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Morphological and nutritional characteristics of the cladodes of five species and cultivars of spiny cactus growing in Tunisia

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  • Institution of Agricultural Research and High Education - Tunisia

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Morphological and nutritional characteristics of the cladodes of five species and cultivars of spiny cactus growing in Tunisia
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MORPHOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS
OF THE CLADODES OF FIVE SPECIES AND CULTIVARS OF
SPINY CACTUS GROWING IN TUNISIA
Ibrahim Yousfi and Hichem Ben Salem
University of Carthage, National Institute of Agricultural Research of Tunisia (INRAT), Laboratory of Animal and Forage Productions, rue Hédi Karray, 2049
Ariana, Tunisia
1
PLAN
Introduction
Study purpose
Materials & Methods
Main results
Conclusion
2
Introduction
2/3 of the sheep and goats national livestock
arid and semi-
arid areas
Low forage
potential
Low rainfall
Large fodder deficit periods
Alternative resources
ex. cactus
3
Introduction
Cactaceae Family (130 genera, 1500 species)
Genera : Opuntia
CAM, Xerophyte
Multiple use
Reduced cost
Green & water tank
Tunisia : ~ 700 000 Ha
ecological role
modern, industrial
Traditional, rural
4
Introduction
Advantages
Water (85 90 %)
carbohydrate
Vitamins A and C
Ca (6 8 % MS), K (1 3 % DM)
(Ben Salem and al., 2002; Batista and al., 2003)
crude protein ( 3 7 % DM)
Fibres (NDF : 30 40 % DM)
P (0,1 0,4 % DM)
Ca/P
Oxalates (8 13 % DM)
Disadvantages
Unbalanced Food
5
Study purpose
nutritional characteristics variability of cladodes ??
determine morphological characteristics
evaluate the nutritive value
High genetic variability among Opuntia
identifying promising varieties
6
Materials & Methods
plant material
O. amyclae oval (Sbeitla) O. amyclae oval (Bourbia) O. amyclae elongated (Bourbia)
O. streptacantha (Bourbia) O. robusta (Bourbia)
7
Materials & Methods
Measurements and analyzes
Morphological measurements :
Cladodes weight and size (length, width, thickness)
Spines Weight and size (diameter, length)
Number of areolae / face & distance between central areole
Chemical analyzes:
Ash
Crude protein
Fibers (NDF, ADF, ADL) (Van Soest et al., 1991)
Oxalates (Moir, 1953)
Mineral content (P, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe)
biological analysis:
Gas production (GP) measured in calibrated glass syringes (Menke et al., 1979)
8
Materials & Methods
Measurements and analyzes
Reading at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 32, 40, 48,
56, 64, et 72 h
Gas production (GP) measured in calibrated glass syringes
Food + artificial saliva
calibrated glass
syringes Heated bath
2 sheep fitted with
permanent rumen cannulae
rumen fluid
+
9
Materials & Methods
Statistical analysis
All data were subjected to variance analysis (ANOVA) according to the procedure of
the general linear model (GLM, SAS, 1991). The difference between means was tested
using the LSMEANS procedure.
Gas production parameters were obtained using the NLIN procedure of SAS (1991).
Correlations between chemical & biological parameters
10
Morphological parameters
cactus pads morphological parameters variation :
Weight : 500g 1Kg (max : O. robusta)
Length : 30 44 cm
Width : 17 25 cm
Thickness :10 19 mm O. robusta
Spine morphological parameters variation :
Total spine weight / pads : 0,5 6 g (max : O. streptacantha )
Spine length : 14 30 mm
O. streptacantha
Main results
11
Chemical composition
Main results
Water : 89 93 % FM
Oxalate : 7 14 % DM / Richest O. amyclae oval (Sbeitla)
CP: 5 7 % DM (MAT)
NDF : 31 37 % DM; ADL : 1,5 2,5 % DM
Ash: 17 30 % DM
P : 0,1 0,3 % DM
Ca : 3 8 % DM
K : 3 7 % DM
O. amyclae oval
(Sbeitla)
12
gas production kinetic and correlations
Main results
V72 : 43 50 ml/0,2 g OM
V72max : O. robusta
V72min : O. amyclae ovale (Bourbia)
a : 4 8 %
b : 40 46 %
c : 5 9 %.h-1
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
020 40 60
gas volume (ml/0,2 g OM)
Incubation time (h)
V1
V2
V3
V4
V5
Changes in gas volumes produced during the incubation
of 5 spices and cultivars of spiny cactus
Negatives correlations :
V of gas / % ADL
(r=-0,78; P=0,0006)
V of gas / % Cu
(r=-0,84; P<0,0001)
13
Conclusion
there is a real nutritional value variability between the different spiny cactus
unbalanced food status confirmed, cactus pad need supplementation
O. robusta pads have the best nutritional value compared to the 4 other spiny cactus
O. Amyclae (Sbeitla) has the oxalates richest pads
Combining with some of our published data for 16 clone and cultivar of spineless cactus growing
in Tunisia(I.Yousfi and H.Ben Salem., 2013), some spineless cactus pads have at lest the same
nutritional value making them more suitable for forage use
Recommendation:
investigate the effect of promising varieties on animal performance (in vivo)
End
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