. After treatment with Moringa oleifera, renal parameters and kidney tissues were back to the normal state and non-significant (P≤0.05) changes compared with the control group.
... Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds have been studied extensively for water treatment applications because of their coagulation, 26,27 antibacterial, 28,29 and, more recently, antiviral properties. 30 Sand filters coated with MO seed extract have been shown to remove 7 log 10 of MS2 virus 30 and 8 log 10 of Escherichia coli. ...
... The antibacterial property of the water extract of Moringa oleifera leaf stalk was reported by Thilza et al. (2010). The seed extracts of Moringa oleifera were observed to inhibit a broad spectrum of microbes (mostly gram positive bacteria) more than the leaf extracts (Rockwood et al., 2013). Moringa oleifera leaf meal is commonly considered as a plant protein feedstuff in animal nutrition and a potential antimicrobial agent for controlling pathogenic bacteria in livestock production (Atawodi et al., 2010;Makanjuola et al., 2014). ...
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Moringa oleifera is a plant with various uses and has gained recognition in many countries of the world due to its rich nutrient content and beneficial properties. This review article presents an overview of the nutritional constituents, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of Moringa. The various uses of Moringa in the agricultural sector were also highlighted. However, many value-added products are yet to be developed from Moringa value chain, if well exploited and utilized Moringa has great potentials to boost agricultural production. Moringa oleifera leaf contains 22.42 to 29.68% crude protein, 7.54 to 14.60% ash, 3.00 to 6.40% ether extract, 10.10 to 21.00% crude fibre, 92.12 to 93.60% dry matter and 37.87 to 49.60% nitrogen free extract. Moringa leaves have higher levels of the essential amino acids than other parts of the plant. It is noteworthy, that Moringa leaf meal contains significant quantities of essential amino acids that are rare in cereals and tubers. The plant is also a rich source of minerals and vitamins. Interestingly, there are vast areas of research on Moringa yet to be exploited. Many researchers have attested and documented that the inclusion of Moringa oleifera in human and animal diet has nutritional and several other good effects. Some important health properties associated with the use of Moringa are; anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. All parts of the Moringa plant have been found to be very useful in the agricultural sector especially in animal production, crop production, agroforestry, aquaculture and food processing and product development. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, agriculture, beneficial properties, nutritional content
... Moringa is rich in nutrition owing to the presence of a variety of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods and seeds. In fact, moringa is said to provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013). Various parts of the plants such as leaves, roots, seeds, barks, fruits, flowers and immature pods act as cardiac and circulatory stimulants, possess antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory and antiulcer (Pal et al., 1995). ...
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The Tree of Life' or 'Miracle Tree' is the name of the plant of Moringa oleifera (Shajna). Moringa oleifera is one of the important plants in plant kingdom. Its leaves and fruits are used as vegetable in Indian sub continent, at the same time each part of the plant rich with some important medicinal values. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases. The present review is to focus on the nutritive values, physico-chemical properties, phyto-chemicals and pharmacological activities of M. oleifera. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark and fruits have been investigated for their significant pharmacological activity. Phyto-chemicals like flavanoid, anthraquinone, alkaloids, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, glucose have been reported for significant antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and antiulcer activities of Drumstick tree and emphasizes the need for further exploring available information.
... Many research studies have demonstrated that parts of M. oleifera such as pods, seeds, stem, fruits, leaves, roots and flowers are valuable sources of bioactive compounds and are used for human consumption in many parts of world (Pandey et al., 2019;Alegbeleye, 2018;Liyongo et al., 2017;Rockwood et al., 2013;Anwar et al., 2007;Stohs and Hartman, 2015). Further, the leaves of the Moringa oleifera have high contents of proteins, vitamins and essential macro and micronutrients. ...
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Moringa Oleifera commonly known as miracle tree, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. It is used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and other infections. In order to optimize the time of harvesting Moringa plant leaves, it is important to understand how various environmental factors like season affects its chemical composition especially secondary metabolites. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography with diode array coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS) was used for the comprehensive characterization of methanol extract from Moringa Oleifera leaves from different South Africa calendar-based seasons. Some compounds such as Gallic acid, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Quercetin 3,4-diglycoside, Quercetin 3-O-glucoside were quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH scavenging assay were measured as response to the seasonal variations. A total number of 29 Polyphenolic compounds were identified. In overall, trend of Polyphenolic content as a function of the season was as: autumn > winter > summer> spring. The highest level of Gallic acid, Catechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin 3,4-diglycoside, quercetin, TPC and TFC were found in autumn. The lowest EC50 were found in the leaves collected in autumn and winter as an indication of high antioxidant activity as compared to spring and summer. The results from the current study showed a strong evidence that seasonal variation have an impact on the secondary metabolites production. Thus, the best recommended harvesting season is autumn and summer because in winter though gave also high secondary metabolites, there is less biomass during this period.
... Moringa is rich in nutrition owing to the presence of a variety of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods and seeds. In fact, Moringa is said to provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013). Moringa seeds have long been used by the public as a tasty vegetable and water purifier because of its coagulant properties (Ayotunde et al., 2011). ...
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This study was conducted to evaluate the chemical and mineral compositions, anti-nutritive substances and amino acid profile of Moringa oleifera seeds. Samples were collected from five Moringa oleifera trees and analyzed for chemical and mineral compositions, anti-nutritive substances and amino acid profile using standard methods. The results indicated that the seeds of Moringa oleifera contained significantly (p<0.05) higher (322.00 and 136.40 g kg-1 DM) crude protein (CP) and fat values. The highest CP (322 g kg-1 DM) was obtained at 60 minutes boiling point of M. oleifera while the lowest CP (225.00 g kg-1 DM) was obtained from M. oleifera seeds boiled at 0 minutes (no heat treatment). M. oleifera seeds was observed to contain significantly (p<0.05) higher crude fiber (94.00 g kg-1 DM), neutral detergent fiber (518.00 g kg-1 DM) and cellulose (338.00 g kg-1 DM) at 60 minutes boiling duration than the other parameters studied. Boiling duration shows significant effect (p<0.05) on Sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium values which decrease with increase in boiling duration while the phosphorus shows some inconsistency in the values with variation in boiling time. Similarly the values for the micro minerals tend to decrease with increase in boiling time but the changes was so insignificant (figuratively). The tannin, phenolics, saponins and phytate content was observed to decrease with increase in boiling time. In conclusion, the seeds of both Moringa oleifera could be used as alternative protein supplement sources for feeding ruminant and monogastric animals during dry periods of the year and apparently boiling duration (60 minutes boiling duration) reduces the level of anti-nutrtive substances and macro minerals, as such mineral supplement should be added when using heat treated M. oleifera seeds does not cause adverse effects on the nutrient composition of the seeds.
... Many research studies have demonstrated that parts of M. oleifera such as pods, seeds, stem, fruits, leaves, roots and flowers are valuable sources of bioactive compounds and are used for human consumption in many parts of world (Pandey et al., 2019;Alegbeleye, 2018;Liyongo et al., 2017;Rockwood et al., 2013;Anwar et al., 2007;Stohs and Hartman, 2015). Further, the leaves of the Moringa oleifera have high contents of proteins, vitamins and essential macro and micronutrients. ...
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Moringa Oleifera commonly known as miracle tree, is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. It is used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and other infections. In order to optimize the time of harvesting Moringa plant leaves, it is important to understand how various environmental factors like season affects its chemical composition especially secondary metabolites. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOFMS) was used for the comprehensive characterization of methanol extract from Moringa Oleifera leaves from different South Africa calendar-based seasons. Some compounds such as Gallic acid, Catechin, Chlorogenic acid, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Quercetin 3,4-diglycoside, Quercetin 3-O-glucoside were quantified. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and DPPH scavenging assay were measured as response to the seasonal variations. A total number of 29 Polyphenolic compounds were identified. In overall, trend of Polyphenolic content as a function of the season was as: autumn > winter > summer> spring. The highest level of Gallic acid, Catechin, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, quercetin 3,4-diglycoside, quercetin, TPC and TFC were found in autumn. The lowest EC50 were found in the leaves collected in autumn and winter as an indication of high antioxidant activity as compared to spring and summer. The results from the current study showed a strong evidence that seasonal variation have an impact on the secondary metabolites production. Thus, the best recommended harvesting season is autumn and summer because in winter though gave also high secondary metabolites, there is less biomass during this period.
... The MO foliage also contains phenolic compounds (Rockwood et. al. 2013, Chaudhary et al. 2018). Many phenolic compounds possess antioxidant properties which might have growth stimulating effect on microbes (Alberto et al. 2012). PF is one of the ways to measure the efficiency of MBP in the rumen which was significantly (P<0.05) higher with moringa foliage supplementation (5-50%). The findings of present st ...
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This study explored the influence of moringa (Moringa oleifera; MO) foliage supplementation on in vitro ruminalgas production kinetics and substrate degradation in cattle. In vitro fermentation study was carried out with twotypes of substrates, viz. wheat straw (WS) and WS plus concentrate mixture (CM; 60:40) in cattle rumen inoculum.The MO was incorporated to both the substrates at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% levels of total dry matter. Thesubstrates were incubated up to 24 h and substrate degradation was measured. The in vitro gas production kineticswas performed with 8 different (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 100%) levels of MO with WS substrate and incubatedat 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h. The MO addition increased the total gas volume (ml/200 mg) up to 50% level,though, it was analogous when WS and CM based substrate was used. The truly degradable organic matter in rumen (TDOMR) was increased with MO supplementation from 10% onwards. The microbial biomass production (MBP) and partitioning factor (PF) were higher on 30% onwards MO levels. Addition of MO increased the gas production at 24 h from 30% onwards, however, cumulative gas production at 72 h was higher in control (CON). The potential gas production (b) was higher for CON than MO substrates. Fractional rate of fermentation (c) increased from 10 to 100% MO levels. The half time (t1/2) of gas production was substantially reduced with MO supplementation. The volume of gas at t1/2 was significantly lower at 30%. TDOMR was analogous amongst the treatments, however, MBP and PF were higher at 30% level relative to 10 and 20% MO levels. Hence, it may be deduced that supplementation of moringa foliage to cereal straw-based substrate considerably improved the gas production, fractional rate of fermentation, TDOMR, MBP and PF in cattle inoculum.
... The best-known species is Moringa oleifera, which is indigenous to northwest India and widely cultivated in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Pakistan, and other tropical and subtropical areas in Central Asia, America, and Africa [1,2], and is now cultivated in small areas and private gardens in Egypt. The Moringa oleifera tree is nutritional and rich in vitamins and minerals [3]. In addition, recently, its seeds have gained a attention as a source of plant oil rich in oleic fatty acid. ...
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A shortages of soil nutrients resources and a lack of accessibility to them especially in calcareous soil are considered some of the main factors that limit plant production. In particular, the cultivation of the Moringa oleifera trees in this type of soil is of special interest given the increasing demand for every part of this tree. Several studies have focused on the production of its leaves as an herbaceous plant and not as a tree, but there has not been extensive research on its pods, seeds, and fixed oil production. In this sense, in this study, we provide an assessment of the use of fertilizers, vermicompost and NPK (as traditional minerals and as nanoparticles), in order to improve pods, seeds, and fixed oil contents, as indicators of the quality of the production of the Moringa oleifera trees in calcareous soil conditions. In this experiment, it was observed that all parameters and the yield of pods, seeds, and fixed oil of the Moringa oleifera tree were significantly improved by increasing the level of vermicompost and using NPK fertilization and combination treatments in both seasons of the study. The combination treatments of 10 and 20 ton ha−1 vermicompost plus NPK control produced the highest percentage of oleic acid with insignificant differences between them.
... The best-known species is Moringa oleifera, which is indigenous to northwest India and widely cultivated in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Pakistan, and other tropical and subtropical areas in Central Asia, America, and Africa [1,2], and is now cultivated in small areas and private gardens in Egypt. The Moringa oleifera tree is nutritional and rich in vitamins and minerals [3]. In addition, recently, its seeds have gained a attention as a source of plant oil rich in oleic fatty acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
A shortages of soil nutrients resources and a lack of accessibility to them especially in calcareous soil are considered some of the main factors that limit plant production. In particular, the cultivation of the Moringa oleifera trees in this type of soil is of special interest given the increasing demand for every part of this tree. Several studies have focused on the production of its leaves as an herbaceous plant and not as a tree, but there has not been extensive research on its pods, seeds, and fixed oil production. In this sense, in this study, we provide an assessment of the use of fertilizers , vermicompost and NPK (as traditional minerals and as nanoparticles), in order to improve pods, seeds, and fixed oil contents, as indicators of the quality of the production of the Moringa oleifera trees in calcareous soil conditions. In this experiment, it was observed that all parameters and the yield of pods, seeds, and fixed oil of the Moringa oleifera tree were significantly improved by increasing the level of vermicompost and using NPK fertilization and combination treatments in both seasons of the study. The combination treatments of 10 and 20 ton ha −1 vermicompost plus NPK control produced the highest percentage of oleic acid with insignificant differences between them.
... Its leaves contain calcium 17 times that of milk, vitamin-C 7 times that of oranges, potassium 15 times that of bananas, iron 25 times that of spinach, vitamin-A 10 times that of carrots and protein 9 times that of yoghurt. Hence, it is considered as a powerhouse of nutritional value, which makes it effective remedy for malnutrition (Rockwood et al., 2013). ...
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The present study was carried out under pot experiments during 2019 and 2020. Four fungi were isolated from naturally infected moringa roots. Sclerotium rolfsii was the most frequently isolated fungus, followed by Fusarium oxysporum, while Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani were the least frequent ones. S. rolfsii followed by F. oxysporum were the most virulent isolated fungi that caused the highest percentages of pre- and post-emergence damping-off, root rot and/or wilt. While, F. solani showed the lowest effect in this respect. Sandy soil followed by mixture of sandy + clay soil (2:1 w/w) were the best for decreasing pre- and post-emergence damping-off as well as root rot and/or wilt diseases and increasing percent of survived plants compared to clay soil. Cyanobacterium, Spirulina platensis and the mixture of biofertilizers, i.e., nitrobein, phosphorein and potasiomag, as well as Topsin-M fungicide were effective to control the tested pathogens. All the tested treatments were capable to cause significant reduction of damping-off, root rot and/or wilt diseases and increase the percent of survived plants when used as soil treatments. Also, they significantly increased herb fresh weight/plant (g) and fresh weight of tuber (g) as well as no. of new plants, herb fresh weight of new plant (g), fresh weight of new tuber (g) and nutrients content in moringa leaves compared with control treatment. The biofertilizers proved to be the most effective treatment in this regard. Keywords: Moringa oleifera, damping-off, root rot, wilt, soil types, Spirulina platensis and biofertilizers.
... The tree of Moringa oleifera can easily grow in highly drought and mild frost conditions this reason that it can survive and grow in around the world. It is Full of nutrition due to presence of a diversity of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods and seeds containing huge amount of like as vitamins C present 7 times more than oranges, vitamin A is 10 times more than carrots, calcium is 17 times more than milk, Protein is present in drumstick 9 time more than yoghurt and 15 times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al, 2013). From leaves to seeds, every part of this plant is edible for nutrition and commercially such as extract of leaves is potent to reduce the chances of malnutrition and breast milk in lactating mothers and also used for medicinal purposes like as potential antioxidant, anticancer, antiinflammatory, anti-diabetic and antimicrobial agent (Gopalakrishnan et al, 2016). ...
... The presence of phytochemicals in its pods, seeds and leaves makes it rich in nutrients. It is estimated that Moringa provides 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 7 times more vitamin-C than orange, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 17 times more calcium than milk, 25 times more iron than spinach and 15 times more potassium than bananas (Rockwood et al., 2013). As Moringa is easily cultivable it can be used as sustainable cure for malnutrition. ...
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Moringa tree is broadly cultivated in the tropical and subtropical region, but mostly fast growth in equatorial region. Moringa is called a miracle tree having a lot of potential in its therapeutic and medicinal value which is yet to be explored completely. Moringa is a common traditional and medicinal plant having rich amount of essential nutrients in its bark, leaves, roots and seeds. Various parts of Moringa tree, due to its nutritional and medicinal values, have treasures that can help civilization. Various parts of Moringa tree including its gum, seeds, flower bark and pods are being used in a number of countries to fight vitamin and mineral deficiency. They are also being used to keep a healthy cardiovascular system, to maintain optimal blood sugar level, to improve anaemic blood and to boost human immune system. It is also known to improve eyesight, mental alertness and bone strength. It has shown positive results in malnutrition, osteoporosis, menopause, depression and for lactating mother. Malnutrition is the foremost problem of global population during the last few decades. The increasing number of infant mortality related under caloric protein diet was reported in the developing countries. Thus, the exploration of a reliable nutritional therapy derived from local biodiversity is required. We have to do more research on the medicinal properties and health benefit of this gift of mother earth which is considered as the most useful tree of the world. The review is focused on the economic significance of this multipurpose tremendous food which is serving humankind incredibly and fighting malnutrition. It is possible to propose this local Moringa as an additional future nutrigenomic therapy combating malnutrition.
... Moringa is rich in nutrition owing to the presence of a variety of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods and seeds. Moringa is said to provide seven to ten times more vitamin C than oranges, ten times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013). Moringa is rich in phytosterols like stigmasterol, sitosterol and kampesterol which are precursors for hormones. ...
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Cotton is the major crop in Nagarkurnool district accounting for 62% of total cropped area. Cotton is a highly input and labour intensive crop, but, fetch low net profit ranging from Rs. 25,000-50,000 ha-1. The KVK, Palem has introduced the drumstick crop and popularized the PKM-1 variety during 2018 to 2020 through front line demonstrations (FLDs). Drumstick (Moringa oleifera Lam.), family Moringaceae, is a softwood tree, popular for its tender pods, leaves and flowers. The pod is used as a vegetable in Indian cuisine for its flavor and nutritional value. The commercial cultivation of drumstick has been increased and became profitable after the availability of annual variety PKM-1. The drumstick farm is easy to maintain and effective due to less operational maintenance and expenses as compared to that of cotton crop. As a result, it’s cultivation had increased to 20 ha under PKM-1 variety in the district. A success story has been presented here which inspired fellow farmers in the district.
... The pods can absorb organic pollutants and pesticides. Moringa seeds also have great coagulant properties and can precipitate organics and mineral particulates out of a solution (Lürling and Beekman 2010;Rockwood, Anderson, and Casamatta 2013). Chemical coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (Alum) and ferric sulfate or polymers remove suspended particles in wastewater by neutralizing the electrical charges of particles in the water to form flocs making particles filterable. ...
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Despite the importance of Moringa oleifera tree for food security at the smallholder farmers’ level, there is no consolidated socioeconomic information about the crop such as its contribution to household food security and income, and its production potential, commercialization and constraints. This study estimated the commercialization level and factors influencing the level of commercialization among the moringa farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A double-hurdle model with quasi-maximum likelihood fractional response model was employed to analyze the participation and level of participation in commercialization among smallholder moringa farmers in Southwestern Nigeria. The commercialization level was captured by the household commercialization index (HCI) which was calculated as the ratio of the value of marketed moringa output to the value of moringa produced. The result revealed that half of the moringa farmers are still operating at the subsistence level with a large number of them at the low-medium level while the rest are high-level market participants. The participation in commercialization of moringa was influenced by age and square of household head age, marital status, level of education, farming experience in moringa farming, and access to market information. In the same vein, age and age square of household head, level of education, access to credit and extension services were factors influencing the level of commercialization. Thus, the study concluded that access to affordable credit, adequate access to extension services and prompt market information for small-scale farmers would not only improve their production capacity but also serve as a driver for market participation. The study recommends that for the enormous potential of the moringa tree species and its various products to be harnessed, stakeholders, NGOs, and policymakers should, through adequate extension services, widely promote and scale up the domestication of the miracle tree.
... Its leaves, pods, and seeds are rich in phytochemicals. For instance, moringa leaves provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas, and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013). For this reason, the moringa plant is considered an effective remedy for malnutrition and a natural energy booster (Dubey et al., 2013). ...
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Consumer's demand for clean label food ingredients has driven the development of alternative food additives. This study falls within this challenge through valorization of Moringa oleifera leaves grown in Algeria as a natural antioxidant. A methanolic M. oleifera leaves extract (MOLE) was prepared and included in margarine at various levels (400, 600, and 800 ppm) and was compared to vitamin E and a margarine without antioxidants. The effect of addition of MOLE on margarine quality was studied by means of its oxidative stability, structural, textural properties, color, and aroma fingerprint. It was shown that addition of MOLE to margarine increased resistance towards oxidation, showing a higher antioxidant capacity as compared to margarine with vitamin E or without antioxidants. Moreover, addition of MOLE decreased water droplet size, which is desirable from a microbiological viewpoint since it could extend margarine's shelf life. Furthermore, addition of MOLE leads to the formation of smaller fat crystals, resulting in different fat network formation, which could be the cause of the increase in hardness seen in these margarines. Regarding sensorial effects, MOLE addition led to a significant darkening of the margarine and increase yellowness. Moreover, the aroma fingerprint showed that addition of MOLE modified the aroma fingerprint of this product.
... The negative linear response observed for NDF digestibility to increasing MSE dosage levels is understandable due to NDF containing some damaged protein and carbohydrates that may be bound by condensed tannins (NDF + Tannin complex = low NDF digestibility); similar effects were not observed for ADF digestibility. In this study, oral administration of MSE improved calcium and phosphorus digestibility, which could be due to the stimulation of bile secretion, increased pancreatic and intestinal enzyme output, and/or reduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the digestive tract, thereby increasing the efficiency of absorption because of the presence of bioactive compounds [34,35]. These phenols reduce the microbial load in the gut, hence decreasing the host-microbial competition for nutrients [32]. ...
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Moringa oleifera seed extract (MSE) contains phytochemicals that can improve chicken production and health. However, the amount that can be orally administered to the birds is unknown. Thus, this study investigated the optimum level of MSE, administered through drinking water, on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, and haematological and serum biochemical parameters in broilers. A total of 250, one-day-old Cobb 500 male broilers (58.11 ± 0.23 g live-weight) were randomly allocated into five treatments with five replicates of 10 birds each. The treatments were: a negative control involving drinking water only (T1) and positive controls with 5 g multi-strain probiotic/L water (T2), 60 mL MSE/L water (T3), 90 mL MSE/L water (T4), and 120 mL MSE/L water (T5). Crude protein and neutral detergent fibre digestibility linearly decreased, whereas overall water intake and weight gain in one-week-old birds increased linearly (p < 0.05) as MSE levels increased. T1 promoted higher (p < 0.05) overall feed intake and feed conversion ratio than the other treatment groups. All haemato-biochemical parameters were within the range for healthy birds, from which a maximum MSE dosage was determined to be 94.75 mL/L. It can be concluded that oral administration of MSE improved overall feed utilisation efficiency of the chickens.
... This plant is known as a superfood based on its nutritional properties. Various research have reported that MO contains seven times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, nine times more protein than yogurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas, and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et al., 2013;Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). MO leave can be used to treat malnutrition due to the high protein and fiber content (Khalid Abbas et al., 2018). ...
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Cardiac damage and vascular dysfunction due to underlying diseases, such as hypertension and cardiac thrombosis, or side effects from certain drugs may lead to critical illness conditions and even death. The phytochemical compounds in natural products are being prospected to protect the heart and vascular system from further damage. Moringa genus is a subtropical tree native to Asia and Africa, which includes 13 species; Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO) is the most cultivated for its beneficial uses. MO is also known as the “miracle tree” because it has been used traditionally as a food source and medicine to treat various diseases such as anemia, diabetes, and infectious or cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical compounds identified in MO with functional activities associated with cardiovascular diseases are N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide, isoquercetin, quercetin, quercetrin, and isothiocyanate. This study aims to investigate the potency of the phytochemical compounds in MO as a protective agent to cardiac damage and vascular dysfunction in the cardiovascular disease model. This is a scoping review by studying publications from the reputed database that assessed the functional activities of MO, which contribute to the improvement of cardiac and vascular dysfunctions. Studies show that the phytochemical compounds, for example, N,α-L-rhamnopyranosyl vincosamide and quercetin, have the molecular function of antioxidant, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. These lead to improving cardiac contractility and protecting cardiac structural integrity from damage. These compounds also act as natural vasorelaxants and endothelium protective agents. Most of the studies were conducted on in vivo studies; therefore, further studies should be applied in a clinical setting.
... Moringa oleifera is an extremely valued plant, dispersed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics. Most of the parts of the plant have been proven to possess antimicrobial activity (Rockwood et al., 2013). They are known for their pharmacological actions and are also used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus (Babu and Chaudhuri, 2005), hepatotoxicity (Anupama et al., 2013), rheumatism, venomous bites and also for cardiac stimulation (Anupama et al., 2013). ...
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The anti-diabetic potential of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf was evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The rats were grouped into five (5) groups of 10 animals each namely: the Control group, Tween 80-treated, Glibenclamide-treated and Moringa oleifera-treated orally at 700 and 900 mg/kg body weight respectively. The results revealed that the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the fasting blood sugar level as well as the postprandial rise in blood glucose after a heavy glucose meal in normoglycaemic rats. Also administration of the extract reduced fasting blood sugar level. The extract also significantly (P<0.05) reduced the serum total cholesterol and triglyceride level but caused an increase in HDL level. It significantly (P<0.05) increased the body weight of extract-treated diabetic rats. Sub-chronic study of the effect of the extract showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in packed cell volume (PCV), white blood counts in rat induced diabetes which however, attain basal level. The histological studies showed that the diabetic rats with the architecture of the pancreas distorted, was restored to normalcy by the extract. Its LD 50 was found to be greater than 1000 mg/kg indicating its safety in rats. The result therefore suggests that aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaf is safe for use via the oral route and also has anti-diabetic potential.
... The leaves, pods and seeds of Moringa oleifera has immense nutrition due to the presence of various essential phytochemicals. Apparently, vitamin C content in Moringa is 7 times more than that of oranges, vitamin A content is 10 times more than carrots, protein content is 9 times more than yoghurt, 17 times more calcium content than milk, source of potassium 15 times more than bananas and has 25 times more iron content than spinach [4]. Also, this medicinal plant is a potential antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent [5]. ...
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Moringa oleifera, is a highly potent medicinal plant which is evergreen or deciduous in nature and it is found growing predominantly in the Sub-Himalayan regions of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. This plant is tagged as a medicinal plant because it contains various properties such as high antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antidiabetic and antimicrobial properties. This review paper will highlight, focus and discuss the antioxidant properties possessed by Moringa oleifera supported by some experiments containing materials required, methods employed, results procured and discussion to support the evidences that prove the antioxidant properties found in this plant. The first and the second experiment is about the presence of flavonoid contents like Quercetin and Rutin found respectively that contributes to the antioxidant properties found in the plant of subject, Moringa oleifera. While, the third experiment is based on the application of the antioxidant properties found in the plant that contributes towards the enhancement of the meat quality thereby, this attribute of the plant having antioxidant properties is used in the meat industries.
... It is called a horseradish tree or a drumstick tree. Since the nutritional value, carbohydrates, essential amino acids, protein, and vitamins, as well as the mineral content in all components of the moringa tree, are edible, they are utilized in a variety of uses, including livestock feed, green manure, cleaning materials, biogas, and more [3][4][5]. The moringa tree components of leaves, inflorescences, seeds, oils, and roots can be used to cure a range of diseases, such as lung allergies, skin infections, and high blood pressure [6]. ...
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Salinity is linked to poor plant growth and a reduction in global food output. Therefore, there is an essential need for plant adaptation and mitigation of salinity stress conditions. Plants combat salinity stress influences by promoting a set of physiological, biochemical, and molecular actions. Tremendous mechanisms are being applied to induce plant stress tolerance, involving amino acid application. For evaluating the growth and productivity of Moringa oleifera trees grown under salt stress conditions, moringa has been cultivated under different levels of salinity and subjected to a foliar spray of proline (Pro) and phenylalanine (Phe) amino acids. Moringa plants positively responded to the lowest level of salinity as the leaves, inflorescences, seeds, and oil yields have been increased, but the growth and productivity slightly declined with increasing salinity levels after that. However, Pro and Phe applications significantly ameliorate these effects, particularly, Pro-treatments which decelerated chlorophyll and protein degradation and enhanced vitamin C, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity. A slight reduction in mineral content was observed under the high levels of salinity. Higher osmoprotectants (proline, protein, and total soluble sugars) content was given following Pro treatment in salted and unsalted plants. A significant reduction in oil yield was obtained as affected by salinity stress. Additionally, salinity exhibited a reduction in oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), and linolenic (C18:3) acids, and an increase in stearic (C18:0), palmitic (C16:0), eicosenoic (C20:2), and behenic (C22:0) acids. Generally, Pro and Phe treatments overcome the harmful effects of salinity in moringa trees by stimulating the osmoprotectants, polyphenols, and antioxidant activity, causing higher dry matter accumulation and better defense against salinity stress.
... Moringa has a variety of essential phytochemicals present in its leaves, pods and seeds. In fact, moringa provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach [7]. The presence of phytochemicals makes it a good medicinal agent. ...
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and it causes the most deaths after lung cancer. Tamoxifen ® (TMX) is a known chemopreventive agent that widely used for treatment of breast cancer; however it presents several side effects. The objective of this study was to elucidate the efficacy of Moringa aqueous extract (MAE) in reduction of DNA-fragmentation and amelioration of the hepato-pathophysiological complications sided by TMX. Adult male Wistar rats (150-170g) were randomly divided into four groups (10 animals each group) as follows: group (1): Rats administrated with saline and served as control, group (2): Rats orally administrated with MAE (300 mg/Kg b.wt./day), group (3) Rats intoxicated with TMX (3mg/Kg/3days), and group (4); Rats daily treated with MAE in combination with TMX. After consecutive six weeks, the results revealed that the administration of MAE markedly restored the pathophysiological deteriorations resulted from TMX-intoxication; This was evidenced by the marked reduction in serum ALAT, ASAT, GGT, ALP and bilirubin as well as the improvement in the serum level of total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, Na and K. Moreover, the microscopic examinations showed marked regeneration of the hepatocytes. These findings were in line with the reduction of DNA-fragmentation and could be mechanized through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory battery of moringa constituents. In conclusion, MAE could play a beneficial role for prevention of TMX-induced pathophysiological distortions. So, it may be worthy to consider the beneficial use of moringa extract as a supplement with the TMX therapy.
... The folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera leaves are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids [1,2]. MO leaves provides 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15 times more potassium than bananas, and 25 times more iron than spinach [3]. It is very adequate for biofortification in terms of minerals (which represents one of the greatest deficiencies in African diets). ...
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Despite the fact Moringa oleifera (MO)-based foods present a very good and nutritionally well-balanced composition, they face some issues related to seed bitterness, which is the most challenging barrier to consumer acceptance. Different processing methods were tested to produce MO toasted seeds, MO-based beverage, and yoghurt-like products which were chemically and rheologically analyzed. The protein content ranged from 3.68% in the beverage, to 14.73% in the yoghurt and 40.21% in MO toasted seeds. A totally debittered beverage could not be accomplished, but the MO yoghurt-like showed a very nice flavor. Nutrition claims for minerals in toasted seeds could be considered for magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese, which confirms the M. oleifera seed richness in several minerals. The MO beverage presented less extended shear-thinning behavior (17.4 Pa·s) than commercial vegetable beverages and two pulse-based beverages developed in a previous study. The MO yoghurt-like product showed a gel structure similar to the dairy yoghurt, making it a promising new plant-based alternative. Further work must be performed in the future to debitter more efficiently the raw seeds to achieve a more pleasant MO-based beverage. The developed MO seed-based products may settle another font of high protein plant-based food.
... It is used as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. M. oleifera seed which are inside moringa pods which acts as a natural coagulant is broadly used in water treatment (Rockwood et al., 2013). In fact, moringa is easily cultivated in African countries like Benin and Senegal as a sustainable remedy against malnutrition (Kasolo et al., 2010). ...
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Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizers directly to their leaves. Plants are able to absorb materials that are essential through their leaves. The absorption takes place through their epidermis. The application of fertilizers to foliage of crop as spray solution is known as foliar spray. This method is suitable for application of small quantities of fertilizers, especially micro nutrients. Foliar application is not a substitute for soil application but only a supplement to it.
... It is used as potential anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. M. oleifera seed which are inside moringa pods which acts as a natural coagulant is broadly used in water treatment (Rockwood et al., 2013). In fact, moringa is easily cultivated in African countries like Benin and Senegal as a sustainable remedy against malnutrition (Kasolo et al., 2010). ...
... Furthermore, scientists also point out the presence of a large range of phytochemical compounds in M. oleifera, such as vitamin A, C, calcium, potassium, iron, and protein [6]. Moreover, Atawodi et al. [7] and Waterman et al. [8] demonstrated that M. oleifera is rich in phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin glucoside or isoquercetin, and kaempferol rhamnoglucoside), various derivations of salicylic acid, gallic acid, coumarin acid, and caffeic acid; all of them present a high level of AA. ...
Article
The present study evaluated the optimum conditions of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE) of antioxidant capacities and total phenolics from fresh Moringa oleifera leaves, using the response surface methodology. Spectrophotometric method with Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reagents was used to determine the total phenolic content (TPC) and the antioxidant activity (AA), respectively. The four models obtained showed the non-linear and quadratic dependences of both measured responses (TPC and AA) which were influenced significantly by all control variables including the acetone solvent (70%, v/v) to solid (SS) ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature of both extraction methods. Furthermore, at the same extraction temperature, the extraction efficacy of UAE was better than SE as significantly shorter extraction time, less extraction solvent, but higher bio-active content was experienced. The optimal UAE conditions included a SS ratio of 31:1 (mL/g), extraction time of 26 min, and extraction temperature of 59 o C, resulting in the maximum TPC (34.36 mg GAE/g dry weight, DW) and AA (491.9 µmol TE/g DW) in the extracts. In addition, the models proposed were considered to be accurate and reliable for predicting the TPC and AA of fresh M. oleifera leaf extract. The research findings also imply potential applications for ultra-sonication extraction to produce the extracts from fresh M. oleifera leaves for pharmaceutical industry as well as food technology.
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Heavy metals are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Some heavy metals are necessary while present in the growing medium in moderate concentrations known to be essential heavy metals as they required for the body functioning as a nutrient. But there are some unwanted metals and are also toxic to the environment and create a harmful impact on the body, which termed to be non-essential heavy metals. Upon exposure, the heavy metals decrease the major antioxidants of cells and enzymes with the thiol group and affect cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis. It interacts with the DNA repair mechanism and initiates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). It subsequently binds to the mitochondria and may inhibit respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation in even low concentrations. This mechanism leads to damage antioxidant repair mechanism of neuronal cells and turns into neurotoxicity. Now, phytochemicals have led to good practices in the health system. Phytochemicals that are present in the fruits and herbs can preserve upon free radical damage. Thus, this review paper summarized various phytochemicals which can be utilized as a treatment option to reverse the effect of the toxicity caused by the ingestion of heavy metals in our body through various environmental or lifestyles ways.
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Moringa oleifera is a multi-purpose plant and a comprehensive source of dietary components such as proteins, essential amino acids, vitamins, antioxidants, etc. The plant is also a rich source of other bioactive components, including flavonoids, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, etc. Incorporating M. oleifera in diet can improve the nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers and helps to combat malnutrition and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) among children. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites, especially the polyphenolic compounds from Moringa, have a significant free-radical scavenging effect attributed to this plant's therapeutic potential. Investigations targeting to explore M. oleifera for its nutritional makeup, novel bioactive components, and analysis of their health-promoting attributes have received much attention. This review demonstrates an overview of recent (past ten years) advancements and patenting activity in discovering different parts of M. oleifera plant for providing adequate nutritive and bioactive components. The pharmacological potential and action mechanisms of M. oleifera in many diseases like diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, ulcer, etc., are also discussed. Practical applications Moringa oleifera is a vital plant that has a varied set of nutritional and therapeutic properties. The indigenous components of Moringa can treat humankind of its diseases and contribute to overall health. The qualitative and functional characteristics of its components indicate possible commercial exploitation of this high-value plant by utilizing its plant parts in many proprietary medicines and nutraceuticals. In conclusion, the Moringa plant needs to be used commercially. It can lead to tremendous economic development if the industries and researchers exploit its potential for highly nutritional super food and therapeutic application by undertaking further research to corroborate earlier studies.
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The objective of present study was to ascertain the effect of dietary inclusion of moringa foliage on the performance of kids. Eighteen male kids were divided randomly into 3 groups and allocated to control (CON), COT and MOT groups. The kids in CON group fed with total mixed ration (TMR) consisting wheat straw and concentrate, however, kids in COT and MOT groups were offered TMRs replacing 25% wheat straw with cowpea and moringa foliage, respectively. The responses of various parameters were studied during 120 days of feeding. Intake of dry-matter (DM) and organic-matter (OM) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT relative to CON and COT groups; however, digestibility of various nutrients was comparable among treatment groups. Intake of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) was higher (p < 0.05) in MOT than CON. The intake and retention (gd⁻¹) of nitrogen (N) were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT than COT and CON groups. The average daily gain (ADG, gd⁻¹) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in MOT followed by COT and CON groups. Similarly, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (p < 0.05) in MOT and COT groups than CON. Haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analogous amongst treatments. Serum glucose, total protein and globulin were found to be significantly higher in MOT and COT groups. The cholesterol and serum urea were decreased in MOT in comparison to CON. Serum growth hormone (GH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and cell mediated and humoral immune responses were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in MOT followed by COT and CON groups. Total antioxidant capacity was also found to be higher (p <0.05) in MOT and COT groups. Dietary inclusion of moringa foliage as TMR substantially increased nutrient intake, metabolic profile, immunity and growth performance in goat kids.
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Fermented dairy products are considered functional foods, because they have many beneficial effects on human health. Yoghurt is a popular fermented product worldwide. Can yoghurt be innovated by adding ingredients that can improve the quality of the diet, Moringa oleifera (moringa). Leaves have high percentage of nutrient and bioactive compounds. These compounds are proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, vitamins, beta carotene and other bioactive compounds which are essential for preventer anticancer, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and some of therapeutic properties. Various studies have concluded that moringa can be used in food products as a functional ingredient. Different ratios of Moringa oleifera leaves powder extract with ethanol 80 % or water (1, 3 and 5%) were used in preparation of drinking yoghurt and coded respectively as MAE1, MAE2 and MAE3 for alcohol extract and MWE1, MWE2 and MWE3 for water extract. Result showed that MAE2, MAE3 and MWE1 They were the best choice for all sensory attributes and received the highest mean ranking and had the greatest performance for general acceptability in contrast with other treatments. Addition of moringa leaves extract can increase the nutritional and therapeutic properties of the prepared drinking yoghrt. Control has lower total lactic acid bacteria but can increase in addition 5% moringa leaves alcohol extract (MAE3).
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One of the main issues limiting plant productivity is a lack of soil nutrient resources, especially in calcareous soil, which covers more than one third of the world’s land surface area. On the other hand, despite rising demand for all parts of the Moringa oleifera tree, several studies have focused on its leaf production as an herbaceous plant, rather than as a tree, and no extensive research has been carried out on leaf and inflorescence production in the mature tree. As a result, the influence of vermicompost and NPK (minerals and nanoparticles), as well as their combination, under calcareous soil conditions, was investigated in this study. The experiment was set up as a split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. In both seasons considered in this study, it was discovered that increasing the quantity of vermicompost and employing NPK fertilization, as well as their combination treatments, greatly enhanced all parameters and yield of distinct Moringa oleifera tree parts. Furthermore, the combination treatment T21 yielded the highest mean values of growth, leaves, and chemical composition parameters, as well as the highest yield from the Moringa oleifera tree. In both seasons, the highest number of inflorescences per tree, as well as the yield of fresh and dry inflorescences, was measured using combination treatment T18. In both seasons, however, increasing the level of vermicompost, NPK, and their combination treatments significantly reduced the total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of dry Moringa oleifera leaves.
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Moringaoleifera, a highly valued plant produced globally and utilised in several food compositions, has medical and industrial purposes.This plant is gaining popularitydue to its nutrient-rich leaves, pods, seeds, and flowers. Moringa oleifera, such as a miracle tree, has many health benefits, and it is a rich source of specific essential nutritional componentsand various health benefits.The oil from seeds was extracted and used for skin lotion and perfume. The most widely studied part of the Moringa plant is Moringa leaves and has many benefits related to health in various chronic conditions like liver diseases, hypertension, diabetes, cancer,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation.Moringa leaves extract can also be used to treat diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and malnutrition, while Moringa seeds can be utilised to enhance water quality. Moringa is a source of nutrition due to various essential phytochemicals, which are present in its leaves, pods, and seeds. It can be used for many nutritional as well as for commercial purposes. Moringa has many nutrientswhich have significant health benefits for the maintenance of the body. The seed powderof Moringa can be used to purify dirty water modestly and rapidly, and it possesses many health benefits.
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Moringa leaves have antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory properties. Moringa leaves also can reduce blood sugar and cholesterol. These plant leaves are very helpful in many types of diseases, including cancer, cardiac diseases, and hyperglycemia. In today’s age of technology, new inventions are made every day and more of our tasks or processes have become automated, if not greatly simplified. Most tasks that would require more time and resources from mankind and industry have now been either simplified or automated. Not only does this save time and money, but also the tasks are carried out with great efficiency and accuracy. Automated projects using the Internet of Things (IoT) are not only cost-effective but also more efficient. It saves money, time, and resources. Today’s developing technology helps individuals and companies change operations from simple daily tasks to industrial-sized operations or from manual labor to automated projects. Using IoT devices to conduct operations in a smart way has opened doors for new markets to evolve and has given people more accurate and efficient results over time. This has helped create a demand for such automated projects, which encourages entrepreneurs and organizations to further develop projects of different types leading to the automation of our daily tasks as well as industrial-sized applications. This project related to Moringa plants aims to reduce the waste of natural and man-made devices to build a project that helps the environment and resources while increasing efficiency along with it. The project uses various devices that allow it to function according to the user’s needs. The project relies mainly on two components: Arduino UNO and a soil moisture sensor (YL-69). Arduino UNO is a microprocessor that controls the overall project and end result after comparing the data given by the YL-69. It checks live data with the parameters set by the user and acts accordingly. The YL-69 is a soil moisture sensor that indicates how much moisture is in the soil, and if there is need for watering. Continuous automated monitoring is done, by which collected data are analyzed to understand the growth behavior of Moringa plant in various subtropical climatic condition.
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Moringaoleifera, a highly valued plant produced globally and utilised in several food compositions, has medical and industrial purposes.This plant is gaining popularitydue to its nutrient-rich leaves, pods, seeds, and flowers. Moringa oleifera, such as a miracle tree, has many health benefits, and it is a rich source of specific essential nutritional componentsand various health benefits.The oil from seeds was extracted and used for skin lotion and perfume. The most widely studied part of the Moringa plant is Moringa leaves and has many benefits related to health in various chronic conditions like liver diseases, hypertension, diabetes, cancer,hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and inflammation.Moringa leaves extract can also be used to treat diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and malnutrition, while Moringa seeds can be utilised to enhance water quality. Moringa is a source of nutrition due to various essential phytochemicals, which are present in its leaves, pods, and seeds. It can be used for many nutritional as well as for commercial purposes. Moringa has many nutrientswhich have significant health benefits for the maintenance of the body. The seed powderof Moringa can be used to purify dirty water modestly and rapidly, and it possesses many health benefits.
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