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Rote Liste und Gesamtartenliste der Schwebfliegen (Diptera: Syrphidae) Deutschlands

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... Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are important pollinators, biocontrol agents and bioindicators (Sommaggio 1999;Speight & Castella 2001). In general, the European fauna is well known compared to the Austrian fauna; checklists have been published for several countries (e.g., Nielsen 1999; van Steenis & Barendregt 2002;de Groot & Govedic 2008; van Eck 2011;Ssymank et al. 2011;Haarto & Kerppola 2014;Ricarte & Marcos-García 2017;Vujić et al. 2018;Speight 2020). Here we give a brief overview on Syrphidae research history in Austria and present the first annotated checklist of Austrian hoverflies. ...
... The knowledge on the hoverfly fauna of Austria is moderately good (Speight 2020). Compared to neighbouring countries, higher species numbers are known from Germany (463 species; Ssymank et al. 2011), Switzerland (462 species; Speight 2020) and from Italy (495 species; Speight 2020). In the Czech Republic (368 species), Hungary (365 species), Slovakia (360 species), Slovenia (289 species) and of course Liechtenstein (199 species), a lower number of species was reported (Speight 2020). ...
... ). Due to the extreme loss of its habitat, Eumerus ruficornis is close to extinction in Central and northern Europe(Ssymank et al. 2011;Johansson 2011).This species can be easily confused with E. consimilisŠimić & Vujić, 1996, E. montanum Grković, Radenković & Vujić 2017 and another undescribed species found in the Black Forest (Schwarzwald, Germany). Eumerus sogdianus was recorded bySchlüsslmayr (2018) from Austria, the specimen identification was verified by Dieter Doczkal. ...
Article
Hoverflies are a conspicuous and popular family within the Diptera. The larvae as well as the adults are able to colonize a wide range of habitats, and many species play important roles as pollinators, in pest management and nowadays in applied nature conservation issues. Despite of this, the state of knowledge on the hoverflies of Austria is deficient: Available literature is outdated in systematics and the species inventory is obviously incomplete. These facts led us to study the Austrian hoverfly fauna in more detail. Syrphidae records from an extensive literature search, additional unpublished data from museum collections and data from own fieldwork were compiled to build a comprehensive checklist of Austrian hoverflies. The species distributions are given by federal state in order to retain a precise overview of this Diptera group. The framework of this research is based on 20520 records and in total, 271957 individuals. The checklist includes 430 confirmed species. An additional 25 hoverfly species are discussed but not included in the list. These are species for which it is unclear if the locality lies within the present borders of Austria, or whose voucher specimens were not available for re-examination. In total 17 hoverfly species are new to Austria: Anasimyia contracta Claussen & Torp, 1980; Brachyopa grunewaldensis Kassebeer 2000; Brachyopa obscura Thompson & Torp, 1982; Brachyopa silviae Doczkal & Dziock, 2004; Cheilosia orthotricha Vujić & Claussen, 1994; Eristalis picea (Fallén, 1817); Melangyna ericarum (Collin, 1946); Melangyna lucifera Nielsen, 1980; Melangyna pavlovskyi Violovitsh, 1956; Melanogaster curvistylus Vujić & Stuke, 1998; Merodon moenium (Wiedemann, 1822); Paragus absidatus Goeldlin, 1971; Paragus bradescui Stanescu, 1981; Platycheirus laskai (Nielsen, 1999); Sphegina verecunda Collin, 1937; Temnostoma angustistriatum Krivosheina, 2002 and Temnostoma meridionale Krivosheina & Mamayev, 1962. In addition, 278 first records for several Austrian federal states are published. With 331 species, Styria currently hosts the largest number of documented species per federal state, followed by Lower Austria (307 spp.), Upper Austria (269 spp.), Carinthia (259 spp.), Vorarlberg (234 spp.), Burgenland (201 spp.), North Tyrol (172 spp.), Vienna (169 spp.), Salzburg (155 spp.) and Eastern Tyrol (154 spp.).
... The site in Serbia connects the Greek and central European populations and, as such, it was not unexpected to find this species in Serbia. The species is listed as endangered in Germany, as it seems to be declining there and restricted to very old Quercus forests (Ssymank et al. 2011). Thompson, 1980 New data. ...
... This is an endemic species to Europe, that is threatened in the Balkans (Vujić 1991;Vujić et al. 2001) and is a protected species in Serbia (Janković et al. 2018). In Germany it is red listed as critically endangered and strongly declining (Ssymank et al. 2011). Collin, 1939 New data. ...
... It is a widespread species with an increasing population in the Netherlands (Reemer et al. 2009). Although it is listed as critically endangered and declining in Germany (Ssymank et al. 2011) it is not likely to be threatened at European level. Doczkal & Schmid, 1994 (Figs 5A, B) -New to Serbia Ecology. ...
Article
In preparation for the IUCN workshop on the European Red List of Syrphidae from April 4th-16th 2019, a total of 59 hoverfly species were collected in Novi Sad and on Fruška Gora Mountain (Serbia). Among the identified species, one species is possibly new to science, Brachypalpus aff. valgus, and six other species are new to the fauna of Serbia: Brachyopa grunewaldensis, B. silviae, Criorhina pachymera, Epistrophe cryptica, Psilota anthracina and Sphixi-morpha petronillae. During the preparation of this work, a photo taken in Belgrade confirmed the occurrence of Pri-mocerioides regale in Serbia. Additionally, six rarely recorded species for the fauna of Serbia were collected: Brachyopa maculipennis, B. plena, Criorhina floccosa, Epistrophella coronata, Mallota fuciformis and Sphiximorpha subsessilis. The list of new and rare species and information on behaviour and habitats are provided. The value of Kamenički Park, Novi Sad, for saproxylic hoverflies is discussed and possible conservation measurements are proposed to retain this treasury of rare and possibly threatened species. The previously proposed co-occurrence of Sphiximorpha petro-nillae and the European velvety tree ant (Liometopum microcephalum (Panzer, 1798)) is also discussed.
... They are considered to be the second most important pollinator group after bees (Larson et al. 2001). Although often neglected, they play a significant role in biodiversity in general and agrobiodiversity across the biomes (Ssymank et al. 2011). A few characteristics, such as wide distribution, differences in environmental requirements of larvae and availability of excellent taxonomic keys (especially for European species), make Syrphidae potentially good bioindicators (Sommaggio 1999;Sommaggio & Burgio 2014;Popov et al. 2017). ...
... Despite the significant role that hoverflies have in ecosystems (Rotheray & Gilbert 2011), and some of them being recognized as threatened on the European level (Speight 1989(Speight , 2000(Speight , 2018Biesmeijer et al. 2006), they are completely absent from international lists such as the IUCN Red List, or legal instruments such as Annexes of the European Union (EU)'s Habitats Directive. Some of the species have been listed on national Red Lists (Jentzsch 1998;Ssymank & Doczkal 1998;Stuke et al. 1998;Doczkal et al. 1999;Cederberg et al. 2010;Ssymank et al. 2011), but further efforts have to be made to ensure the survival of this important insect group. ...
Article
The efficiency of protected areas (PAs) has often been questioned due to global decline of biodiversity. Invertebrates, especially insects, have been historically underrepresented in conservation studies. Our study focuses on hoverflies, an important group of insect pollinators and proven to be good bioindicators. Research was focused in Serbia, one of Europe's hotspots of hoverfly diversity, with a long tradition of hoverfly research, which provided sufficient information for achieving our aims: identifying areas of high hoverfly diversity, evaluating the efficiency of PAs and prime hoverfly areas (PHAs) in the conservation of hoverflies, determining how well they cover the distribution of hoverfly species, especially those of conservation concern, and testing the importance of the size of the area for conservation of hoverfly diversity. We applied weighting of the species to help stress the importance of species of conservation concern. The results indicated that PHAs cover the areas with high hoverfly diversity better than PA networks, especially when it comes to species of conservation concern. Generalized linear model results showed that the area size was a significant predictor of number of species in both PA and PHA. This indicates that area size is key when designating new areas important for conservation, but there are also other factors that need to be taken into account, such as habitat quality or suitability. Studies like this are useful in aiding designation of new areas important for conservation of certain species and in identifying sampling gaps, which could potentially aim future research in that direction.
... All species were checked against material from the reference collection of the authors. Syrphid nomenclature follows the last German checklist as part of the Red Data book publication (Ssymank et al. 2011). Plant names are used according to the German checklist of the floristic mapping scheme (Wisskirchen & Haeupler 1998). ...
... Since 1980 there have only been records from two squares, in Bavaria and in Baden-Württemberg close to the French population in Alsace. Ssymank et al. (2011) mentioned the apparent sharp decline of this species over the long term, and a similar sharp decline was indicated by Popov (2009) for Ukraine. Limiting factors or causes for this decline are not established. ...
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New records of the endangered European genus and species Psarus abdominalis (Diptera, Syrphidae, Rhingiini) are provided together with a list of the Syrphidae collected in the Haut-Rhin Department. Based on these new records, the status of this highly endangered species is discussed. In addition, we give molecular data about Psarus abdominalis as part of the German Barcode of Life project, a contribution to a reference DNA library, as well as the detailed distribution of Psarus.RésuméNouvelles données de Psarus abdominalis (Fabricius) (Diptera: Syrphidae), une espèce menacée en Europe. De nouvelles données concernant le genre monotypique européen Psarus et sa seule espèce, Psarus abdominalis, en voie de disparition, sont fournies avec une liste des espèces de syrphidés recueillies dans le département du Haut-Rhin. Sur la base de ces nouvelles données, le statut de cette espèce très menacée est discuté. Deplus, des données moléculaires sont présentées pour Psarus abdominalis dans le cadre du projet GBOL ayant pour but de construire une banque d'ADN de référence. L'aire de répartition détaillée de Psarus abdominalis est donnée.
... The species is categorized as Endangered in Belgium (INBO 2020), Germany (Ssymank et al. 2011) and in Norway (NBIC 2020), as Vulnerable in the Czech Republic (Farkač et al. 2005) and as Least Concern in Finland (FinBIF 2020) and Sweden (Artdatabanken 2020). ...
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Aracil, A., Rojo, S., Pérez, C., Campoy, A., Barkalov, A., Mazanek, L., Pennards, G.W.A., Popov, G., Speight, M. & Vujić, A. 2021. Anasimyia contracta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2021: e.T149166171A152281662. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-3.RLTS.T149166171A152281662.en.
... More research is needed on the population, habitat and species biology/ecology. In Germany the species is listed as Vulnerable (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as Vulnerable (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... Further research is needed on the population, distribution, biology, ecology and life cycle of the species. In Germany the species is assessed as critically endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as regionally extinct (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... In the Czech Republic the species is Critically Endangered (CR) (Farkac et al. 2005). In Germany, the species is also assessed as CR (Ssymank et al. 2011). ...
... The species has been assessed as Least Concern in Finland in 2000, 2010 and 2019 (FinBif 2020), in Norway (Artsobservasjoner 2020) and in Sweden (Artdatabanken 2020). In Germany the species has been assessed as Endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as Vulnerable (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... In Sweden, this species was assessed as Near Threatened (NT) (Artdatabanken 2020). In the Czech Republic the species was assessed Vulnerable (Farkac et al. 2005), and in Germany the species is listed as Endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is also listed as Endangered (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... More research can be done on the biology and life cycle of the species, combined with area management to preserve the wetland habitats. In Germany, the species is assessed as vulnerable (Ssymank et al. 2011). ...
... In Sweden the species was assessed Critically Endangered (CR) in 2010 (Gärdenfors et al. 2010) and also CR in 2020 (Artdatabanken 2020). In Germany the species is assessed as near threatened (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as Endangered (Bygebjerg 2019 ...
... This species has been assessed as Least Concern (LC) in Sweden (Artdatabanken 2019), Norway (Artsobservasjoner 2019) and Finland (FinBif 2019). In Germany the species is assessed as critically endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). If conservation measures are implemented for this species, the focus should be on the protection of the habitat, but the species is adaptable and can be found in commercially harvested forests, and so may not require immediate conservation action. ...
... In the Czech Republic it is on the red list as Endangered (EN) (Farkac et al. 2005), in Sweden it is considered Vulnerable (Artdatabanken 2020). In the United Kingdom it is listed as Near Threatened (Ball and Morris 2014), and in Germany the species is listed as EN (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as Critically Endangered (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... In the Czech Republic the species is considered Vulnerable (Farkac et al. 2005). In Germany the species is assessed as vulnerable (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Denmark the species is listed as Endangered (Bygebjerg 2019). ...
... In Denmark it is on the red list as Vulnerable (Bygebjerg 2004(Bygebjerg , 2019. In Germany the species is assessed as Critically Endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). This species requires monitoring given its wetland habitat and the threats to it. ...
... In the UK it is seen as nationally scarce (Ball and Morris 2014). In Germany the species is considered to be Endangered (EN) (Ssymank et al. 2011). ...
... This species is strictly protected in Serbia (Republic of Serbia Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning 2010) and listed on the Polish Red List as Critically Endangered (CR) (Palaczyk et al. 2002). In Germany and Denmark, it is Vulnerable (VU) (Ssymank et al. 2011;Bygebjerg 2004Bygebjerg , 2019. In the Czech Republic the species was assessed as VU (Farkac et al. 2005). ...
... There are no current conservation measures in place for this species. In National Red Lists, this species is assessed as vulnerable in Germany (Ssymank et al. 2011), and as Near Threatened (NT) in Poland: Red List of Endangered and Endangered Animals in Poland (Głowaciński et al. 2002, Palaczyk et al. 2002. In the Czech Republic, the species is listed as Endangered (Farkac et al. 2005). ...
... In the United Kingdom, this species is graded as Nationally Scarce (Ball and Morris 2014, JNCC Species Status No. 9). In Germany (Bavaria), this species was assessed as endangered (Dunk et al. 2003), in Saxony Anhalt as critically endangered (Jentzsch et al. 2016), in Baden-Württemberg endangered (Doczkal et al. 2001), and in 2011 the status of this species in Germany in general was Endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). In Poland it is listed as Critically Endangered (Palaczyk et al. 2002). ...
... This species is strictly protected in Serbia (Republic of Serbia Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning 2010). In Germany the species is assessed as endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). ...
... A monitoring scheme would be necessary to see population and habitat trends. In the German Red List for Baden-Württemberg it is listed as Data Deficient (Doczkal et al. 2001) and in Germany generally it is considered as Critically Endangered (Ssymank et al. 2011). ...
... This species is considered Endangered in some regional assessment, such as Baden-Württemberg (Doczkal et al. 2001) and Niedersachsen (Stuke et al. 1998) in Germany, and on the German red list it is listed as vulnerable (Ssymank et al. 2011). But one may argue the basis on which they are assessed (van de Meutter pers. ...
... In the Red Lists of Germany (Ssymank and Doczkal 1998), of Bavaria (Dunk et al. 2003) and of Baden-Württemberg (Doczkal et al. 2001), this hoverfly is categorized as endangered (Category 3). On the German Red List it is listed as Vulnerable as well (Ssymank et al. 2011). This species is also considered Vulnerable in the Czech Republic (Farkac et al. 2005), and as Endangered in the French Alsace Department (Treiber 2015). ...
... Ball and Morris (2014) assessed 82 species (LC species were not listed in the review) in England of which 13 were considered threatened (17.8% considering the mid-point value by considering the nice Data Deficient species). In Germany, 126 species (29.1% considering the mid-point value by considering the 31 Data Deficient species) were considered threatened among the 463 assessed species (Ssymank et al., 2011). Several regional Red Lists have been produced in Germany such as in Sachsen-Anhalt (Dziock et al., 2004), Baden Württemberg (Doczkal et al., 2001), Berlin (Saure, 2018), and Bavaria (von der Dunk et al., 2003). ...
Article
The decline of pollinators has been demonstrated scientifically and this phenomenon is widely recognized by both the general public and by stakeholders. Since pollinators face different threats that are all linked to human activities, there is a unique and unprecedented responsibility for people to conserve pollinators, requiring political action to counter the substantial worldwide risk of pollinator loss. As our perception of the situation is rapidly changing, as a result of the steady accumulation of international and national reports as well as new scientific findings, we propose here to provide an updated overview of pollinator conservation globally. We present the key messages and the proposed solutions found in international reports and assessments, how European countries have interpreted these solutions proposed in the context of existing international frameworks. Next, we analyze how scientific research is addressing the issue of pollinator conservation through different international, European and national programs. The analysis of the keywords used in published scientific articles also allows us to characterize how the scientific community has engaged with this issue over time. Finally, we focus on how France and Belgium have reacted to the observed decline of pollinators, and examine their national interpretations, conservation actions and research contributions.
... As well members of Diptera, in particular, hoverflies, are important flower visitors and pollinators in central Europe (Jauker et al., 2012). According to Ssymank, Doczkal, et al. (2011), 70%-80% of all German hoverfly species are concentrated in open areas or at the edge of forests. ...
Article
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• The abandonment of historical land-use forms within forests, such as grazing or coppicing, and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, has led to an increasing overgrowth of forest gaps and canopy closure in forest ecosystems of Central Europe. From 1945 to 2015, 81% of the forest gaps greater than 150 m² within the study area transitioned into a closed forest. • This study investigated how the overgrowth process affects flower supply, flower visitors, and reproduction of Campanula species. Six native Campanula species with different light requirements were used as phytometers. • The forest gaps in the studied area are a feature of the historical European cultural landscape. We compared large gaps caused by human activities, small gaps caused by habitat conditions, and closed forests. In eight blocked replicates, each with the three habitat categories, we recorded the flower cover and number of indigenous flowering species in the immediate surroundings, and, of six Campanula species, flower visitors and seed production. • Forest gaps and their size positively affected the number of flowering plant species in the surrounding area, the number of all flower visitor groups, and the number of seeds produced by all six Campanula species. Flower cover in the surrounding area was higher in large gaps, but there was no difference between small gaps and closed forests. Among flower visitors, small bees varied the most between the three habitat categories, and flies varied the least. The effect on the number of seeds produced was particularly strong for three light-demanding Campanula species. • The overgrowth of forest gaps negatively affected flower supply, flower-visiting insects, and seed sets of six Campanula species. Forest gaps should be managed to maintain the reproduction of open forest plants and their pollinators.
... We conclude that large insect biomass reductions are thus disproportionately affected by the numerical declines of common species and by the extirpation of intermediately common species. The relative abundances of the hoverfly species in the malaise traps, even though only 2 y were analyzed, match the distribution and abundance of the species at the national scale (37) (SI Appendix, Fig. S7). As such, these results challenge our current understanding of population extinction processes, where stochastic variation pushes populations with the lowest numbers to disappear first (25,26). ...
Article
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Significance Various sources have reported insect decline in total biomass, numbers, and species diversity. With German data on a species-rich hoverfly community over 25 y and a theoretical model, we show how these decline rates are interrelated. The relationship between biomass and diversity losses depends on whether common or rarer species are most affected. Our analyses show stronger declines of common than rare hoverfly species. Strong reductions (up to −80%) in total abundance and biomass correspond with observed species richness declines of −20% to −40% on a seasonal basis. On a daily basis, however, hoverfly diversity declined in proportion to biomass loss, with important consequences for the functioning of ecosystems.
... Increasing forest cover and changes in their management in the Netherlands since the 1950s have meant that the saproxylic Syrphidae in general are on the increase (Reemer 2005 ). A similar situation has been indicated for Germany (Ssymank and Doczkal 1998 ). The ecologically diverse Dolichopodidae are showing promise as indicators of site value over a range of nonforest habitats (Pollet 1992Pollet , 2001; Pollet and Grootaert 1996), and endemic Hawaiian Dolichopodidae, together with selected Canacidae, Chironomidae , and Ephydridae, are potential indicators of valuable aquatic habitats with high native diversity (Englund et al. 2007). ...
Chapter
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Overview of TaxaSocietal ImportanceReferences
... Usually collected in small numbers, some populations are very abundant (Kehlmaier 2002;Popov 2009), but population size can vary from year to year (Reemer et al. 2009, for Pelecocera tricincta Meigen). Pelecocera tricinta is listed as rare (Falk 1991) or threatened (Ssymank et al. 2011), or with data deficient (Maibach et al. 1992), although the distribution of this species in the Palaearctic Region is broad (Speight 2013). Popov (2009) lists Pelecocera latifrons Loew as rare for Ukraine. ...
Article
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The genus Pelecocera Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) is revised. Type material of most species was studied to describe, illustrate and delimit the male of Pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov, recently discovered from Iran. This is the first known specimen of this species since 1914, when the type female was collected. The diagnostic characters of P. persiana are provided, along with an identification key for Pelecocera species. The lectotype of Pelecocera latifrons Loew is designated.
... Usually collected in small numbers, some populations are very abundant (Kehlmaier 2002;Popov 2009), but population size can vary from year to year (Reemer et al. 2009, for Pelecocera tricincta Meigen). Pelecocera tricinta is listed as rare (Falk 1991) or threatened (Ssymank et al. 2011), or with data deficient (Maibach et al. 1992), although the distribution of this species in the Palaearctic Region is broad (Speight 2013). Popov (2009) lists Pelecocera latifrons Loew as rare for Ukraine. ...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Pelecocera Meigen (Diptera: Syrphidae) is revised. Type material of most species was studied to describe, illustrate and delimit the male of Pelecocera persiana Kuznetzov, recently discovered from Iran. This is the first known specimen of this species since 1914, when the type female was collected. The diagnostic characters of P. persiana are provided , along with an identification key for Pelecocera species. The lectotype of Pelecocera latifrons Loew is designated.
Thesis
Pollinating insects like bees and hoverflies play an important role in natural ecosystems and in agriculture. They pollinate the majority of wild plant and crop species worldwide while visiting flowers for their own food supply. Like many other insect groups wild (= unmanaged) pollinators are in decline. A lot of evidence for this decline comes from Europe, where intensified agriculture was identified as the main driver. One of the major issues is the lack of floral resources due to a loss in flower-rich habitats. Measures for enhancing pollinators therefore typically aim for increasing the availability of floral resources in agricultural landscapes. This can for example be achieved by means of flower strips, which are prominently promoted in form of EU agri-environmental schemes. But also semi-natural habitats like hedges or herbaceous structures along slopes or ditches can be valuable flower providers and can be established as enhancement measures in agro-ecosystems. However, flower strips, hedges and herbaceous semi-natural habitats may vary in their effect on wild pollinators due to differences in floral resources and other habitat characteristics, e.g. the provision of nesting sites or a beneficial microclimate. Furthermore, their impact may depend on the dominant agricultural land use in their surroundings and the resources that are available there. Intensive apple orchards for example seem to be of limited value for wild pollinators because apart from the apple bloom they provide only few floral resources. In combination with the fact that apples require insect pollination this makes intensive apple orchards relevant research objects for finding suitable pollinator enhancement measures. In this theses, I aimed at understanding how wild pollinators react on different enhancement measures in intensive apple orchards and whether the measures complement each other in a beneficial way. The overall goal was to find out how wild pollinators can efficiently be enhanced in landscapes with high proportions of intensive apple orchards. The main focus is on pollinator conservation, but I also address the question whether enhancement measures help increasing apple pollination. In Chapter I I compare the effectiveness of perennial flower strips, hedges and improved hedges (complemented with a sown herb layer). I found that wild bee abundance and species richness were highest in flower strips followed by improved hedges. Also hoverflies were most abundant in flower strips, but not more species rich than at control sites. Flower abundance was the main driver for wild bee diversity, whereas hoverflies were largely unaffected by floral resources. Only the wild bee but not the hoverfly community composition differed between the control orchard edge and the enhancement measures. The enhancement measures had neither an effect on the pollinator diversity within the orchards nor on apple flower visitation. I conclude that perennial flower strips are the most effective measure to enhance wild pollinators in intensive apple orchards though hedges should not be ignored as they attracted a different bee community than the flower strips. However, the increased diversity of wild pollinators did not translate in increased apple-flower visits, thus had no effect on pollination. Chapter II sheds light on the temporal interplay of the enhancement measures. Diverse wild bee communities require a continuous flower supply over the entire vegetation season that sustains long-lived social species as well as solitary species, which are active only temporarily. I hypothesised that hedges and flower strips complement each other in providing flowers at different periods of the year and that the improved hedges combined both flowering periods. Indeed, hedges and flower strips complemented each other. The hedges flowered from spring to early summer and attracted most wild bees in this period. In early summer the flower strips started to provide a continuous high floral supply until late summer. In contrast to the flower strips, the hedges showed fluctuating floral resources. This difference in the continuity of flower provision was a main reason for the generally higher wild bee diversity in flower strips as found in Chapter I. The improved hedges, which would have in theory been superior to both hedges and flower strips, performed less well than expected mostly due to varying establishment success of the sown herb layers. The flower strips started flowering much earlier in the second year after establishment and showed a different flower composition, which both translated in differences in the wild bee community across the years. In the third year wild bee diversity however decreased in comparison to the first two years in the flower strips. I conclude that woody vegetation and flower strips should be managed together to enhance bee pollinator communities in agricultural landscapes. To stabilise the fluctuating short-term flower supply in hedges the diversity of bee-attractive shrubs with complementary phenology should be promoted. The establishment of herb layers along hedges may be useful, but only if enough space and light is available. Flower strips should be perennial because they attract different bee communities at different ages and start flowering much earlier from the second year on. Maintenance measures should ensure long term flower richness in the flower strips. Chapter III focuses on other semi-natural habitat types than hedges, namely small-scale patches with spontaneous herbaceous vegetation. I compared explicitly flower-rich semi-natural habitat patches along slopes, overgrown fences or ditches with the flower strips. As before, the flower strips were superior in attracting a high pollinator diversity due to a higher floral richness, whereas in the semi-natural habitat patches the pollinator diversity varied strongly due to differences in the flower supply. However, the bee species composition differed between the flower strips and the semi-natural habitat patches. The patches attracted bee species with different pollen specialization than the flower strips. I conclude that herbaceous semi-natural habitat patches are not as attractive for pollinators as flower strips, but nevertheless play an important role for pollinator diversity by providing different flower species at different times. Semi-natural habitat patches typically do not compete with agricultural land use, can often be improved or enlarged at low costs and thus have a high potential to promote pollinator conservation in intensive agricultural landscapes. Chapter IV investigates the plant-pollinator-networks in the orchards and whether these are affected by the presence of hedges or flower strips. Of special interest in this context are those pollinator species that visit and potentially pollinate apple flowers. Therefore, only apple-pollinators were considered in the network analysis. The networks were regarded from two perspectives: from the orchard plant perspective and from the pollinator perspective. For this, two indices were calculated: plant generality, which indicates the number of visiting pollinator species per plant species, and apple-pollinator generality, i.e. the number of plant species visited per pollinator species. Plant generality in orchards was not influenced by the presence of enhancement measures. So plants within the orchards were not visited by a higher diversity of species when flower strips or hedges were present. This applied also to the apple flowers. In contrast, apple-pollinator generality was higher in the orchards with enhancement measures, which indicates a larger food supply for apple pollinators before and after the apple flower. This was especially true for flower strips. Thus, planting hedges and flower strips does not increase the diversity of wild pollinators visiting apple flowers, but particularly flower strips are beneficial for apple pollinators after the mass-flowering event and help stabilizing apple pollinator populations. In summary, the enhancement measures have the potential to increase pollinator diversity in intensive apple orchards, but the enhancement measures differ in their effect on wild pollinators. The perennial flower strips turned out highly efficient in enhancing wild bees, but the hedges and semi-natural habitat patches also played a non-neglectible role. Their habitat quality could be increased by improvements and maintenance measures. Hoverflies in contrast to wild bees could only be enhanced in terms of abundance, but not in species richness, which either calls for further research on how to enhance this species group in intensive agrarian landscapes or suggests the conclusion that hoverflies are not a meaningful target species group in the studied landscape. Though the enhancement measures were relatively successful in terms of pollinator conservation, they did not increase the visitation rate of apple flowers. Yet, they may indirectly stabilize the apple-pollinator populations by providing them with floral resources before and after the apple bloom.
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The Red Data Book hoverfly species Microdon mutabilis is an extreme specialist that parasitises ant societies. The flies are locally adapted to a single host, Formica lemani, more intimately than was thought possible in host-parasite systems. Microdon egg survival plummeted in F. lemani colonies > 3 km away from the natal nest, from c. 96% to 0% to < 50%, depending on the hoverfly population. This is reflected in the life-time dispersal of females, measured at < 2 m, resulting in oviposition back into the same ant nests for generation after generation. To counter destabilizing effects on the host, Microdon manipulates the social dynamics of F. lemani by feeding selectively on ant eggs and small larvae, which causes surviving larvae to switch development into queens. Infested colonies rear double the number of new queens, thus propagating the vulnerable local genotype and compensating for damage to the host colonies. The consequences of such extreme host specificity for insect conservation are discussed.
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(1) Daily population estimates were made on adult Merodon equestris during 1968 to 1971 using Jolly's and Fisher-Ford's method. (2) The population trends estimated by the two methods generally coincided but Jolly's estimates fluctuated more widely. (3) Temperature accounted for 40% of the variation when predicting population size, the remainder being possibly due to sampling errors. (4) Sex ratio varies from approximately 1.8 females to one male to 1.4 males to each female. (5) Average longevity varies from about three days to twelve days.
Article
: The influence of sown herb strips on larval stages of aphidophagous syrphids was studied in different strips and adjacent winter wheat fields near Berne (Switzerland) from 1993 to 1995. The aim of this study was to learn whether these sown herb strips offer a supply of aphids sufficient enough to sustain the first generation of syrphids in spring or a further generation after crop harvest. Aphid infestation of the strips occurred at about the same time as in winter wheat, between the end of May and the beginning of August. A first syrphid generation in spring can therefore not develop on weeds in strips. Furthermore, after harvest no further generations will appear in strips. The highest numbers of syrphid pre-imaginal stages in 1993 and 1994 were found on spontaneously growing weeds (Rumex obtusifolius, Cirsium arvense and C. vulgare). Among the sown species, Centaurea jacea and Pastinaca saliva showed the highest syrphid larvae densities. The densities in herb strips (max. 0.6 larvae/m2) were manyfold lower than in wheat (10 pupae/nr). In herb strips the same syrphid species as in winter wheat were identified. In both habitats Episyrphus balteatus was the most abundant species. Epistrophe spp. were only found in strips. No dependence of oviposition within wheat fields on the distance to the strips could be demonstrated. Due to their great mobility, it is easy for adult syrphids to find aphid colonies within a crop field. The strips are neither significant for an early development of the first syrphid generation nor for an additional generation after wheat harvest. The importance of herb strips for hoverflies lies in their quality to supply them with pollen and nectar, which increases the fitness of the adults.
Article
Since November 1925, considerable progress has been made in working out details of the biology of the Narcissus bulb fly, Merodon epuestris Fab., under outdoor conditions at Washington, D. C. It Vasfound that the larval stage lasted about 10 months. Pupation took place from March 25 to April 17, 1926, and the pupal stage lasted 5 to 7 weeks. Flies emerged from May 8 to 22. Maximum longevity of the flies was 4 weeks, the average length of life being 16 or 17 days. Egg laying capacity was nearly 100 eggs per female fly. Eggs hatched in 10 to 14 days, the average being 12. Larvae grew most rapidly during the first two months. Detailed information on various phases of the life history is presented in tabular form. Notes showing severity of infestation of imported King Alfred narcissus bulbs with larvae of M. equestris, E. strigatus, and R. hyacinthi are given. Preliminary data is presented in tabular form showing the effects of CS, fumigation, under normal atmospheric pressure, on larvae of both bulb flies and on the bulb mite, as well as on the subsequent growth and flowering of the bulbs at dosages ranging from 10 to 30 pounds per 1000 cu. it. with exposures lasting 2, 12, and 23Y, hours. The results proved quite decisive and serve to suggest the range of effectiveness of this chemical as a bulb fumigant. The 10 lb. dosage with a 2 hr. exposure was equally ineffective under a 27-inch vacuum and under normal atmospheric pressure, but neither treatment injured the growth and flowering of the bulbs as compared with that of the untreated "checks." Dosages of from 10 to 30 lbs. with exposures of 23]1 hrs. gave 100 per cent control of both species of larvae and from 90 to 99.4 per cent control of the bulb mites. Dosages of 20 to 30 Ibs. with a 23Y, hr. exposure proved fatal to the bulbs and caused a characteristic brownish discoloration of the basal plate. These results suggest the possibility of finding a range of lower dosages and shorter exposures that will kill these pests without injuring the bulbs.
Article
A résumé is given of the recommendations hitherto made for the control of the Narcissus flies, Merodon equestris and Eumerus tuberculatus . Nevertheless, the control of these pests still remains a major problem in the British Isles. Laboratory and field experiments on the control of both these species were carried out in 1946 and 1947. In the field trials, dichloro-diphenyl trichlorethane (DDT), benzene hexachloride (BHC) and mercurous chloride (calomel) were included. The DDT and BHC were applied in the form of sprays, at a concentration of 0·5 per cent. suspension in water, over the aerial parts of the Narcissus plants and the surrounding soil on three separate occasions at approximately monthly intervals during the oviposition period, starting on May 10, some two or three days before the adult flies normally appear in the district. The calomel was applied in the form of a 4 per cent. dust on separate occasions during this period. BHC and DDT were successful in producing a marked reduction in the degree of infestations by both species of Narcissus flies and, of the two insecticides, the former was apparently more effective. Although calomel dust afforded an appreciable protection against attacks by the Large Narcissus Fly, M. equestris , it exercised negligible control of the Small Narcissus Fly, E. tuberculatus , in these experiments. It seems from the results obtained in the present investigations that DDT and, in particular, BHC do provide a much more effective and practical means of controlling infestations of the Narcissus flies than any other methods hitherto tested.
Article
In 1992 and 1993, studies examined numbers of adult hoverflies in sown weed strips, adjacent fields and a field boundary in the Swiss plateau, near Bern. Hoverflies were observed quantitatively and were divided according to their larval food. In both years, distinctly more aphidophagous and aquatic hoverflies were observed in the weed strips than in the adjacent fields. Copro- and phytophagous hoverflies were observed in very low numbers and they were almost entirely confined to the weed strips and the field boundary. The weed strips contained a high density of flowering plants and therefore proved to be very attractive feeding places for all hoverflies. Numbers of aphidophagous hoverflies declined slightly with increasing distance from the weed strips. Possible impacts of weed strips in encouraging aphidophagous hoverflies and their potential as aphid antagonists are discussed.
Article
. 1Hoverfly data, obtained from 20 species during 1991–2007 from a single garden in Peterborough, England, were analysed to test for temporal trends in timing of first and last appearance, flight-period length and maximum number.2During this period of climate warming, first appearance in spring has become significantly earlier for three species and flight period longer for a different set of three species.3Key correlates of first appearance date and flight-period length were winter temperature, which increased over the study period, and spring temperature which showed a non-significant warming trend. Wetter summers also marginally lengthened the flight period. In addition, there were significant year effects, suggestive of population responses to changing climate independent of prevailing temperature.4However, there was little evidence that last appearances in autumn have become later, and maximum numbers have not increased.5These trends match those reported from other, better-studied taxa.
Article
Dispersal within agricultural fields and the effects of different barriers on between-field movement of the New Zealand hover fly Melanostoma fasciatum were studied using ingested pollen as markers. Hover flies did not generally disperse more than 20 m from the pollen source. Gravid females had no significant wind-directed movement pattern whereas males significantly flew downwind. Flies tended to avoid flying over barren land: a dirt track, an asphalt road or a ploughed field all seemed to hamper hover fly dispersal equally. The implications for spatial arrangement of the flowering strips to enhance the biocontrol potential of hover flies are discussed.
Article
The effect of forest fragmentation was studied in hoverfly communities of 54 isolated forests (0.14–171 ha) in south west France. The positive relationship between species richness and wood patch area was investigated by testing the three hypotheses usually put forward to explain it: 1) the sampling effect hypothesis, 2) the patch heterogeneity hypothesis, 3) the hypothesis of equilibrium between distance from other patch (colonisation) and surface area of the patch (extinction). The syrphid species were divided into 3 ecological groups, based on larval biology as summarized in the “Syrph the Net” database: non forest species, facultative forest species and forest species. A total of 3317 adults belonging to 100 species, were captured in the 86 Malaise traps. Eight species were non forest (N=16), 65 facultative forest (N=2803) and 27 forest species (N=498). Comparison of the slopes of the species-area curves for species richness and species density per forest patch showed a strong sampling effect in the species-area relationship. Wood patch heterogeneity increased with wood patch area and positively influenced hoverflies richness. Less isolated wood patches presented high richness of forest species and low richness of non forest species. Only forest species richness seemed to respond to the equilibrium between surface area and isolation. Depending on which hypothesis explained best the species-area relationship, management recommendations to mitigate fragmentation effects were formulated at various spatial scales and for different stakeholders.
Article
Summary • The loss of semi-natural grasslands in agro-ecosystems has increased the importance of adequate management of remaining grasslands. Recommendations for intensive grazing have been debated because the effects of different management practices may differ between taxa and species. The increased fragmentation of grasslands suggests that the influence of management practices should be studied in a landscape context. • We studied four groups of flower visitors, many of which are pollinators, bees (Apoidea), butterflies (Lepidoptera), hoverflies (Syrphidae) and beetles (Coleoptera), in semi-natural grasslands managed at three intensity levels in eight areas in central Sweden. Local characteristics of the grasslands were recorded and landscape diversity was quantified. Vegetation height was correlated with grazing intensity: intensive grazing with the shortest vegetation and abandoned grassland with the tallest. • The insect groups responded differently to grazing intensity. Species richness and abundance differed between management regimes for beetles and hoverflies but not for bees and butterflies. • The effects of local habitat and landscape composition on species richness, abundance and composition differed between groups. Bee diversity responded to both local and landscape factors. Butterflies were mainly affected by local vegetation height and linear elements in the landscape. More species of hoverflies were recorded in tall vegetation and in landscapes with high forest cover. Beetles responded only to local environment characteristics. • Synthesis and applications. We demonstrate the importance of studying different insect groups simultaneously when evaluating habitat and landscape qualities for diversity. The results suggest that planning for conservation of biodiversity at landscape scales may be better than implementing grazing guidelines for individual grasslands. Grazing intensity should vary within or between landscapes to preserve pollinator diversity. Conservation management to encourage flower visitors cannot be generalized to include all groups simultaneously.
Article
1. The structural complexity of agricultural landscapes influences the local biodiversity and associ-ated ecosystem services. Hence, developing effective biodiversity management requires a better understanding of the relative importance of local and landscape changes, especially for functionally important organisms such as hoverflies benefiting from flowering plants. 2. We examined hoverfly (Diptera: Syrphidae) communities in broad and narrow sown flower strips, in naturally developed grassy strips and in wheat fields (as a control). We also investigated the effects of these four habitat types on syrphid occurrence in the adjacent wheat fields. 3. The relative influence of local vs. landscape effects was tested by selecting study sites along a gradient of structural complexity from simple landscapes (100% arable land) to complex land-scapes (up to 70% semi-natural habitats such as fallows, field margins, hedges and grassland). Landscape complexity was assessed within landscape sectors of 0AE5–4AE0 km radius around strips. 4. Syrphid density and in particular, the density of aphidophagous species, was higher in narrow and broad sown flower strips compared to grassy strips and wheat–wheat boundary controls at the milk-ripening stage of the wheat. In addition, species richness of aphidophagous syrphids within wheat fields adjacent to broad sown flower strips was higher at the wheat peak-ripening stage. This indicates a spillover between habitats and a positive effect of these sown flower strips on potential biocontrol of cereal aphids. Flower densities and syrphid diversity and density, respectively, were closely related. 5. Species richness and abundance in the sown flower strips increased as the proportion of arable land in the surrounding landscape increased, suggesting that within structurally simple landscapes (at 0AE5–1 km radius around the sites) syrphid flies concentrated on the most rewarding resources within the sown flower strips. Sown flower strips were more effective at increasing syrphid species richness and abundance in simple landscapes, presumably because the creation of flower resources made the greatest difference in such homogeneous, intensively managed arable landscapes. 6. Synthesis and applications. Agri-environment schemes should take the surrounding landscape characteristics into account when considering using sown flower strips to enhance syrphid density and diversity, and their biocontrol function, in arable landscapes. Creating locally such flower strips is more effective in simple landscapes containing a high proportion of arable land, while in complex landscapes, keeping the overall diversity is important.
Article
A faunistic study investigating the potential side-effects of corn (Zea mays) genetically modified to express a truncated Cry1Ab protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, on non-target arthropods was carried out under field conditions. The communities of non-target arthropods in the soil, on the leaves and flying in the crop area were monitored throughout the growing season. Water-treated, untransformed corn served as a control, and a spray application of a bacterial Bt insecticide (Delfin WG) and a synthetic insecticide (Karate Xpress) used to control the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) acted as positive reference treatments. Results were analyzed using a principal response curve. Significantly lower infestations by the lepidopteran target species O. nubilalis were observed in the Bt-corn plots compared to the control. No effects of Bt-corn on the communities of soil dwelling and non-target plant dwelling arthropods were observed. A trend towards a community effect on flying arthropods was observed with lower abundance of adult Lepidoptera, flies in the families Lonchopteridae, Mycetophilidae and Syrphidae, and the hymenopteran parasitoids Ceraphronidae. Effects were weak and restricted to two sampling dates corresponding to anthesis. A short but statistically significant effect of Karate Xpress and Delfin was observed on the community of plant dwellers and a prolonged effect of Karate Xpress on the soil dwellers.
Article
Environmental change is not likely to act on biodiversity in a random manner, but rather according to species traits that affect assembly processes, thus, having potentially serious consequences on ecological functions. We investigated the effects of anthropogenic land use on functional richness of local hoverfly communities of 24 agricultural landscapes across temperate Europe. A multivariate ordination separated seven functional groups based on resource use, niche characteristics and response type. Intensive land use reduced functional richness, but each functional group responded in a unique way. Species richness of generalist groups was nearly unaffected. Local habitat quality mainly affected specialist groups, while land use affected intermediate groups of rather common species. We infer that high species richness within functional groups alone is no guarantee for maintaining functional richness. Thus, it is not species richness per se that improves insurance of functional diversity against environmental pressures but the degree of dissimilarity within each functional group.
Article
The EU Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC) does include provisions for setting up the Natura 2000-network of protected areas based on listed species and habitats, and in addition specific regulations on species protection. Three Quarters of all designated sites (SCI’s) do not only include natural habitat types in a strict sense like forests or water-bodies, but also agricultural land. 18 % of the SCI’s even include between 25 and 50 % agricultural land and 24 % above 50 %. 48 species and three habitat types listed under the Habitats Directive have a clear focus in agriculture. Another eleven habitat types are dependant from a nature-friendly low intensity use or management. A large proportion of these habitats and species are actually in an unfavourable conservation status. The paper analyses the impact of EU nature conservation on agriculture based on the species and habitats falling under the Habitats Directive. On the other hand indirect negative influences of agriculture are discussed, that may have considerable impact on the future development of the conservation status of endangered habitats and species.
Article
Landscape context and habitat quality may have pronounced effects on the diversity of flower visiting insects. We investigated whether the effects of landscape context and habitat quality on flower visiting insects interact in agricultural landscapes in the Netherlands. Landscape context was expressed as the area of semi-natural habitats or the density of linear landscape features, and was quantified at spatial scales ranging from 250 to 2000 m. Habitat quality was determined as flower abundance. Species richness and abundance of hoverflies and bees were determined along 16 stream banks experiencing similar environmental conditions but situated in areas with contrasting landscape context. Only flower abundance and the area of semi-natural habitats within 500-1000 m were significantly related to species richness of hoverflies and bees and these factors had interacting effects on both species groups. Our results suggest that the regional area of semi-natural habitats had a positive effect on hoverfly species richness when flower abundance was relatively high, but not when flower abundance was low. Moreover, flower abundance had positive effects on hoverfly species richness only in areas with relatively many semi-natural habitats. Contrastingly, flower abundance had a more positive effect on bee species richness in landscapes with few semi-natural habitats compared to landscapes with more semi-natural habitats. Our results suggest that the importance of landscape context for the species richness of flower visiting insects depends upon the quality of the habitat patches.
Article
We used hoverflies as an indicator group to assess the role of open spaces in maintaining biodiversity within plantation forests. We set out to investigate the factors correlated with hoverfly biodiversity in open spaces in plantation forests, and to make recommendations for planning and management of open spaces in plantation forests to enhance biodiversity. The majority (nearly 80%) of the species we recorded are associated with open space habitats rather than closed-canopy forest. The species richness of the fauna associated with large open spaces was slightly, but significantly, higher in unplanted glades compared to forest roads. The species richness of the open space fauna was positively correlated with forest road width but did not show any relationship with overall amounts of open space. Species with larvae feeding on the foliage of trees and shrubs were associated with the presence of broad-leaved woody vegetation. Species with larvae developing in surface water habitats were associated with wet habitat features. Planning and management for hoverfly biodiversity in Irish conifer plantations should focus on the open space component, and should encourage broad-leaved trees and shrubs and wet habitat features. Wide forest roads or unplanted glades should be included to allow the maintenance of well-developed open space habitat in mature spruce forests.
Article
Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) in agroecosystems have gained much attention recently because the larvae of some species are efficient control agents of crop aphids, and adult hoverflies provide pollination services to wild flowers and flowering crops. We assessed the density and species richness of hoverflies in 32 calcareous grasslands, which constitute a semi-natural habitat for adult hoverflies, by means of six transect walks from April to September 2004. Our results show that local habitat factors and landscape factors influenced hoverfly communities, and that their effects on hoverfly richness and density were quite contrary. Hoverfly species richness was affected by factors related to resource heterogeneity such as species richness of flowering plants, area of grassland habitat, and landscape diversity, which all imply the availability of diverse micro- and macrohabitats for adults and larvae. Hoverfly density, in contrast, depended on factors related to resource quantity, Such as the amount of pollen and nectar resources for adults and the amount of larval macrohabitats in the surrounding matrix. Therefore, both adult and larval habitat requirements have to be considered when analysing hoverfly communities in agricultural landscapes. Species guilds responded to specific land-use types Such as annual crops and woodland at different spatial scales, indicating variation in species' mobility and in the degree of spillover effects among neighbouring landscape elements. (C) 2008 Gesellschaft fur Okologie. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Article
Insects and spiders comprise more than two-thirds of the Earth's total species diversity. There is wide concern, however, that the global diversity of arthropods may be declining even more rapidly than the diversity of vertebrates and plants. For adequate conservation planning, ecologists need to understand the driving factors for arthropod communities and devise methods, that provide reliable predictions when resources do not permit exhaustive ground surveys. Which factor most successfully predicts arthropod community structure is still a matter of debate, however. The purpose of this study was to identify the factor best predicting arthropod assemblage composition. We investigated the species composition of seven functionally different arthropod groups (epigeic spiders, grasshoppers, ground beetles, weevils, hoppers, hoverflies, and bees) at 47 sites in The Netherlands comprising a range of seminatural grassland types and one heathland type. We then compared the actual arthropod composition with predictions based on plant species composition, vegetation structure, environmental data, flower richness, and landscape composition. For this we used the recently published method of predictive co-correspondence analysis, and a predictive variant of canonical correspondence analysis, depending on the type of predictor data. Our results demonstrate that local plant species composition is the most effective predictor of arthropod assemblage composition, for all investigated groups. In predicting arthropod assemblages, plant community composition consistently outperforms both vegetation structure and environmental conditions (even when the two are combined), and also performs better than the surrounding landscape. These results run against a common expectation of vegetation structure as the decisive factor. Such expectations, however, have always been biased by the fact that until recently no methods existed that could use an entire (plant) species composition in the explanatory role. Although more recent experimental diversity work has reawakened interest in the role of plant species, these studies still have not used (or have not been able to use) entire species compositions. They only consider diversity measures, both for plant and insect assemblages, which may obscure relationships. The present study demonstrates that the species compositions of insect and plant communities are clearly linked.
Callicera aurata (ROSSI, 1790): Gef.: Möglicherweise unterkartiert, evtl. in G einzustufen. Callicera macquartii RONDANI, 1844: Gef.: Möglicherweise unterkartiert, evtl
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Brachyopa silviae DOCZKAL & DZIOCK, 2004: Verantw.: Bisher nur aus Deutschland bekannt. Callicera aurata (ROSSI, 1790): Gef.: Möglicherweise unterkartiert, evtl. in G einzustufen. Callicera macquartii RONDANI, 1844: Gef.: Möglicherweise unterkartiert, evtl. in G einzustufen.
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Untersuchung zum Vorkommen der Schwebfliegen in Niedersachsen und Bremen (Diptera: Syrphidae)
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Techniques for Re-establishment of Dead Wood for Saproxylic Fauna Conservation. LIFE Nature Project NAT/IT/99/6245 Bosco della Fontana (Mantova, Italy)