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DualBand Patch Antenna Using DGS for Wireless Applications

  • Rwanda Polytechnic

Abstract and Figures

Present wireless communication demands compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of operating at two frequency bands 4.2GHz and 5.3 GHz with same structure. The proposed antenna is designed using defective ground structure (DGS).Pie shape structure is \etched from the ground to achieve the improved performance of antenna. The bands of operation draw many potential applications in today's wireless communication especially for WLAN at 5.3 GHz and 4.2GHz for military application. The antenna was designed using CST V.12 simulator.
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DualBand Patch Antenna Using DGS for Wireless
Felix Urimubenshi1, Jean D. Habimana1, Sachin Sharma1, Kumar Goodwill2, Sandeep Kr. Singh1
1 Department of ECE, SET, Sharda University
2Department of ECE, IIT Roorkee, ,
Abstract Present wireless communication demands
compact and intelligent devices with multitasking capabilities at
affordable cost. The focus in the presented paper is on a dual
band antenna for wireless communication with the capability of
operating at two frequency bands 4.2GHz and 5.3 GHz with same
structure. The proposed antenna is designed using defective
ground structure (DGS).Pie shape structure is \etched from the
ground to achieve the improved performance of antenna. The
bands of operation draw many potential applications in today’s
wireless communication especially for WLAN at 5.3 GHz and
4.2GHz for military application. The antenna was designed
using CST V.12 simulator.
Keywords- Microstrip patch antenna, Dualband appication ,
DGS, coaxial feed.
With the recent advancements in wireless
communication industry, especially in the area of cellular
telephony and wireless data communication, has lead to the
increased demand for multi band antennas [1].This has led
to an unstoppable demand to integrate several frequencies in
a single wireless system which uses single antenna to cover
various frequency bands [2].
Microstrip patch antennas are prominent and pleasing
prospects for this purpose owing to their features of low
profile, small dimensions, economical and easy to fabricate.
However, they also suffer from one serious drawback of
narrow bandwidth as it limits the useful frequency band [3-
Microstrip patch antenna consists of dielectric substrate
which contain radiating patch on one side and ground plane
on other side. The patch is of different size and shapes like
square, rectangular, triangular, circular, semi-circular and
annual rings. A different type of feeding arrangement has
been used in Patch antenna like microstrip line, coaxial,
aperture coupling and proximity coupling. Among all
microstrip line and co-axial feeds are relatively easy to
fabricate [3].
Several techniques have been used to enhance the
bandwidth by interpolating surface modification into patch
configuration. The most unique technique used to enhance
the bandwidth and reduce the size of patch is to defect the
ground (DGS)
Creating a defect (DGS) in the form of etched out
pattern on the ground plane of microstrip circuit and
transmission lines have been familiar to microwave
engineers for long time, although their application to the
antennas are relatively new [4].
Defected Ground Structure changes shielded current
distribution in the ground plane which depends upon shape
and dimensions of the defect [5], and generally controls the
excitation and electromagnetic waves propagated through
the substrate [6-8]. It is very important that each different
DGS produce different resonances and cut off frequencies
that depends upon their geometry and size [7].
Defected ground structure (DGS) have been widely
used in microstrip antennas for size reduction and
effectiveness [9-12], reducing harmonics [13], bandwidth
improvement [14], diminution of cross polarization and
mutual coupling in antenna arrays [15].
In this paper, the π shape DGS is etched from the
ground to generate the dual band which find application in
C-band 4GHz to 8GHz, in which one band 5.3GHz is
designed to work for WLAN application in 5GHz band (
5.15-5.85 GHz) [16-17] and other one 4.2 GHz designed to
work in military application [19].
The design and geometry of the proposed DGS dual
band antenna with π Shaped cut on ground is shown in
figure 1. In this section we have discussed the exact
dimensions of the rectangular microstrip patch antenna and
π Slot on the ground plane
A. Microstrip patch antenna
Proposed rectangular Patch antenna is printed on
substrate having permittivity (ε) of 4.2 with the thickness of
1.524mm. Antenna is fed with a coaxial feed that has the
inner and outer radius of 1.3 and 1.8 mm respectively. The
dimension of the patch has been taken as the length (L)
equal to 14.83mm and Width (W) equal to 13mm.
B. Dimension of the π shape
The dimensions of π slot have been turned to meet the
desired operating frequency, and presented values
correspond to the final results.
ST= 2.5mm, Z=0.812mm, SW= 9.8mm, SL=6.33mm
Coaxial fed
Figure 1: Geometry of proposed DGS dual band antenna
The antenna is designed to operate at 4.2 GHz and 5.3
GHz and the simulations have carried out using CST
A. Return loss and bandwidth consideration
As shown on the fig 3, the patch resonates at 5.3 GHz
with the bandwidth of 144 MHz (5.3402-5.1959 GHz) and
the π slot in the ground resonates at 4.2 GHz with the
bandwidth of 124 MHz (4.1856-4.0722GHz). S11 on Fig.3
represents how much power is reflected from the antenna
and quantifies the impedance mismatch between the source
and the antenna, and hence is known as the reflection
coefficient. The bandwidth of the antenna has been
calculated from return loss versus frequency plot at -10 dB
and translates to a reflection of 10% of the input power. But
for simulation -20 dB is sufficient so that fabricated antenna
must provide S11 around -10 dB [18], center around
frequency 4.4 GHz
Figure 3 and table 1 clearly show that S11 is less than
20dB for 4.2 GHz and 5.3 GHz. Hence, the simulated
reflection coefficient (S11) shows the antenna’s response to
be good for the two different bands and best dual band
Figure 3: Reflection coefficient of proposed antenna
B. Current Density Distribution
a) Surface current at 4.2 GHz
b) Surface current at 5.3 GHz (Patch)
Figure 2: Current density of the Antenna Sturucture at Different Frequencies
Surface current distribution or current density gives the
better understanding of the antenna behavior at the desired
frequency [19] and shows clearly which part of the antenna
is resonating.
C. Far Field Radiation Pattern
The far-field radiation pattern
(a) Far field at 4.2 GHz
(b) Far field at 5.3 GHz
Figure 4: 3-D Far field radiation pattern
(a) H-Plane at 5.3 GHz
(b) E-Plane at 5.3 GHz
(c) E-plane at 4.2 GHz
(d) H-Plane at 4.2 GHz
Figure 5: H-Plane and E-Plane Polar plots of Far-field radiation
Far-field radiation pattern plots describe the variation of
power density with the angular position. The antenna has E-
plane and H-Plane patterns. The E-plane pattern refers to the
plane containing the electric field vector and the direction of
maximum radiation. Similarly, the H-plane pattern contains
the magnetic field vector and the direction of maximum
Table 1 shows the proposed antenna performance with
gain, return loss and bandwidth at both resonance
Resonance Frequency
S11 (return loss)
Band Width (BW)
Table1: Results for both frequencies
Antenna performance with capability of working at two
separate frequency band has successfully achieved based on
DGS. The simulated return loss, gain, and the radiation
patterns for each of the center frequencies are in good
agreement and make the antenna to be suitable for dual band
application in wireless communication.
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