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Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariate Methods

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... Research suggests the high occurrence of FMS in families may be attributed to genetic factors. [36][37][38] Women who have a relative with FMS are more likely to have the syndrome; however, it is unclear whether this is due to genetics, shared environmental factors or both. 39 Environmental triggers such as mechanical or Figure 3: Comorbidities of Fibromyalgia Syndrome 18,21 physical trauma and psychosocial factors have been correlated with the development of FMS. ...
... A complex algorithm developed by Epidemiologists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) exists for assessing and calculating averted dental caries when data is reported for public dental health programs. 38 Researchers at the CDC consider an 85% retention rate a standard benchmark for QoC outcomes. 33 The findings for this program far exceed the established benchmark (Table I). ...
... 32 Community based outcomes for prevention and treatment of dental caries including results from sealant programs at a epidemiologic population level must continue. 2,38 Where the data in this short report notes averted and declining rates of dental caries over time, findings may also be attributed to the success of employing a consultative-referral model as a bridge for accessing restorative care in rural, demographically isolated communities. 32 It has been over a decade since the U.S. Surgeon General issued a report stating that oral health is an essential component of overall health. 1 Yet getting access for all populations to quality dental care is still a major concern -reports consistently document a shortage of dentists in rural and inner city communities, and marginalized populations that do not receive regular dental care, with 45 million people living in these areas. 2 It has been proposed that expanding the role of dental hygienists is one way to increase access to care for the underserved. ...
... The perceived temperature is a combination of actual temperature, humidity, and wind speed. The perceived temperature formula has been widely studied and is usually identified using multivariate regression on human preference testing data [16]. Several models [18,2] have also been proposed with nonlinear terms, and multivariate polynomial models are common. ...
... which explains the derivation from Equation (15) to (16). ...
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There is significant interest in learning and optimizing a complex system composed of multiple sub-components, where these components may be agents or autonomous sensors. Among the rich literature on this topic, agent-based and domain-specific simulations can capture complex dynamics and subgroup interaction, but optimizing over such simulations can be computationally and algorithmically challenging. Bayesian approaches, such as Gaussian processes (GPs), can be used to learn a computationally tractable approximation to the underlying dynamics but typically neglect the detailed information about subgroups in the complicated system. We attempt to find the best of both worlds by proposing the idea of decomposed feedback, which captures group-based heterogeneity and dynamics. We introduce a novel decomposed GP regression to incorporate the subgroup decomposed feedback. Our modified regression has provably lower variance -- and thus a more accurate posterior -- compared to previous approaches; it also allows us to introduce a decomposed GP-UCB optimization algorithm that leverages subgroup feedback. The Bayesian nature of our method makes the optimization algorithm trackable with a theoretical guarantee on convergence and no-regret property. To demonstrate the wide applicability of this work, we execute our algorithm on two disparate social problems: infectious disease control in a heterogeneous population and allocation of distributed weather sensors. Experimental results show that our new method provides significant improvement compared to the state-of-the-art.
... Financial and economic time series frequently indicate trends, with the argument that trends can be deterministic (i.e. time-dependent) or stochastic (a random but Long-Term link) [56, 105,106]. ...
... The results of descriptive statistics will summarize the sample into a structure of variables, which will serve as the foundation for econometric analysis [105,106]. The descriptive analysis is split into two sections; the first is a preliminary test of the data set that included unit root and univariate analysis. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact and current link between economic growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) on financial development in Palestine, as well as the role of financial development in influencing this relationship. Design/Methodology/Approach: The logical reasoning approach associated with quantitative research was applied in this study, which was backed up by experience and positivism as philosophical viewpoints. Data on economic growth indicators, foreign direct investment (FDI), financial development, and other control variables were also used, spanning the years (1998 to 2019). To determine whether there is an effect and a relationship between economic growth, foreign direct investment (FDI), and financial development in Palestine, Johansen's co-integration analysis method will be used. Results: Johansen's co-integration discovered that economic growth, foreign direct investment (FDI), and financial development have a favourable influence and a Long-Term association. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant relationship between stock market financial development indices and foreign direct investment (FDI). Practical Implications: This study adds to the literature by evaluating whether foreign direct Original Research Article Badwan; AJEBA, 21(20): 14-35, 2021; Article no.AJEBA.77012 15 investment (FDI) drives growth through financial development networks and other factors that can drive growth in addition to foreign direct investment (FDI). A well-developed financial market, according to research, will boost the impact of indirect foreign direct investment (FDI) on economic growth. By offering enough liquidity services that increase links between local and global investors, a well-developed stock market will promote capital accumulation activities and output growth. Originality/Value: This study is unique in that it examines the impact and relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Palestine on financial development, which must be considered in all developing countries' Long-Term development plans. Simultaneously, this study is a step ahead in examining the relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment (FDI) in Palestine, as well as their primary function in financial development.
... To do so, we checked the variance inflation factor (VIF) scores. Results show that the VIFs are below 5 for both IC and perceived tightness (respectively, 1.2 and 3.4), under the standard cut-off threshold of 5 to 10 (Kleinbaum et al., 1988), suggesting that multicollinearity does not seem to threaten the study results (Hair et al., 2009). ...
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Purpose This study aims to apply McCornack’s (1992) information manipulation theory to the context of fraud and investigates the effects of culture on perceived deceptiveness. Design/methodology/approach In total, 400 Chinese consumers and an equal-size sample of Canadian consumers were recruited to fill an online survey. The survey integrates four scenarios of insurance fraud and measures of perceived deceptiveness, cultural tightness and horizontal-vertical idiocentrism allocentrism, in addition to some control variables. Findings Results show that at the societal level of culture, perceived deceptiveness is higher in individualistic than in collectivistic cultures. When accounting for the level of situational constraint, cultural tightness was found to magnify the perceived deceptiveness. At the individual level of culture, vertical-allocentrism and vertical-idiocentrism were found to weigh against the perception of deceptiveness. Originality/value Understanding cultural differences in perceived deceptiveness is helpful to spot sources of consumers’ vulnerability to fraud tolerance among a culturally diverse public.
... Therefore, we chose the random-effect model to testify our hypotheses. We conducted a variance inflation factor (VIF), in which the maximum VIF is 4.88, far below the recommended ceiling of 10, suggesting that multicollinearity is not a concern (Kleinbaum, Kupper, & Muller, 1988). Besides, all variables are mean-centered before creating the interaction terms (Aiken, West, & Reno, 1991). ...
Article
In many emerging countries, firms face formal institutional voids that raise both the cost and the level of difficulty of business operations. In this study, we examine a unique culture-rooted mechanism that may address those voids, and this comes in the form of supply chain partner surname sharing based on the legacy of clan identification. Using a unique Chinese dataset that was manually collected and merged from multiple sources, we find that firms registered in the region with a stronger clan culture are more likely to cooperate with supply chain partners with the same surname. This positive effect of clan culture is negatively moderated further by the level of subnational marketization. Therefore, we shed new light on the supply chain-level implications of clan culture, an Asian cultural-specific topic that has received little attention in marketing and supply chain literature.
... For the basic model in this study, the results indicate that Variance Inflation Factor (VIF) are all less than 10 and Mean VIF in general not very significantly above 1 (Appendix 5, Panel B). These results indicate that there is no risk of multicollinearity between the variables (Gujarati 2004;Kleinbaum et al. 1988). Similarly, the results of the correlation matrix in Appendix 6 show that there is no risk of multicollinearity for the model used to test the robustness of our research hypothesis by one of the approaches. ...
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The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of Ease of Doing Business on economic growth. In this perspective, the study covered a sample of 44 African countries over the period 2010–2018. A World Bank aggregate Ease of Doing Business index is used, and economic growth is measured by the real annual GDP growth rate. In addition, the impact of Ease of Doing Business on economic growth is examined in a dynamic framework using the System Generalized Method of Moments (System-GMM) estimation. The results show a positive and significant effect of Ease of Doing Business on economic growth, suggesting that business regulatory reforms are a means for African countries to achieve and sustain economic growth.
... In multiple regression analyses, the categorical variables with more than two groups were coded as "dummy variables." [14] Ethical consideration This research was approved by the Student Research Committee affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran (code number: 5/46/4880). This study was conducted after obtaining permissions from the Ethics Committee, as well as explaining the study's aim to the couples and achieving their informed consent. ...
... There are various techniques that are used to determine factors. The most common of these is the principal component analysis technique (Kleinbaum, Kupper, & Muller, 1988;Büyüköztürk Ş., 2002). This analysis calculates on the total variance, considering the relationship values of the variants. ...
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The purpose of the study is to develop a valid and reliable Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) which will reveal the digital literacy of university students and graduates. Because it is assumed that this sample group uses information technologies much more intensively. The process of developing this scale included many stages. First, item pool (a total of 54 items) was created by reviewing the relevant literature, and the view of 11 experts were taken with four-point rating. Afterwards, the content validity index related to scale and its items was calculated. In the first phase of the study, exploratory factor analysis was performed that was applied to 451 participants for construct validity. Afterwards, the main study was conducted with a group of 1287 participants and confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Digital Literacy Scale's reliability and validity was tested and approved. It was developed as 29-item scale including six factors. In this study, score ranges that represent the digital literacy levels of university students and graduates (low, below medium, medium, above medium and high) are introduced by converting them to Z standard score and the competencies that can be reached for each level are depicted.
... There are various techniques that are used to determine factors. The most common of these is the principal component analysis technique (Kleinbaum, Kupper, & Muller, 1988;Büyüköztürk Ş., 2002). This analysis calculates on the total variance, considering the relationship values of the variants. ...
Chapter
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The purpose of the study is to develop a valid and reliable Digital Literacy Scale (DLS) which will reveal the digital literacy of university students and graduates. Because it is assumed that this sample group uses information technologies much more intensively. The process of developing this scale included many stages. First, item pool (a total of 54 items) was created by reviewing the relevant literature, and the view of 11 experts were taken with four-point rating. Afterwards, the content validity index related to scale and its items was calculated. In the first phase of the study, exploratory factor analysis was performed that was applied to 451 participants for construct validity. Afterwards, the main study was conducted with a group of 1287 participants and confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Digital Literacy Scale's reliability and validity was tested and approved. It was developed as 29-item scale including six factors. In this study, score ranges that represent the digital literacy levels of university students and graduates (low, below medium, medium, above medium and high) are introduced by converting them to Z standard score and the competencies that can be reached for each level are depicted.
... Higher values of VIF indicates higher collinearity of independent variable. Kleinbaum et al. (1988) said that VIF value greater than 10, which will occur when R 2 is above 0.9, this means that the variable is highly collinear. VIF and R 2 values are shown in Table 5. ...
... Checking Normality and Multi-collinearity: As the study was conducted on large sample (324 high school teachers), and by applying Central Limit Theorem there is no question on the normality of the data. The presence of Multi-collinearity among the independent variables were examined by two methodologies: the calculation of (i) Tolerance test and (ii) Variance inflation factor (Kleinbaum et al, 1988). The results of these two analyzes are presented in Table 1. ...
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Although investigations about stress has been reported in the fields of banking, medical, police, health services, the most important field i,e teaching field especially in India is still neglected. Keeping it in view, the present study has been conducted to investigate the stress in the teaching job and its relationship with the Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence of teachers. The descriptive method of co-relational type of research was employed for the study. Random sampling technique was used to select 324 teachers from 32 high schools of Kulgam District, J and K, India. Three research tools were employed for data collection: Teacher Stress scale (Constructed and Validated by the investigator, 2016) , Job Satisfaction Scale (Constructed and Validated by Meera Dixit, 1993) and Emotional Intelligence Scale (Developed and Standardized by Anukool Hyde, Sanjyot Pethe and Upinder Dhar, 2001). Statistical techniques like Correlation and Regression were used for analysis of data. Findings revealed that Teacher stress correlated significantly but negatively with the Job Satisfaction as well as with the Emotional Intelligence of teachers. The study further revealed that Job Satisfaction and Emotional Intelligence are good predicators of teacher stress as 71.28 percent of total variance in teacher stress is contributed by these two variables.
... One of them is Tolerance Index (1-R 2 ), whose value is around 0.20 in all our estimations. So, there are no symptoms of the linear combination of explanatory variables are distorting the coefficients' estimation, according to related literature (Kleinbaum et al., 1988;Gujarati & Porter, 2009). Tolerance's inverse is known as Variation Inflation Factor (VIF), which shows if the variance of an estimator inflates because of multicollinearity. ...
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Our objective is to analyze whether financial knowledge influences income inequality. For this purpose, we resort to a new index of financial knowledge that differs from the existing ones in that it is both longitudinal and macroeconomic. We use this index as one of the explanatory variables of the Net Gini Index in our panel data estimations. Based on a sample of 63 countries over the period 2008–2014, our results allow us to conclude that financial knowledge is related to income inequality and that, moreover, this relationship is non-linear. Thus, increases in financial knowledge could reduce income inequality when starting from relatively low levels of such knowledge. However, at a certain threshold, the income redistributive effect of financial knowledge could disappear or even reverse. Even so, national strategies for financial education could be useful to achieve economic equity in those countries where financial knowledge levels are low. In addition, we shed light on the effect that other variables (such as institutional quality or under-education) have on income inequality.
... Several studies such as Cohen et al. (2003) have shown that if the first-order variables are mean-centred, the resulting interaction term will be minimally correlated. In this study, we adopted the mean-centred approach for variables entered into an interaction term and investigated the possibility of multicollinearity by using the variance inflation factor (Kleinbaum et al., 1988). Table 4 presents descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients describing the variables. ...
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Plain English Summary When does smallness help or hinder firms to implement innovation ambidexterity? We collected longitudinal innovation data from SMEs in the Korean electronic parts industry to examine how firm size, customer concentration and innovation ambidexterity affect firm growth individually and jointly. There are two important implications. First, for research, this study indicates that smallness is a liability for combined innovation ambidexterity (CIA), but it is an asset for balanced innovation ambidexterity (BIA). Our configurational approach further suggests that research should include a careful fit assessment of firm size, customer concentration and the organisational and technological requirements involved in BIA and CIA to be able to determine the liability and asset of smallness in innovation ambidexterity. Second, for practice, smaller firms are advised to pursue BIA to achieve sustainable growth, but larger SMEs are recommended to adopt CIA. Further to this, smaller firms with high customer concentration can achieve the best growth when pursuing BIA, whereas the same configuration of internal and external resources can lead to the worst growth if they adopt CIA. However, larger SMEs with high customer concentration can effectively pursue CIA and achieve the best growth.
... Respecto a la evaluación del modelo de medida en el caso de indicadores formativos es necesario verificar primero que no exista entre los constructos una alta multicolinealidad (Mathieson, Peacock y Chin, 2001). Para ello se calcularon el índice de condición (IC) (cuyo valor debiera ser inferior a 20), el test del factor de inflación de la varianza (FIV) (debe ser inferior a 5) y el índice de tolerancia (IT) (debe ser superior a 0,100) (Belsley, 1984;Kleinbaum, Kupper y Muller, 1988). Por último, los valores de los coeficientes de correlación entre variables latentes no deberían superar, en ningún caso, el valor 0.60 para confirmar la validez discriminante (MacKenzie, Podsakoff y Jarvis, 2005) Por tanto se confirmó la ausencia de multicolinealidad (ver tablas 8 y 9). ...
Conference Paper
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Resumen En la literatura se pone de manifiesto que el apego, la identidad de lugar y la familiaridad influyen en la satisfacción y la lealtad del turista, siendo muy escasos los trabajos que estudian al joven turista residente en destinos formados por islas. En la investigación llevada a cabo en este trabajo se ha utilizado un una muestra de 384 jóvenes de 18 y 19 años residentes en Tenerife. Se han realizado un análisis discriminante y predictivo utilizando ecuaciones estructurales (PLS) y el modelo de Rasch. Los resultados han puesto de manifiesto que los jóvenes residentes tienen altos niveles de apego, identidad, satisfacción, familiaridad y lealtad, y que no existen diferencias significativas por razones de género en sus valoraciones otrogaas a las variables observadas o ítems. Se ha generado un modelo estructural en el que sólo la familiaridad, la identidad y el apego influyen en la satisfacción y la lealtad, sin la intervención de otras variables tradicionalmente estudiadas. Palabras clave: Apego al lugar, familiaridad, identidad de lugar, satisfacción del turista, lealtad en turismo
... A series of multiple hierarchical regression analyses was carried out in steps to examine how Curiosity (Z) was moderated by the relationship between Impulsivity (X) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (Y) (see Cohen & Cohen, 2003). To calculate this interaction, the independent measures (X, Z) were focused on the average to reduce the problems of multicollinearity (Kleinbaum et al., 1988), and then the interaction (XZ) was calculated. The main predictor variables were focused on the first step and the interaction term in the second step. ...
Article
El objetivo del presente estudio es analizar si la curiosidad es una variable moderadora entre la Impulsividad y la Orientación Emprendedora. Se utiliza una muestra multiocupacional de 883 empleados españoles (49 % hombres, 51 % mujeres), obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se ha utilizado el programa SPSS 23.0. Se encontraron correlaciones estadísticamente significativas entre todas las variables de la investigación a excepcion de la impulsividad Funcional. Finalmente, la evidencia empírica indica que la Curiosidad-D tiene un papel moderador entre la impulsividad Disfuncional y la Orientación Emprendedora mostrada, en el sentido de que la Curiosidad-D (entendida como una variable cuantitativa) afecta la intensidad de la relación entre la Impulsividad Disfuncional (variable predictora) y la Orientación Emprendedora (variable de criterio). The objective of the present study is to analyze whether the variable Curiosity is a moderating variable between Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation. The multi-occupational sample of 883 Spanish and Colombian employees (49% men, 51% women) was obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The data collected were processed with the SPSS 23.0 program. Statistically significant correlations were found among all the research variables except for Functional Impulsivity. Finally, empirical evidence indicates that Curiosity-D plays a moderating role between Dysfunctional Impulsivity and Entrepreneurial Orientation in the sense that Curiosity-D (understood as a quantitative variable) affects the intensity of the relationship between Dysfunctional Impulsivity (predictor variable) and Entrepreneurial Orientation (criterion variable).
... This gave the probability (p) that the ith model would minimize information loss, compared to the model with the smallest AICc value. Collinearity among covariates in the models was assessed with variance inflation factor (VIF) values, which were all below 3, which indicates an acceptable degree of collinearity (Kleinbaum et al. 2013). Further, variables that were not significant in Model 1 and additionally the variable of the percentage taking public transit were omitted from Models 3 and 4. ...
Article
Social distancing (e.g., maintaining two-meter distance between people, restricting group gatherings) is recommended to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission. Social distancing guidelines might not broadly consider the varying built environment contexts in which people live, however. Controlling for key covariates, we examined the association of several built environment characteristics with COVID-19 cases in New York City. This cross-sectional ecological study used ZIP code tabulation area (ZCTA) data from New York City. We found positive, significant adjusted associations between the COVID-19 case rate and average people per household, percentage of Black or African American population, percentage of Hispanic population, and percentage of the population over sixty-five years old. Population per square kilometer and percentage taking public transit to work were both negatively associated with case rates. Percentage of sidewalks was negatively associated with case rates, but parks were not significant. ZCTAs with higher percentage area of sidewalks were associated with lower case rates, controlling for potential confounders. Consideration of the local characteristics of the built environment could inform context-specific COVID-19 prevention guidelines, such as increasing street space for pedestrian use in high-density neighborhoods.
... training program. Preliminary analyses for the assessment of goodness of fit confirmed compliance with the assumptions of nonmulticollinearity (<5, VIF = 1.00 and 1.77;Kleinbaum et al., 1988) and the tolerance values (1-0.1) are between 1 and 0.98. Moreover, there is no autocorrelation in all social skills, so the error independence assumption is fulfilled (Durbin-Watson = 1-3) and the results obtained can be generalized on the general population, being the coefficient close to 2 (D-W = 1.95;Yoo et al., 2014).Specifically, the results ofTable 5 (in the group of adolescents with DS) refer to the social skills that have a higher level, self-expression in social situations (β = .47; ...
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Background/Objective: Researchers have traditionally reported that individuals with Down syndrome possess a strength in their social development, yet the opposite occurs with Asperger’s syndrome. Based on this premise, we sought to assess effectiveness of the social skills training program. Method: Thirty adolescents aged 11 to 14 years with Down syndrome and Asperger’s syndrome participated in the study. Results: Significant differences between both groups were detected in the posttreatment measures and a connection was found between adolescents’ learning potential and the benefits gained. Conclusions: The training program is effective at improving the social skills under evaluation in adolescents with Down syndrome; however, this benefit is greater among adolescents with Asperger’s syndrome.
... The methodology used for this study was adapted from Adisa and Adekunle (2010). Factor analysis is used mainly when one is interested in knowing whether some underlying pattern or relationship exist among variables; discovering a new set of factors; or confirming (an) existing factor(s) as being the true factor(s) (Kleinbaum and Kupper, 1978). In factor analysis, a priori identification of factors is not a pre-requisite and the researcher thus uses factor analysis to characterise meaningful factors that could validly describe the data. ...
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Persistent drop in quality of Nigerian cocoa exported to the international communities portends a grave danger to the economy of the country. This study investigates factors determining adoption of bean quality improvement practices by cocoa farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. Using a two-stage random sampling technique to select 336 farmers from communities with high production, data were collected with a structured questionnaire and subjected to factor analysis and descriptive statistical procedures. The data revealed that majority of the respondents (66.1%) were male with mean age of 48 years, 78.6% were formally educated whereas 31.0% had a quarterly contact with extension agents. Most of the respondents (98.2%) had high perception on practices considered as being adequate for improving the quality of cocoa beans. There was a positive and significant relationship between perception on cocoa bean quality and adoption of bean quality improvement practices (r = 0.142 and p = 0.001) at one percent level of significance. Factor analysis showed that socioeconomic, production, technological and institutional factors with Eigenvalues of 3.312, 2.403, 1.862 and 1.055, respectively, accounted for the quality of cocoa beans. However, educational level of farmers (0.867), cost of inputs (−0.724), relative advantage of the practice (0.683) and contact with extension agents (0.703) exert greater influence on farmers’ capacity to produce quality cocoa beans. The identified variables should therefore be considered when disseminating improved practices to cocoa farmers for increased adoption.
... The non-parametric paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test (Wilcoxon 1945) was used to check for significant differences among rooms within the same homes. Multiple regression analysis (e.g., Kleinbaum et al. 2008) was used to study the potential effects of several PFASs on T4 levels. Principal component analyses (PCA e.g. ...
Article
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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are used in a wide range of products and have been found ubiquitously in our indoor environment, and there is evidence that exposure to PFAS can lead to adverse endocrine effects, such as thyroid hormone disruption. Pet cats have a high dust intake due to their grooming behavior and have been shown to be a suitable sentinel species for assessment of toddler’s exposure. Here we used paired household dust ( n =46) and cat serum ( n =27) samples to establish whether dust is a relevant exposure pathway to PFASs. An analytical method for PFAS analysis was optimized using a low volume of cat serum samples, combining solid-phase extraction and online sample cleanup. Dust was extracted with methanol by sonication and cleaned up by addition of active carbon. In total, 27 PFASs were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The correlation between PFAS levels in dust and serum, serum lipids and thyroid hormone levels, and PFAS levels in dust between different rooms were statistically evaluated. PFOS and PFDA could be quantified in all cat serum samples (median 2300 pg/mL and 430 pg/mL, respectively), followed by PFOA (median 1100 pg/mL), quantified in 96% of the samples. The levels of 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs were determined in 65% and 92% of the serum samples, respectively, and were an order of magnitude lower (1.4–160 pg/mL). Household dust on the other hand was dominated by 6:2 and 8:2 diPAPs, with a median of 65 ng/g dust and 49 ng/g dust, respectively. PFOS (median 13 ng/g dust) and PFOA (median 9 ng/g dust) were quantified in 93% of the dust samples. Only eight PFASs were detected (>LOD) in at least 50% of the samples of both matrices and could be paired. Significant correlations between cat serum and dust were found for PFOA ( r S =0.32, p <0.049) and PFUnDA ( r S =0.55, p <0.001). Significant positive correlations were found between serum total thyroxine ( r S =0.11, p <0.05) and PFNA and between serum cholesterol and PFHpA ( r S =0.46, p <0.01), PFUnDA ( r S =0.40, p <0.05), PFDoDA ( r S =0.44, p <0.01), and sum PFAS ( r S =0.48, p <0.01). In conclusion, this study confirmed that dust is a relevant exposure pathway for the ingestion of some PFASs for cats, and the serum levels of PFASs could be of relevance for the cat’s health.
... This chart was used to determine the number of technologies in which each firm was involved. The reciprocal of this number was used as the technology measure since it was fund to be a better predictor of firm performance than the raw number of technologies ( [20], [22]). Therefore, a high score on this variable indicated a high degree of technological relatedness (few distinct technologies). ...
... The set of "svy" commands in Stata, including those for logistic regression, properly accounts for survey design factors (such as the differential response probability weights) (Stata Corporation, 2000). Stepwise selection procedures are not available with these commands and so to fit reasonably parsimonious models the procedure known as "chunkwise" (Kleinbaum et al. 1998) or "block" backward elimination techniques (Sribney 1998) was adopted. For each model the possible list of covariates was organised into logical groupings that are shown in computed beginning with the group of covariates hypothesised to be least associated with low educational attainment. ...
Thesis
p>This thesis explores the implications of parental divorce, or separation, and stepfamily formation in childhood for a cohort of young adults. It uses the 1970 British Cohort Study, which has followed up since those born in British in a week in April 1970. The age 26 survey is used to examine outcomes according to the number, type and timing of family transitions up to age 16. A regression based weighting scheme compensates for the effects of differential non-response at later stages of the study and the potential for bias in the reported date of parental separation is addressed. Over one in four of the cohort members experienced family disruption. Using discrete-time logistic regression hazards models, the research identifies the characteristics of families more likely to undergo transitions by the time the cohort member is 16. The thesis then focuses on three outcomes: achieving fewer than five Ordinary Level examination passes; experiencing unemployment; and, for women, teenage or young motherhood. In the chapters examining educational attainment and early childbearing, the analysis controls for family characteristics from birth onwards to examine whether associations between family disruption and later outcomes are the product of the selection of certain families into disruption, a result of the environment around the time of transitions, or the effect of post disruption circumstances. The chapter considering unemployment evaluates whether certain family transitions continue to be associated with labour market experiences over and above any association with educational attainment. Outcomes vary according to the sex of the cohort member, the type of disruption and their age at the last transition. Compared to children who grew up living with both natural parents, those who experienced the most common types of family disruption, into a lone mother or stepfather family (without ever living with stepsiblings) are not generally found to have a higher probability of more disadvantaged outcomes after taking early socio-economic circumstances into account. However, late childhood transitions seem to be associated with lower educational attainment for women, while an early move into a lone mother family may place men at a disadvantage in the labour market. Children who experienced less common transitions, such as those who lived in stepfamilies that ever contained stepsiblings or were ever taken into statutory or foster care, have poorer outcomes.</p
... Logistic regression models were built to study the relation between the risk of depression and the different study variables. These models included variables showing a statistical significance of p < 0.2 in the bivariate study [22]. ...
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The aim of this study was to analyze university Health Sciences students' self-perception regarding gender stereotypes, and to explore whether there was any association between gender stereotypes and clinical/socio-demographic variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 252 university students who completed a self-administrated online questionnaire (18.3% males, 81.7% females). We evaluated the self-perception of gender stereotypes as determined using the BSRI-12 questionnaire and explored the association of this measure with the impact of perceived stress measured using a modified scale (PSS-10-C) as well as anxiety and depression according to scores on the Goldberg scale (GADS). Results: According to the students' self-perception of gender stereotypes, 24.9% self-perceived themselves as feminine, 20.1% as masculine, 24.9% as androgynous, and 30% as undifferentiated. The degree determines self-identification with gender stereotypes. Nursing and Occupational Therapy are studied mostly by women, 28.4% and 45%, respectively, while Physiotherapy is studied mainly by men (71.2%). Females indicated more anxiety (75.7%) and depression (81.7%) than males (52.9% and 67.3%, respectively). In contrast, males developed more stress (88.5%) than females (74.1%). Conclusions: University degree, anxiety, depression, and stress determined self-identification with gender stereotypes. The results of this study indicate that gender roles influence the possibility of developing mental disorders and should be taken into account in future studies.
... Cronbach's Alpha tests were conducted on the two sets of data: causes and effects of MHAS of PPP construction projects. Factor analysis (FA) was conducted to establish constructs that can explain relationships between interrelated variables (Kleinbaum et al. 1988). For data reduction, principal component factor analysis (PCFA) is suitable to compute the correlation matrix of the eight causes of moral hazard and adverse selection of PPP construction projects (Table 1). ...
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Moral hazards and adverse selection (MHAS) lead to failure in public-private partnership (PPP) projects and delay in delivery outputs' requirements. This research developed a fuzzy synthetic evaluation model (FSEM) to measure cause and effect level of MHAS of PPP construction projects. Mean score ranking and principal component factor analysis (PCFA) evaluated the causal factors. FSEM calculated overall cause and effect (OCE) level. PCFA analysis yielded three components: party and risk factors, incentives and contractual obligations and contract and project conditions while FSEM determined the OCE level to be 3.92. Party and risk factors; incentives and contractual obligations; contract and project conditions had cause and effect levels of 3.99, 3.99 and 3.79. Findings will enhance knowledge on MHAS risk levels of PPP construction projects thereby prompting project stakeholders to reduce the risks. Further research recommends using computer-based systems to minimize complexities and human errors during manual computation of fuzzy analysis.
... The result indicated that 32.46% (<50% cutoff point) of the total variance was explained by a single constrained factor, which suggested that the instrument is free from significant common method bias effects. To assess multicollinearity, we ran a series of regression models on the various constructs to calculate the variance inflation factors (VIFs); the VIF values ranged from 1.174 to 2.132, which can be considered unproblematic given the cut-off value of 5.0 (Kleinbaum et al., 1988). To verify data normality, we assessed the skewness and kurtosis values for all constructs. ...
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Given the lack of research into the link between the individual cultural values of the millennial generation mediated by religious commitment (RC) and brand love (BL), this research intends to the following: (a) identify the individual cultural values of the millennial generation and (b) explain how these values influence BL when mediated by RC. A quantitative methodology with structural equation modelling is used. Data were collected from members of the millennial generation in Portugal by survey questionnaire. The main findings of the data analysis showed that independence, power and tradition are the predominant individual cultural values of Portuguese millennials. The results showed that the independence individual cultural value negatively influences intrapersonal and interpersonal RC; power and tradition positively influence intrapersonal and interpersonal RC; only interpersonal RC positively influences BL. The study concludes with some insights that managers might use to address consumer-brand communications. Guidelines for further research are presented.
... It also depicts that none of the correlation coefficients exceeds 0.80, indicating that multicollinearity is not a serious issue in this model [30]. According to Kleinbaum et al. [34], a variable is supposed to be highly collinear when the value of variance inflation factor (VIF) is more than 10. This situation creates the problem of multicollinearity [30]. ...
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The precarious and decisive dynamics concerning the health of the population of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries has called for further inquiry into the determinants of Life Expectancy (LE) in this region. Hence, the current paper employs panel data estimation methods to analyse the economic, social, demographic, environmental, and technological factors influencing LE in five SAARC countries. These countries (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) are selected as they are favoured by the country similarity theory and other identical contexts, and because their data are obtained from the World Bank and UNDP databases from 2000 to 2016. The results reveal that the mean year of schooling and sanitation services are significant positive predictors of Life Expectancy at Birth (LEAB). However, the total fertility rate, urban population, and CO2 emissions negatively influence life expectancy. Furthermore, the impact of health expenditure on life expectancy is significant but negative, which is unconventional. On the other hand, other independent variables, such as GDP, gross capital formation, internet usage, and mobile cellular subscription turn out to be insignificant predictors of LEAB. Our aggregate findings reveal some common factors on which the governments of SAARC countries can collaborate to improve the LEAB of the region while identifying some idiosyncratic factors that require tailored attention of the governments and policymakers of the respective nations.
... Firstly, sociodemographic variables have been included, and secondly, psychological variables have been included.The appropriateness of the analysis was assessed prior to performing the regression analyses. The results indicated that the assumptions of non-multicollinearity were met (<5, VIF = 1.00;Kleinbaum et al., 1988), and the tolerance values were between 1 and .62. In addition, there was no autocorrelation in the protective and sociodemographic variables, fulfilling the assumption of independence from error as indicated by the Durwin-Watson index with a coefficient of nearly two −1.907 in the total scale; 1.851 for the anxiety subscale and 2.012 in the depression subscale, and the results obtained could be generalized to the general population(Chen, 2020).Goodness-of-fit indices were found prior to regression analysis. ...
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Background Drastic changes in the lifestyle of individuals have been caused by coronarivus SARS‐CoV‐2 with lethal effects associated with COVID‐19, which acts as a stressor for the population with adverse effects on mental health status. The aim was to identify which sociodemographic variables and psychological factors predict psychological disorders in the general Spanish population. Methods The sample consisted of 699 people exposed to a confinement situation, where 402 (57.51%) were women and 297 (42.49%) were men, between 18 and 73 years old (M = 27.79; SD = 12.68). Different sociodemographic and psychological variables were assessed to see if they predicted levels of anxiety and depression. Results The results identify the predictive capacity of some sociodemographic risk variables such as sex (β = .144; IC95% = 1.341–3.376) and living with people who are ill with COVID‐19 (β = .088; IC95% = 1.157–6.785), as well as protective factors such as self‐efficacy (β = −.126; IC95% = −0.282–0.066) and hope (β = −.429; IC95% = −0.591–0.408) in mental health. In predicting anxiety levels, self‐efficacy and hope are protective factors, especially when living with people in essential services. In levels of depression, only hope is considered a protective factor in people living with patients infected by COVID‐19. Conclusions This study is the first to advance in the understanding of sociodemographic and psychological variables in a Spanish sample subjected to the stressful and traumatic effects of the SARS‐CoV‐2 viral agent.
... Correlation coefficient are low suggesting that multicollinearity is not an issue. The maximum variance inflation factor (VIF) is 1.46, and the mean VIF is 1.25 showing that multicollinearity is also not an issue (Kleinbaum et al., 1988). ...
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This paper focuses on the creation of new markets through technological exaptation i.e. the repurposing of existing technologies to serve new functions in a different market domain. We conceptualize the ability of new ventures to create new market applications for existing technologies as dependent on the knowledge, skills, and cognitive frames developed by the founding teams’ members during their professional careers. Specifically, we hypothesize that the extent of the founding team's employment experience across different organizations influences the probability that the new venture will create a new market through technological exaptation. We also explain why experience in entrepreneurially prominent organizations changes this relationship at various levels of prior employment experience. We test our arguments using data on blockchain startups (and their founders/co-founders) in the worldwide energy sector established between 2010 and 2019. The results show that the likelihood that a new venture develops a new market application for blockchain technology in the energy sector is associated with the professional experience of the founding team members. We discuss the implications of these findings.
... In the case of formative items, the absence of high multicollinearity between them must be checked. The highest variance inflation factor is below the cutoff value of 5, indicating that multicollinearity is not a problem (Kleinbaum et al., 2013). ...
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Entrepreneurial intention is a key research question in entrepreneurship. Previous studies have proven the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain entrepreneurial intention. Scholars have thus focused on analyzing factors to develop the three antecedents of TPB, one of which is social capital. However, research has barely considered social capital online. We extend research by exploring the effect of social capital on these antecedents and on entrepreneurial intention, and by analyzing the differences in these influences between social capital online and offline. Using partial least squares and commonality analysis for 587 individuals in Spain, we find that social capital influences these antecedents and entrepreneurial intention. Furthermore, social capital online has a greater effect in attitude toward entrepreneurship, a similar effect on perceived behavioral control, and a lesser effect on social norms than social capital offline. Finally, social capital online has a greater influence on entrepreneurial intention than social capital offline. JEL CLASSIFICATION: M1 Business Administration, M13 New Firms • Startups
... Although some variables showed a statistically significant correlation, analysis of the variance inflation factors (Kleinbaum, Kupper, & Muller, 1998) revealed no evidence of multicollinearity (i.e., no factor above 10). Finally, we corrected the autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity issues using the finite sample-corrected two-step covariance matrix. ...
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While principal–principal problems are prevalent in emerging economies, the severity of these problems could vary based on the identity of shareholders and the institutional context. This study theoretically and empirically analyzes the effect of state and family blockholders as well as their possible interaction on financial firm performance in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Using a dataset of 389 non-financial firms and 2607 observations (2009–2015), we found that ownership held by the state as the largest shareholder has a negative effect on firm performance, whereas this negative effect disappears when the state owns between 15 % and 50 % of shares and coexists with local families as other large shareholders. Our findings contribute to the nexus between the family business and corporate governance literature by studying principal–principal agency problems and the impact of owner combinations on firm performance in emerging economies in the GCC region.
... Results are presented in Table 4. The results of VIF (all are < 4) and tolerance (none of the value is ≤ 0.01) show that independent variables are free from chances of multicollinearity (Hair et al., 2010;Kleinbaum et al., 1988). ...
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This paper aims at examining the factor affecting the entrepreneurial intentions among the students in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia based on a primary survey of 300 undergraduate and postgraduate management students. This primary survey comprises questions on entrepreneurial attitude, subjective norms, entrepreneurship self-efficacy, entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial curriculum/teaching, and entrepreneurial intention. Factor analysis extracted six factors, which explained 69.4 per cent of the variance. Regression results revealed that entrepreneurial attitude, entrepreneurship self-efficacy, entrepreneurial knowledge, and entrepreneurial curriculum/teaching are the major determinants of entrepreneurial intention among the surveyed students. This study provides an in-depth understanding of determinants of entrepreneurial intention among the students, which may help in designing an effective teaching–learning framework. This would also be useful in developing an entrepreneurial ecosystem among youth for achieving the Saudi Government’s Vision 2030.
... As there is no formal cutoff value to use with VIF for determining the presence of multicollinearity, the normal practice is to consider if VIF values exceed 10, it is often regarded as indicating multicollinearity problems. 29 Therefore, our estimates indicate no problems of multicollinearity. ...
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Background Health insurance coverage is expected to protect individuals from out-ofpocket (OOP) expenditures, potentially preventing them from falling into poverty. However, to date, the effect of health insurance on OOP spending during the COVID-19 pandemic has not been fully explored. This study aimed to estimate differences in the proportion and the amount of OOP expenditures among Peruvians during the pre- and post-mandatory lockdown response to COVID-19 in 2020 according to the health insurance coverage status. Methods This study utilized repeated cross-sectional data from the National Household Survey on Living and Poverty Conditions from the first quarter of 2017 until the fourth quarter of 2020. The outcomes were i) the proportion of individuals who incurred OOP expenditures and ii) the monetary value of OOP expenditures. An interrupted time series analysis (ITS) and a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference (DID) analysis were performed to examine the outcomes among the control (individuals without health insurance) and treatment groups (individuals with health insurance) after the COVID-19 pandemic. Results ITS analysis showed that the proportion of individuals reporting OOP expenditures after implementation of mandatory lockdown due to COVID-19 in Peru decreased in both groups, but no difference in the slope trend was found (p=0.916). The average quarterly amount of OOP spending increased in both groups, but no difference in the slope trend was found (p=0.073). Lastly, the DID analysis showed that the mandatory lockdown was associated with a higher amount of OOP, but there was no evidence to indicate that the higher amount was different between the control and treatment groups. Conclusion The mandatory lockdown in response to the COVID-19 was associated with a higher amount of OOP expenditures and a lower likelihood of incurring OOP expenditures. However, our findings suggest that health insurance coverage does not lower OOP expenditures or reduce the likelihood of incurring OOP expenditures.
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Purpose African men are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer (PCa). Given the increasing prevalence of obesity in Africa, and its association with aggressive PCa in other populations, we examined the relationship of overall and central obesity with risks of total and aggressive PCa among African men. Methods Between 2016 and 2020, we recruited 2,200 PCa cases and 1,985 age-matched controls into a multi-center, hospital-based case–control study in Senegal, Ghana, Nigeria, and South Africa. Participants completed an epidemiologic questionnaire, and anthropometric factors were measured at clinic visit. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations of overall and central obesity with PCa risk, measured by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), respectively. Results Among controls 16.4% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²), 26% and 90% had WC > 97 cm and WHR > 0.9, respectively. Cases with aggressive PCa had lower BMI/obesity in comparison to both controls and cases with less aggressive PCa, suggesting weight loss related to cancer. Overall obesity (odds ratio: OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.99–1.93), and central obesity (WC > 97 cm: OR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.10–2.33; and WHtR > 0.59: OR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.24–2.29) were positively associated with D’Amico intermediate-risk PCa, but not with risks of total or high-risk PCa. Associations were more pronounced in West versus South Africa, but these differences were not statistically significant. Discussion The high prevalence of overall and central obesity in African men and their association with intermediate-risk PCa represent an emerging public health concern in Africa. Large cohort studies are needed to better clarify the role of obesity and PCa in various African populations.
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Purpose – The purpose of this study is to examine the antecedents of service quality and customer value in a manufacturer-distributor context by elaborating the basic principles of general systems theory. Based on previous research in the field we demonstrate how an initially multidimensional and complicated phenomenon can be explained and predicted by a relatively simple research model. Methodology/approach – After the theoretical discussion, this paper develops a systemic research model for measuring service quality and customer value. The model suggests that input dimensions positively affect process dimensions, which subsequently have a positive effect on output quality. It shows the mechanisms by which factors outside the traditional service management domain impact service outcomes directly and indirectly. Quantitative empirical research was carried out in order to test the hypotheses inherent in the research model, and the data were analyzed using the partial least squares (PLS) method. Findings – Study findings support the widespread idea that perceived service quality and customer value are grounded in the quality of the service process and also on critical input factors. Considering both direct and indirect effects, it seems that the most significant driver behind the service quality and customer value is employee response followed by employee assurance. Nevertheless, it is important to note that both tangibles and visuals (visually appealing physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), as well as information items (quality and accessibility of information and communication quality), are quite strong predictors of the associated process structures. These service attributes should not be rejected when in pursuit of a comprehensive quality policy in practice. Research Implications – The chief contribution of this study to the research community is that a more definite conceptualization and explanation of the service success can be found by the general systems theory. Practical Implications – Our advice to practitioners, and above all to service management, is that they must do everything in their power to increase the level of employee responsiveness. Without ignoring other dimensions in the quality system, the soft metrics inherent in employee assurance are valued highly by customers. Originality/value – The research model reveals previously unrecognized interactions between eight constructs. Our data and the empirical tests confirm that the adopted approach explains service quality and customer value exceptionally well. In addition to the explanatory power of the proposed approach, due to the methodology chosen, it also has strong predictive power. Thus, the model can be used to predict observations for cases that are similar to the case used in the sample. Even though the specific focus of the study is on the manufacturer-distributor context, the results are applicable to service management in general.
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The present study aims to assess employee emotional responses of organizations undergoing Mergers and Acquisitions and middle‐level manager role in managing these emotional responses in the post‐acquisition phase. The study is empirical in which a total of 215 responses from middle managers, involved in six Mergers and Acquisitions, were considered. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of employee emotions during change, and middle manager role tested in other change contexts. The psychometric properties of the measures are established before testing the hypotheses. The results indicated that middle managers involvement in the strategy could enhance their commitment, which can reduce resistance to change and smoother integration. The results highlighted the importance of leveraging the middle manager role, given the post‐merger phase's criticality to achieve the desired synergies. One of the fundamental strengths of the paper is the rigors undertaken in selecting the companies representing an apt radical change context to test the theory of emotional balancing. The application of the concept of emotional balancing in the radical change context of Mergers and Acquisitions and its empirical validation is an original contribution to the field of knowledge in change management.
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In this paper, we discuss the theory behind calibration curve experiments and their application to a zinc (Zn) bioavailability study with broiler chickens. Seven replicates of 16 male commercial broiler chicks were fed starter diets for 14 days. Six diets had different levels of a potential Zn source and one was a positive control with standard industry levels of Zn for comparison. Four commonly used methods of calculating bioavailability means and confidence intervals (CI) from a calibration curve (standard curve) experiment to estimate the bioavailability of a new zinc source in broiler chickens were compared. The methods compared were the following: 1) the Counter-Intuitive Method uses a multiple-range test to compare unknown test and standard samples; 2) the Intuitive Method uses standard linear regression and inverts the equation to predict Zn bioavailability for each replicate of test samples; 3) the Abductive Method uses Graybill’s Equation, based on theory and observation, to estimate CI’s; and 4) the Sophistic Method uses reverse regression, and calculates Zn bioavailability values directly from the equation.The Counter-Intuitive Method only gives information about which standards the test samples are, or are not, significantly different from respectively (average available Zn not predicted).The Intuitive Method ignores error about the standard curve and theoretically cannot estimate the CI directly (X¯±SEM= 107.5 ± 15.8 mg Zn/kg). The Sophistic Method underestimates and overestimates the test sample mean values above and below the mean of the standards, respectively (X¯ = 96.6 mg Zn/kg). The Abductive Method has an advantage over the other methods: The mean prediction estimationis consistent with theory (107.5 ± 6.1 mg Zn/kg; X¯±SEM). When test or “unknown” samples are near the mean of the standard samples, the CI is smaller than when near the extremes of the calibration curve. When calibration curve error is small (R² > approximately 0.95), there is little advantage to using the Abductive Method, but when calibration curve error is larger, as in many bioassays with growing animals, the Abductive Method improves the accuracy of the CI calculations. The Abductive Method was used to demonstrate the influence of the number of replicate samples on experimental power and cost.
Chapter
There are several measures of disease frequency that are used in the epidemiological and medical literature. A perfect diagnostic test would always identify patients as positive if they have the disease and would always be negative in patients without a disease. Descriptive statistics are used to summarise and describe distributions of data. While traditional methods use a test and/or a diagnostic tool to predict a disease state and/or outcome, as discussed at the beginning of this chapter, predictive analysis is becoming increasingly popular due to the emergence of sophisticated data science. When performing research, consulting with a biostatistician is paramount to ensure that the study is designed in a way that facilitates proper analysis. However, having knowledge of the concepts in biostatistics ensures that the clinical goals of the study meet the study design and the analytical plan.
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Este estudio propone un modelo integrador de la recompra en comercio electrónico (B2C), basado en la teoría de la confirmación de expectativas, tomando como partida el modelo de Bhattacherjee extendido con el modelo de satisfacción Cronin. El modelo de investigación se ha probado con 536 compradores españoles, usando análisis multigrupo. El modelo fue capaz de explicar más del setenta por ciento de la varianza de la intención de recompra. Como resultados, la relación entre la calidad y la satisfacción es no significativa para todos los tipos de consumidores y la relación entre la utilidad y la recompra es no significativa sólo para los compradores más frecuentes. Algunas ideas para llevar a la práctica son presentadas a modo de discusión.
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Disclosure of gender equality policies and their effect on business profitability is a relevant area of research due to the existence of a gap in the academic literature and the need to decrease the gender gap in companies (5th Sustainable Development Goal of the United Nations). To demonstrate the effect of disclosure of gender policies on business profitability, this study analyses the Social Responsibility Reports of 91 companies listed on the Spanish stock exchange for the period 2016-2018. Information on gender equality policies is extracted by using the content analysis technique. A positive association between disclosure of gender equality policies and the accounting profitability obtained by companies is confirmed by applying a panel data approach. Therefore, this research confirms that it is not only necessary to reduce inequalities, but it also has positive financial effects for companies and is a source of competitive advantage. The findings obtained have significant implications for business management.
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Background: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated skin disease. It affects skin and joints, characterized by abnormal hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. The worldwide prevalence of psoriasis ranges from 2% to 4%. Environmental factors as smoking, alcohol consumption obesity can also work as triggers. During the inflammatory process, there is an exacerbated formation of free radicals and antioxidants are required to maintain redox balance. Aim: Assess antioxidant profiles. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between August/2012 and March/2014. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and biochemical measurements, dietary intake, serum lycopene and α-tocopherol, psoriasis severity according to Psoriasis Area and Severity Index were obtained. Comparisons between serum lycopene and α-tocopherol distributions according to variables were conducted using a one-way analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression was used to investigate factors associated with serum antioxidants. Results: 81 participants (56% female, 62% non-white), 34% without psoriatic lesions, 51% diagnosed with mild psoriasis, and 15% with moderate psoriasis. Median (IQR) age of 54 (41, 62) years, 10 (4, 11) years of education, 17% smokers, 46% overweight and 25% obesity. In total, 72% did not reach the daily recommendation of fruit and vegetable intake. Serum lycopene and α-tocopherol were 0.2 (0.1-0.3) µmol/L and 22.5 (18.5-25.6) µmol/L, respectively. Only 14% presented adequate concentration of lycopene, but adequate α-tocopherol level was observed among 88%. Conclusions: Patients reported a diet low in vegetables and fruits and rich in ultra-processed foods and fatty acids. Adequate circulating α-tocopherol but low serum lycopene, was observed among patients. A linear trend was observed for lycopene according to the severity of psoriasis.
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The use of controls is a core management activity for multinational corporations. To extend the understanding of these tools, this research builds on the Jaworski’s (1988) framework on marketing and sales controls. By focusing on an international marketing and sales setting, we examine the influence of the local environmental context on the control types applied by the headquarters of medium-sized industrial goods corporations. We collected data from 184 subsidiaries from different industries and different European countries. All headquarters were located in Switzerland. An empirical test of rival, theory-based conceptual models reveals the superior version: It contains mixed effects of the local environment on the level of control and a direct positive effect of the kinds of examined controls on psychological outcomes, but no moderating effect of environmental context.
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Exposure to lead (Pb) from ammunition in scavenging and raptorial birds has achieved worldwide recognition based on incidences of lethal poisoning, but exposure implies also sublethal levels with potential harmful effects. Background and elevated Pb levels in liver from 116 golden eagles (GE, Aquila chrysaetos) and 200 white-tailed sea eagles (WTSE, Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden 2003–2011 are here examined, with supporting data from a previous WTSE report and eagle owl (EO, Bubu bubo) report. GE and WTSE display seasonal patterns, with no Pb level exceeding a generally accepted threshold for subclinical effects during summer but strongly elevated levels from October. Fledged juveniles show significantly lower levels than all other age classes, but reach levels found in older birds in autumn after the start of hunting seasons. Pb levels in EO (non-scavenger) show no seasonal changes and indicate no influence from ammunition, and are close to levels observed in juvenile eagles before October. In all, 15% WTSE and 7% GE were lethally poisoned. In areas with high-exposure to hunting ammunition, 24% of WTSE showed lethal Pb levels, compared to 7% in both eagle species from low-exposure areas. Lethal poisoning of WTSE remained as frequent after (15%) as before (13%) a partial ban on use of Pb-based shotgun ammunition over shallow waters (2002). Pb levels increased significantly in WTSE 1981–2011, in contrast to other biota from the same period. A significant decrease of Pb in WTSE liver occurred below a threshold at 0.25 μg/g (dry weight), exceeded by 81% of the birds. Trend patterns in Pb isotope ratios lend further support to this estimated cut-off level for environmental background concentrations. Pb from spent ammunition affects a range of scavenging and predatory species. A shift to Pb-free ammunition to save wildlife from unnecessary harm is an important environmental and ethical issue.
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Objectives We described disparities in infectious disease (ID) hospitalizations for American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people. Methods We analyzed hospitalizations with an ID listed as the first discharge diagnosis in 1998–2006 for AI/AN people from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System and compared them with records for the general U.S. population from the Nationwide Inpatient Survey. Results The ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people declined during the study period. The 2004–2006 mean annual age-adjusted ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people (1,708 per 100,000 populiation) was slightly higher than that for the U.S. population (1,610 per 100,000 population). The rate for AI/AN people was highest in the Southwest (2,314 per 100,000 population), Alaska (2,063 per 100,000 population), and Northern Plains West (1,957 per 100,000 population) regions, and among infants (9,315 per 100,000 population). ID hospitalizations accounted for approximately 22% of all AI/AN hospitalizations. Lower-respiratory-tract infections accounted for the largest proportion of ID hospitalizations among AI/AN people (35%) followed by skin and soft tissue infections (19%), and infections of the kidney, urinary tract, and bladder (11%). Conclusions Although the ID hospitalization rate for AI/AN people has declined, it remains higher than that for the U.S. general population, and is highest in the Southwest, Northern Plains West, and Alaska regions. Lower-respiratory-tract infections; skin and soft tissue infections; and kidney, urinary tract, and bladder infections contributed most to these health disparities. Future prevention strategies should focus on high-risk regions and age groups, along with illnesses contributing to health disparities.
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The current research aims at comparing the classification of: the discriminate analysis and the neural networks as a technique of computer sciences and artificial intelligence. Then comparing their results with the actual medical diagnosis of oral cancer that has been done on a sample consisted of (37) outpatient to Al – Jumhoori and Al – Salam Hospitals. In order to achieve the aims of the study, the data - base have been programmed via visual basic (v.6). The process includes all the medical data sheets for diagnosis (attached 1). In the discriminate analysis, three standards consisted of discriminate function. Finding the cut of point, the (rate of error) on the samples that includes (14), cases diagnosed medically (23), cases out of disease. The research demonstrated the discriminate function that can be used to distinct among with and without infected through knowing, cut of point amounted (-21.3), additionally knowing the rate of error referred in the end of the research that give a power of the discriminate function. A simplified perception neural network has been used as a successful procedure in classifying the cases of infected and non infected patients. By using (θ = 0.75, & (η = 0.020) as a threshold value and training rate respectively. In comparing what has been done in discriminate analysis and neural networks perception via input a number new cases then classifying them according to the medical diagnosis done, showed a great coincidence in results
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Most research in the field of customer engagement employs multi-item measures that are comceptualised as three-dimensional and reflective models. This leaves room to suggest an alternative approach for defining and operationalising the construct. From a behavioural standpoint, we propose a higher-order formative measurement model (FMM) underlying customer engagement behaviours (CEBs) in the context of Facebook fan pages. Data from 259 restaurant customers show that the FMM works well, both theoretically and empirically, and that CEBs include eight dimensions and 16 indices. We also apply text mining (TM) techniques to analyse customers’ Facebook posts. The findings indicate that some dimensions identified by the FMM could not be extracted using TM, and the TM analysis provided clues regarding the FMM indices; the two approaches complement rather than compete with each other. These results serve as a basis for scale development in future research, and provide guidelines for managers to enhance long-term customer relationships.
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Objective: Epileptic spasms are a hallmark of a severe epileptic state. A previous study showed neocortical up and down states defined by unit activity play a role in the generation of spasms. However, recording unit activity is challenging in clinical settings, and more accessible neurophysiological signals are needed for the analysis of these brain states. Methods: In the tetrodotoxin model, we used 16-channel microarrays to record electrophysiological activity in the neocortex during interictal periods and spasms. High-frequency activity (HFA) in the frequency range of fast ripples (200-500 Hz) was analyzed, as were slow wave oscillations (1-8 Hz), and correlated with the neocortical up and down states defined by multiunit activity (MUA). Results: HFA and MUA had high temporal correlation during interictal and ictal periods. Both increased strikingly during interictal up states and ictal events but were silenced during interictal down states and preictal pauses, and their distributions were clustered at the peak of slow oscillations in local field potential recordings. In addition, both HFA power and MUA firing rates were increased to a greater extent during spasms than interictal up states. During non-rapid eye movement sleep, the HFA rhythmicity faithfully followed the MUA up and down states, but during rapid eye movement sleep when MUA up and down states disappeared the HFA rhythmicity was largely absent. We also observed an increase in the number of HFA down state minutes prior to ictal onset, consistent with the results from analyses of MUA down states. Significance: This study provides evidence that HFA may serve as a biomarker for the pathological up states of epileptic spasms. The availability of HFA recordings makes this a clinically practical technique. These findings will likely provide a novel approach for localizing and studying epileptogenic neocortical networks not only in spasms patients but also in other types of epilepsy.
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Incomplete dataset has been affecting researches since conducting research existed. This research project covers the exploration of different types of missingness in a data set and specifically compare efficiency of Multiple imputations and Listwise Deletion on survival models. Notably, Not Missing At Random (NMAR) and Missing Completely At Random (MCAR) were explored on Proportional Hazard Models and Accelerated Failure Time survival models. These types of missingness were tested on different sample sizes; that is, 100, 300, 600 and 1000 noting that this was tested as 10%, 25% and 50% level of missingness. R program was used to perform the simulation and analysis using Exponential and Gompertz (PH) models and also Weibull and Log Normal (AFT) models. The standard error of the regression model was computed and taken using the smaller the better rule for standard error; the preferred performing model was noted. It was concluded that; for MCAR pattern; the LD method performed better ultimately at any percent of missing in Exponential and Weibull distribution. However, the MI method appeared better in the Gompertz and Lognormal models for small sample sizes while LD is better for large sample sizes. suppose the data is Not Missing At Random (NMAR), MI technique showed better performance than the LD technique in both the PH and AFT in most parts except for a few cases of LD being better for lognormal model when the sample size and percent of missing are small. LD is also better when we have a large sample size with small percent of missing for the exponential model and large sample size for Weibull model across all percent of missing.
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