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INFLUENCE OF THE MINERAL FERTILIZATION AT OIL SYNTHESIS OF THE SOYBEAN SEED ON PSEUDOGLEY

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INFLUENCE OF THE MINERAL FERTILIZATION AT OIL SYNTHESIS OF THE SOYBEAN SEED ON PSEUDOGLEY

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Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a very important crop and a significant source of protein and oil. The average area under soybean in the world in 2013 amounted to 111.3 mil ha and in Serbia 160000 ha. The oil content of soybean seed behave as quantitative traits and depends on the years. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation with bio-fertilization NS Nitragin on the oil content in soybean grain on pseudogley in two different years, arid and humid. In humid, the average oil content of soybean (23.27%) was higher by 5.1% compared to one year or for an arid 28.07% (18.17%).Variability in the average oil content within the year, was at a low level, ranged from 0.86% <Cv <3.71%, while the variability between years was on the middle level and ranged from 18.17% <Cv <23.27%. On pseudogley increased amounts of nitrogen caused a reduction of oil content in seeds of soybean.
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168
International Conference, Ryazan: „Teoreticaland Practical Aspects of oil and processing
technologies“- International Conference on the March, 3-4, 2016. Ryazan
Международной научно-практическoй конференции, „Научно-практические аспекты
технологий возделывания и переработки масличных и эфиромасличных културь” 3-4 марта.
2016. РГАТУ, Рязань, 2016.-327с. 168-175.;
УДК 633853; ББК 42.14; ISBN 978-5-98660-259-2
Министерство cельского хозяства Российcкой Федерации
Original Scientific paper
UDC 631
INFLUENCE OF THE MINERAL FERTILIZATION AT OIL SYNTHESIS OF THE
SOYBEAN SEED ON PSEUDOGLEY
Petar Stevanovic1*, Savo Vuckovic2, Vera Popovic3*, Jela Ikanovic2, Ljubisa Zivanovic2,
Mladen Tatic3, Ljubisa Kolaric2, Vladan Ugrenovic4
1Inspection Affairs Administration of Republic Srpska, Square 8, 78000 Banja Luka, Bosnia-
Herzegovina; 2University in Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Nemanjina 6, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia;
3Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia;
4Institute of Tamis Pancevo, Novoseljnski put 33, 26000 Pancevo, Serbia;
*Corresponding authors: E-mail: bravera@eunet.rs, nikola.pavle@teol.net;
Abstract. Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a very important crop and a
significant source of protein and oil. The average area under soybean in the world in 2013
amounted to 111.3 mil ha and in Serbia 160000 ha. The oil content of soybean seed behave as
quantitative traits and depends on the years. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect
of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation with bio-fertilization NS Nitragin on the oil
content in soybean grain on pseudogley in two different years, arid and humid.
In humid, the average oil content of soybean (23.27%) was higher by 5.1% compared
to one year or for an arid 28.07% (18.17%).Variability in the average oil content within the
year, was at a low level, ranged from 0.86% <Cv <3.71%, while the variability between years
was on the middle level and ranged from 18.17% <Cv <23.27%. On pseudogley increased
amounts of nitrogen caused a reduction of oil content in seeds of soybean.
Key words: soybean, fertilization, NS Nitragin, oil content, pseudogley, years
Introduction
Soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is a very important crop and a significant source of
protein and oil. The average area under soybean in the world in 2013 amounted to 111.3mil
ha and in Serbia 170000 ha. Average yields of soybean in Serbia are at the level of average
world yield of 2.5 t ha-1 (Popovic, 2010, Popovic et al, 2014, 2015, 2016). Soybean is globally
important oil crop, and the flavor, stability and nutritional value of soybean oil is dependent
on the relative proportions of five primary fatty acids. The oil fraction of soybean represents
20% of the seed dry mass and is primarily (95%) used for edible oils (Priolli et al., 2015). The
remaining soybean fractions are used to create a variety of industrial products, such as fatty
acid, soaps and biodiesel (http://www.soyatech.com/soy_facts.htm).
Soybean oil contains approximately 11, 4, 23, 54 and 8% palmitic (16:0), stearic
(18:0), oleic (18:1), linoleic (18:2) and linolenic (18:3) acid, respectively. The amounts and
169
relative proportions of each fatty acid are important factors, as thay affect the flavor, stability,
and nutritional value of the oil (Katan et al, 1995). For example, saturated acid have been
shown to increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels as well as the risk for
coronary heart disease (Hu et al., 2001), and high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids can
cause rancidity and undersirable odours. In particular, oleic acid is less susceptible to
oxidation during storage and fruing (Miller et al., 1987). The development of industry has
contributed to soybean is today one of the most important industrial plant that produces more
than 20 000 different products (Давыденко et al., 2004, Адамень et al., 2003, Popovic,
2010).
The oil content of soybean seeds behave as quantitative traits (Hrustic et al, 1998,
Bullock et al., 1998) and depends on the years. The aim of the study was to investigate the
effect of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation on the oil content in soybean grain on
pseudogley in two different years, arid and humid.
Materials and metods
A two-year study was carried out in order to investigate the influence of nitrogen
fertilizers and seed inoculation with biofertilizator (NS Nitragin) the oil content of soybeans.
The basic plot was 10.8 m2 (6,0m x 1,8m) and the surface of the calculated plots of 5.4 m2.
The study is sorta Bačka (maturity group 0) was created at the Institute of Field and Vegetable
Crops in Novi Sad. Crop density was 500,000 plants per hectare. The experiment was set up
as a two factorial, split plot method (split-plot) in four replications (Stevanovic, 2002).
The factors were as follows:
1. Nitrogen fertilization (A);
N0-control-0 kgha-1 N; N1-50 kgha-1 N; N2-100 kgha-1 of N, and N3-150 kg ha-1 N;
Inoculation of seeds-I: I0-no inoculation and I1- inoculation with NS Nitragin;
2. Year (B): Arid – 1nd years tested, 2000; Humid - 2001, 2nd years tested;
The trials applied agricultural technology standard for soybean production, excluding
studied factors. In both years preceding crop soybeans was corn in Brcko. Sowings were
realized in April in the first year of the study and 5 May in the second year of the study.
Immediately before sowing entered with KAN as planned fertilization. The seed is inoculated
immediately before sowing biofertilizer NS Nitragin in one embodiment a second variant was
without Nitragin. The harvest is done manually in technological maturity the plants. After the
harvest, samples were taken from all variants and replications, where the determined content
of crude oil in the seed. Seed oil content was done by the method of Soxhlet. The results were
processed by mathematical statistical method.
Soil.
Pseudogley had a strongly acidic reaction of soil pH (4.30), and was slightly
calcareous (0.6% calcium), poorly provided with humus (2.88%), medium provided with
phosphorus, 14.3 mg / 100 g well provided with potassium and 24.5 mg / 100 g.
Meteorological conditions.
Meteorological data were obtained from the meteorological stations, Brcko, Bosnia
and Herzegovina. Testing of the year was drastically different, Graph 1.
The first test year was arid with total amount of precipitation of 166 mm during the
vegetation period, the second studied year was humid with total precipitation during the
vegetation period, from 930.2 mm (Brcko), graph. 1.
170
mm C
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Arid year Humid year Long term average
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Precipitation Temperature
Graph. 1. Temperature and precipitation, Brčko, Bosnia & Hercegovina
Average temperature in the working year during the vegetation period, amounted to
19.70 °C while the temperature in humid amounted 18.2oC graph. 1.
Results and disscusion
The tested, there were a great influence on the oil content of soybeans. In humid years,
the pseudogley oil content was highly significantly higher than in the arid, first researched
year tab. 1, Graph. 2.
In humid, the average oil content of soybean (23.27%) was higher by 5.1% compared
to one year or for an arid 28.07% (18.17%), Table 1, Graph 2.
Table 1. Effect of nitrogen fertilization and seed inoculation to pseudogley on oil content, %
Oil content
Year Stability
Nitrogen
Fertilization,
kg ha-1
NS
Nitragin Arid Humid Average Rang Cv
Without 19.26 24.22 21.74 1 16.13
With 18.89 21.79 20.32 2 10,08
Average 19.08 23.01 21.05 2 11.97
Control
0
Cv 1.37 10.07 4.70 - -
Without 17.48 24.25 20.86 1 22.94
With 18.80 22.27 20.54 2 11.95
Average 18.14 23.26 20.70 2 17.49
50
CV 5.15 6.02 1.09 - -
Without 17.90 22.78 20.34 2 16.96
With 18.10 24.19 21.15 1 20.37
Average 18.00 23.49 20.74 2 18.71
100
Cv 0.79 4.25 2.76 - -
Without 17.50 23.16 20.33 2 19.68
With 17.41 23.50 20.46 1 21.05
Average 17.46 23.33 20.40 2 20.35
150
Cv 0.37 1.03 0.45 - -
Average 18.17 23.27 20.72 2 17.40
Cv 3.71 0.86 1.28 2 -
171
Variability in the average oil content within the year, was at a low level, ranged from
0.86% <Cv <3.71%, while the variability between years was on the middle level and ranged
from 18.17% <Cv <23.27%, Tab. 1.
%
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Control
50
100
150
Average
Oil content
kg ha-1
Arid Humid Average
Graph. 2. Effect of nitrogen fertilization to pseudogley on oil content, %
On pseudogley increased amounts of nitrogen caused a reduction of oil content in seeds
of soybean, Tab. 1, Graph. 2.
Popovic et al. (2014) said that the temperature and precipitation have a significant affect
on the change in oil content of soybeans grain. Favorable year for oils synthesis was 2009, at
all investigated genotypes in chernozem. Significant interaction among the investigated
factors was established, suggesting that they mutually reinforce their affects (p <0.05). Oil
yield in soybean differed significantly between years (p<0.01). All investigated genotypes had
statistically significantly higher oil yield in humid, 2010 compared with 2009 (Popovic et al.,
2014).
According to research results, certain regime of fertilization should be established,
which is compatible to the needs of soybean cultivated on pseudogley. It is necessary to plan
the fertilization according to the analysis of the soil and calculation of the fertilization, in
order to create successful production (Stevanovic et al., 2016a).
Kabata-Pendias & Mukherjee (2007) said that the dissolubility and accessibility of the
microelements and heavy metals in the soil had been mostly influenced by pH reaction of the
soil, the amount of organic matter, mechanical composition of the soil (amount of clay
fractions), amount of calcium carbonate, and available phosphorus in the soil. Although the
production value of the pseudoglay is insignificant, we can make conclusion according to the
above mentioned, that soybean can be successfully cultivated even on such low production
soil (Marvin 2004; Vuckovic 1999, 2004; Stevanovic et al., 2016a, 2016b).
Artola (2004) had pointed out that the weather condition, especially during the
blooming time; rainfall and maturing of pods have the crucial role in forming the crop of seed
and quality.
Production value of pseudogley is insignificant and on such soil of low production
value, soybean can be successfully raised only with application of melioration measures along
with adequate regime of fertilization which is compatible to the need of soybean on
pseudogley. Dissolubility and accessibility of microelements in the soil is mostly influenced
by pH reaction of soil, content of organic matter, mechanical composition of the soil (quantity
172
of clay fraction), content of calcium carbonate and accessibility of phosphorus in the soil
(Glamoclija et al, 2015).
Conclusion
According to the established results of research, the following conclusions were made:
In humid, the average oil content of soybean (23.27%) was higher by 5.1% compared to
one year or for an arid 28.07% (18.17%).
Variability in the average oil content within the year, was at a low level, ranged from
0.86% <Cv <3.71%, while the variability between years was on the middle level and
ranged from 18.17% <Cv <23.27%.
On pseudogley increased amounts of nitrogen caused a reduction of oil content in seeds
of soybean.
Production value of pseudogley is insignificant and on such soil of low production
value, soybean can be successfully raised only with application of melioration measures
along with adequate regime of fertilization which is compatible to the need of soybean
on pseudogley.
Acknowledgements
This study was results of research conducted within the projects: ТР 31022; financed
by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development of Republic of Serbia.
And Project: "Research, education and knowledge transfer promoting
entrepreneurship in sustainable use of pastureland/grazing", as a part of the Norwegian
"Programme in Higher Education, Research and Development (HERD) in the Western
Balkans: HERD/Agriculture"Project Reference number: 09/1548 (332160UÅ), Norway;
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Competing interest
The authors declare that they have no financial or personal relationship which may have
inappropriately influenced them in writing this article.
175
International Conference, Ryazan: „Teoreticaland Practical Aspects of oil and processing
technologies“- International Conference on the March, 3-4, 2016. Ryazan, Международной научно-
практическoй конференции, Научно-практические аспекты технологий возделывания и
переработки масличных и эфиромасличных културь 3-4 марта. 2016. РГАТУ, Рязань, 2016.-
327с. 168-175.;
УДК 633853;
ББК 42.14;
ISBN 978-5-98660-259-2,
Министерство cельского хозяства Российcкой Федерации
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  • Ф Ф Адамень
  • В И Сичкарь
  • В Н Письменов
  • В В Шерстобитов
Адамень, Ф.Ф., Сичкарь, В.И., Письменов, В.Н., Шерстобитов, В.В. (2003): Соя: промышленная переработка, кормовые добавки, продукты питания. 2-е видання, Нора-принт, Киев: 1-476.
Influence of agro-technical and agro-ecological practices on seed production of wheat, maize and soybean
  • Popovic Vera
Popovic Vera (2010): Influence of agro-technical and agro-ecological practices on seed production of wheat, maize and soybean. Doctoral thesis, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Zemun, 55-66. In Serbian.