Modern, high-yield cocoa plantations have a negative impact on biodiversity, and there is a pressing need for financial incentives to encourage use of less destructive farming systems.
The use of low-value cocoa by-products, particularly cocoa husk, in animal feed has potential economic benefits for many cocoa-producing countries.
Inclusion of chocolate and its by-products in animal feed has led to fatal toxicity in pigs, poultry, cattle, and horses.
Theobromine is the main toxin responsible for accidental poisoning in domestic and wild animals. Horses, pigs, chickens, and dogs are particularly sensitive.
Chocolate is one of the most common causes of accidental poisoning in dogs.
Chocolate toxicity is rarely encountered in wildlife, but it does occur. Chocolate has been used to poison coyotes.