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Substrates evaluation for the quality, production and growth of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida Cetto)

Authors:
  • University of Agriculture Peshawar Pakistan
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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2016; 4(3): 98-107
E-ISSN: 2320-7078
P-ISSN: 2349-6800
JEZS 2016; 4(3): 98-107
© 2016 JEZS
Received: 11-03-2016
Accepted: 12-04-2016
Babar Iqbal
Department of Plant Pathology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Hakim Khan
Department of Plant Pathology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Saifullah
Department of Plant Pathology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Imran Khan
Department of Plant Pathology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Bismillah Shah
Department of Entomology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Ahmad Naeem
Department of Horticulture, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Waseem Ullah
Department of Entomology, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Nangial Khan
Department of Agronomy, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Muhammad Adnan
Department of Agriculture, University
of Swabi-Pakistan.
Syed Rizwan Ali Shah
Department of Plant Protection, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Khwaja Junaid
Department of Plant Protection, the
University of Agriculture, Peshawar-
Pakistan.
Nazeer Ahmed
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress
Biology for Arid Areas, Northwest A&F
University, Yangling, China.
Mazhar Iqbal
Department of Botany, Shaheed Benazir
Bhutto University, Sheringal, Upper
Dir-Pakistan.
Correspondence
Muhammad Adnan
Department of Agriculture,
University of Swabi-Pakistan.
Substrates evaluation for the quality, production and
growth of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida Cetto)
Babar Iqbal, Hakim Khan, Saifullah, Imran Khan, Bismillah Shah,
Ahmad Naeem, Waseem Ullah, Nangial Khan, Muhammad Adnan, Syed
Rizwan Ali Shah, Khwaja Junaid, Nazeer Ahmed, Mazhar Iqbal
Abstract
Present study was conducted in the laboratory as well as in mushroom house to determine the effect of
different agricultural wastes (wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum
straw) on growth, production and quality of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida). The culture was
maintained on Malt Extract Agar medium. Spawn was prepared on wheat grains. Spawn running took
less time i.e. 20 days on wheat straw as compared to other substrates. The appearance of pinhead and
their maturity also took less time i.e. 29 days and 30 days, respectively on wheat straw. Maximum yield
i.e. 1360 gram was recorded on wheat straw. The first flush gave the maximum yield in all treatments
and there was a progressive decrease in the yield of successive flushes. The maximum biological
efficiency of 136% was observed in case of wheat straw. The maximum moisture (93.44%) and ash
(1.006%) were recorded in oyster mushroom obtained from sorghum straw. Percent protein content (8.75
gram), crude fat (10%) and crude fiber (3.5%) were maximum in oyster mushroom grown on sugarcane
bagasse, maize straw and wheat straw respectively.
Keywords: Substrates, growth, production, quality, oyster mushroom
1. Introduction
Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida Cetto) is an edible mushroom. It contains adequate
amount of phosphorous, iron, protein, lipid, riboflavin and thiamine. Oyster mushroom fresh
fruiting bodies indicates a high quantity of moisture (90.8%), where as dry as well as
fresh oyster mushrooms are rich in carbohydrate (57.6%), protein (30.4%), fiber (8.7%), fat
(2.2%) and ash (9.8%) with 345 kilocalories energy value on 100 g dry weight. Mushrooms
are an excellent source of minerals and protein and also known as the vegetarian’s meat [44].
The proteins of mushroom are considered to be intermediate between that of vegetables and
animals [42]. The amino acids essential for human body are present in oyster mushroom [36].
P. florida productivity is maximum in a short time providing more protein per unit area than
any other crop [35]. The high content of nitrogen and protein in oyster mushroom increases the
biological efficiency and yield while it reduces the growth period. P. florida contains 18
essential amino acids such as methionine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, cysteine, aspartic
acid phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, valine, arginine, histidine, alanine, glycine serine and
proline [26]. The vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin and thiamin are found in oyster mushroom.
The minerals such as ferrous sulfate, phosphorus, sodium and calcium are present in oyster
mushroom [60]. It is used for both medicine and food [6]. According to Furlani and Godoy [32],
mushrooms are considered as food with high nutritional value and delicious taste. Due to their
low caloric value they are suitable for diets. The P. florida produces metabolites of medicinal
and pharmacological interest, such as antimicrobials, immunostimulants, antioxidants and
antitumourals [28, 56, 38].
The substrate source, spawn quality, strain and compost affect the performance and growth of
oyster mushroom [77, 39]. The genus Pleurotus are well- known for the conversion
of substrates into mushrooms. Moreover, its commercial production is easy and least
expensive [9, 61].Various substrates such as wheat straw, rice straw and sawdust are used
for oyster mushroom cultivation [69]. The oyster mushrooms are known for anti-inflammatory
and immune-modulator effects [48]. The cultivation is easy under both temperate and tropical
climatic conditions and they are cultivated and harvested all over the year [7].
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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
The present research was carried out to evaluate different
agricultural substrates for growth and production of P. florida,
and to check quality of mushroom grown on these substrates.
The objectives of this research are to evaluate different
substrates for the growth and production of oyster mushroom
and to find the effect of substrates on the quality of oyster
mushroom.
2. Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out in mushroom house of
the Department of Plant Pathology Department. Laboratory
work was conducted in the Department of Agricultural
Chemistry, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar.
2.1 Preparation of pure culture
The culture was developed from the fruiting bodies growing
at the mushroom House of Plant Pathology with the following
method:
Malt Extract Agar (MEA) was employed as medium for the
growth of pure culture of Pleurotus florida. For one liter of
the culture medium prepared, 20 g Malt, 20 g Dextrose, 20 g
Agar, 1g Peptone and distilled water were used to make the
volume one liter. After autoclaving at 15 psi for 15 minutes,
the pH of the medium was kept 6.5. Streptomycin was added
in the sterilized medium @1 g/ L when the medium was
cooled to about 40 °C to stop the bacterial contamination. The
inoculation was made by cutting small pieces of the
mushroom tissues from the cap to downwards with a sterile
blade inside the laminar flow unit. A small piece of fruiting
body was taken and inserted in to petridish. Plates were sealed
with Parafilm and incubated at 25 °C. After 3 to 4 days, the
white myceliums have covered the agar surface. When the
mycelium fully covered the plates, then they are kept in
refrigerator for the preparation of spawn. The prepared
cultures were multiplied and maintained through standard
methods.
2.2 Preparation of Spawn
Spawn was prepared in jam bottles. The method of Jain
(2005) was followed with some modifications. The wheat
grains were boiled for 20-30 min. After boiling, excess water
was drained off by spreading the grains on a wire mesh. Chalk
powder (calcium carbonate) and gypsum (calcium sulphate)
were added to the grains @ of 2% and 0.5%, respectively on
dry weight basis. The jam bottles containing wheat grains
were sterilized in an autoclave for one hour at 121 ºC. The
grains were allowed to cool at room temperature and
inoculated with actively growing mycelium of
Pleurotus florida from malt extract slants inside the laminar
flow unit and incubated at (27 ± 2 ºC) for mycelial growth
without any light for 10-15 days until the mycelium fully
covered the grains.
2.3 Preparation of substrates
Five substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse,
maize straw and sorghum straw) were collected from different
localities of Peshawar. These substrates were sundried and
broken into small pieces. These substrates were soaked in
water to maintain 65-75% moisture content. Wheat bran
(10%) was added to the substrates. The soaked substrates
were piled up after and covered with polythene sheet.
Substrates were allowed to ferment for hours and spread on
floor for evaporation of excess moisture. The experiment was
laid by using Completely Randomized design having ten
replications.
2.4 Sterilization
The substrates were filled in 50 glass bags (12×18 inch) and
bag mouth was loosely tied with fiber thread. All the five
substrates were sterilized in an air tight container at 15 psi for
one hour. The sterilized bags cooled for 2-3 hours were
inoculated with spawn @ 25 gm per kg bag [21]. The sterilized
bags were then kept in mushroom house at ambient
temperature.
2.5 Incubation
These bags after inoculation were then incubated for spawn
running in a mushroom house under darkness at ambient
temperature.
2.6 Cropping
When mycelia fully covered the substrates after 15-16 days,
the bags were torn apart to open the substrates. The compact
substrates were irrigated at least twice a day by sprinkling
fresh water. After 7–8 days of the opening of bags small size
pin heads (4-5 cm in diameter) appeared on all sides of the
bags. These pinheads attained the full size in about 2-3 days
and when fruiting body fully matured then they were
harvested. The pin heads appearance time was also recorded.
2.7 Ventilation
The oxygen needed for the fruiting bodies development was
fulfilled by running fan several times daily. The experiment
was laid out in a complete randomized design (CRD) having 5
treatments and ten replications.
2.8 Recording of Data
Data were recorded on the following parameters
2.8.1 Days for completion of spawn running
Data on spawn running was recorded in days at 25, 50, 75 and
100% spawn running on different substrates.
2.8.2 Appearance of pinhead
After the completion of spawn running the pinheads
appearance of Pleurotus florida was observed. The data was
recorded in days taken from spawning to the appearance of
pinheads in each substrate.
2.8.3 Maturation of pinheads
When the pinheads reached to maximum size then time period
was recorded in days from appearance of pinheads to
maturation of pinheads in all treatments.
2.8.4 Flush wise Yield
The data on the weight of mushroom in gram was recorded
for the harvesting of mushroom in three flushes. The first and
respective harvesting done at maturity and the yield
of different flushes of fruiting bodies was noted.
2.8.5 Total yield
The total yields of basidiocarp were measured for each
treatment. The accumulations of three flushes were noted as
the total mushroom yield.
2.8.6 Biological efficiency
The biological efficiency (yield of mushroom per kg substrate
on dry wt. basis) of oyster mushroom was determined by the
following formula [22].
Biological efficiency % = Weight of fresh mushroom fruiting bodies x100
Weight of dry substrate
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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
2.9 Statistical analysis
The recorded data were analyzed by using analysis of
variance and mean were separated by Least Significant
Difference (LSD) test [88].
2.10 Laboratory study
2.10.1 Moisture content determination
Mushroom sample used in the study was oven dried at 105 ±5
°C for 24 hours till constant weight was achieved. The loss in
weight after drying is known as the moisture content, which
can be calculated by using the following equation [70].
Moisture = Initial weight-Final weight ×100
Initial Weight of sample
2.10.2 Total ash determination
The dried mushroom samples were put in furnace at 550 °C
for 6 hours. After cooling in desiccators the weight was taken.
The total ash was calculated as following equation [70].
Ash (g/100g) = weight of ash ×100
Weight of sample
2.10.3 Determination of crude fiber
The mushroom samples of weight three gram each was
transferred in a 1000 ml beaker and H2SO4 @ 200 ml of
1.25% were added to the beaker. It was boiled for half an
hour. These samples were washed 3--4 with hot water until it
become free of acid. The mushroom sample was then
transferred in to another beaker of 1000 ml and NaOH @ of
200 ml of 1.25% were added. The boiled residue was washed
2-3 times with hot `water until it become free of alkali. It was
then dried in an oven at 100 ºC for 3-4 hour. After oven
drying it was kept in a furnace at 550 ºC for 4 h. After furnace
drying the colour of ash was grey. The weight was taken after
cooling in desiccator. The crude fiber (%) was calculated by
using the following formula
Crude fiber (%) = Loss of weight after ignition (g) x 100
Weight of sample (g)
2.10.4 Estimation of crude protein
Protein content in the mushroom samples was determined by
Kjeldhal method
Procedure for Digestion
2.5 g of dried mushroom sample were digested with 5g of
digestion mixture (CuSO4: K2SO4: FeSO4 9:90:1) and 25ml
concentrated H2SO4. After digestion transparent material was
obtained and 10 ml of this digested material was1distilled
with 40% NaOH in Kjeldhal apparatus. The liberated
ammonia was collected in 4% boric acid solution. The
methylene was used as an indicator. It was then titrated
against standard N/10 H2SO4 solution taken in the burette
until the appearance of golden yellow colour as end point.
Calculation
Volume of N/10 H2 SO4 x 0.0014 (ml) x volume dilution Nitrogen (%) x 100
Wt of sample x ml of digested material used.
Protein (%) = N% x 6.25.
2.10.5 Crude fat determination
For the determination of fat Soxhlet apparatus was used. The
dried mushroom samples of weight 3g were taken in a thimble
and put in an extraction tube of Soxhlet apparatus. The ether
drops fell on the sample in the extraction tube petroleum ether
(B.P. 40-60 °C) for was used for extraction hours.
The solvent was evaporated under the fume hood and the
samples were removed and dried in an oven at 105 °C
for 30 minutes. After cooling in desiccators the weight of
extract was recorded.
Crude fat (%) = (W2- W1) x100
Weight of sample
Where
W1=weight of beaker
W2= weight of beaker+oil
2.10.6 Total carbohydrate estimation
The content of the available carbohydrate was determined by
the following equation [24] (Raghuramulu et al., 2003).
Carbohydrate (g/100 g sample) = 100 (moisture + fat +
protein + ash + crude fiber) g/100 g
2.10.7 Determination of Vitamin C
The mushroom samples were grinded to obtain juice. Then
one ml of the juice was taken along with 3.4% oxalic acid
solution to make the volume up to 10 ml. The dye was titrated
against 10 ml diluted sample until light pink color appeared.
Percent ascorbic acid content was calculated by using the
equation.
Ascorbic acid= (mg/gram) = F xT x100 x 100
D xS`
Where
F = factor for standardization=ml of ascorbic/ml of dye.
T = (ml) used dye solution.
D = diluted sample for titration.
S = mushroom juice (g) for dilution
2.10.8. Determination of phosphorous
1. 0.5 ml of sample was taken in a 50 ml volumetric flask.
2. Few drops of NH3HOCL mixture and 12.5 ml of baron’s
reagent were added to the sample and volume was made (50
ml) with distilled water.
3. Absorbance reading was taken after 10 minutes at 470 nm
against a blank to determine the amount of phosphorous in the
sample using standard curve.
P =Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer reading ×100ml×2
Weight of sample×10000.
2.10.9 Iron determination
For iron determination the solution obtained after wet
digestion was passed through the atomic absorption machine
to determine the iron content. The ammonium ferrous
sulphate @ 10 mg/L and standard iron concentration 10 mg/L
were transferred in a 100 ml flask. The HCl @ 2 ml were
added to the flask and make the volume one liter with distilled
water.
Fe =Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer reading ×100ml
Weight of sample×10000.
2.10.10. Determination of zinc
1. 10 ml nitric acid were added to one gram dried
mushroom sample in digestion tubes and kept it
overnight.
2. 4 ml Perchloric acid was added after 24 hours
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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
3. The digestion tubes were put on a heater and raised the
temperature to 200 °C. The heating was continue till the
white dense fumes appeared.
4. The tubes were cooled at room temperature after
digestion and transfer the contents to 100 ml volumetric
flasks to makes volume with distilled water.
5. For the determination of zinc the samples were injected
in Flame photometer and atomic absorption
spectrophotometer.
Calculation Zinc (mg/L) = Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometer reading ×100ml
Weight of sample×10000
3. Results
Effect of substrates on growth of oyster mushroom
(Pleurotus florida)
3.1. Spawn running of Pleurotus florida on different
substrates.
The experiment was carried out to find the effective substrate
for rapid spawn running among wheat straw, rice straw,
sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw. The
mycelium of P. florida covered the wheat grains are shown in
Fig. 1. The result shown in Table 1 indicates that fastest
spawn running took place on wheat straw. It takes 13, 18, 22
and 26 days for 25, 50, 75 and 100% spawn running,
respectively. It was followed by sorghum straw that took 15,
19, 25, and 34 days for 25, 50, 75 and 100% spawn running,
respectively. In case of sugarcane bagasse 25, 50, 75 and
100% spawn running completed in 17, 25,32 and 40 days,
respectively. The maize straw took 16, 25, 32 and 39 days for
25, 50, 75 and 100% spawn running, respectively. In case of
rice straw 25, 50, 75 and 100% spawn running completed in
16, 23, 28 and 37 days, respectively.
3.2 Days to maturity and pinhead appearance of Pleurotus
florida
Result of the experiment about the appearance of pinheads
and their maturity are presented in Table 2. It was observed
that time taken for first appearance of pinhead after spawning
of the substrates was fastest (27 days) in wheat straw.
Sorghum straw also proved a better substrate in case of pin-
head formation. It ranked second after wheat straw having 35
days for the appearance of pinheads. The rice and maize straw
took 37 and 40 days for the appearance of pinheads,
respectively. The longest time was taken by sugarcane
bagasse which took 40 days for the appearance of pinheads.
In response to pinheads appearance, the statistical analysis
shows that wheat straws are highly significant. Sugarcane
bagasse and maize straw are not significantly different from
each other but they are significantly different from other
substrates. However, the means of other substrates are
significantly different from one another. The data on time
taken to the maturity of pinheads are presented in Table 4.2.
In case of the maturity of pinheads minimum number of days
from appearance of pinheads to the maturity of pinheads was
taken on the wheat straw (30 days), which proved to be the
best substrate followed by sorghum straw (37 days). The rice
straw and sugarcane bagasse took 39 and 41 days,
respectively from appearance of pinheads to the maturity of
pinheads. Maximum time period (42 days) was required for
the maturity of fruiting bodies in case of maize straw. In
response to maturity of pinheads, the statistical analysis
shows that wheat straw is highly significant. The maize straw
and sugarcane bagass are significantly same but they are
significantly different from rice, maize and wheat straw.
Similarly, the sorghum straw and rice straw are significantly
same but they are different from other substrates.
3.3 Flush wise and total yield of Pleurotus florida
The data regarding number of flushes, flush wise yield, total
yield and their means of different substrates such as wheat
straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and
sorghum straw are presented in Table 3. The average yields of
these substrates from first flush were 655, 620, 385, 500 and
590 gram, respectively. In the second flush these substrates
had shown an average yield of 435, 375, 242, 290 and 345
gram, respectively. The third flush showed the lowest yield
having an average of 270, 235, 129, 170 and 230 gram,
respectively. Total mean yield of three flushes from wheat
straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and
sorghum straw were 453.3, 410, 252, 320 and 388.33 gram,
respectively. The total yield was determined by taking the
weight of mushroom obtained after1st, 2nd and 3rd flush. Out
of these five substrates wheat straw yield was highest (655
gram) in the first flush where as the lowest yield (129 gram)
was obtained in case of sugarcane bagasse in the third flush.
The highest (1360 gram) total yield was obtained in case of
wheat straw followed by rice straw having the total yield of
1230 gram. The sorghum and maize straw have the total yield
of 1165 and 960 gram, respectively. The lowest (756 gram)
total yield was obtained in case of sugarcane bagasse.
Table 1: Days to spawn running of Pleurotus florida on different
substrates
Days to Spawn running
S.
No Substrates 25% 50% 75% 100% Means
1 Wheat straw 13 b 18 b 22 d 26 d 19.75 a
2 Rice straw 16 a 23 a 28 b 37 b 26 c
3 Sugarcane
bagasse 17 a 25 a 32 a 40 a 28.5 d
4 Maize straw 16 a 25 a 32 a 39.1a 28 cd
5 Sorghum
straw 15 a 19 b 25 c 34 c 23. 25
b
LSD for 25% spawn running = 1.824
LSD for 50% spawn running = 1.656
LSD for 75% spawn running = 1.553
LSD for 100% spawn running = 1.867
Table 2: Days to maturity and pinhead appearance of Pleurotus
florida
S.
No Treatments Days of
pinheads Days of maturity
1 Wheat straw 27 d 30 c
2 Rice straw 37 b 39 b
3 Sugarcane
bagasse 40 a 41 a
4 Maize straw 40 a 42 a
5 Sorghum straw 35 c 37 b
LSD for pinheads appearance = 1.830
LSD for maturity of pinheads = 1.900
Table 3: Flush wise yield (g) and total yield (g) of Pleurotus florida)
S.
No, Treatments Flush
1 Flush
2 Flush
3 Total
yield Means
1 Wheat
straw 655 435 270 1360 453.3
2 Rice straw 620 375 235 1230 410
3 Sugarcane
bagasse 385 242 129 756 252
4 Maize straw 500 290 170 960 320
5 Sorghum
straw 590 345 230 1165 388.33
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Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
3.4 Biological efficiency (BE) of oyster mushroom
(Pleurotus florida)
The biological efficiency of wheat straw, rice straw,
sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw are
presented in Table 4. The accumulations of three flushes yield
were noted as the total mushroom yield. The biological
efficiency was calculated by the formula Chang et al.,
(1981). The biological efficiency of different substrates was
calculated to be 136, 123, 75.6, 96 and 116.5 percent,
respectively.
Table 4. Biological efficiency of Pleurotus florida.
S. No. Treatments Biological efficiency (%)
1 Wheat straw 136
2 Rice straw 123
3 Sugarcane bagasse 75.6
4 Maize straw 96
5 Sorghum straw 116.5
3.5 Moisture, Ash, Protein, Crude fat and Crude fiber in
oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)
The moisture content of mature fruiting bodies of
Pleurotus florida cultivated on different substrates (wheat
straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and
sorghum straw) are shown in Table 5. The Table indicates
that higher moisture contents (93.44%) were observed in case
of sorghum straw followed by sugarcane bagases and maize
straw having the same moisture content of 90.14%. The wheat
straw has the moisture content of 90.00%. The lowest
(88.20%) moisture content was observed in case of rice straw.
The total Ash content of mature fruiting bodies of Pleurotus
florida grown on different agricultural wastes are shown in
table 5. The result indicates that the ash content of sorghum
straw (1.006%) was higher from all other substrates. It was
followed by wheat straw having the ash content of 0.863%.
The rice straw and maize straw have the same ash content of
0.48%. The lowest (0.33%) ash content was observed in case
of sugarcane bagasse. The protein content of mature fruiting
bodies of P. florida cultivated on different substrates (wheat
straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and
sorghum straw) are presented in table 5. The result indicates
that sugarcane bagasse have high protein contents (8.75 gram)
from all other substrates. It was followed by sorghum straw
have the protein content of 7.87 gram. The rice straw and
wheat straw have the protein content of 7.0 and 6.125 gram,
respectively. The lowest protein content was 5.25 gram which
was observed in case of maizfce straw. The amount of crude
fat determined in different agricultural wastes (wheat straw,
rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum
straw) are presented in table 5. From the Table it was
observed that the maize straw have the high fat content (10%)
from all other substrates. It was followed by sorghum straw
have the fat content of 8%. The wheat straw and rice straw
have the same fat content of 5%. The lowest (4%) fat content
was observed in case of sugarcane bagasse. The amount of
crude fiber in mature fruiting bodies of P. florida grown on
wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and
sorghum straw are shown in Table 3.5. The result indicate that
wheat straw have the high fiber content (3.5 gram). It was
followed by rice straw have the fiber content of 2.75 gram.
The sugarcane bagasse and maize straw have the same
amount of fiber content of 2.5 gram. The lowest fiber content
of 2.25 gram was observed in case of sorghum straw.
3.6. Vitamin C, Phosphorous, Iron, Zinc and Nitrogen free
extract in oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida)
The vitamin C contents of mature fruiting bodies of
P. florida cultivated on different substrates (wheat straw, rice
straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw) are
presented in table 6. The result indicates that rice straw, maize
straw and sorghum straw have the same vitamin C content of
11.35mg/ 100gram while the sugarcane bagasse and wheat
straw have the same vitamin C content of 11.11mg/100gram.
The amount of phosphorous determined in different
agricultural wastes (wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane
bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw) are shown in table
6. From the Table it was evident that sugarcane bagasse have
the highest phosphorous amount of 1.40 mg/100 gram. It was
followed by wheat straw have the phosphorous amount of
0.68 mg/100 gram. The sorghum straw and maize straw have
the phosphorous content of 0.53mg/100 gram and 0.44
mg/100gram, respectively. The lowest phosphorous amount
of 0.38 mg/ 100 gram was observed in case of rice straw. The
iron contents of mature fruiting bodies of P. florida cultivated
on different substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, sugarcane
bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw are shown in table 6.
From the result it was observed that maize straw have the
highest iron content of 0.013 mg/ 100 gram. It was followed
by sorghum straw have the iron content of 0.012 mg/ 100
gram. The rice straw and wheat straw have the iron content of
0.008 mg/ 100 gram and 0.007 mg/ 100 gram, respectively.
The amount of zinc found in mature fruiting bodies of P.
florida cultivated on different substrates(wheat straw, rice
straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw) are
shown in Table 6. From the result it was evident that maize
straw have the maximum phosphorous content of 0.014
mg/100 gram. It was followed by wheat straw have the zinc
content of 0.006 mg/100 gram. The sorghum straw and rice
straw have the phosphorous content of 0.004 mg/100gram and
0.002 mg/100gram, respectively. Sugarcane bagasse has the
lowest phosphorous content of 0.001mg/100gram. The
nitrogen free extract of mature fruiting bodies of
P. florida cultivated on different substrates(wheat straw, rice
straw, sugarcane bagasse, maize straw and sorghum straw) are
shown in table 6. From the result it was observed that
sorghum straw have the high nitrogen free extract of 12.56
gram/100 gram. It was followed by maize straw have the
nitrogen free extract of 8.37gram/100 gram. The sugarcane
bagasse and wheat straw have the nitrogen free extract of
5.72gram/100gram and 5.48gram/100 gram, respectively.
Nitrogen free extract was lowest in rice straw
(3.43gram/100gram) from all other substrates.
Table 5: % Moisture, Ash, Protein, Crude fat and crude fiber in
oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) grown on different substrates.
S.
No. Treatments Moisture
(%) Ash
(%) Protein
(%) Fat
(%) Fiber
(%)
1 Wheat
straw 90.00 0.863 6.125 5 3.5
2 Rice straw 88.20 0.48 7 5 2.75
3 Sugarcane
bagasse 90.14 0.33 8.75 4 2.5
4 Maize
Straw 90.14 0.48 5.25 10 2.5
5 Sorghum
straw 93.44 1.006% 7.87 8 2.25
Table 6: Vitamin C, Phosphorous, Iron, Zinc and Nitrogen free extract in Pleurotus florida (mg/100 gram) grown on different substrates.
~103~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
S.
No. Treatments Vitamins C
mg/100 gram Phosphorous
mg/100 gram Iron mg/100
gram Zinc mg/100
gram Nitrogen free extract
mg/100 gram
1 Wheat straw 11.11 0.68 0.007 0.006 5.48
2 Rice straw 11.35 0.38 0.008 0.002 3.43
3 Sugarcane bagasse 11.11 1.40 0.001 0.001 5.72
4 Maize Straw 11.35 0.44 0.013 0.014 8.37
5 Sorghum straw 11.35 0.53 0.012 0.004 12.56
4. Discussion
The study indicated that P. florida can be successfully grown
on almost all agricultural wastes but wheat straw gave better
results. Wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane bagasse and sorghum
straw supported good growth and fast mycelia extension of
the mushroom. The structure of substrates is also important
because it help in the penetration of mycelium. Wheat spawn
is commonly used for mushroom cultivation because the
growth of mycelium is faster on wheat grains. Present study
revealed that the growth rate of mycelium is faster in wheat
straw as compared to other substrates because the
carbohydrates present in the substrates were effectively
utilized by the particular strain of P. florida. Rice straw has
been used for the cultivation of oyster
mushroom since the beginning of 19th century and it has been
cultivated in many countries under natural condition [69]. Rice
straw is the natural substrate on which oyster mushrooms are
cultivated leading to name the mushroom as delicious straw
reported by Fasidi (1996) [31]. According to Balasubramanya
and Kathe (1996) [8], the fungus Penicillium spp. and
Trichoderma spp competed with Pleurotus spp. after
pasteurisation with hot water (80 °C for 2h) probably due to
the partial breakdown of hemicellulose, cellulose and thus
making them available to competitors. The successful
mushroom cultivation depends on the purity and quality of
spawn. Nita Bahl (1984) [58] reported that grain spawn is now
almost universally used. Present study revealed that fastest
spawn running took place in wheat straw followed by
sorghum straw while the lowest spawn running was observed
in case of sugarcane bagasse. Such results were also observed
by Zadrazil et al. (1978) [95]. The difference in days for full
mycelial running on different substrates might be due to
variation in their chemical composition and C: N ratio as
reported by Bhatti et al. (1987) [11]. The results recorded on
spawn running on different substrates were almost similar to
the findings of Shah et al. (2004). They reported that the
spawn running took16-25 days after inoculation. Similar
results were also reported by Tan (1981) [90] who reported 21
days for complete spawn running on cotton waste. Patra and
Pani (1995) [64] recorded 13-16 days on paddy straw. Similar
findings were also reported by Jiskani et al. (1999) [40]. The
pinheads appeared earlier in wheat straw than other
substrates. On sugarcane bagasse pinheads appearance took
long time. There is difference in the appearance of pinheads
of different substrates. The difference in time period was
observed by many workers for pinheads appearance of
different mushroom species. Khan et al. (1981) [44] observed
the appearance of 30 pin-heads of P. ostreatus (Strain,-467) in
36 days, the same of P. sajarcaju and P. ostreatus in 40 and
46 days, after spawning. Tan (1981) [90] recorded 23-26 days
for the appearance of pinheads. Ramzan (1982) [73] observed
20-40 days of five P. ostreatus strains on wheat and rice
straw. Patra and Pani (1995) [64] recorded 20-24 days on paddy
straw. The result indicated that minimum number of days
from appearance of pinheads to the maturity of pinheads was
taken on the wheat straw followed by rice straw. The
difference in time period for the maturity of pin heads was
reported by many investigators. Khan et al. (1981) [44]
recorded 21-28 days for the maturity of pinheads in case of
cotton boll locules. Khanna and Garcha (1981) [45] recorded
20-24 days for the maturity of pinheads on paddy straw and
Tan (1981) [90] observed a month for the maturity of pinheads
on cotton waste. There is difference in yield obtained from
different substrates. The present finding indicates that highest
yield was obtained in wheat straw followed by rice straw.
Bhatti et al. 1987 [13] observed the highest yields with the
shortest incubation period in case of wheat straw. It was
generalized from the data that first flush yield was highest in
all treatments followed by second and third flush. Other
scientists also recorded similar results. Zadrazil (1973) [95] got
2 flushes, Tan (1981) [90] got three flushes, Ramzan (1982) [73]
obtained 3-5 flushes from wheat and paddy straw and Bhatti
(1984) [12] got 4-6 flushes from different substrates.
Kausar and Iqbal (1994) [43] investigated that B.E varied from
18.6 to 83.5% on the basis of different nitrogen supplements
amended with straw. Jiskani et al., (1999) [40] obtained 24 and
7.6% fresh and dry yield on the basis of substrate dry weight
by using wheat straw. Jiskani (1999) [40] reported that one kg
of dry substrate can produce one kg of fresh mushroom which
is the 100% substrate dry weight. According to Bughio (2001)
[16] the maximum dry and fresh (wet) yield percentage on
substrate dry weight basis (29.61 to 77.91 and 5.91 to 21.70)
were obtained from wheat straw using in combination with
sugarcane bagasse, paddy straw, cotton boll locules and
sorghum leaves. The difference in results between our
findings and other workers may be due to environmental
factors, physiological requirements, controlled, semi
controlled conditions e.g. constant humidity, light,
temperature etc. The difference in time was observed for the
formation of pinheads, maturation of fruiting bodies, period
between flushes, number of flushes and yield. Present study
revealed that biological efficiency (BE) was maximum on
wheat straw followed by rice straw. Similar by-products have
variable levels of BE on different substrates. These
variations may be due to fungal species, spawn strain,
spawn rate and the use of supplement added to
the substrates [50]. The B.E of the Pleurotus sp on commonly
used substrates was 85.5% (rice straw) [53], leguminous plants
103.8% [81].
Graham and Clyde (1985) [33] recorded 80-120 percent
biological efficiency of P. sajor-caju on cotton waste.
Moonmoon et al., (2010) [55] studied P. eryngii King Oyster
mushroom on rice straw and saw dust in Bangladesh and
found that saw dust. Nunez and Mendoza (2002) [59] reported
that the biological efficiency of the studied substrates varied
from 106.2 to 50.8% of P. ostreatus. The moisture content of
the studied mushroom ranged from 88.20% to 93.44%. The
moisture content of P. ostreatus ranged from 88.51% to
89.88% indicating high moisture content of the oyster
mushroom fruiting bodies [51]. Moisture percentage in
mushroom depends on the maturity of fruiting bodies,
species and storage conditions during packaging or processing
[34]. Present study revealed that the ash content of studied
mushroom ranged between 0.33% - 1.006%. The amount of
ash was higher in sorghum than other substrates. The amount
of ash depends on salt content in substrates [68]. (Bonatti et al.
~104~
Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies
(2004) [15] reported 0.5-0.6% of ash in dried P. sajor-caju
whereas Alam et al. (2008) [5] recorded 1.1 and 8.28 g/100g in
fresh and dried P. sajor-caju, respectively. El–Kattan et al.,
(1991) [27] reported 8.00% and 6.60% ash content of P. florida
on soybean and paddy straw, respectively. The analysis of
mushroom composition indicated that sugarcane bagasse gave
high amount of proteins and amino acids from other
substrates. The soluble sugar from the wastes is absorbed by
the mushrooms which are used for their growth and other
metabolic process. The excess sugar passed through
secondary metabolism (Nataraja et al., 2005) [57]. These
results were confirmed with the findings of Kadlag et al.,
(1998) [ 41] and Mandhare (2000) [49]. The protein content
usually ranges between 20–30% on a dry weight basis. The
nitrogen present in substrate after spawn running enhances the
mushroom yield and quality, in addition it help in
bioconversion and bioaccumulation efficiency [63]. The fat
content of P. florida was 10% grown on maize straw being
the highest followed by sorghum straw (2.50%). The percent
content were similar as reported in earlier studies [63, 62]. The
fat content ranged between 2.56% to 2.82% on dry weight
basis. The fat content of dried P. sajor-caju was 5.26 and
4.99% on rice straw and banana straw, respectively [15]. The
highest crude fiber (3.5%) was obtained from mushroom on
wheat straw followed by rice straw (2.75%). Other agro
wastes also yielded appreciable level of crude fiber. These
results were confirmed with the findings of Singh et
al. (2003) [ 83], Bonatti et al. (2004) [15], Kadlag et al., (1998)
[41] and Sharma & Madan (1993) [81]. The amount of protein of
P. florida found in this study is near about similar to
the results of Rai and Sohi (1988) [71] and Alam et al. (2007)
[4]. But fiber and ash content are different from the report of
Rai and Sohi (1988) [71], however relevant to Alam et al.
(2007) [4]. Protein content in P. florida were also similar to the
findings of Banik and Nandi (2004) [9] as well as fat value of
P. florida is relevant to the findings of Shashirekha et al.
(2005) [82].The results indicated that not only the protein
content of the substrate but also nature of protein in the
substrate influences the protein content of the fruiting bodies
[92]. The amount of vitamins C were maximum (11.35mg/100
gram) in rice, maize and sorghum straw. Bano
(1976) recorded 13.0 to 14.70 mg/100 g ascorbic acid in
various mushroom species. Present study revealed that
sugarcane bagasse have high phosphorous amount as compare
to other substrates. Similar results were observed by Chang et
al. (1981) [20] and Alam et al. (2007) [4], but differ from
[79]
who recorded 0.97% phosphorus in oyster mushrooms grown
on sawdust. The amount of phosphorous was maximum on
soybean straw (920mg/100gm) whereas least was found on
soybean straw and wheat straw (800 mg/100gm) [17].
Phosphorus content of P. ostreatus ranged from 790 – 1000
mg/100g [65]. The amount of iron found in this study was
highest in maize straw followed by sorghum straw. The
combination of soybean straw and paddy straw showed the
high iron content of 13.06 mg/100 gm where least (11.87
mg/100gm) was found on soybean straw plus wheat straw [47,
74].
The amount of Fe found in this study was similar with the
findings of earlier reports [17, 47]. The amount of carbohydrate
found in this study was maximum in sorghum straw followed
by maize straw. The maximum Carbohydrate content of
P. florida was 57.80% in fruiting bodies cultivated on
soybean straw whereas least was 53.87% cultivated on wheat
strawand paddy straw [62].
5. Conclusion
Wheat straw was found most suitable substrate for mushroom
cultivation. The spawn running, appearance and maturity of
pinheads were fastest in wheat straw. Wheat straw also
showed the highest flush wise yield, total yield and biological
efficiency. Moisture, ash, nitrogen free extract and vitamin C
were maximum in sorghum straw. The highest protein content
was obtained from sugarcane bagasse. Meanwhile the
percentage of crude fat and iron were highest in maize straw.
Crude fiber and zinc were maximum in wheat straw. The
maximum amount of phosphorous was obtained from
sugarcane bagasse. Farmers are advised to use wheat straw for
Pleurotus florida cultivation for bumpy production. However
as more nutrients have been found in mushroom grown on
sugarcane bagasses, so they can also use sugarcane bagasse as
substrate for the production of high quality mushrooms.
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... Very little variation was observed in case of vit-c content among different growth substrates. Our finding closely matches the result of Iqbal et al. (2016) i.e., 11.11-11.35mg of vit-c is present in Pleurotus florida per 100g of fresh sample. Carbohydrate content. ...
... Minimum moisture content (91.63%) was recorded from RS+SL (3:1). The above findings regarding moisture content of mushrooms are almost close to result as reported by Iqbal et al. (2016) where it was reported that highest moisture contents (93.44%) in Pleurotus florida obtained from sorghum straw followed by sugarcane bagasse and maize straw having the same moisture content of 90.14%. The wheat straw has the moisture content of 90.00%. ...
... NP+SL (3:1) contains minimum amount of vitamin-c (10.81mg/ 100g fresh weight) among all the substrate formulas. Iqbal et al. (2016) reported that Pleurotus florida cultivated in rice straw, maize straw and sorghum straw have the same vitamin c content of 11.35mg/ 100g fresh weight while the from sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw have the same vitamin c content of 11.11mg/100g. The vitamin-c content of Pleurotus florida in the present study on different substrate combination ranging from 10.81 -11.50 mg/100 g of fresh weight which is confirmatory with the results reported by Iqbal et al. (2016). ...
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The effect of different growth substrates on nutritional (moisture percent, vitamin-c, carbohydrate, protein & ash) and mineral (Zn, Fe & Mn) contents of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus florida) was studied in the present investigation. In India, rice straw is mainly used as substrate for large scale mushroom production. But there are other materials also which are cheaper than rice straw and can also enhance the nutritional quality of mushroom. Thus, to explore those cheap and easily available growth substrates other than rice straw, the effect of seven substrates including rice straw (RS), newspapers (NP), coconut husk (CH), sugarcane bagasse (SB), wood residue (WR), sal leaves (SL) (Shorea robusta), and Lantana camara (LC) were studied solely and in combinations viz. RS+NP, RS+ SL, and NP + SL@ 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1 ratio. The results indicated that when the oyster mushroom grown solely on different growth substrates, mushroom harvested from LC had highest moisture (96.13%) and zinc (10.42 mg/ 100gdry weight/dw), whereas RS had highest vitamin-c (11.51 mg/100 g fresh weight/fw) and manganese (3.63mg/100gdw) content. Mushroom grown on SB reported maximum carbohydrate (43.96g/ 100g dw). Highest amount of protein (29.44g/ 100g dw) was obtained from SL. Among the different substrate combinations highest vitamin-c (11.50mg /100 g fw) and manganese (3.11 mg/100g dw) were reported from RS + NP (3:1); highest carbohydrate (38.17g/ 100g dw) from RS + SL (3:1); highest protein (26.46g/ 100g dw) from RS + SL (1:3); highest ash (10.96g/ 100g dw) and iron (18.87 mg/ 100g dw) from RS + NP (1:3).
... Mushroom farming has so far been recognized as an important opportunity to enhance household food security in developing countries. The existing works of literature have been showing the evidence of the contribution of mushrooms to nutritional security through direct consumption and income stability among vulnerable groups through involvement in mushroom farming and value chain linkages [1,2]. The problem of protein shortage in developing countries including Kenya is an existing reality and will continue for the foreseeable future. ...
... The moisture content of the present study ranged from 82.10 % to 90.06 % when the interaction of shade net shelter, (corn cobs+ sawdust+ wheat straw) substrates and popcorn spawn indicated high moisture content of 90.06 %. The result of the present study found more similar to the study of previous researchers like [22,1,24] who found the moisture content ranged from 88.8 to 90.33%, 88.2 to 93.4% and 88.15 to 91.6%, respectively. whereas the results obtained in the study are lower than that reported by Kumar and Tripathi [26] who indicated the moisture ranged from 85. 84 to 87.7%. ...
... [22] who reported 8.5-13% of ash content and [29] who reported 8.89-13.9% of ash content. The findings of the present study were differed by the findings of [1] who found 0.33-1.06% of ash content, [28] reported 0.5-0.6% of ash in dried P. sajor-caju; whereas [31] recorded 1.1 and 8.28 g/100g in fresh and dried P. sajor-caju, respectively and [34] who found that ash content was ranged in 6.58 to 8.41%. The amount of ash depends on salt content in substrates [9]. ...
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My article is about nutrient composition of oyster mushroom under different cropping shelters.
... Collection of Different Sample from field, shops & refinery different Source ( Natural as well as industrial) Maintaining & enhancing mycelium & substrates Of Pleurotus Ostreatus Hypha for Bioremidial studies, All the experimental Performed in triplicates and the data were expressed as the mean & standard Deviations. [20] product were carried by using Cup plate method on Soyabean oil, Coconut oil & Mustard oil, compound at different concentrations10µl, 20µl,30µl,40µ l Which also show the minimum concentration effect or activity for the growth promotion of oyster mushroom. represents Maximum growth in Soybean oil, then Coconut oil& mustard oil, also Shows the maximum mycelium growth spread at a given time period & temperature condition . ...
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Acquaintance of environmental issues and their increased risks, Industrial development, rehabilitation and restoration work creating a big Ecological imbalance. Pleurotus Ostreatus play a very vital role for the sustainable resource development maintaining the ecosystem by scavenging oil refinery waste that pollute the soil, air & water too .oils pollutants forming upper most close layer prevent to growing new species. Bioremediation is becoming booming due to its ecological approach. Their scavenging ability suggests their usefulness with their enzymatic activity to break down oily substances or growth on it remove pollutants. Pleurotus Ostreatus have the potential to break down oil & toxins at maximum extent.Studies includes the estimation of nutrients in oily Compound suck by pleutrotus Ostreatus cultivated on three agricultural & oil refinery waste product were carried by using Cup plate method on Soyabean oil, Coconut oil & Mustard Oils in different oil refinery& extraction shops.Result were obtained from the given oil compound at different concentrations10μl, 20μl,30μl,40μl Which also comprised the control & combined effect of oil assessed . Soyabean oil shows maximum zone of exhibition, growth area than Coconut oil then mustard oil in the triplicates Pleurotus Ostreatus show Miraculously growth on oil as activator ,Growth on waste materials decomposition as a bioremideator [22] suggesting a link between Symbiosis and environmental cleanup. Keyword : Pleurotus Ostreatus, Zone of exhibition, Bioremediation, Cup plate method
... To see the Fungal enzymatic activity on any Agriculture raw and washing waste substrate to Increase the Productivity of Mycelium growth [18] [22][23] in a given time ,temperature or Substrate Media Its Shows the Nutrietitive compound act as a growth promoting agent [ 5] to the sample of oyster mushroom Cleaning water & soil waste [16] Low coast Substrate preparation for the mycelium growth [ ...
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Oyster mushroom occupy important place in quality rich food due to their delectability & nutritive enrichment for living being also used to grow widely more in agro waste & household waste showing Bioremediation effect on waste material by breakdown into a suitable media to grow Mushroom mycelium. Unique data obtained showing assembles its food by secreting degrading enzymes, its decomposing the complex organic materials on which it grows the substrate to generate simpler Compounds for Its nutrition. The product we carried or substrate use are house hold waste like raw residue Wheat flour, rice flour, gram flour and agricultural ashes of wheat (choker),rice coverings, burned and filtered teas, raw vegetables washing, utensils washing water. Are considering as wastes these waste, are not carefully disposed of in surrounding by dumping or burning type of vernacular method create lot of pollution. Oyster create a ecologic balance Link to use this waste as a substrate to grow the mushroom mycelium fast increasing Mushroom yield too by the process of bioremediation. mushroom cultivation reports that the economical viable biotechnology process for conversion of waste food residues , ashes agriculture waste & washing water at the outlet fits very well into this category, after treating dry sterilization or wet sterilization of all substrate For growth promotion test Of given substrate By pour plate Method on the select given media compositing with these three types of waste in triplicates (G1)Raw food stuff in equal ratio like Wheat flour, rice flour, gram flour(G2)Ashes of wheat (choker),rice coverings, burned and filtered teas,(G3)Vegetable Washings, utensil washing ,kitchen cleaning water, In growth promotion test showing the maximum colonies in raw food stuff then ashes than washing water shown by minimum concentration of waste or unused product. Pleurotus Ostreatus act as a scavenging agent for the waste food Stuff creating new Fruiting mushroom body to grow In it & Utilized to environment cleanups. Keywords : Pleurotus Ostreatus, Growth promotion test, Pour plate method, Bioremediation.
... Song et al. (2017) found that mushroom treated with corn straw or corn cob and RS substrate exhibits better growth and higher yield than mushroom grown in SD. In addition, cellulose-based substrates such as wheat or RS obtain higher yields than SD (Iqbal et al. 2016;Patel & Trividi 2013). The main goal of entrepreneurs is to obtain high yield with low cost. ...
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Sawdust (SD) usually sourced from rubber plant is commonly used as substrate to cultivate the grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju in Malaysia. However, the market price of SD is increasing because of its declining availability. Thus, this study aimed to discover an alternative substrate to cultivate grey oyster mushroom. The raw materials used in the substrate were oil palm pressed fiber (PPF), rice straw (RS) and SD, either alone or in combination with different ratios including T1: 90% SD + 10% rice bran (commercial substrate as control); T2: 30% RS + 20% SD + 50% PPF; T3: 50% RS + 50% PPF; T4: 100% RS; and T5: 100% PPF. The suitability of the substrates was determined based on growth, yield, nutrition and mineral content in the mushrooms. The growth and yield of the mushroom fruiting body on the different substrates showed significant differences. The shortest harvesting day was obtained in T4 (100% RS) after 29 days, whereas the longest harvesting day was obtained in T1 (90% SD + 10% rice bran) after 51 days. The highest yield was obtained in T4. Nutrition analysis showed significant difference among the treatments. The highest amounts of protein (26%) and ash (1.29%) were found in T5. Overall, the results showed that mushroom yield performance was good in RS but nutritional content was the highest in PPF. Therefore, RS and PPF have good impact for mushroom growers either in commercial production or in functional food industry to reduce SD dependency.
Chapter
Food industries generate a plethora of waste materials, generally in the form of lignocellulosic materials, which are piling up in nature and creating havoc in waste disposal. Fruits and vegetables have been the highest consumed commodities among all food categories, and their consumption generates diverse types of residuals in the form of waste. These fruit and vegetable wastes in the form of peels, seeds, pods, stems, stalks, core, husks, straw, etc. are mainly constituted of lignocellulosic materials. These lignocellulosic materials can be easily used as a substrate for mushroom cultivation instead of dumping in landfills because mushrooms possess lignocellulolytic enzymes that can break down complex lignocellulosic materials through the solid-state fermentation process. Moreover, mushrooms have diverse medicinal and health-promoting properties to combat Parkinson’s disease, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, etc. Mushrooms also possess antimicrobial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and immunity-boosting properties. Therefore, owing to the inexhaustible nutritional and therapeutic benefits of mushrooms, the current chapter emphasizes on the valorization of agro-waste materials, especially fruit and vegetable wastes, to produce edible mushroom varieties.KeywordsFruit wasteVegetable wasteMushroomMushroom cultivation
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The field of biotechnology presents us with a great chance to use many organisms, such as mushrooms, to find suitable solutions for issues that include the accumulation of agro-wastes in the environment. The green biotechnology of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus L.) includes the myco-remediation of polluted soil and water as well as bio-fermentation. The circular economy approach could be effectively achieved by using oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus L.), of which the substrate of their cultivation is considered as a vital source for producing biofertilizers, animal feeds, bioenergy, and bio-remediators. Spent mushroom substrate is also considered a crucial source for many applications, including the production of enzymes (e.g., manganese peroxidase, laccase, and lignin peroxidase) and bioethanol. The sustainable management of agro-industrial wastes (e.g., plant-based foods, animal-based foods, and non-food industries) could reduce, reuse and recycle using oyster mushrooms. This review aims to focus on the biotechnological applications of the oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus L.) concerning the field of the myco-remediation of pollutants and the bio-fermentation of agro-industrial wastes as a sustainable approach to environmental protection. This study can open new windows onto the green synthesis of metal-nanoparticles, such as nano-silver, nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO. More investigations are needed concerning the new biotechnological approaches.
Chapter
Huge amounts of lignocellulosic wastes which are annually generated worldwide in various sectors (agricultural, forestry, and food industries) are rich in organic compounds and are worthy of being recovered and transformed. The lignocellulosic wastes constitute a major portion of the total carbon that is fixed by photosynthesis. They are the most abundantly available raw materials on the earth and are chiefly composed of carbohydrate polymers like cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Only a fraction of the total waste is utilized for useful applications, whereas the bulk is left unused, as it may incur disposal cost or it is burnt, which results in the emission of black carbon that causes environmental problems. Therefore, efforts are being made for the conversion of these lignocellulosic wastes into profitable products by using microbial technology. Mushroom cultivation represents an expanded and economically important biotechnological industry in which lignocellulosic waste residues are converted into protein-rich food through solid-state-fermentation process. It is an ecofriendly activity, which in recent years has gained lot of importance due to the increasing global demand for high quality proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Mushrooms are probably the highest protein producers per unit area and time as they have short life cycles and utilize vertical space.Therefore, production of lignocellulosic mushrooms need to be popularized so that bulk of the lignocellulosic wastes can be utilized. The most important lignocellulosic mushrooms include Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom), Pleurotus spp. (oyster mushroom), Calocybe indica (milky mushroom), Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom), Auricularia (wood ear mushroom), Lentinula edodes (shiitake), and many more. This review is based on the growth behavior and productive potential of various commercially and medicinally important lignocellulosic mushrooms on various lignocellulosic substrates.KeywordsLignocellulosic mushroomsAgro wastesForest wastesGrowth behaviorYield
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Spawn quality is the most important factor in the production of edible mushroom (which is fast gaining prominence in Nigeria and Africa at large). In order to determine the effects of substrates spawn preparation on mycelial growth of oyster mushroom species, the experiment was conducted in a factorial experiment design at randomized completely with three replications. In this experiment, first and second factors, respectively were substrates (Wheat, yellow maize, guinea corn, millet, red sorghum and white maize, Bende local and oyster mushroom species {Pleurotus tuber-regium and pelurotus pulmonarius). The results clearly demonstrated that between various substrates used, maximum and minimum growth rate were recorded for white maize (Bende Local) and least mycelial extension and fresh weight on wheat. The second best grain for both species used was Red Sorghum.
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Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer was cultivated on different agro-wastes viz. soybean straw, paddy straw, wheat straw and their combination in 1:1 proportion to determine the effect of these agro waste on yield, moisture content, crude protein, total carbohydrates, fat, crude fiber, ash and minerals like Ca, P, Fe content. Soybean straw showed significantly highest yield (with 87.56% B.E.) with maximum crude protein (23.50%) and maximum phosphorus (920 mg/ 100 mg of dry mushroom) content. Maximum moisture (92.45 %) and crude fiber content (8.10%) in the fruiting bodies was recorded on Paddy straw cultivation. The combination of Soybean straw + paddy straw showed significantly highest fat (2.60%), Calcium (310 mg/ 100gm) and Iron (13.06 mg/100gm of dry mushroom) content. [Nature and Science. 2009;7(1):44-48]. ISSN: (1545-0740).
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Sawdust substrate supplemented with millet or wheat bran or both, were inoculated with spawn made from an isolate (PSU 305) of Lentinus edodes. Biological efficiency (%) and size data, on mushrooms harvested from sawdust substrate with spawn run (vegetative growth) periods of 58 and 116 days, were analyzed. Biological efficiencies were two to three times greater for the longer incubation period. Production rate (r), defined as the daily average biological efficiency, was highest (r = 0.79%/da) for a 116 day spawn run with both millet and bran as nutritional supplements. Larger mushrooms generally were produced with longer spawn runs. Practical application of these methods should increase the efficiency of shiitake cultivation on supplemented sawdust.
Article
きのこ中金属の含有実態を有用性と有害性の両面より把握する目的で, 21種32点の食用きのこについて18金属の分析を行った.1. 鉄, カリウム, ナトリウム, マグネシウム, 亜鉛, 銅及びマンガンの必須金属は, 一般の野菜類と同程度の値であった.2. カルシウムの含有量は, 一般の野菜類と比較し低く, 供給源として考えた場合, 著しく有用性に乏しいものであった.3. 鉛, クロム, ニッケル, コバルト, バナジウム, スズ及びアンチモンの有害金属は, 不検出またはこれに近い値であった.4. カドミウムは, ほぼ全試料より検出し, 特にコウタケ( 1.02μg/g) とホウキタケ (0.80μg/) が高い値を示し, 食べる量によっては有害性を示す危険性がある.5. アルミニウムは, 一般の野菜類の10倍以上の含有量が測定されたが, 有害性を示すとは考え難い量であった。6. セレンは, コウタケのみから高い濃度で検出され (6, 10μg/g), 十分に安全な値とは断言できず, 食べる量によっては有害性を示すことが考えられる.7. 各金属の含有傾向を知る目的で, 確率紙を用いた濃度分布の検定を行ったが, マンガン,カリウム及びマグネシウムが正規分布, カドミウムが対数正規分布によい適合を示した.8. 金属間の相関性は, 銅とカドミウム; 鉄とアルミニウム; 亜鉛と銅; アルミニウムとカドミウム; 鉄とナトリウム: 亜鉛とカドミウムと, 危険率1%で有意の相関性を得た.9. 発生場所と金属含有量の差は, アルミニウム, マグネシウム及びカドミウムが, 枯木上に発生するきのこより地上に発生するきのこの方が濃度が高く, 有意水準5%で有意な差を認めた.
Article
Sawdust substrate supplemented with millet or wheat bran or both, were inoculated with spawn made from an isolate (PSU 305) of Lentinus edodes. Biological efficiency (%) and size data, on mushrooms harvested from sawdust substrate with spawn run (vegetative growth) periods of 58 and 116 days, were analyzed. Biological efficiencies were two to three times greater for the longer incubation period. Production rate (r), defined as the daily average biological efficiency, was highest (r=0.79%/da) for a 116 day spawn run with both millet and bran as nutritional supplements. Larger mushrooms generally were produced with longer spawn runs. Practical application of these methods should increase the efficiency of shiitake cultivation on supplemented sawdust.