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Presents an analysis of theory and research in social psychology which reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. The dissemination of psychological knowledge modifies the patterns of behavior upon which the knowledge is based. This modification occurs because of the prescriptive bias of psychological theorizing, the liberating effects of knowledge, and the resistance based on common values of freedom and individuality. In addition, theoretical premises are based primarily on acquired dispositions. As the culture changes, such dispositions are altered, and the premises are often invalidated. Several modifications in the scope and methods of social psychology are derived from this analysis. (53 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Reviews the book International Handbook of Intelligence , by Robert J. Sternberg (Ed.) (see record 2004-00183-000 ). As Sternberg notes, "This book is the first international handbook of intelligence ever published. It is designed to provide a truly international perspective on the nature of intelligence" (p. i). In this 496-page handbook, Sternberg has assembled an editorial board of seven psychologists from six nations to edit a 16-chapter tome authored by 30 psychologists from 18 nations on six continents. Each chapter represents a different region of the world's six continents: North and Latin America, Australia, Africa (Zimbabwe), Europe (Spain, French-speaking, German-speaking, Nordic countries, United Kingdom), and Asia (Russia, Israel, Turkey, India, Japan, China). The chapter for each region scrupulously follows a five-point format for that region's definitions of intelligence, history, current research, current assessments, and comparison with other regions. Readers of these 16 chapters will naturally find concepts and people that appear nowhere else in the U.S. literature, as each region has struggled to define its own notion of intelligence. The unique strength of this book is that it is a window to the indigenous, non-English literatures, summarizing in English the seminal but "fugitive" work of unseen giants of mental testing in other regions. This handbook is not only a gem, but a well-timed gem, considering the current interest in "international psychology" at a time when American psychology "is determined to become more inclusive by internationalizing its base of scientific knowledge and applied skills" (Stevens & Wedding, 2004, p. xv). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Why do we think about and interact with other people in the particular ways that we do? Might these thoughts and actions be contemporary products of our long-ago evolutionary past? If so, how might this be, and what are the implications? Research generated by an evolutionary approach to social psychology provides profound insights into self-concept, impression formation, prejudice, group dynamics, helping, aggression, social influence, culture, and every other topic that is fundamental to social psychology. Evolution and Social Psychology is the first book to review and discuss this broad range of social psychological phenomena from an evolutionary perspective. It does so with a critical and constructive eye. Readers will emerge with a clear sense of the intellectual challenges, as well as the scientific benefits, of an evolutionarily-informed social psychology. The world-renowned contributors identify new questions, new theories, and new hypotheses--many of which are only now beginning to be tested. Thus, this book not only summarizes the current status of the field, it also sets an agenda for the next generation of research on evolution and social psychology. Evolution and Social Psychology is essential reading for evolutionary psychologists and social psychologists alike. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Attempted to replicate and extend the results of Passini and Norman (1966), who found surprising evidence of convergent validity (i.e., significant correlations with the targets' self-ratings) in strangers' judgments of 5 broad personality factors. In the current study, 250 previously unacquainted Ss were run in small, same-sex groups of various sizes. Ss rated both themselves and their fellow group members on the same set of 20 bipolar trait scales used by Passini and Norman. Consistent with previous research, significant self–peer agreement correlations were obtained for Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Ratings of Agreeableness also showed significant convergent validity when a sufficient number of peers rated the target. More generally, self–peer agreement correlations tended to rise as the number of peer raters increased. Possible explanations for the validity of strangers' trait ratings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Experimentally studied interpersonal dynamics in a prison environment by designing a functional simulation of a prison in which 21 male undergraduates role-played prisoners and guards over a 1-wk period. All Ss completed the Comrey Personality Inventory, the Mach IV Scale, and the California F Scale prior to the simulation, and there was no evidence of any pathology. 10 Ss played prisoners for the entire week and 11 played guards on a standard 8-hr shift. Neither group received any specific training. Continuous observation of the interactions was supplemented with videotapes, questionnaires, self-report scales, and interviews. All data lead to the conclusion that this simulated prison developed into a compelling prison environment, and as such, it elicited intense, realistic, and often pathological reactions from the participants. A loss of personal identity by the prisoners and the arbitrary control of their behavior resulted in a syndrome characterized by passivity, dependency, depression, and helplessness. Guards, however, experienced gains in social power, status, and group identification. The most dramatic coping behaviors used by 5 prisoners resulted in acute emotional disturbances which led to their early release. At least 1/3 of the guards were judged to have become more aggressive and dehumanizing than would have been predicted in a simulation study. Social implications are discussed in terms of the pathological prisoner syndrome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Consensus between self-ratings and stranger ratings of personality traits was investigated. A sample of 100 adults was videotaped while entering and walking through a room, sitting down, looking into the camera, and reading a standard text. The targets then provided self-descriptions on 5 personality factors. A sample of 24 strangers who had never seen the targets before was given 1 of 4 types of information on the targets: (1) sound-film, (2) silent film, (3) still, or (4) audiotape. Strangers rated various physical attributes and 20 traits of each target. Level of information influenced the validity but not the reliability of the stranger ratings, which were most valid for extraversion and conscientiousness. Extraversion covaried most strongly with physical attributes, and implicit theories on the covariation of traits with physical attributes were more accurate for extraversion and conscientiousness than for agreeableness, emotional stability, and culture. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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How do urban Americans regard the problem of homelessness? Recent surveys by pollsters and social scientists seem to document a backlash during the 1980s, with public sentiment shifting from sympathy to resentment. The U.S. Supreme Court, for example, recently upheld a controversial 1990 New York City law forbidding poor people from panhandling in the city's subways. This study was designed to develop a brief, reliable, valid scale to more precisely assess public attitudes toward homelessness (acronym PATH), which future researchers can use to more exactly chart changes and correlates of public opinion toward homelessness. Here, a cross section of 222 adults in New York City responded to a 38- item survey containing PATH and five other brief scales. Analysis of responses found general support for four initial hypotheses: (1) There was indeed a remarkable diversity of public opinion, from 3 to 20 points on the 0– 20- point PA TH Scale, ranging from profound sympathy to anger and disgust. (2) A short- form of MacDonald's Poverty Scale correlated only modestly with one's PATH score (r=+0.49) that, along with respondents' comments, suggests these two forms of social distress may now be viewed quite separately in the American psyche. (3) Psychometrically, the 5- item PATH proved to be high in internal reliability (=0.74), and in construct validity, with significant correlations with 4 other items. (4) Results so far indicate at least some personality basis for PATH. As expected, those most sympathetic to the homeless were significantly lower in authoritarian personality (r=–0.24) and in belief in a just world (r=–0.13). Unexpectedly, PATH correlated negatively with Social Desirability (r=– 0.15, p < 0.05).="" potential="" uses="" of="" this="" path="" scale="" are="" explored,="" along="" with="" the="" notion="" of="" important="" distinctions="" in="" poverty="" and="" homelessness="" as="" two="" increasingly="" separate="" forms="" of="" social="">.
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What do psychology professors today typically tell their students about the case of Sybil (F. R. Schreiber, 1973)--once considered the classic case of multiple personality disorder (MPD), until gradually revealed to be a fraud by new evidence (R. W. Rieber, 1998)? A 14-item survey was completed by a national sample of 125 college psychology teachers. It was found that a sizable minority of teachers discuss MPD (35%) or Sybil (23%) in their classes, 40% continue to regard Sybil as a classic case of MPD, and 83% report being only slightly or not at all familiar with new revelations about the Sybil case. Psychology teachers are offered 5 guidelines for accurately teaching about Sybil today.
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Using a simple videogame, the effect of ethnicity on shoot/don't shoot decisions was examined. African American or White targets, holding guns or other objects, appeared in complex backgrounds. Participants were told to "shoot" armed targets and to "not shoot" unarmed targets. In Study 1, White participants made the correct decision to shoot an armed target more quickly if the target was African American than if he was White, but decided to "not shoot" an unarmed target more quickly if he was White. Study 2 used a shorter time window, forcing this effect into error rates. Study 3 replicated Study 1's effects and showed that the magnitude of bias varied with perceptions of the cultural stereotype and with levels of contact, but not with personal racial prejudice. Study 4 revealed equivalent levels of bias among both African American and White participants in a community sample. Implications and potential underlying mechanisms are discussed.
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This research examined the accuracy of personality impressions based on personal websites, a rapidly growing medium for self-expression, where identity claims are predominant. Eighty-nine websites were viewed by 11 observers, who rated the website authors' personalities. The ratings were compared with an accuracy criterion (self- and informant reports) and with the authors' ideal-self ratings. The websites elicited high levels of observer consensus and accuracy, and observers' impressions were somewhat enhanced for Extraversion and Agreeableness. The accuracy correlations were comparable in magnitude to those found in other contexts of interpersonal perception and generally stronger than those found in zero-acquaintance contexts. These findings suggest that identity claims are used to convey valid information about personality.
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Malcolm Gladwell; род. 3 сентября 1963, Хэмпшир) — канадский журналист, поп-социолог. В 2005 году «Time» назвало Малкольма Гладуэлла одним из 100 самых влиятельных людей. Книги и статьи Малкольма часто касаются неожиданных последствий исследований в социальных науках и находят широкое применение в научной работе, в частности в областях социологии, психологии и социальной психологии. Некоторые из его книг занимали первые строки в списке бестселлеров «The New York Times». В 2007 году Малкольм получил первую премию Американской Социологической ассоциации за выдающиеся достижения по отчетам в социальных вопросах. В 2007 году он также получил почетную степень доктора филологии Университета Ватерлоо. Малькольм Гладуелл описывает эксперименты, которые показывают, что человеку с поврежденными эмоциональными центрами крайне трудно принимать решения. Он рассказывает про одного такого пациента, которому было предложено прийти на прием либо во вторник, либо в пятницу. И пациент два часа решал во вторник ему прийти или в пятницу — в столбик выписывал плюсы и минусы, их сравнивал, группировал по разному, всяко переставлял. И в жизни своих домашних он просто убивал вот этим. Если его спрашивали, ты что хочешь: омлет или салат? — это задача минут на сорок. Обычный человек очень просто поступает. Он видит омлет, что-то чувствует и говорит: Хочу! Все. Выбор сделан легко и быстро.
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Seven basic research questions in interpersonal perception are posed concerning issues of consensus, assimilation, reciprocity, accuracy, congruence, assumed similarity and self—other agreement. All questions can be addressed at the individual level, and three at the dyadic level. It is shown how the Social Relations Model can be used to answer the questions.
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In the 25 years or so that began with World War II, there was a great wave of enthusiasm for interdisciplinary social psychology which resulted in the establishment of interdisciplinary social psychology training and research programs in some of the major universities in the United States. By the mid-1960s however, this seeming Golden Age had largely vanished. This article, by one of the participants in this movement, is devoted to an elaboration of how this Golden Age came about and the forces that led to its demise. Its origins are traced to the World War II experiences of social psychologists in interdisciplinary research on the adjustments of the American soldier under the leadership of Samuel Stoffer and with Rensis Likert on the US strategic bombing surveys in Germany and Japan. Many of the participants in this research were greatly impressed by the fruitfulness of interdisciplinary collaboration and were determined to establish interdisciplinary social psychology programs on their return to their u...
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Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a triangular theory of love, which deals both with the nature of love and with loves in different kinds of relationships. It is suggested that there are 3 components: (a) intimacy encompassing the feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness experienced in loving relationships; (b) passion encompassing the drives that lead to romance, physical attraction, and sexual consummation; and (c) decision/commitment encompassing, in the short term, the decision that one loves another, and in the long term, the commitment to maintain that love. The amount of love one experiences depends on the absolute strength of the 3 components, and the kind of love one experiences depends on their strengths relative to each other. The components interact with each other and with the actions that they produce and that produce them so as to form a number of different kinds of loving experiences. The triangular theory of love subsumes other theories and can account for a number of empirical findings in the research literature, as well as for a number of experiences with which many are familiar firsthand. It is proposed that the triangular theory provides a comprehensive basis for understanding many aspects of the love that underlies close relationships. (53 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A meta-analysis was conducted on the accuracy of predictions of various objective outcomes in the areas of clinical and social psychology from short observations of expressive behavior (under 5 min). The overall effect size for the accuracy of predictions for 38 different results was .39. Studies using longer periods of behavioral observation did not yield greater predictive accuracy; predictions based on observations under 0.5 min in length did not differ significantly from predictions based on 4- and 5-min observations. The type of behavioral channel (such as the face, speech, the body, tone of voice) on which the ratings were based was not related to the accuracy of predictions. Accuracy did not vary significantly between behaviors manipulated in a laboratory and more naturally occurring behavior. Last, effect sizes did not differ significantly for predictions in the areas of clinical psychology, social psychology, and the accuracy of detecting deception. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Cultural psychology, and other social sciences (e.g. cultural anthropology, sociology), seek to document cultural variation, yet have difficulty providing strong empirical tests of explanations for that variation. It is argued here that an effective means of testing hypotheses regarding the origin of, and persistence and change in, cultural variation is by simulating cultural transmission in the lab using certain methods from experimental social psychology. Three experimental methods are reviewed: the transmission chain method, the replacement method, and the constant-group method. Although very few studies have explicitly simulated specific cross-cultural patterns, much potential exists for future investigations. This integration of small-scale experimental simulations and large-scale observational or historical data is facilitated by an evolutionary framework for the study of culture, and has a precedent in the biological sciences, where experiments are used to simulate and explain the processes of biological evolution.
Article
The "accuracy paradigm" for the study of personality judgment provides an important, new complement to the "error paradigm" that dominated this area of research for almost 2 decades. The present article introduces a specific approach within the accuracy paradigm called the Realistic Accuracy Model (RAM). RAM begins with the assumption that personality traits are real attributes of individuals. This assumption entails the use of a broad array of criteria for the evaluation of personality judgment and leads to a model that describes accuracy as a function of the availability, detection, and utilization of relevant behavioral cues. RAM provides a common explanation for basic moderators of accuracy, sheds light on how these moderators interact, and outlines a research agenda that includes the reintegration of the study of error with the study of accuracy.
Article
Tested the hypothesis that the greater the inducement offered for performing a counterattitudinal task, the greater the dissonance-if the individuals choose not to comply with the attitude-discrepant request. If was predicted that dissonance aroused by noncompliance would be reduced by a strengthening of the original attitude. 20 undergraduates were offered either a high or a low incentive ($1.50 or $.50) for writing an essay advocating the use of codes of dress in secondary schools. The situation was devised in such a way that all Ss chose not to write the essay. Results of an attitude questionnaire indicate that high incentive Ss became more strongly opposed to dress code regulations than either the low incentive group or a control group (n = 10).
Article
This paper seeks to disentangle some of the many effects which contribute to social perception scores, and to identify separately measurable components." The components of the Accuracy (with which the judge perceives Others) score and of the Assumed Similarity (between the judge and another person) score are discussed in the text and formulated mathematically in an appendix. Illustrations are provided of applications of the model, for the practical use of judgments in the clinic, the school, and elsewhere. Understanding and use of social perception data will be enhanced by "careful subdivision of global measures" and by more explicit theory in order to reduce the investigator's "measures to the genuinely relevant components." 34 references.
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