Chapter

Lorentz-formula

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

For calculating the ideal body-weight (w) of a subject; for men: w = (height [cm]− 100) − ((height − 150)/4); for women: w = (height − 100) − ((height − 150)/2); → see also bodymass-index.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

Article
Nutritional status can change in breast cancer patients after treatment. However, the metabolic implications of those alterations are poorly understood. We used a cross-sectional study design to compare body composition, lipids, glucose levels, and adiposity indices in breast cancer patients with a matched control and a healthy group. We recruited women who completed their chemotherapy (BC group) and compared them with a group of women without cancer age and body mass index-paired (MC group) and a group of healthy women (HC group). We estimated body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis, physical function by handgrip strength, and food consumption by 24-hour food record. A blood sample was collected. We calculated visceral obesity indices (VAI and LAP) and insulin resistance-triglyceride glucose (TyG). Eighty-eight women were included (BC = 36, MC = 36, HC = 16). BC patients demonstrated worse phase angle values, nutritional risk index and lower handgrip strength. Additionally, according to the indices, BC had impairments in lipids, worse glucose levels, and elevated visceral fat adiposity and presented important unhealthy dietary patterns characterized by under-recommended protein consumption and higher caloric intake than the other groups. No differences were observed between both control groups. Further investigations are required to examine the underlying mechanisms and the potential longitudinal changes during surveillance.
Article
Purpose The study aimed to analyze the influence of chemotherapy on nutritional status and the phase angle (PhA) as nutritional indicator for breast cancer women undergoing chemotherapy. Methods A prospective study was performed. Women who were starting chemotherapy with no previous chemotherapy treatment were recruited. Quality of life (QoL) was collected using the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. Bioelectrical impedance analysis, performance tests, and blood sample to albumin analyzes were collected at 2-time points: diagnosis (T0) and after 1 month of completion of therapy (T1). Mean, standard deviation, linear regression, and ANOVA in R were used to explore the results. Results 61 women were included. We did not find any changes in body composition. However, PhA, nutritional risk index (NRI), gait speed (GS), and handgrip strength (HGS) had expressive changes (p<0.001). 75.4% of women had PhA values below the cut-off point of 5.6º, and the group that had a lower average of PhA also expressed low NRI. PhA was a nutritional status marker and its values were influenced by changes in NRI. (p<0.05). Conclusion We have found supporting evidence for chemotherapy treatment resulting in worsening of prognostic factors such as PhA, and yet PhA was related to no nutritional risk. Besides a higher prevalence of obesity, 80% of the sample showed some nutritional risk level, implying the possibility of a sub-notification candidate who might benefit, for instance, from nutritional intervention in obesity groups. Further investigation about this theme may improve health measures for the prevention and screening of disease among breast cancer.
Article
Full-text available
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) are involved in metabolic regulation. The purpose of the study was to assess the serum levels of NPY and PYY in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) or obesity (OB), as well as in a healthy control group (CG). The effects of potential confounders on their concentrations were also analysed. Eighty-nine adolescents were included in this study (AN = 30, OB = 30, and CG = 29). Anthropometric measurements and psychometric assessment of depressive symptoms, eating behaviours, body attitudes, and fasting serum levels of NPY and PYY were analysed. The AN group presented severe depressive symptoms, while the OB group held different attitudes towards the body. The levels of NPY were lower in the AN and OB groups as compared with the CG. The PYY levels were higher in the OB group than in the AN group and the CG. The severity of eating disorder symptoms predicted fasting serum concentrations of NPY. Lower levels of NPY in AN, as well as in OB suggests the need to look for a common link in the mechanism of this effect. Higher level of PYY in OB may be important in explaining complex etiopathogenesis of the disease. The psychopathological symptoms may have an influence on the neurohormones regulating metabolism.
Article
Full-text available
Very low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets (VLCKDs) are an emerging nutritional treatment for severe obesity and are associated with a significant improvement in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Little is known about the effect of sex differences on weight loss induced by following a VLCKD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sex differences on weight loss and NAFLD improvement in patients with severe obesity undergoing a VLCKD. Forty-two females and 28 males with severe obesity underwent a 25-day VLCKD. Anthropometric parameters, bioimpedentiometry, degree of liver steatosis measured by ultrasonography, liver function tests, and glucose homeostasis were measured before and after the VLCKD. Males experienced a significantly larger excess body weight loss (EBWL) and a greater reduction in γ-glutamyl transferase (γGT) than females. Dividing the female group by menopausal status, a significant difference between males and pre-menopausal females was found for both EBWL and γGT. No significant difference between groups was observed for improvement in the Edmonton stage or in the degree of steatosis. We conclude that the efficacy of following a VLCKD in severe obesity is affected by sex differences and, for females, by menopausal status. Males seem to experience larger benefits than females in terms of EBWL and NAFLD improvement. These differences are attenuated after menopause, probably because of changes in hormonal profile and body composition.
Article
Background: The association between nutritional status (NS) and physical performance and disability in older adults with chronic heart failure (CHF) is not well established. We aimed at evaluating whether NS, estimated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), is associated with gait speed (GS) and disability (ADL/IADL impairment) in this population and to assess whether energy intake (EI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI) influence this relationship. Methods: In this cross-sectional study we enrolled 88 older adults admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic for CHF. MNA was analyzed both as continuous and categorical variable (risk of malnutrition [RM]/well-nourished [WN]). The association between NS and GS and disability was assessed using linear and logistic regression models, respectively, crude, adjusted firstly for age, sex, ejection fraction, and mood status, and then for EI and ASMMI. Results: Mean age was 77.8 years, 73% were men. MNA score was positively associated with GS: β adjusted = 0.022, P = 0.035; the coefficient was unaffected by adjustment for EI and ASMMI (β = 0.022, P = 0.052). Compared to WN, RM participants had a lower gait speed (0.82 vs 0.99 m/s, P = 0.006); the difference was attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (β - = 0.138, P = 0.055). MNA score was inversely associated with ADL impairment (Adjusted OR: 0.80, 95%CI 0.64-0.98), but not with IADL impairment (Adjusted OR: 0.94, 95%CI 0.78-1.13). Conclusion: Reduced MNA score is associated with poorer physical function and ADL impairment in older adults affected by CHF, independently of EI and ASMMI. Routinely evaluation of NS should be performed in this population.
Article
Full-text available
The main purpose of study was to gain more comprehensive information about the influence of body mass of water level on some cardiovascular and urinary parameters for the student athletes. Cardiovascular and urinary parameters analysis does not reflect the significant differences between the two samples, but most parameters do not fit into the normal reference values. Water is an essential component of the human body which influences major optimal functionality of the organism, maintains health and physical fitness level. Optimizing health is a prerequisite for optimizing human functional of locomotor, cardio-circulatory, respiratory, excretory, digestive and nervous, endocrine and lymphatic systems and motor capacities [1-9] Numerous studies have addressed the topic of hydration and dehydration in performant sports, focusing on the predominantly levels of knowledge and habits [10-15]. A number of studies have showed how the body water mass parameters are influencing the cardiac functionality and athletic performance on different types of sports: Ironman distance, triathlon competition [16], team sports [17-19[ and combat and other sports [20-22]. Numerous studies have shown that insufficient hydration of the body, during and after exercise, determine the incapacity of maintaining the optimum parameters of the in cardiovascular and urinary capacity and thus lower athletic performance [22-27]. An inappropriately level of hydration of the body, especially for a long time, can cause: blood thickening, decreased blood flow, increased blood pressure and increased production of cholesterol to reduce further loss of fluid from the cells and prevent the risk of some heart or brain strokes [28-29]. The level of water mass is related to body weight and muscle mass which includes the skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and the water contained in these muscles [20,30]. The main parameters of the mass of water that are influencing the cardiovascular equipment are: blood viscosity, vascular resistance, vascular elasticity, myocardial blood demand and myocardial oxygen consumption. Blood Viscosity represents the ability to flow through vasculature; it is the basic indicator of hemorheology which refers to the internal friction among blood molecules [31-33]. Vascular Resistance: dividing pressure gradient by volume flow, the longer the length and size of blood vessels is the higher the vascular resistance is and making it better [33-35]. Vascular Elasticity: expandability of arterial vascular elasticity during systolic ejection, and low elasticity is often associated with the existence or not, with a predisposition to develop other cardiovascular diseases [33,36-38]. Myocardial Blood Demand represents the blood demand per minute of coronary artery perfusion of heart [33]. Myocardial Blood Perfusion Volume it is determining the ratio of the actual blood demand per minute of coronary arter y perfusion of heart [33]. Myocardial Oxygen Consumption represents the quantity of oxygen consumed by heart per minute, expressed in milliliters, depending on the heart rate, blood pressure, myocardial contractility, myocardial contraction time [33,39-40]. Physical exercise causes increased protein excretion; transient urinary proteinuria phenomenon manifesting itself as a reversible physiological processes [41-45]. Practicing sports facilitates increased concentration of oxygen free radicals that cause oxidative stress installation inevitable phenomenon, which contributes to the emergence of post-exercise proteinuria [46]. There are relatively few studies that focused on highlighting the differences between female athletes and males as well as how the body by water mass influences a number of functional parameters in order to optimize health and sports performance. The main purpose of the current study was to gain more comprehensive information about the influence of the mass of water on the cardiovascular and urinar y parameters on the student athletes. First aim to highlight the differences between samples focused female and males athletes, in terms of mass by water and on some urinary and cardiovascular parameters, were influenced by the supply of oxygen and water levels in the body. Second targets aim to highlight the correlation between body mass by water and some cardiovascular and urinary parameters in student athletes.
Article
Prednisone is an anti‐inflammatory drug widely used in internal medicine and rheumatology, but dosing remains empirical. The active metabolite of prednisone is free prednisolone. The aim of this work was to build a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model that can predict free prednisolone concentrations in patients with inflammatory/immunologic conditions. A total of 107 patients from the department of internal medicine of Cochin hospital provided 343 observations. Blood samples drawn for biological analyses were used for drug determination. Total plasma prednisolone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry and the data were modelled using Monolix. The pharmacokinetics was ascribed a one‐compartment open model with 3 transit compartments standing for the absorption and metabolism process. The model used predicts free concentrations that served to derive total concentrations given published binding constants. Only size parameters influenced the pharmacokinetics. Free prednisolone CLU/F and VU/F, scaled allometrically on lean body weight, were respectively 26.7 L/h and 94.3 L for 50 kg LBW. CLU/F interindividual variability was 0.20. The additive and proportional residual variabilities were respectively 4.3 µg/L and 0.20. The results point out some dosing issues, i.e., the possibility of under‐ or over‐dosage in thin or overweight patients respectively.
Article
Full-text available
A very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD) is an emerging technique to induce a significant, well-tolerated, and rapid loss of body weight in morbidly obese patients. The low activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) could be involved in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is a common feature in morbidly obese patients. Fifty-two obese patients suitable for a bariatric surgery intervention underwent a 25-day-long VLCKD. The biochemical markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery were measured before and after VLCKD. LAL activity was measured using the dried blood spot technique in 20 obese patients and in a control group of 20 healthy, normal-weight subjects. After VLCKD, we observed a significant reduction in body mass index, fasting glucose, insulinemia, and lipid profile parameters. No significant variation in FMD was observed. The number of patients with severe liver steatosis significantly decreased. LAL activity significantly increased, although the levels were not significantly different as compared to the control group. In conclusion, VLCKD induces the activity of LAL in morbidly obese subjects and reduces the secretion of all circulating lipoproteins. These effects could be attributed to the peculiar composition of the diet, which is particularly poor in carbohydrates and relatively rich in proteins.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are primarily at high risk of multiple somatic complications, including oral diseases. In recent years, a number of new molecules that may play a potentially important role in AN progress and prognosis have been identified in saliva, but their exact roles are still poorly understood. Two such group of substances are antioxidants and vaspin. The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to measure both the salivary and serum total antioxidant status (TAS), and vaspin (VASP) concentrations of patients with AN in comparison to an average population. Material and methods: Ninety subjects participated (30 patients with AN, 60 matched healthy control subjects). A clinical examination was made, and blood and salivary samples were taken during the acute stage of AN (BMI < 15 kg/m2) in the first week of hospitalization. Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) suitable for measuring VASP and colorimetric assay for TAS were used. Results: Anorexic patients had significant reductions in salivary flow, TAS, and an elevation in VASP levels in their saliva and serum. Significant correlations between TAS, VASP, salivary flow, and nutritional status were detected. Conclusion: Determination of TAS and VASP in combined biological material confirmed that saliva might be a reliable non-invasive source of information for potent nutritional biomarkers. Clinical relevance: Our findings suggest that VASP cannot be excluded, as its increased concentration in saliva is an adaptive mechanism in reduced TAS, one resulting from diminished salivary secretion. It is therefore worth conducting further research aimed at recognizing the role of TAS and VASP in the saliva of underweight patients.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.