Maslow’s Theory of Human Motivation and its Deep Roots in Individualism:
Interrogating Maslow’s Applicability in Africa
Munyaradzi Mawere1, Tapuwa R. Mubaya2, Mirjam van Reisen3, Gertjan van Stam,4
Since the postulation of Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation, the theory has
been celebrated as the determining factor to account for and explain human wants and
needs. While the theory has its genealogy from an individualistic society, the United States of
America, where it was crafted and propelled to take a stand as a universal theory determining
human wants and needs across the world, little has been done to critically examine its
seemingly perceived universality and applicability in societies such as those of Africa, where
collectivism and conviviality bear centrality.
The theory has enjoyed more acclamations than critical appraisals. This paper is a critical
appraisal of Maslow’s theory of human motivation. It examines the applicability and
universality of the theory outside the context in which it was created, tested, and applied,
such as Africa, before it received what seems to be a world-wide endorsement. Author's
observations in Southern Africa recognised behaviour motivated by pursuit of relationships,
strengthening of community, acknowledgement of authority, sharing, and avoidance of
The paper concludes that the theory of Maslow is not applicable to many settings in Africa,
in the past or even today. The claim for universality of the model proposed by Maslow is
therefore questioned and its universal application is discredited. This conclusion calls for
further interaction with the subject of human motivation outside of Maslow's framing, by
contextualising such theory(ies) in space and time.
1 Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe, firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Great Zimbabwe University, Masvingo, Zimbabwe, email@example.com
3 Tilburg University, Tilburg, the Netherlands, firstname.lastname@example.org
4 Scientific and Industrial Research and Development Centre (SIRDC), Harare, Zimbabwe,
email@example.com (corresponding author)
In Social Studies the theory of Abraham Maslow on human motivation is considered
a seminal work. Frequently, Maslow’s theory of human motivation is cited as a general
description of the priorities of what humans need and want. There is no doubt that Maslow’s
reasoning, particularly his theory of hierarchies of needs and motivation has proven helpful
within the contexts of perspectives on growth and even equality, as Maslow emphasised the
potential of every human being. In Maslow’s thinking, the ‘individual’ is seen as the most
important actor, and his/her individual agency supersedes other motivations of action
(Maslow 1943). As a humanistic psychologist, Maslow believed that every person has a
strong desire to realise his or her full potential, to reach a level of ‘self-actualisation’. He was
the founder of the new movement of humanistic psychology that reached its peak in the
1960s, and whose main point was to emphasise the positive potential of human beings
(Schacter et al. 2012). His thinking has deeply influenced the paradigm of the development
agenda, both in theory and in practice, and set the foundation for moral thinking on
Maslow’s theory was perhaps more a programme than a theory and practitioners
have lamented that the theory is not aligned with realities. As Graham and Messner (1998:
196) summarised, there are generally three major criticisms directed to Maslow’s Theory of
(a) there is scant empirical data to support the theoretical model
(b) the studies assume human beings are similar and that the theory universally
(c) applications or validation of the theory do not concern themselves with a theory
of motivation but rather with theories of job satisfaction.
This criticism is supported by many other scholars (e.g. Nadler et al. 1979) in the
field. The author and former philosophy professor, Sommers, and practising psychiatrist,
Satel, asserted that, due to lack of empirical support, Maslow's ideas have fallen out of
fashion and are no longer taken seriously in the world of academic psychology (Sommers
and Satel 2005). Despite such fundamental criticism, the work remains standard literature in
management studies and other fields and is part of standard curricula and textbooks for
secondary education students. This paper adds to the existing criticism of the theory, but
from an African perspective.
This paper problematises a lack of empirical evidence, especially from other contexts,
such as those of Africa, and hence questions the claim of ‘universality’ of the theory of
Human Motivation. House and Aditya (1997) demonstrated in their study of leadership from
over 3,000 studies that 98% of the empirical evidence for theoretical development is rather
distinctly American in character. Although Maslow’s theory is taught as an explanatory
universal model, Maslow’s theory is not validated in contexts or environments other than
those where the theory was created. This validation outside of a western framework is
important, given that Maslow’s theory emerged from an American cultural setting,
characterised by individualism. In this cultural context, the individual is the point of
reference and the realisation of the ‘individual’ is the highest goal.
The question of whether Maslow’s theory of human motivation is universally
applicable is important, as much of the world that Galtung refers to as “the Periphery” does
not resonate with putting the ‘individual’ as the focus of human motivation (Trompenaars
and Hampden-Turner 2011). In many parts of the world, it is the group, or the community, and
‘the attributes the group reflects upon its members’ that are central, and considered worthy
to be pursued. In Southern Africa, for example, the philosophy of Ubuntu is at the centre of
all human sphere, whether economic, religious, political or cultural. In Ubuntu, it is the
group and not individuals that motivates daily endeavours, design, and behaviour (Khoza
2005; Mawere and Mubaya 2014; Mbiqi 1994; Nyamnjoh 2015; Ramose 2009, van Stam
This paper is an attempt to provide some suggestions of motivational realities in
Southern Africa, as a caution for positioning and applying Maslow’s theory as a universal
theory. In many indigenous cultures in Southern Africa, the group and the moderating role
of cultural factors influence human motivation, as opposed to Maslow’s individual as the
Maslow’s Theory of Motivation
The starting point for Maslow’s theory is the question: ‘What motivates behaviour?’
According to Maslow, our actions as human beings are motivated in order to achieve certain
needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs and motivation in his
1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” and his subsequent book in 1954, “Motivation and
Maslow introduced a new area of attention in the field of psychology. While
psychological theories and schools of thought were dominated by psycho-analysis and
behaviourism, psychology focused heavily on problematic behaviours. Maslow on the other
hand was more interested in learning and understanding what motivates people. He was also
much interested in comprehending what people do, in order to achieve what makes them
happy. As a humanist psychologist, Maslow believed that people have an innate desire to be
self-actualised: that is, the desire to be all they can fully be. Yet for Maslow, in order to
achieve these ultimate goals of what people really want to be, a number of more basic needs
must be met, such as the need for food, safety, love, and self-esteem, among others.
While this theory is generally known as the hierarchy of needs, he never displayed his
theory as a pyramid (Eaton 2012). Depicted in terms of a pyramid, however, the lowest
levels are made up of the most ‘basic needs’, while the more ‘complex needs’ are located at
the top of the pyramid. The needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical
requirements including the need for food, water, shelter, and warmth. But for people to
move on to the next level of needs, which are mainly for safety and security, the lower-level
needs have to be met first. This is one reason why, Maslow explains, as people 'progress',
their needs become increasingly psychological and social to the extent that the need for love,
friendship, and intimacy become more important than any other needs. Yet as we go even
further from this level of the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of
accomplishment become more important than those at the lower-levels.
Maslow’s five levels of the hierarchy of needs
Maslow (1943) distinguishes five different levels of needs, to which he assigns different
levels of relevance: “if I may assign arbitrary figures for the sake of illustration, it is as if the
average citizen is satisfied perhaps 85% in his physiological needs, 70% in his safety needs,
50% in his love needs, 40% in his self-esteem needs and 10% in his self-actualization needs”
(Maslow 1943: 388-389). If we were to draw a diagram (a pyramid for that matter) to
represent the hierarchy of needs as explained by Maslow, the physiological needs would need
to represent a much bigger piece of the pyramid. The five different levels in Maslow’s (1943)
hierarchy are as follow:
Psysiological needs include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need
for water, air, food, and shelter. As Maslow believed, these needs are the most basic and
instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these
physiological needs are met. Maslow added that most of these lower level needs are probably
fairly apparent. This is because everyone, as long as s/he is human, needs food and water to
survive. We also need to breathe and maintain a stable body temperature. Besides eating,
drinking, and having adequate shelter and clothing, Maslow also suggested that the other
important physiological basic need was sexual: reproduction.
Security needs include the desires for safety and security. Security needs are important for
survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security
needs include a desire for steady employment, health care, safe neighbourhoods, and shelter
from the environment. These needs become a bit more complex at this point in the
hierarchy as they are considered 'higher' than physiological needs. And when the more basic
survival needs have been fulfilled, people begin to feel that they need more control and
order to their lives. People begin to concern themselves with safety in terms of where they
live, financial security, physical safety, and staying healthy.
Social needs include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow described these needs
as less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships,
romantic attachments, and families help fulfil this need for companionship and acceptance,
also involvement in social, community, or religious groups.
When the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs become increasingly important.
Esteem needs include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social
recognition, and accomplishment. At this point, it becomes important to gain the respect
and appreciation of others. People have a need to accomplish things and then have their
efforts recognized. People often engage in activities such as going to school, playing a sport,
enjoying a hobby, or participating in professional activities in order to fulfil this
need. Satisfying this need and gaining acceptance and esteem helps people become more
confident. Failing to gain recognition for accomplishments, however, can lead to feelings of
failure or inferiority.
Self-actualising needs assume the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-
actualising people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the
opinions of others, and interested in fulfilling their potential.
Criticism against Maslow’s theory over the years
From the fame that Maslow’s theory has gathered over the years, it is clear that Maslow’s
contribution to psychology was momentous. Yet, while some research shows some support
for Maslow's theories, most research has not been able to substantiate the idea of a needs
hierarchy. Wahba and Bridwell (1976), for example, reported that there was little evidence
for Maslow's ranking of these needs and even less evidence that these needs are in a
As Nadler and Lawler (1979), Denning (2010), and Rutledge (2011) point out, other
criticisms of Maslow’s theory note that his definition of self-actualisation is difficult to test
scientifically. Maslow's research on self-actualisation was also based on a very limited sample
of individuals, including people he knew, as well as biographies of famous individuals that
Maslow believed to be self-actualised, such as Albert Einstein and Eleanor Roosevelt.
Based on psychological research of human coping mechanism, Graves (1970)
provided an alternative theoretical perspective on human behaviour. He described an open
system of theory on values. His theory was worked out in “Spiral Dynamics” by Beck and
Cowan (2005). The theory was used in South Africa, validating the theory during turbulent
times and beyond. Graves recognised units of cultural information, so called ‘memes,’
spreading from person to person. Beck colour-coded the memes in a spiraling hierarchy of
motivations for behaviour:
1.!tribal, safety driven (beige)
2.!exploitive, power-driven (red)
3.!authority, order-driven (blue)
4.!strategy, success-driven (orange)
5.!social, people-driven (green)
6.!systems, process-driven (yellow)
The lack of a perspective that human beings function in groups has been addressed
by Pinto (2000), a Dutch scholar studying Intercultural Communications. He calls for a
revision of Maslow’s pyramid to address the motivation of people in group-settings. He
points to the emergence of group-focus arising due to economic circumstances, religious
influences, peer-groupings, or individual choices. He proposes a different motivational
hierarchy relevant for such settings: (i) primary needs; (ii) group pleasing, (iii) good name, (iv)
These criticisms reveal the absence of congruence and agreement in the sequencing
of human needs, like the progression as proposed by Maslow: there is strong indication of
variations in labelling and sequencing of needs fulfilment in different contexts.
Alternative propositions approach Human Motivation from different (academic)
perspectives. However, positing the heuristic nature of (a simplification of) Maslow's Theory
of Motivation continuous to be taught. This is problematic, especially in communal societies
like those in Africa. Therefore, there is need for a dialogue informed by inputs from
alternative paradigm and epistemological positions.
Dialoguing with Maslow: From an African perspective
In South Africa, while studying the facets of local entrepreneurship, Hart, Jacobs,
Mangqalaza (2012) and their team at the Human Sciences Research Council found that rural
communities mention a different set of motivations for economic action. Respondents deem
‘quality of life’ and ‘group harmony’ as their prime motivations for behaviour. This aligns
with Sheneberger and van Stam's (2011) exposition of the consistence of motivation for
particular economic (inter)action in rural Zambia, the so-called ‘relatio-economy’. Weijland
(2014) described the mechanics of this motivation through the mathematics of an ‘economy
of giving’, after witnessing such behaviour in rural Africa.
There is much evidence of strenuous and discordant situations due to motivational
variances. This subjects and exposes Maslow’s theory to the spotlight. One is left with no
option but to question and test whether the theory works in alternate contexts. Such studies
are remarkably low in number. As an example, in their multi-national study, Tay and Diener
(2011) showed there is a weak alignment with Maslow’s thinking, but strong indication that
societal conditions influence the sequencing of fulfilment of basic, security and psychosocial
However, it seems Maslow’s concepts and theories have enjoyed more comfort than
they deserve, not only in the contexts in which they were produced. We agree with Graham
et al. (2015) that the underlying asymmetrical relations in the politics of knowledge
production and dissemination is accelerated by a lopsided geography of information.
Bigirimana (2001) and Gibson (2011) have independently shown the distinct
differences in motivation of people in post-independence leadership positions in Africa
versus the motivation of the indigenous population. In previous works, van Stam (2013;
2014) showed the variance in African contexts (and motivation) within the academic realm
and the importance and substantiality of orality. Further, in the field of activism, there is a
whole range of literature depicting the colonisation effect of Western framing of realities
(derived upon schema provided by Maslow, among others). For instance, from their
Canadian setting, Alfred and Corntassel (2005) link human motivation with land, language,
freedom, diet, and indigenous resurgence.
More than 10 years of Action Research in Southern Africa, in ever-evolving cycles of
planning, action, observation and contemplation, provides the input for this paper to
substantiate the incompatibility of Maslow’s thought within the indigenous African context.
Observations took place during many different circumstances of the authors. These roles
were mostly in parallel and sometimes consecutive:
•!national and international academics, researchers, educators and professors
•!technical director in a foreign-funded medical research institute
•!advisors to leading individuals in professional institutes in Africa and further afield
•!leaders and volunteers in a professional bodies
•!social entrepreneurs and executive director of rural co-operative
We have endeavoured to unearth indigenous, practical motivations. Work focused on rural
areas in Southern Africa (with a focus on Zambia) and less in the urban areas. With most of
the African population living in the rural areas, views espoused in rural areas were regarded
as the most significant and culturally grounded.
Sensitivity towards the enshrined forms of information and knowledge transfer (e.g.
van Stam 2013), the collaborativity in communities (Matthee et al. 2007), and the interaction
with local stakeholders (Kroczek et al. 2013) constituted the research grounding within
various social contexts (institutes), co-operative activities (practices) and human qualities
(virtues). Each of these entities applies ethics models and acts upon moral judgments,
informed by ethics based upon respective world-views. Ubuntu is an African philosophy of
humanness that emphasises the virtues of sharing, peace, unity and harmony in society
(Mawere and Mubaya 2014). It represents a view on self as in co-living with the other.
Ubuntu involves empathy and focuses on wholeness of the conglomerate, whether a
household, family, or community of any sort. It acknowledges that facts are
relational/contextual, and incorporate many components, and transfers everything into an
embodiment in people (holism). Ubuntu is a metaphor that embodies the significance of
human solidarity and stands explicitly against inequality or isolating individualism (van Stam
2014). Within Ubuntu, all interactions are oriented towards the common ground, the
community, the family, the birthed relationships, and in relation to the physical land. The
latter is congruent with African Science, where three facets of existence are taken into
account: the physical, the spiritual, and the interaction between the two (Chimakonam
In indigenous African interactions, reality is approached equal to a commons (cf.
Trancoso et al. 2015). The prime motivations for interactions are relationships and community.
These can be witnessed during elaborate greetings and inquiries into family well-being,
affirming respect and aiming to (re-)establish and confirm relationship on a continuous basis.
Our observations can be summarised through a list with an variations in emphasis
between an Ubuntu tradition and Western tradition, augmented from van Stam (2012c),
dualistically presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Emphasis dissimilarities in Ubuntu and Western tradition
Most analytical tools for cultural differences come from the seminal works of Hofstede,
Hall, Kluckholn, Strodtbeck, Carbaugh, and Trompenaars. It must be noted that all these
experts emerged from a Western background. As the list of diverge emphasis in traditions
(like Table 1) can be of any length in our diversified world, and will change over time, these
kinds of lists basically show contemporary differences in cultural codings. For an explanation
of underlying reasons, the enshrined norms and values should ideally be informed by
indigenous sources. Such input is greatly needed, especially in assessment of the underlying
structures, and their effects in the field of Human Motivation.
These inputs show how Maslow's Theory of Motivation does not align with, nor includes
concepts of human motivation in an African setting. African epistemology, like Ubuntu,
however does provide for such input. If a harmonized, globally valid Theory of Motivation
would exist, we contend such can be deducted only through an intellectual journey allowing
Findings in the African context
Nakazibwe (2015) shows how rational decision-making on priority needs by women farmers
follows very different logics than the one provided in commodity chain thinking. This points
to the need to look at how human motivation manifests itself in a gender. Nakazibwe shows
how women prioritise a commodity, not because of an individual desire for profit that can
be made but because of the access to group processes that it gives and the information,
exchange, support mechanisms, and cultural approval derived from this. An example is
pastoralist decision-making to sell title deeds after group land division because the land and
cattle belongs to the pastoralists anyway so the value of the individual title deeds does not
exist in this logic.
From the researchers’ observations in the lived reality of Southern Africa, the following
African components of Human Motivations can be derived, in no particular order:
1.!Pursuit of relationships
2.!Strengthening of community
3.!Acknowledgement of authority
4.!Sharing and avoidance of shame
It is fundamental to point out that absence of the satisfaction of these needs in an
African perspective leads to inertia, which can be either active or passive. Active inertia is
executed in non-actions, like withholding of – or denying access to – information, exclusion
or ex-communication, while passive inertia includes numbing of expressions and/or actions
which eventually leads to isolation.
In conformity with Maslow’s reasoning for certain conditions which are immediate pre-
requisites to needs satisfaction, the following constructive behaviours are observed in the
1.!Expressed permission, grounded in lasting relationships
2.!Tangible production, with sustainable achievements through commendable actions
in the community
3.!Capacity development, building abilities in communities within existing structures of
4.!Honourable representation, through recognition of wholesome conglomerate of
people, resources and ecology
Communications and negotiations on commons are hampered by Western-centric mix of
theories (among which is Maslow’s pyramid), ethics models and their hermeneutic and
existential interpretations. Murphy and Ellis (1996) in “On the Moral Nature of the Universe”
describe a helpful layering of sciences, each layer building abstraction with the input from
the layer below, or by piercing apart aspects of the levels above. The aforementioned
scholars describe a Science of Ethics spanning the social and applied sciences. This model
provides guidance on how to deal with a mix of ethical models that influence motivation for
human behaviour emanating from different world views.
It is only recently in the West, in the late modern period (ca. 1900-1990) that the
concept of pure individual power has emerged, that sanctifies the view that one can do as
one likes with one’s person and one’s property (Murphy and Ellis 1996: 1596). This view has
been adopted in - and subsequently propagated by – the West. It is this concept of power of
the individual that is a precept in Maslow’s thought. His thought emerges from a focus on
the individual, and her/his agency, ultimately expressing him/herself in “a fullest (and
healthiest) creativeness” (Maslow 1943). The authors observed that the approach to
motivations framed within an individualistic view on the reason of activities (as proposed by
Maslow) is unsuitable for understanding genuinely social processes like the African
epistemology as set in Ubuntu which does not provide moral grounding for self-renunciating
General examples of a communal-agency are African sayings like “It takes a
community to raise a child”, implying that even for the most basic needs (the physiological
needs in Maslow’s reasoning), a balance is sought in agency vested in community and
individuals. Therefore, a motivation to engender community can be seen as among the most
basic needs. As Africa is an environment with abundance of resources (Unwin 2008), the
fulfilment of primary needs is seen as a collaborative venture of communities, individuals
and the spiritual realms.
The dominant Western view shown by Maslow represents an external influence in
proceedings, ethics and judgments in Africa. For instance, ‘pure sciences’ employ Maslow’s
contextually-loaded conceptions of human nature, such as assumptions about the intrinsic
egoism of individuals, conceptions of human dignity, or more broadly, views on human
good or human flourishing. Therefore, African practitioners’ interaction with Western
academics is hampered (van Stam 2014). Maslow’s precepts and philosophy are not in line
with the African precepts and philosophy as an African based epistemology recognises
leading concepts of interdependence, interconnectedness, reconciliation, collectivism and
solidarity. These concepts are inherently non-egoistic.
The African reality, and resulting ‘pyramid’ can be seen as perpendicular to Maslow’s
reasonings. Where he describes the freedom for the individual, for instance, for inquiry and
expression, in the African context such freedom must be regarded from a community
perspective. In Maslow’s thinking, the outset is an individual (and her/his needs), after which
the community could be seen as the total sum of the individuals it contains. From an
indigenous African point of view, however, the outset starts with the community, after
which an individual can be regarded as a particular derivative of the community.
The researchers observed that behaviour and characteristics can be well understood,
developed, and evaluated within a social context. In many parts of Africa, however, these
understandings with the social context are significantly different from those derived through
a Western schema. What will count as a virtue rather than a vice or morally indifferent
characteristic, however, is determined by the needs of social practices and by the location of
those characteristics within the whole of the community’s life story.
This discordant situation calls for diversified perspectives on appropriate means of
interactions in the world, and guidance on misinterpretations of events. Maslov's theory
leads to an approach that often regards human interaction as the negotiation of resources, as
if all resources are owned by an individual entity and its dissemination needs to be pursued
through a process of negotiation. In the African context, the process is mostly approached
from a different perspective, as human interactions are foremost meant to establish
relationships. When discussion on sharing of resources occurs, the perceived governing
authority over the resource is considered to offer resource-sharing as a means of
strengthening the relationship.
The result of the negation of the variance in human motivation is often personal and
economic damage, domination, and systematic oppression.
The absence of recognition of a large variety of motivations of human behaviour
gives rise to domination by hegemonic (and individually oriented) power, which in turn fuels
inequality and social injustice. In the interactions between the Western economic and its
social (Maslow) view of realities, and African economic (Relatio) and social (Ubuntu) view of
realities, the predatory view - where a win-lose situation is acceptable - seems to dominate in
Each culture and subculture judges human behaviour according to its own norms and
values. Maslow’s theory of human motivation is a widely accepted theoretical framework
which grounds the development of other motivational theories. These theories are presented
to be universal and to apply everywhere. However, these academic frames are grounded in
one particular set of cultures only: the Western ones. We show the theory is not applicable in
many parts of Africa.
Our work shows that in many Africa settings, motivation is derived from the pursuit
of relationships, the strengthening of community, the acknowledgment of authority, sharing
of resources, and the avoidance of shame.
We conclude that Maslov's theory for Human Motivation does not represent a universal
motivational theory. To facilitate better understanding of expectations and interpretations of
realities, it is good to critique Maslow’s thought by people embedded in non-Western
contexts. It is equally important for those raised within Maslow’s settings to understand the
concepts of human motivation in other contexts and cultures.
This paper has demonstrated that while Maslow’s theory might be considered seminal work,
the theory is not applicable to many African contexts owing to the huge differences in
Alfred, G. T., & Corntassel, J. (2005). Being indigenous: Resurgences against contemporary
colonialism. Government and Opposition, 40(4), 597–614.
Beck, D. E., & Cowan, C. (2005). Spiral Dynamics: Mastering Values, Leadership and Change.
Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Bigirimana, S. S. J. (2001). Cultural Duality Leadership and Nation Building in Africa.
Chiedza, Arrupe College Journal, 29-47.
Chimakonam, J. O. (2012). Introducing African Science Systematic and Philosophical Approach.
Denning, S. (2010). The Leader’s Guide to Radical Management: Reinventing the Workplace for the
21st Century. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Eaton, S. (2012). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs – Is the pyramid a hoax? Retrieved August
12, 2015, from https://drsaraheaton.wordpress.com/2012/08/04/maslows-hierarchy-of-
Gibson, N. (2011). Fanonian Practices in South Africa. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Graham, M., Sabbata, S. De, & Zook, M. A. (2015). Towards a study of information
geographies: (im)mutable augmentations and a mapping of the geographies of information
(in press). Geo: Geography and Environment.
Graham , M. W., & Messner , P. E. (1998). Principals and job satisfaction. International
Journal of Educational Management, 12(5), 196–202.
Graves, C. W. (1970). Levels of Existence: An Open System Theory of Values. Journal of
Humanistic Psychology, 10(2), 131–155.
House, R. J., & Aditya, R. N. (1997). The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?
Journal of Management, 409–473.
Hart, T., Jacobs, P., & Mangqalaza, H. (2012). Rural Innovation Assessment Tool (RIAT) Key
Concepts in Innovation Studies. Pretoria: HSRC.
Khoza, R. (2005). Let Africa Lead: African Transformational Leadership for 21st century Business.
Kroczek, A., van Stam, G., & Mweetwa, F. (2013). Stakeholder Theory and ICT in rural
Macha, Zambia. In 5th Annual International Conference on ICT for Africa (ICT4Africa), 20-23 Feb
2013, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation, Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Matthee, K., Mweemba, G., Pais, A., van Stam, G., & Rijken, M. (2007). Bringing Internet
connectivity to rural Zambia using a collaborative approach. In IEEE/ACM International
Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (ICTD2007), 15-16 Dec
2007, Bangalore, India.
Mawere, M., & Mubaya, T. R. (Eds.). (2014). African Cultures, Memory and Space: Living the Past
Presence in Zimbabwean Heritage. Bamenda: Langaa
Mukuka, G. S. (2010). Reap What You Have Not Sown. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Intellectual
Property Laws in South Africa. Pretoria: Pretoria University Press.
Murphy, N., & Ellis, G. F. R. (1996). On the Moral Nature of the Universe (Kindle). Minneapolis:
Nadler, D. A., Hackman, J. R., & Lawler, E. E. I. (1979). Managing Organizational Behavior.
Boston, MA: Little Brown.
Nakazibwe, P. (2014). “To offer a glass of millet-milk, is to offer you my peace” The
relational relevance of food in organizing community peace in Uganda. In M. van Reisen
(Ed.), Women’s Leadership in Peace-Building: Conflict, Community and Care. Trenton, NJ: Africa
Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2015). Incompleteness: Frontier Africa and the Currency of Conviviality.
Journal of Asian and African Studies, 1–18.
Pinto, D. (2000). Een nieuw perspectief. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers AUP.
Ramose, M. B. (2009). Ecology through Ubuntu. In M. F. Murove (Ed.), African Ethics: An
Anthology of Comparative and Applied Ethics. Pietermaritzburg: University of Kwazulu-Natal
Rutledge, P. B. (2011). Social Networks: What Maslow Misses. Retrieved August 12, 2015,
Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. T., & Wegner, D. M. (2012). Psychology (Second). New York, NY:
Sheneberger, K., & van Stam, G. (2011). Relatio: An Examination of the Relational
Dimension of Resource Allocation. Economics and Finance Review, 1(4), 26–33.
Sommers, C. H., & Satel, S. (2005). One Nation Under Therapy: How the Helping Culture Is
Eroding Self-Reliance. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press.
Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2011). Needs and subjective well-being around the world. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 101(2), 354–365.
Trancoso, S., Utratel, A. M., & James, G. (Eds.). (2015). Commons Transition: Policy Proposals for
an Open Knowledge Commons Society. Brussels: P2P Foundation.
Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2011). Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding
Cultural Diversity in Business (Second). London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
Unwin, T. (2008). On the richness of Africa. Retrieved August 29, 2011, from
Van Stam, G. (2012a). Is Technology the Solution to the World’s Major Social Challenges?
In IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC 2012), 21-24 Oct 2012, Seattle, WA,
Van Stam, G. (2012b). Oral Budgeting in rural Macha, Southern Province, Zambia.
Anthropological Notebooks, 18(3), 41−46.
Van Stam, G. (2012c). Towards an Africanised Expression of ICT. (K. Jonas, I. A. Rai, & M.
Tchuente, Eds.) E-Infrastructures and E-Services on Developing Countries, 4th International ICST
Conference (AFRICOMM 2012) 12-14 Nov 2012, Yaounde, Cameroon, Revised Selected Papers.
Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Van Stam, G. (2013). Information and Knowledge Transfer in the rural community of
Macha, Zambia. The Journal of Community Informatics, 9(1). Retrieved from http://ci-
Van Stam, G., & van Greunen, D. (2014). Review of an African Rural Internet Network and
related Academic Interventions. The Journal of Community Informatics, 10(2). Retrieved from
Van Stam, G. (2014). Ubuntu, Peace, and Women: Without a Mother, there is no Home. In
M. van Reisen (Ed.), Women’s Leadership in Peace-Building: Conflict, Community and Care. Trenton,
NJ: Africa World Press.
Wahba, M. A., & Bridwell, L. G. (1976). Maslov Reconsidered: A Review of Research on the
Need Hierarchy Theory. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, (15), 212–240.
Weijland, W. P. (2014). Mathematical Foundations for the Economy of Giving. Cornell
University Library. Retrieved from http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1401/1401.4664.pdf