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The ICT sector is perceived worldwide as a transformative and enabling tool to other economic activities to better citizens’ lives. In Rwandan ICT integration in economic sectors-activities, such as tourism with an adoption of the value chain approach, is sought to be an answer to a number of socio-economic challenges including unemployment, customer care services, and poor information knowledge. In Rwanda, ICT is sought as a business in itself and enabling tool to better, inter-economic and cross cutting activities to a growing economy. Despite mixed results from recent studies, such as Foster and Graham (2014), ICT for tourism would be an enabling tool for national and regional development if priority focus on ICT and tourism quality infrastructures are adhered to. It is important to indicate that there is a shortage of research literature on the evolving nature of ICT on tourism sector in Rwanda, where it is believed to yield many off-farm jobs besides solely agrarian activities. This study was conducted on big scale in order to facilitate the generalization of the results. 720 tourism stakeholder surveys, 10 interviews with officials, and ten focus group discussions were used to garner both quantitative and qualitative data. The mixed method was used to minimize possible research bias and maximize the accurate of the findings. This article presents the findings of the five provinces of Rwanda as an empirical survey, but it is reasonable to assume that the research results could be transferable to similar eastern African countries within a similar context to Rwanda. The results show that tourism stakeholders use, in one way or another, through ICT the entire country, and their perceptions that the integration of ICT could have positive yields in Rwandans daily.
ISER-42nd International Conference on Economics and Business
Research (ICEBR-2016)
This Presentation has been prepared and presented by Ernest Safari
International student from Rwanda in the Republic of South Africa in one of the Largest
University of Technology in Africa and particularly in the Westen Capetown Province of
south Africa.
this paper is a result of the study conducted in the Republic of Rwanda.
Title of the paper: A contribution of ICT to the tourism value chain for pro-poor benefits in
Where the study is conducted/Research design and model
ICT society
Private sector
Public sector ( government)
Civil society
This paper is a result of a combination of secondary data and empirical
surveys conducted in large scale whereby a sample of 720 surveys were
distributed among accommodation establishments, farmers, traders (tour
operators, travel agencies, shops and curios), public institutions, civil
societies, entertainments and households.
615 surveys were returned completed by tourism and ICT stakeholders in
Here in this study I have used surveys, interviews with officials and FGD with
CBO’s(cooperatives) with mixture of activities including farmers, business,
handicrafts, entertainment groups
Meaning of ICT
Gap between what is known as ICT in theory as marketing language and ICT in
practices in Rwandan citizens
Technologies include computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and
television), and telephony, but are not limited to these.
Qn: How then ICT does relate to tourism? Fourie (2008:8) explained that ICT
includes a range of technologies, and facilitates communication, processing and
transmission of information by electronic means including both traditional ICT, such
as conventional radio, landline telephones, newspapers, TV and libraries, and new
ICT such as mobile phones, landline computers, the Internet and fax. These are also
important in tourism sector like any other economic sector not mentioned in this
So as far as I am concerned, ICT should be looked in a holistic view and there is no
single definition, all depend on who define it and who use it.
Data findings and discussion
The study is contextualized in Rwanda, specifically in four provinces plus the capital of Kigali,
where ICT is considered a cross-cutting sector that includes gender.
Gender is a cross-cutting issue. one would ask whether technology, in its holistic view, affects
gender and the answer would be yes,
Because the findings reveal that more than 80% of males, who are working in tertiary industries
in a full-time capacity in respective of a business, earn almost three times the annual income of
females, despite occupying more than 60% of parliamentary seats (Inter-Parliamentary Union
(IPU), 2016).
Data findings contd
1.Very few respondents (49.2%) indicated that the use of ICT in their provinces had enabled local communities to understand the role of tourism in their area, and more than half (51.1%) of participants
agreed that the use of ICT in their provinces had contributed to the growth of educated people.
2. Nearly 60% agreed that the use of ICT in their provinces had contributed to a decrease in waste products in the agricultural sector, and 53.3% agreed that the use of ICT in their provinces had caused a
decline in education cost.
3.Also, 52.8% noted that the use of ICT had opened education for all. in addition to the above data, 71% to 76.1% stated that ICT had contributed to useful information and business growth; caused an
increase in the number of mobile phone-users, and resulted in easy accessibility to businesses.
4.Between 60% and 70% regard ICT contributions to have enabled provinces to position the tourism potential in the country, regions, and internationally, and had reduced the number of poor people,
provided employment opportunities in tourism and hospitality, and increased computer literacy. this has contributed to professionalism in the tourism and hospitality industry, and updated educational
policies/training, to an increase in the infrastructure needed to exceed tourist’s expectations, and mobility of businesses. the use of ICT in the provinces has led to high internet connectivity in tourism
businesses, to an increase in tele-centres, and youth development centres. ICT usage has led to an increase in numbers of online visitors, the removal of barriers to communication, and computerised
management systems enhancing data capturing for future use.
5.On the other hand, 67.2% of respondents approved that the use of the tourism value chain developmental approach would yield benefits to the poor (pro-poor impacts), through integrating local
participants’ perceptions and technology in the process of planning and developing tourism for pro-poor impacts, and enhance the effectiveness of the TVC. this would require that tourism businesses be
in a decentralised data base, staff should be trained to use it in daily transactions by the local capacity builders, and the establishment of tourism information centres in each district to assist in generating
accurate tourism receipts.
The research data confirmed that contributions of ICT to tourism value chains for pro-poor benefits in
Rwanda are possible, despite persistent inequalities between rich and poor value chains actors.
Issues of technical know-how and understanding the role of ICT and tourism sectors in the socio-
economic transformation of Rwandan citizens have to be addressed through joint actions by specific
players comprising Public institutions, private sector, civil societies and ICT society.
For instance, in public institutions with the Policy makers and high learning institutions the study data
revealed that 21.2% of participants represent the public sector.
The combination of findings has several implications for policies related to the integration of ICT in all
economic sectors of the Rwandan society.
Local authorities should work with innovative and exclusive spirit to identify a win-win position
between ICT suppliers and end-users, bearing in mind the affordability of smart device-mobiles which
should be managed in partnership with the private sector and ICT suppliers
Conclusion contd
Civil societies
Civil societies comprised 7% of participants in the study, and the researchers acknowledged the
definition of civil society organisations by the OECD (2012:7), and accept that groups outside of a
family organise themselves to pursue shared interests in the public domain.
This includes tourism stakeholders who are internet users in their daily activities.
As influencers in different domains, their role in doing the right thing in the right way for the right
people at the right time in need is totally defendable.
Therefore, ICT equipment quality and accessibility available to civil societies, particularly that from
the developed world, to share updated ICT information and equipment with all stakeholders is
Conclusion contd
Private sector
sixty nine point one percent of participants represent private sector interests and, in the data presentation and discussion, the
role of the private sector in the deployment of ICT equipment and devices was critically noted.
The data revealed that the majority of business and self-employed people in ICT are concentrated in Kigali, including retailers
representing international wholesalers who own the mother company. kramer et al. (2007:4) stipulate that the action, creation or
expansion of economic opportunity could be rightly considered as a responsibility of government towards citizens.
However the researchers say that the impact of the state driving business will not reach the peoples who are not ready to be
employed but would rather be self-employed, business owners and investors.
ICT society
Regarding the ICT society the researchers considered the quantitative and qualitative data to recommend that the ICT society,
regardless of geographic context, including sophisticated technology, infrastructure, equipment, devices and programs that
contribute to do things in a better way in a manner to uplift individuals and the socio-economic livelihood in Rwanda.
In this context, ICT society stakeholders comprise the supplying society, and the society of consumers, which have far higher
numbers than suppliers, meaning that consumers are likely to consume even what they do not understand, or refuse completely
to consume them at all, to their risk.
In brief
It has been reported that the problem is low connection, power ICT infrastructure despite the government efforts, there is still a problem
of lack of ICT skills. From my experience, since 2000-2016, these problems were raised in different reports, but how for example low
connection relates to poverty alleviation need to be debated and your contribution is highly appreciated.
The complex problem in Rwanda is as follow:
Adoption of any technology, or use ICT equipment that requires energy and water in an area where those basic facilities are critical.
The usability of that technology or equipment needs skilled and knowledgeable people, and the researchers recommend that supplying
ICT society should promote the knowledge transfer to disadvantaged societies before deployment of ICT materials.
The process should start with identifying opportunities to inform investors about society’s needs and wants in the long-term, and
building a win-win habit between suppliers and consumers.
In the view of a number of respondents there is a lack of quality of ICT equipment and devices which demotivates users.
acknowledging Voltaire (1881) who said that “when it is a question of money, everybody is of the same religion”
( Voltaire), the researchers support the reasons for Rwanda to have embarked on adopting TVET, being a
practical strategy to exploit local talents and skills without ignoring experiences in innovative technologies.
However, the ICT society, in partnership with public, private and civil society organisations, are urged to evaluate and monitor to what
extent their innovations and technologies have really reached the lower strata of citizens in a holistic view, and not just
telecommunication and internet accessibility and usability in major cities.
Based on grassroots information, some innovative approaches such as linkages between ICT societies and local communities could be
a major decision with huge implications for poor communities.
Any comments
Any critics
Any Inputs…
ARE MOST welcome
Thank you for your Attention!
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