ChapterPDF Available
... One stream of this literature deals with the persistence of regional levels of entrepreneurial activities over longer periods of time (for an overview, see Fritsch & Wyrwich 2017;. Two main mechanisms that may be responsible for this persistence of entrepreneurship are discussed: (1) 'sticky' regional determinants of entrepreneurship, and (2) localized externalities such as a positive entrepreneurial climate emerging from the role model and peer effects of past self-employment that may trigger social learning (Lyons & Berge 2012) and result in a regional culture of entrepreneurship (Andersson & Koster 2011;. ...
... An alternative explanation of persistence that may apply for periods with drastically changing framework condition could be the presence of localized externalities, such as: entrepreneurial opportunities created by newcomers, a positive entrepreneurial climate and social learning (Lyons & Berge 2012) emerging from the role model and peer effects of self-employment, 2 or the presence of an entrepreneurial culture (Andersson & Koster 2011;. Following North (1994), an entrepreneurial culture can be understood as an informal institution re-2 Role model and peer effects include, for example, the direct transmission of entrepreneurship across generations (Chlosta et al. 2012;Dohmen et al. 2012;Laspita et al. 2012;Lindquist et al. 2015), as well as the particularly pronounced transfer of entrepreneurial abilities and attitudes within smaller firms (Parker 2009). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Persistence of entrepreneurship over longer periods of time could indicate a culture of entrepreneurship among the local population that may be an important factor for regional development, but does persistence of economic activity require cultural transmission? We exploit the diverse historical developments in the territory that is Poland today to analyze the level and the sources of persistence from the 1920s until today. Persistence is mainly found in those regions that were part of Germany before World War II. This persistence is noticeable despite the exchange of most of the prewar population, ruling out that persistence is driven by transmission of culture. In most regions that were already part of Poland before World War II, the relationship between historical and current levels of entrepreneurship is not significant. Persistence of entrepreneurship is related to the historical success of regions, which we capture by the prewar level of and self-employment in manufacturing industries, particularly in those that can be regarded as knowledge intensive. Our main conclusion is that persistence of entrepreneurship requires a certain level of successful economic development that we capture by the degree of industrialization in the early 20 th century, but it does not necessarily require persistence of the local population. JEL-classification: L26, M13, O1, O18, R11
... 5 Learning by observation or emulation is advocated by social cognitive theory as a major driver of development. 6 This implies that children acquire learning from observation of what their parents and others do and what the results of their actions are. 7 Thus, from this perspective, child behavior is molded first and foremost by the parents. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objectives of this study were to explore parenting practices from the perspectives of Palestinian parents and their children, and concordance between parents and children in their reports of parenting practices, in a culture that is underrepresented in the literature. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ) was administered to 120 parents and 120 children drawn from 4 districts in Palestine. Children had higher scores on parental involvement, positive parenting, poor monitoring, inconsistent discipline, and corporal punishment. Three significant parent–child relationships were obtained1: parental involvement ( r = .276, P = .003), positive parenting ( r = .0301, P = .001), and poor parental monitoring ( r = −.241, P = .008). The findings of this study might be used by Palestinian authorities and policy-makers to formulate guidelines and training to aid parental decision-making about child rearing.
... SLT can not only be used to explain U-curve patterns, but also J-patterns, as anticipatory adjustment reduces feelings of euphoria and instead leads to more realistic expectations about the host country (panel B in Figure 1). Since its establishment, SLT has been tested across several domains, and its basic principles continue to hold true (Lyons and Berge, 2012), which implies that SLT plays an important part in studies on expatriate adjustment (e.g. Bhaskar-Shrinivas et al., 2005;Takeuchi and Chen, 2013). ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on social learning theory (SLT), this study aims to investigate how previous cross-cultural work experience influences individual adjustment in a foreign environment over time. For this purpose, the authors study foreign service employees who are characterized by permanent high mobility and frequent rotations. Design/methodology/approach Two cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2011 (analytical sample N = 1,097) and 2019 (analytical sample N = 1,431) amongst German Foreign Service (GFS) employees are used to analyse employees' adjustment, measured by self-perceived quality of life (QOL) and its development over time based on four time points. Locational adjustment trajectories serve as robustness checks. Findings Younger and therefore less experienced employees fit J -shaped patterns of adjustment, while more experienced employees show rather flat adjustment curves. Accordingly, work experience matters and “one curve fits all” approaches do not suffice to explain adjustment over time. Moreover, neither more nor less experienced employees experienced U -trajectories as proposed by previous literature on business expatriates. Research limitations/implications The study findings are based on cross-sectional surveys, but longitudinal designs should be preferred in future research. Practical implications Sending institutions may develop special support systems for inexperienced expatriates prior to departure to weaken the negative impacts of culture shock. Originality/value Existing literature only sparsely analysed adjustment and QOL for foreign service employees/diplomats so far. To the authors’ knowledge, no study analysed trajectories of adjustment over time for this population. This study profits from the analysis across two surveys. Both samples benefit from a high diversity, among others, regarding gender, age, education and host countries.
... While social learning theory has been extensively applied to the understanding of aggression and psychological disorders, it can also be applied to advertising. Several research studies concur that advertising of any form has a profound influence on consumers' behaviors and thoughts (Lyons & Berge, 2012;Deaton, 2015;Dahl, 2020). Researcher Stephen Dahl contends that "social learning theory is a fairly basic, yet powerful way to conceptualize how media images, such as advertising, influence how we behave -and what we think is right or wrong" (2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic reached the United States in January of 2020 and has since impacted nearly all industries, including advertising. Consumers, the guiding factors for all advertising strategies, faced drastic lifestyle changes and behavior shifts which sent current strategies askew. The virus has created insurmountable unknowns, thus advertising and marketing experts must rely on historical and recent data to develop strategies for brands forging ahead. COVID-19 is the first global crisis in the age of social media which has both helped and hindered communication during the crisis. Additionally, emerging influencer marketing strategies are proving more effective than ever as brands try to find innovative ways to speak to consumers. As the virus continues to transform the world, advertisers must understand how both the industry and consumers have been affected and how they will continue to adapt in the future. While previous research has explored the impact of past recessions on consumer behavior and the advertising industry, few have thoroughly explored the effects of the ongoing pandemic. This focused literature review examines the repercussions of the virus on the advertising industry and consumers in 2020 and offers recommendations for advertisers looking to harness new methods to innovatively and genuinely speak to consumers in the future.
... The subsequent imitation and observation help humans to learn certain behavior. Besides, they also rely on manipulating rewards and consequences of imitating any particular behavior (Lyons and Berge 2012). Here the role of selected exposure and repetition (Ali 2020), especially in media advertisements, largely facilitates learning and behavioral change (Tri Harinie 2017). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Several studies affirmed the role of media advertisements for healthcare awareness. However, during the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is highly crucial to scrutinize the position of disease awareness advertisement campaigns. This study also aims to investigate the role and impacts of mass media advertisements to spread COVID-19 awareness in Sahiwal, Pakistan. The researchers selected a sample of n= 179 respondents and used a three-point Likert scale questionnaires for data gathering purposes. The researchers also proposed a self-structured model supported by Social Learning theory, as the primary conceptual framework. The results revealed that media advertisements are significantly ( p ≤ .000) spreading disease awareness and positively ( p ≤ .000), infusing the attitudinal changes among the audience. The results indicated the power of the media campaigns and their potential impacts on audience behavior. Therefore, the researchers recommended more investigations using the study model to maximize usage of media advertisements for COVID-19 awareness.
... Bandura emphasized that self-efficacy is the very foundation of human motivations and achievement. Bandura's social cognitive theory of self-efficacy was offered in order to improve the current classroom practices (McLeod, 2011). In this study, Bandura's theory provided the framework to apply teachers personality traits and classroom performance by learners. ...
Article
Full-text available
The academic records (grades) of the Students were collected from the 19 teachers. One research questions was answered using mean and standard deviation and four null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test and ANOVA. Findings: The findings revealed that teachers' gender had no effect on the classroom performance of the students. However, teachers teaching experience, qualifications, interpersonal relationship with students, knowledge of subject matter, and attitude of the teacher had influence on students' classroom performance. It was recommended that only teachers with relevant teaching qualifications in Economics should be employed to teach the course in Secondary schools. Also, teachers should be given proper incentives that will make them remain in their job so as to gain experience as they grow in the profession.
... Social learning theory shows the effectiveness of the environmental and cognitive factors which interact to shape the learning and behavior. Students can learn from each other, by modeling, and observation (Abbott, 2007). Students in flipped classroom, acquire learning after seeing lessons through videos, as verified by Miller (2011), that "older children, by observing a model, are expected to learn complex new skills quickly, with a minimum of verbal instruction" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
The flipped classroom model has become more popular and one of the focus of many researchers and teachers in the recent years. The aim of current study is to explore the effect of flipped classroom model on students’ achievements in the new SAT 2016 mathematics skills (Heart of Algebra, Problem solving and data analysis, and Passport to Advanced Math) for the eleventh grade Emirati female students in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Specifically, this study aims at determining whether there was a statistically significant difference in student achievements in the new SAT mathematics skills between two groups of grade 11 students. Thus, pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was applied. The experimental group was taught by flipped classroom model, and the control group was taught by traditional instruction methods. The results revealed that there is a statistically significant difference between the pretest and posttest of the experimental group over the control group the new SAT mathematics skills. Furthermore, the findings suggest that teachers who teach mathematics standardized test skills like SAT can use flipped classroom model to enhance students’ readiness and to improve their thinking skills to simulate the 21st-century skills.
... This theory can also explain the phenomenon of learning through peers, which is an adolescent learns from their friends because s/he spends most of her/his time with friends. Therefore, if a friend is involved in bad criminal acts there are chances of that child's involvement in criminal acts as well (McLeod, 2016) Another theory by a behaviorist B. F. Skinner (1953), within context of delinquent behavior explains that, children's behavior is shaped by reinforcement and punishment. A child's behavior is shaped by the environment s/he lives in, those behaviors are increased which are rewarded in the society or community or the family. ...
Article
Full-text available
All over the globe juvenile delinquency is a major issue. Even after lots of efforts to minimize it, it is increasing. Therefore, the review paper aims on looking at the basic causes of development of delinquent behavior in adolescents. Objectives of this study are, finding out what role family plays in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior,what role neighborhood (local neighborhood or extra-local neighborhood) plays in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents, what role do peers play in development of delinquent behavior in adolescents and what role do economic factors and personalfactors play in development of adolescents’ delinquent behavior. Researches from past 12 years (from 2004 till 2016), including 39 papers, relevant to the study have been selected on basis of the keywords of the study from different websites PubMed, WileyOnline Library and some other online sociology, criminology and community psychology journal websites. Type of studies included in this paper are quantitative, qualitative, case study, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Results indicated family, peers, neighborhood, economic factors and personal factors are the reasons of development of delinquent behavior of adolescents. Interventions in keeping consideration of these issues should be planned for the reduction of juvenile crimes. Keywords:adolescents, delinquent behavior, family, neighborhood, peers, economic status and personal factors
Article
Full-text available
Positive parenting programs are a key strategy to promote the development of parental competence. We designed a pilot study based on parental self-efficacy to promote healthy lifestyles in their children aged between 2 to 5 years old. In this pilot study, we aimed to assess the effects of a parenting program on parental self-efficacy and parenting styles. Twenty-five parents were allocated into intervention (N = 15) and control group (N = 10). Parents from the intervention group received four group sessions (120 mi per session) to develop a positive parenting, parenting styles and parenting skills regarding to children’s diet, exercise, and screen time, and two additional sessions about child development and family games. Parents from the control group received these two latter sessions. Parental self-efficacy, parenting styles, and meal-related parenting practices were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Acceptability and feasibility of the program was also measured. Quantitative data were analyzed using the repeat measures ANOVA and ANCOVA tests and the effect size calculation. Content analysis was used to analyse open questions. Positive trends were found regarding parental self-efficacy and the use of authoritative parenting style. Parents also reported a great acceptability of the program getting high satisfaction. According to the feasibility barriers and facilitators aspects were identified. The positive trends founded in this study support the development of parenting programs to promote healthy lifestyle in children.
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigate whether the Roman presence in the southern part of Germany nearly 2,000 years ago had a deep imprinting effect with long run consequences on a broad spectrum of measures ranging from present-day personality profiles to a number of socioeconomic outcomes and why. Today's populations living in the former Roman part of Germany score indeed higher on certain personality traits, have higher life and health satisfaction, longer life expectancy, generate more inventions and behave in a more entrepreneurial way. These findings help explain that regions under Roman rule have higher present-day levels of economic development in terms of GDP per capita. The effects hold when controlling for other potential historical influences. When addressing potential channels of a long term effect of Roman rule the data indicates that the Roman road network plays an important role as a mechanism in the imprinting that is still perceptible today.
Article
Full-text available
In two experiments, the authors test rival theses regarding the effects of smoking in feature films on youths and the ability of antismoking advertising to nullify those effects. Eight hundred ninth graders watched either original movie footage with smoking or control footage with the smoking edited out. Emotional reactions were recorded during viewing, and smoking-related thoughts, beliefs, and intent were assessed afterward. The findings support the Forbidden Fruit thesis, in that smoking (versus nonsmoking) scenes positively aroused the young viewers, enhanced their perceptions of smokers' social stature, and increased their intent to smoke. However, youths' opinions were malleable, and showing them an antismoking advertisement before the film effectively repositioned the smoking from forbidden to tainted, thereby nullifying the aforementioned effects. No support was obtained for the Excitation Transfer theory, which predicts that the positive arousal evoked by movie scenes would transfer to smokers who were depicted in those scenes. The authors discuss policy implications for film content and antismoking advertising.
Article
Full-text available
Ninth graders were randomly exposed to one of eight slice-of-life videotapes showing stimulus advertising (cigarette, antismoking, both, neither) and unfamiliar peers who either did or did not smoke cigarettes. The findings indicate that the cigarette advertising primed positive smoker stereotypes, which caused subjects to seek out favorable information about the peers shown smoking. Subjects' beliefs and intentions about cigarette consumption were thereby enhanced by the joint effects of advertising and peers. However, an antismoking advertisement shown in conjunction with cigarette advertising made salient negative smoker stereotypes, evoked unfavorable thoughts about peers shown smoking, and prevented cigarette advertising from promoting smoking. Copyright 2002 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Critics have expressed concerns regarding measurement strategies or analytic techniques often used in social learning research (Horan and Phillips, 2003; Krohn, 1999; Sampson, 1999; Tittle, 2004). In response to these concerns, this study tests the hypothesized causal relationships among reinforcement, general definitions, and self-reported crime (theft and marijuana use) using a multilevel modeling approach with longitudinal data from the first five waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS), as well as with indirect parent and friend reinforcement measures that incorporate both the assumed products of reinforcement (expected consequences of behavior) and the efficacy of reinforcement (expected influence of the reinforcement source). Within-subject analyses present a challenge to the theory as social learning variables do not covary significantly over time with criminal offending rates. Between-subject analyses offer support for the theory as across-person differences in average parent and friend reinforcement are significantly related to offending rates, and these reinforcement–crime relationships are mediated partially or fully by learned definitions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Exploring the simultaneous effects of key variables on the unhealthy consumption behavior of adolescents, two studies focused on the relative effects of advertising, parental and peer influence, and self-efficacy on adolescent tobacco use and alcohol consumption. The results suggest that (1) advertising effects are largely neutralized by parental and peer influence; (2) peer and parental influence strongly predict adolescent tobacco use and alcohol consumption; and (3) self-efficacy is a weak predictor of both adolescent risk behaviors.
Article
In a previous study (see ^W37^n: 856) children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their aggressiveness but other behavior as well. There was some confirmation of like-sex imitation. The results were related to the psychoanalytic theory of identification.
Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy
  • F Pajares
Learning and cognition: The design of the mind
  • M E Martinez