Cocoa and Its By-Products: Identification and Utilization
Cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) may be made into a fruit drink either alone or in combination with other fruit juices. It may also be used for making jam and marmalade. Moreover, commercial-grade pectin may also be extracted from it. Fermentation of the sugars in cocoa pulp juice (sweatings) leads to the production of alcoholic drinks (gin and brandy) and also the production of wine and vinegar. Dried cocoa pod husk may be used as a feed ingredient for poultry (10%), pigs (25%), and sheep (40%). Fresh/wet pod husk has been fed to pigs at 300 g/kg of the ration. Fermentation of cocoa pod husk with Pleurotus ostreatus improved its feeding value and increased its usage in broiler finisher diets to 20%. The ash produced when sun-dried cocoa pod husk is burnt contains about 40% potash, which can be used as the alkali for the making of soft soap and liquid soap. The ash may also be converted into a potassium-rich fertilizer by adding starch and then pelletizing the mixture. Cocoa butter can be extracted from discarded cocoa beans and may be used in the production of toilet soap, soft soap, and body pomade. A feasibility study, conducted as part of the ICCO/CFC/COCOBOD-funded cocoa by-products project, indicated that there is the potential for cocoa farmers to enhance their incomes through the processing of cocoa waste into the developed by-products.