Conference Paper

Make It Big!: The Effect of Font Size and Line Spacing on Online Readability

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Abstract

We report from an eye-tracking experiment with 104 participants who performed reading tasks on the most popular text-heavy website of the Web: Wikipedia. Using a hybrid-measures design, we compared objective and subjective readability and comprehension of the articles for font sizes ranging from 10 to 26 points, and line spacings ranging from 0.8 to 1.8 (font: Arial). Our findings provide evidence that readability, measured via mean fixation duration, increased significantly with font size. Further, comprehension questions had significantly more correct responses for font sizes 18 and 26. For line spacing, we found marginal effects, suggesting that the two tested extremes (0.8 and 1.8) impair readability. These findings provide evidence that text-heavy websites should use fonts of size 18 or larger and use default line spacing when the goal is to make a web page easy to read and comprehend. Our results significantly differ from previous recommendations, presumably, because this is the first work to cover font sizes beyond 14 points.

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... We choose this question since it is simple enough and well studied. Many Computer Human Interface (CHI) studies [16], [19], [36], [41] suggest it is good to have a font size with 12 points or 14.points for online reading, and a larger font size [38], [42], [43] could be more friendly to dyslexia people. ...
... We use a Wikipedia webpage as a test case since it is text-heavy and commonly used in previous CHI studies [42], [43]. Precisely, we chose the "rock hyrax" Wikipedia page 3 since it relates to a topic of general interest, neither technical nor purely academic. ...
... The Web design and load speed are two main concerns in developing websites. In terms of Web design, a lot of research has been done on how to design a friendly and "goodlooking" website from different aspects, such as font [36], font size [42], [43], layout [23], color [12], [25], [47], etc. Recently, Miniukovich et al. [36] proposed concrete design guidelines for Web readability by summarizing 61 readability guidelines in a series of papers in related workshops and conferences. ...
Conference Paper
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Today’s webpages development cycle consists of constant iterations with the goal to improve user retention, time spent on site, and overall quality of experience. Big companies like Google, Facebook, Amazon, etc. invest a lot of time and money to perform online testing. The prohibitive costs of these approaches are an entry barrier for smaller players. Further, the lack of a substantial user-base can be problematic to ensure statistical significance within a reasonable duration. In this paper we propose Kaleidoscope, an automated tool to evaluate Web features at large scale, quickly, accurately, and at a reasonable price. Kaleidoscope can test two crucial user-perceived Web features – the style and page loading. As far as we know, it is the first testing tool to replay page loading through controlling visual changes on a webpage. Kaleidoscope allows to concurrently load a webpage in two versions (e.g., different fonts, with vs without ads) that are shown to a participant side-byside. Further, Kaleidoscope also allows a participant to interact with each webpage version and provide feedback, e.g., respond to a questionnaire previously prepared by an “experimenter”. Kaleidoscope supports both voluntary and paid testers from FigureEight, a popular crowdsourcing platform. Using hundreds of FigureEight testers, we validate that Kaleidoscope matches the accuracy of trusted in-lab tests while providing results about 12x faster (and arguably at a lower cost) than A/B testing. Finally, we showcase how to use Kaleidoscope’s page loading feature to study the user-perceived page load time (uPLT) of a webpage.
... Screenshot software can be employed to determine what participants have on screen (Brinberg et al. 2021;Reeves et al. 2019) but can also include gyroscope data from modern smartphones (Pires et al., 2018) which can reveal, for example, whether a reader is engaging with a text while walking through the orientation of their device (Barnard et al., 2007;Mustonen et al., 2004). Finally, audio recordings, which can be supported by any device with audio input, can be used to approximate reading activity through read-aloud protocols (Banerjee et al. 2011;Bernard et al., 2001;Rello et al., 2016). ...
... Both approaches have advantages. Prior reading studies have most commonly used Likert scales to determine participant font preference (Banerjee 2011, Bernard et al. 2003, Bhatias et al. 2011, Rello et al. 2016, and Wang et al. 2018. While Likert scales are straightforward, and can be easily averaged across users, when averaging these results they lose their subjective nature (Stevens 1946). ...
... There is no prescriptive statistical tool for readability research, which is commonly analyzed with multiple generalizations of the general linear model (GLM). Many studies rely upon multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) to isolate the impact of independent variables (IVs) upon multiple dependent variables (DVs), often including both reading speed and comprehension Nam et al. 2020;Rello, Pielot, and Marcos 2016;Gao et al. 2019). It's not uncommon to augment these larger analyses with smaller "manipulation checks" which rely upon t-tests or simple analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test out assumptions. ...
Preprint
Readability is on the cusp of a revolution. Fixed text is becoming fluid as a proliferation of digital reading devices rewrite what a document can do. As past constraints make way for more flexible opportunities, there is great need to understand how reading formats can be tuned to the situation and the individual. We aim to provide a firm foundation for readability research, a comprehensive framework for modern, multi-disciplinary readability research. Readability refers to aspects of visual information design which impact information flow from the page to the reader. Readability can be enhanced by changes to the set of typographical characteristics of a text. These aspects can be modified on-demand, instantly improving the ease with which a reader can process and derive meaning from text. We call on a multi-disciplinary research community to take up these challenges to elevate reading outcomes and provide the tools to do so effectively.
... They found a size congruity effect. Rello [22] and Bernard [23] also explored font size and line spacing on online readability, and found comprehension had a significant impact on certain font sizes. ...
... Dobres et al. [18] examined text and inter-line spacing based on a series of words and found that larger text is more legible than smaller text. Rello et al. [22] found that text-heavy websites should use fonts that are 18pt or larger and default line spacing to allow ease of reading and comprehending of paragraphs. Bernard et al. [36] evaluated the effect of font sizes 10, 12 and 14pt when reading on a computer screen and found that the largest font size tested in their study or 14pt provides the highest readability. ...
... Rello and Marcos [37] examined the effect of line spacing (0.8, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8) for reading raw text but did not find a significant effect. Their finding is different from that of Rello et al. [22] who found that the effect of line spacing on readability is marginal, and concluded that line spacing that is excessively narrow or wide (0.8 and 1.8) may affect readability. Rello et al. [37] studied the effect of line spacing in printed text and found that wider line spacings (1.2 and 1.4 compared to 1.1) facilitate more rapid readings. ...
Article
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In order to correctly read and interpret interface information shown on the interface of vital signs monitor, the challenging problems of misreading and misinterpreting the information must be addressed. Therefore, a visual search experiment that the text characteristics of the interface is carried out in this study to categorize parameterized information and encode parameterized numbers on a monitoring interface. The interface of a centralized vital signs monitor is simulated, and target searching of information objects is carried out in an experiment with three sets of characteristic variables: font size, background and text color, and spacing and location of the parameterized information. The experimental results show that the relative spacing of the information elements on the interface should be not too large or small. When the spacing is 30px, 38px, 46px, and 86px, the visual search process requires a long period time and it is easy to misinterpret the information. With an increase in the spacing, the plotted visual search response to different font sizes is a V-shape, while the rate of accuracy becomes an inverted V-shape. Compared to a font size 35pt and 55pt, a font size of 45pt results in the highest search efficiency and rate of accuracy. However, the background color has no significant effect on target searching in terms of reaction time. The findings show that the results in this study can be used as a guideline for the interface design of visual monitoring systems with diverse characters and spacing.
... Reading is increasingly practiced online in web browsers and on screens as more content and services are digitized. This transition leads to another aspect of readability, which is the presented text's properties instead of the text's content [41]. Banerjee and Bhattacharyya [42] claimed that reading efficiency relies on the ergonomic presentation of visual information. ...
... Therefore, typography, which refers to the features of font type and size, is essential for understanding the complexities of visual information in a human-computer interface [42]. Improving the readability of online text in the context of typography is one of the most direct and efficient methods to enhance usability and ease of access to information [41] not only for the general public but also for individuals with special needs such as the elderly [43] and visually impaired individuals [44]. Typefaces are generally classified into two most basic forms: Serifs and Sans Serifs. ...
... For privacy policies only available in portable document format (PDF), font and font size information was obtained from Adobe Acrobat DC. Multiple studies related to typography [41], [42], [48], [55], [56] were studied to derive recommendations for suitable font and font size to be used in privacy policies. ...
Conference Paper
Today's privacy policies contain various deficiencies, including failure to convey information comprehensibly to most Internet users and a lack of transparency. Meanwhile, existing studies on privacy policies only focused on specific areas of interest and lack in cooperating an inclusive outlook on the state privacy policies due to the differences in privacy policy samples, text properties, measures, methodologies, and backgrounds. Therefore, this research develops an assessment metric to bridge this gap by integrating the fragmented understanding of privacy policies and exploring potential aspects to evaluate privacy policies absent from existing studies. The multifaceted assessment metric developed through this study covers three main aspects: content, text property , and user interface. Through the investigation and analyses performed on Ma-laysian organizations online privacy policies, this study reveals several trends using Text processing and Clustering analysis methods: (1) the use of jargon in privacy policies are relatively low, (2) privacy policies with higher compliance level tends to be lengthier and more repetitive, and vice versa, (3) regardless of compliance level, there are privacy policies that are not presented in user-friendly font size. Finally, as an experiment of applying the developed metrics, the results derived confirm the relevancy of the assessment metrics developed for assessing online privacy policies via text processing and clustering analysis.
... The reading length of a few paragraphs is also well-suited for shorter remote crowdsourcing tasks deployed on the web. This web-based naturalistic setting sacrifices the internal validity of prior in-lab studies [16,21,88], in exchange for greater ecological validity. While remote studies might suffer from reader distractions [98] and uncontrolled variables, such as viewing distance [56] and the physical size of digital text [120], it is easier to recruit more participants to offset this additional noise. ...
... There is a rich history of research exploring typography as a tool to enhance readability and reader efficacy. While past work has individually considered font preference, familiarity, comprehension, and reading speed [6,7,9,14,16,17,19,21,79,88,113], these factors can be tightly coupled. For the first time, our work considers these factors simultaneously, controlling for some and systematically varying others to address possible confounds. ...
... As the variety of devices grew and the size of screens grew larger, Rello et al. [88] argued that much previous work is outdated due to early studies using font sizes 14px and below and participants reading aloud. the difficulty modern graphic designers face selecting their preferred font from many fonts [72]. ...
Article
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In our age of ubiquitous digital displays, adults often read in short, opportunistic interludes. In this context of Interlude Reading, we consider if manipulating font choice can improve adult readers' reading outcomes. Our studies normalize font size by human perception and use hundreds of crowdsourced participants to provide a foundation for understanding which fonts people prefer and which fonts make them more effective readers. Participants' reading speeds (measured in WPM) increased by 35% when comparing fastest and slowest fonts without affecting reading comprehension. High WPM variability across fonts suggests that one font does not fit all. We provide font recommendations related to higher reading speed and discuss the need for individuation, allowing digital devices to match their readers' needs in the moment. We provide recommendations from one of the most significant online reading efforts to date. To complement this, we release our materials and tools with this paper.
... To address this challenge, one of the important suggestions for designers is to improve the design of typography [15,23], which has been a classical problem in the field of HCI for a long history [2,8,27,37]. However, traditional research on typography mainly focus on finding the optimal design, such as the best font size for text-heavy websites [33]. But the * Corresponding author. ...
... The results revealed that font size of 12 points leads to significantly faster reading. Rello et al. [33] performed a study with 104 participants to investigate the effect of font size and line spacing on online reading. They compared the fixation durations, comprehension scores, and subjective perception ratings in the experiment. ...
... We choose 11 and 14 points because these relative small font sizes can contain more information in one screen, so that people may need less swipes to read the whole content. And we choose the larger font sizes, 21 and 26 points, to cover a wide range of sizes, as previous work has indicated that larger font sizes can improve the readability on online materials [33]. ...
Conference Paper
Previous work has demonstrated that typography design has a great influence on users' reading experience. However, current typography design guidelines are mainly for general purpose, while the individual needs are nearly ignored. To achieve personalized typography designs, an important and necessary step is accurately evaluating user satisfaction with the typography designs. Current evaluation approaches, e.g., asking for users' opinions directly, however, interrupt the reading and affect users' judgments. In this paper, we propose a novel method to address this challenge by mining users' implicit feedbacks, e.g., touch interaction data. We conduct two mobile reading studies in Chinese to collect the touch interaction data from 91 participants. We propose various features based on our three hypotheses to capture meaningful patterns in the touch behaviors. The experiment results show the effectiveness of our evaluation models with higher accuracy on comparing with the baseline under three text difficulty levels, respectively.
... This paper will address the more basic issue of text size and typeface for older users when reading text on websites and apps on tablets. There have been numerous recommendations for the optimal font type and size for text presentation on computer screens for older people, but most of these relate to larger desktop machines rather than tablets [2,3,5,13,14,21,22,27]. However, little research has empirically investigated reading from screens of any size by older people, and only one study [15] could be found which have investigated reading from tablet computers for older people, which was conducted in Japanese. ...
... Rello Pielot and Marcos [22] investigated the effect of font size and line spacing on readability and comprehension of text on a website presented on a desktop screen. There were 104 participants with a very wide range of ages (14 to 54 years). ...
... For both UK and Thai participants reading the 18 pt text was significantly quicker than either the 14 or 16 pt. This result agrees with the recent study by Rello et al. [22] in which participants read on a PC screen with varied font sizes (using only Arial typeface) from 10 to 26 pts. Their finding recommended using at least 18 pt text, as does the present study. ...
Conference Paper
This study investigated the effect of typeface and font size on reading on tablet computers with younger and older participants in Thailand and the UK in Thai and English respectively. The effects of two typeface (serif and sans serif) and three font sizes (14, 16 and 18 point) were investigated. Participants skimmed read six texts and answered questions about each text. In both countries, reading time was significantly affected by font size but not by typeface and there were no differences between the age groups. 18 pt was significantly faster to read than 14 or 16 point. Comprehension was significantly better with larger and serif fonts in both countries. Participants in the UK rated the sans serif typeface easier and less tiring to read while Thai participants rated the serif font easier and less tiring to read. On overall preference, more than 50% of the UK participants chose 18 point sans serif, whereas more than 50% of Thai participants chose 18 point serif.
... This small font size is included in the aspect that can affect the level of readability of a text (Adi, 2018). Thus, if the size of the written text is much smaller, then it will affect the level of readability or not readable (Rello, Pielot, & Marcos, 2016). Besides, the additional text is located at the end of the product packaging and far from the claim text. ...
... The use of separate additional information can also affect consumers' understanding. It is consistent with the research that mentions, space can affect the level of readers' understanding (Rello et al., 2016). The space referred in this study is the space between lines, so it can be concluded that if the space between lines can make readers less understanding, the placement of additional information located far or separately from the claim text can also affect the buyers' understanding. ...
Article
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Research that analyses critically on claims and additional information on a skincare product is a research that bring the novelty in critical discourse analysis, because the previous study focused on the advertisement or the packaging. Although most skincare products apply this method (using claims and additional information), researchers focus on one of the branded skincare products; Pond’s. The main reason is; this product is already widely known and used by the people in Indonesia. Trough critical discourse analysis model from van Dijk, the researchers discuss three dimensions (text, social cognition and social context) in claims and additional information in some products from Pond’s. There are seven Pond’s products as the data in this study. Besides, researchers used additional data in the form of a survey to five skincare products users. The results of the analysis are; (1) on the text dimension, the general aim is to attract the consumers to choose Pond’s as their skincare products. (2) In social cognition, company show marketing techniques that try to obscure the facts in additional information by using small and separated text. (3) In the social context, the influence of consumers who are easily attracted to a product because of the interesting slogan text makes Pond’s use the hyperbole language.
... Web readability could be positioned under the umbrella of both Web accessibility and Web usability. While the two concepts substantially differ -e.g., the usage problems reported by blind users differ from the problems reported by average users [34] -improvements in readability likely improve both accessibility and usability, as it simultaneously makes webpages more accessible to the users with reading difficulties [10,30] and reduces the user effort of regular readers [53,39]. Some research did highlight several text features to either exclusively affect dyslexics or to affect dyslexics more than average readers. ...
... Legibility describes the effort to distinguish individual characters from the background and each other, and includes such visual aspects as textbackground luminance contrast, letter spacing and letter case [1,21]. Text formatting applies to paragraphs rather than individual letters or words, and includes such visual aspects as between-line spacing, text justification or text column width [14,39]. Finally, text complexity focuses not on the visual, but semantic and structural aspects of text, which includes the length and structure of sentences, use of simpler synonyms for infrequent, archaic or lengthy words, or density of pronouns in a text [11,9]. ...
Conference Paper
Effortless reading remains an issue for many Web users, despite a large number of readability guidelines available to designers. This paper presents a study of manual and automatic use of 39 readability guidelines in webpage evaluation. The study collected the ground-truth readability for a set of 50 webpages using eye-tracking with average and dyslexic readers (n = 79). It then matched the ground truth against human-based (n = 35) and automatic evaluations. The results validated 22 guidelines as being connected to readability. The comparison between human-based and automatic results also revealed a complex framework: algorithms were better or as good as human experts at evaluating webpages on specific guidelines - particularly those about low-level features of webpage legibility and text formatting. However, multiple guidelines still required a human judgment related to understanding and interpreting webpage content. These results contribute a guideline categorization laying the ground for future design evaluation methods.
... Criteria 15's readability, blinking elements, style and text size, was changed from sans-serif fonts to serif and 14 -16 px instead of 10 -12 px to suit Thai websites because of a publication [22]. It is consistent with the three research articles [23][24][25]. It was found that the different type of characters affect reading, but the differences in font sizes do not affect reading. ...
... Elderly people found it difficult to read less than 10 point text. This complies with [23][24][25] who suggest that serif fonts, size 14-16 point are suitable for suitable for use in Thai websites. They also found it difficult in filling information in the forms with complex steps including signing up and signing. ...
Article
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This research addresses theimportant problem of a lack of a method to help with the evaluation of the accessibility of Thai websites and web applications by developing and evaluating a new method and online tool, WebThai2Access, with developers, experts, and disabled users. The tool was evaluatedby30 developers, 30 hearing impaired people, 30 visually impaired people, and 30 elderly people. The developers evaluated the websites whereas experimental tasks were given to each disabled group based on the problems they had accessing web information. The developers found WebThai2Access very usable and the 15 test criteria were reliable for evaluating websites. The average 95% upper and lower confidence limits of the developer scores were plus or minus 10% for both Pantip and YouTube websites and plus or minus 3% for the blind association website. The average 95% upper and lower confidence limits were plus or minus 0% for the visually impaired users, plus or minus 2% for the elderly users, and plus or minus 5% for the hearing impaired users. The results therefore showed that WebThai2Access was very accessible and could be used reliably by developers and their evaluations predicted the accessibility of websites for disabled users reasonably well.<br/
... Because of the importance of text in electronic communication, the field of HCI has investigated the effect of fonts on readability particularly when rendering text to monitors and other electronic devices. Such studies include investigations of the effect of font size and type on glance reading [31], measurement of user preferences and reading speed of different online fonts an sizes [32,8], comparisons of the effect of font size and line spacing on online readability [33], quantifying the interaction of screen size and text layout [9], and investigating feature interaction such as color and typeface in on-screen displays [34]. ...
... Nevertheless, integrating all these results provides a mixed picture. Several studies concluded that increasing font size improves readability [33] while others reported that this holds only up to a critical print size [35]. While early studies reported improvements in readability with increased font weight [36], other studies reported no significant effect [37]. ...
Preprint
Digital text has become one of the primary ways of exchanging knowledge, but text needs to be rendered to a screen to be read. We present AdaptiFont, a human-in-the-loop system that is aimed at interactively increasing readability of text displayed on a monitor. To this end, we first learn a generative font space with non-negative matrix factorization from a set of classic fonts. In this space we generate new true-type-fonts through active learning, render texts with the new font, and measure individual users' reading speed. Bayesian optimization sequentially generates new fonts on the fly to progressively increase individuals' reading speed. The results of a user study show that this adaptive font generation system finds regions in the font space corresponding to high reading speeds, that these fonts significantly increase participants' reading speed, and that the found fonts are significantly different across individual readers.
... The substantial decline could owe to the strict page limits of KIIDs which in turn might lead to fund companies cramming these documents with information. Importantly, the fontsize effect transfers to online settings: Rello et al. (2016) show that text comprehension and focus of subjects (measured via eye-tracking) are significantly affected by font size. Clearly, font size may be adjusted easily for product information documents distributed via digital channels rather than in print. ...
Article
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With the introduction of short-form disclosure documents, financial regulation in the EU emphasizes the use of plain language to facilitate comprehensibility. We evaluate whether these documents and the accompanying plain language guidelines improve the readability of mandatory product information addressed to mutual fund investors. Applying advanced text mining algorithms, we benchmark the readability of product information by means of objective and readily replicable methods. While mutual fund information on average does not come in plain language, we find that readability improved significantly following the introduction of Key Investor Information Documents (KIIDs). Improvements are driven by simpler syntax and writing style. By contrast, the authors find that the use of jargon remains pervasive and report noncompliance with mandatory design requirements. We discuss our results and propose potential disclosure improvements.
... Based on these findings, this research focused on the following parameters: font size, font type and contrast between the background and text. Many recommendations are published by different associations for people with dyslexia [12,29,30] and many researchers [20,24,27,28,[31][32][33][34][35][36] recommend guidelines for a dyslexic friendly website including the preferred choices in accordance with their needs and preferences. The British Dyslexia Association [29], Bradford [31] and Zarach [35] agree that the most adequate font size is 12 or 14 points. ...
Article
Full-text available
The existing body of knowledge reveals that customisable websites may lead to an increase in accessibility and usability for people with disabilities. In this way, the main goal of this research was to investigate how people with dyslexia respond to a customised version of a website in terms of its effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction and suitability when compared to the default version of the website. The customisation of the investigated website was enabled with the aid of integrated assistive technology that offers people with dyslexia the opportunity to adjust a website themselves in accordance with their individual needs, demands and preferences. They can do this by changing the parameters, such as font size, font type and contrast between the background and text. The answers to the research questions were obtained with complementary research methods and techniques, including formal usability testing, thinking aloud protocol, log analyses, questionnaires and interviews. The empirical results show that participants experienced more issues when interacting with the default website, and they enjoyed more benefits when using the customised website. Too much information on the screen, not enough graphic elements, issues with visual appearance and inappropriately presented information were identified as the most common issues when interacting with the default website. When using the customised website, all participants agreed on a better user experience and, as the majority of them reported, this was due to appropriate contrast and font size. Additionally, the majority of participants also expressed desire to use the individual website adjustments regularly in the future. The conclusions of this investigation are that the individual website adjustments used in this research can not only help to minimise issues, but also eliminate challenges that people with dyslexia have when interacting with a website. Therefore, the primary contributions of this research are the empirical insights of interaction with both the default and customised version of the website for people with dyslexia. Furthermore, this research also has three secondary contributions: (1) detailed presentation and application the general usability evaluation procedure to a specific target group (people with dyslexia); (2) recommendations to adapt the usability evaluation methods for people with dyslexia; and (3) the usage of quantitative measurement instruments for the evaluation of a website’s usability and suitability for people with dyslexia.
... The experiment was a repeated measures design. Within-subjects factors were: [3,8,10], mean fixation durations are also considered as an indicator of text readability [9]. ...
Conference Paper
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The use of light and ultra-light fonts has become an omnipresent trend in the design of modern user interfaces. Although this trend has been criticized by a number of usability experts, no empirical research exists to date on the legibility of these fonts. We present the results of a preliminary eyetracking study showing that light and ultra-light fonts are less legible than their regular and bold counterparts in two variations of text-background contrast (low vs high) and two variations of text-background polarity (positive vs negative). Oculomotor indicators like mean fixation duration and saccade amplitude show that light and ultra-light fonts also induce higher cognitive load. Our study suggests avoiding light and ultra-light fonts for body text.
... The difficulty in establishing such feature-aesthetics links likely stemmed from the large variety of design features that could be tweaked to produce numerous layout and element configurations. Only a tiny part of these configurations would be studied in any single study, making conclusions highly susceptible to spurious observations (e.g., better webpages using tiny fonts [13], despite larger fonts being far better for Web readability [36]) that can only be corrected by meticulous manual review (e.g., smaller fonts corresponded to the copyright notices that most good webpages featured [13]). ...
... Line spacing is known to affect the readability of a text (Bernard et al., 2007;Blackmore-Wright et al., 2013;Calabrèse et al., 2010;Chung, 2004;Chung et al., 2008;Katzir et al., 2013;Ling & van Schaik, 2007;Madhavan et al., 2016;Rello et al., 2016). More specifically, reading pace increases as a function of enhanced line spacing, presumably by decreasing the adverse effect of visual crowding 2 between adjacent lines (Bernard et al., 2007;Chung, 2004). ...
Article
In two reading experiments, we examined the efficacy of the commercial reading assistance application BeeLine Reader which colours the letters of digital texts in gradients. According to its developers, BeeLine Reader increases reading speed, improves comprehension, and makes reading more enjoyable. We tested these hypotheses for second- and third-grade pupils (6–9 years old), assessing the influence of BeeLine Reader in several layouts in which we varied other features that are known to impact the reading processes of beginning readers (line spacing, line length, text segmentation). In comparison to control texts with a standard black font, reading time advantages for BeeLine texts emerged for pupils in second grade (not in third grade) when they read texts with long lines and little inter-line spacing. However, when second-grade readers processed texts that were optimized for their reading level (texts with short lines and sufficient inter-line spacing) they displayed a slower reading pace in texts with a BeeLine font than in texts with a black font. Furthermore, BeeLine texts may hamper comprehension for third-grade readers and were rated as more difficult and less convenient to process than texts with a black font. In conclusion, the visual anchors offered by BeeLine Reader may be useful for some beginning readers in some situations but the application can also impede the readability of texts. These findings emphasize that claims made for digital reading applications should be formally tested if they are going to be introduced into educational settings.
... We believe the difference in font size did not impact reading speed. One study by Rello et al. looked at the impact of font size during reading and showed that any font size larger than 18 should be easily read and should not interfere with reading speed [64]. Increasing font size only increases reading speed if font sizes are smaller than 18 [65]. ...
Article
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Cerebellar ataxia is a neurological disorder due to dysfunction of the cerebellum that affects coordination of fine movement, gait, and balance. Although ataxic patients commonly exhibit abnormal eye movement and have difficulties with saccadic reading, quantification of ocular motor abilities during reading in the clinical setting is rarely done. In this study, we assess visual performance with simple reading tests that can be used in the clinical setting and performed video infrared oculography in 11 patients with hereditary or acquired cerebellar ataxia and 11 age-matched controls. We found that compared with controls, ataxic patients read significantly slower on regularly and irregularly spaced 120 single-digit number reading tasks (read aloud) (p = 0.02 for both) but not on a word reading task (read silently), although there was large variability on the word reading task. Among the 3 reading tasks, the regularly spaced number reading task had the greatest difference (44%) between ataxic patients and controls. Analysis of oculography revealed that ataxic patients had slower reading speeds on the regularly spaced number reading task because of significantly higher saccade and fixation counts, impairment of small amplitude progressive saccades as well as large amplitude, line-changing saccades, greater fixation dispersion, and irregularity of scan paths and staircase gaze patterns. Our findings show that infrared oculography remains the gold standard in assessment of ocular motor difficulties during reading in ataxic patients. In the absence of this capability in the clinical setting, a simple 120 regularly spaced single-digit saccadic number reading test, which most patients can perform in less than 2 minutes, can be a possible biomarker for ocular motor abilities necessary for reading.
... It has been shown that the arrangement of typefaces, e.g., kerning, line spacing, and letter spacing, affect communication. Font size and line spacing are classic issues that affect legibility and comprehensibility of text [41]. In addition to the function of a typeface in effective delivery of content, the impressions created by a typeface have been actively discussed in recent years. ...
Article
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Instant messaging is a popular form of text-based communication. However, text-based messaging lacks the ability to communicate nonverbal information such as that conveyed through facial expressions and voice tones, although a multitude of emotions may underlie the text of a conversation between participants. In this paper, we propose an approach that uses typefaces to communicate emotions. We investigated which typefaces are useful for delivering emotions and introduced these typefaces into a mobile chat app. We conducted a survey to demonstrate how changes in the typeface of a message affected the meaning of the message conveyed. Our user study provides an understanding of the actual user experience with the application. The results show that the use of multiple typefaces in a message can affect and intensify the valence received by users and the use of multiple typefaces elicited an active response and brought about a livelier mood during texting.
... As noted above, the EHR design used in scenario 2 actually forced the physician to reorganize her work to manage the signing task. Regarding physical ergonomics, using established HCI design principles such as Fitts' law [54] to evaluate buttons and guide the layout and using visual ergonomics guidelines [55] on, for example, font size and color schemes, would be good starting points [56]. ...
Article
Knowledge of how to design digital systems that are ergonomically sound, high in usability, and optimized for the user, context, and task has existed for some time. Despite this, there are still too many examples of new digital health care systems that are poorly designed and that could negatively affect both the work environment of health care staff and patient safety. This could be because of a gap between the theoretical knowledge of design and ergonomics and the practical implementation of this knowledge in procuring and developing digital health care systems. Furthermore, discussions of digitalization are often at a general level and risk neglecting the nature of direct interaction with the digital system. This is problematic since it is at this detailed level that work environment and patient safety issues materialize in practice. In this paper, we illustrate such issues with two scenarios concerned with contemporary electronic health care records, based on field studies in two health care settings. We argue that current methods and tools for designing and evaluating digital systems in health care must cater both to the holistic level and to the details of interaction and ergonomics. It must also be acknowledged that health care professionals are neither designers nor engineers, so expectations of them during the development of digital systems must be realistic. We suggest three paths toward a more sustainable digital work environment in health care: (1) better tools for evaluating the digital work environment in the field; (2) generic formulations of qualitative requirements related to usability and for adaptation to the user, context, and task, to be used in procurement; and (3) the introduction of digital ergonomics as an embracing concept capturing several of the ergonomic challenges (including physical, cognitive, and organizational aspects) involved in implementing and using digital systems.
... Font size, spacing, and style can also play a role in what the reader retains (e.g. Rello, Pielot, & Marcos, 2016or Nikmah, 2018). Yet children, and learners, seem to enjoy cryptograms, snaked sentences, word scrambles which are not so simple and that are puzzle-like. ...
Article
Desirable difficulties, coined by Bjork (1994), includes concepts such as spacing learning, interleaving, and disfluency, all of which can be practiced in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. Sans Forgetica, a disfluent font developed at RMIT University in Australia, was specifically designed to enhance learning. Seventy-two preservice elementary school teachers in Switzerland participated in this study aimed at increasing awareness of desirable difficulties in general, and more specifically in the role of disfluency in reading comprehension. No significant differences between participants receiving a text on scaffolding and desirable difficulties in EFL classrooms in Sans Forgetica or Arial were found yet this study contributes to a larger discussion of alternative practices in English language classrooms around the world. Article visualizations: </p
... In contrary, the best combination is cream-black as pastel colours were easier to be perceived by people with dyslexia. According to the Rello, brightness differences less than 125 and colour differences less than 500 are considered not beneficial for people with dyslexia [8]. However, using grey for font or background colour should be avoided as most participants said it didn't help them. ...
... Reasons for the decreased performance are often device properties, such as the quality of the screen but also design parameters, such as text display and page layout. The hardware has been signifcantly improved in recent years, and various studies have produced guidelines on how to optimize text legibility, both on the web [22] and hand-held devices [9]. Such devices also allowed the experimentation with novel reading methods, such as rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), where a text is displayed wordby-word in one focal spot. ...
... • Font size. The recommended font size is 16 or larger[48,56]. • Justified text. ...
Article
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Dyslexia is a cognitive disorder that affects the evolutionary ability to read, write, and speak in people, affecting the correct learning of a large percentage of the population worldwide. In fact, incorrect learning is caused because the educational system does not take into consideration the accessibility parameters that people with dyslexia need to maintain a sustainable educational level equal to others. Moreover, the use of mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, has been deployed in education programs, offering many benefits; however, the lack of accessibility of those devices creates new barriers to students with dyslexia that hinder their education. With the aim of reducing these barriers, this paper presents an approach to the development of accessible serious games games for children with dyslexia. As a case study, a serious game based on a previously proposed serious game development method and a new set of accessibility guidelines for people with dyslexia is presented. The main purpose of the serious video game is to improve the treatment of dyslexia, through the collection of data obtained from two puzzles designed to train certain cognitive areas that affect this disability. This article has a double contribution: on the one hand, the guidelines and the method that can help video game developers and therapists to develop accessible serious games for people with dyslexia and, on the other hand, the two specific serious games that can be used by therapists, family members and people with dyslexia themselves.
... Online readers tend to scan and search for items that stand out, such as bullet points and boldface phrases. Therefore, online articles are adjusted for quick readability (Rello et al., 2016) and content of interest to researchers may be lost. Content about the tobacco robberies posted on social media was not included in this study. ...
Article
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Purpose A large increase in robberies of convenience stores in New Zealand (NZ) in 2016 and 2017 was anecdotally attributed to persistent and substantial increases in excise tax on tobacco products. This study aims to explore the validity of that claim by examining the characteristics of the robberies through the lens of online news coverage. Design/methodology/approach Google, Bing and main online NZ news outlets were searched for news reports between 2009 and 2018 of tobacco-related store robberies. Content analysis was used to extract characteristics such as date of robbery, type of store, items targeted or stolen and demographic profile of offenders. The prevalence of reported robberies by socioeconomic level of the surrounding community was assessed using nearest primary school decile rating. Descriptive statistics and statistical analysis were used to discuss trends and key findings in the data. Findings Reports on 572 robberies were unevenly distributed across the years with a large increase in 2016 and 2017, followed by a substantial decrease in 2018. Local community convenience stores were primarily hit – more so in lower socioeconomic communities. Robberies occurred nationwide and disproportionately so during colder months in lower socioeconomic communities. Many robberies were aggravated resulting in serious injury to shopkeepers. Tobacco and cash were predominantly targeted. Social implications The large increase in robberies that occurred in 2016–2017 likely resulted from tax-driven tobacco price hikes combined with reduced duty-free tobacco coming into NZ with travellers. Installation of security in stores, news fatigue and other explanations are potential reasons for the 2018 decrease in reported robberies despite tobacco prices increasing. Frequent robberies of local stores, many including violence, should be a public health concern as destruction of community well-being can be a determinant of other health problems. The negative consequences for communities, particularly lower socioeconomic communities, need to be factored into the cost benefit analysis of raising the tax on tobacco. Originality/value This study provides much needed detail on the negative health and social consequences of tobacco-related store robberies.
... However, there is little exploration of the impact of dyslexia on Web use, beyond the accessibility of certain fonts [35], discussion of the need to consider dyslexia when updating Web accessibility guidelines [10,37], or studying the impact of challenges associated with dyslexia (reading difficulties, working memory difficulties, organizational difficulties) on general web navigation behaviors [2]. ...
Conference Paper
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As many as 20% of English speakers have dyslexia, a language disability that impacts reading and spelling. Web search is an important modern literacy skill, yet the accessibility of this language-centric endeavor to people with dyslexia is largely unexplored. We interviewed ten adults with dyslexia and conducted an online survey with 81 dyslexic and 80 non-dyslexic adults, in which participants described challenges they face in various stages of web search (query formulation, search result triage, and information extraction). We also report the findings of an online study in which 174 adults with dyslexia and 172 without dyslexia rated the readability and relevance of sets of search query results. Our findings demonstrate differences in behaviors and preferences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic searchers, and indicate that factoring readability into search engine rankings and/or interfaces may benefit both dyslexic and non-dyslexic users.
... Bernard et al. [1,2] also explored a number of parameters to support legibility, such as font size and font family. Rello et al. [8] investigated different font sizes for the body of websites. Using an eye tracker and comprehension tests, they found that readability and text comprehension significantly improves when online text is displayed with larger font sizes, namely 18, 22, and 26. ...
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Virtual Reality (VR) devices have increasingly sparked both commercial and academic interest. While applications range from immersive games to real-world simulations, little attention has been given to the display of text in virtual environments. Since reading remains to be a crucial activity to consume information in the real and digital world, we set out to investigate user interfaces for reading in VR. To explore comfortable reading settings, we conducted a user study with 18 participants focusing on parameters, such as text size, convergence, as well as view box dimensions and positioning. This paper presents the first step in our work towards guidelines for effectively displaying text in VR.
... When matching these design requirements with the feedback of our elderly focus group and recommendations of the literature [46][47][48] the following design guidelines emerge: ...
... Typographic choices are based on design guidelines for on-screen readability (Rello et al., 2016;Miniukovich et al., 2017). We use a 12 pt sans-serif font (Arial) to typeset source and target text in dark grey and black colour, respectively, with 150 % line spacing, left justification, and ragged right edge. ...
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Widely used computer-aided translation (CAT) tools divide documents into segments such as sentences and arrange them in a side-by-side, spreadsheet-like view. We present the first controlled evaluation of these design choices on translator performance, measuring speed and accuracy in three experimental text processing tasks. We find significant evidence that sentence-by-sentence presentation enables faster text reproduction and within-sentence error identification compared to unsegmented text, and that a top-and-bottom arrangement of source and target sentences enables faster text reproduction compared to a side-by-side arrangement. For revision, on the other hand, our results suggest that presenting unsegmented text results in the highest accuracy and time efficiency. Our findings have direct implications for best practices in designing CAT tools.
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Reading is fundamental to interactive-system use, but around 800 million of people might struggle with it due to literacy difficulties. Few websites are designed for high readability, as readability remains an underinvestigated facet of User Experience. Existing readability guidelines have multiple issues: they are too many or too generic, poorly worded, and often lack cognitive grounding. This paper developed a set of 61 readability guidelines in a series of workshops with design and dyslexia experts. A user study with dyslexic and average readers further narrowed the 61-guideline set down to a core set of 12 guidelines -- an acceptably small set to keep in mind while designing. The core-set guidelines address reformatting -- such as using larger fonts and narrower content columns, or avoiding underlining and italics -- and may well aply to the interactive system other than websites.
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Nowadays, remembering important tasks becomes more challenging activity as people get older. Due to the loss of memory, senses and ability to remember, it gives impact in the elderly life which can reduce their quality of life, loss of independence, and increased burden on the elderly and their caretakers. A simple and intuitive system, and is able to dynamically manage tasks is a great aid to those who have a hard time remembering things. There are many reminder mobile applications for an Android user but none of them focuses on user interface for elderly users. To solve this problem, a guideline and features for elderly reminder mobile application will be identified using quantitative method. Next, an elderly reminder mobile application will be developed using mental model based on the identified guideline and features.
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Around 10% of the people have dyslexia, a neurological disability that impairs a person's ability to read and write. There is evidence that the presentation of the text has a significant effect on a text's accessibility for people with dyslexia. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no experiments that objectively measure the impact of the typeface (font) on screen reading performance. In this article, we present the first experiment that uses eye-tracking to measure the effect of typeface on reading speed. Using a mixed between-within subject design, 97 subjects (48 with dyslexia) read 12 texts with 12 different fonts. Font types have an impact on readability for people with and without dyslexia. For the tested fonts, sans serif, monospaced, and roman font styles significantly improved the reading performance over serif, proportional, and italic fonts. On the basis of our results, we recommend a set of more accessible fonts for people with and without dyslexia.
Chapter
Aging and digitization are two major trends in modern society, resulting in a rapid increase in the number of middle-aged and elderly smartphone users. Research into these user’s mobile reading experience has significant value in industry application, as well as social value. Based on the subjective experience evaluation and eye movement data of 60 Chinese adults aged 50–70 years, we investigated the impact of different font sizes, line spacing, and stroke weight on the smartphone reading experience of Chinese characters in three typical scenarios: searching, overview reading, and long-text reading. Results show that font size has a significant impact on reading experience in all scenarios. Line spacing and stroke weight have different impacts in different reading scenarios. Line spacing has a significant effect on long-text reading (such as the news details page), while stroke weight has a significant impact on search scenarios (such as news headlines). Bold type fonts can highlight key information on a page with multiple levels of information. This study also identifies the optimal font size, line spacing and stroke weight for different scenarios and different levels of information. This is the first study that provides smartphone application developers with design specifications for optimal font size, line spacing and stroke weight in different scenarios for middle-aged and elderly Chinese users. These findings can be utilized to improve the reading experience of Chinese news apps in a comprehensive manner.
Chapter
Web fonts quickly gained popularity among practitioners. Despite their wide-spread usage and critical role in design, there is a lack of empirical research regarding how practitioners select web fonts and what problems they encounter in the process. To fill this knowledge gap, we took a mixed-method approach to examine the salient factors and common issues in the typeface selection process. To understand the landscape of the problem, we first analyzed adoption data for Google Fonts, a representative online fonts directory. Then, we interviewed practitioners regarding their experience selecting web fonts and the problems they encountered. Finally, we issued a follow-up survey to validate the qualitative findings. Our study uncovered how practitioners operationalized three salient factors—affordability, functionality, and personality—in the typeface selection process. Participants reported difficulty in finding typefaces that satisfy the functionality and personality needs. We discuss patterns that led to this difficulty and offered practical design guidelines that alleviated the identified issues.
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The purpose of this review is to explore the low vision accessibility features of software packages commonly used for structural equation modeling (SEM). The benefits of including accessibility features can extend well beyond the scope of helping users with disabilities, such as making classroom demonstrations or figures easier to read. This review evaluates four different programs: Mplus, STATA, AMOS (and SPSS), and R (and RStudio). While most of these programs do provide some accessibility features that are helpful for low vision users, there are areas where all these programs could be improved.
Research
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Objective: Increased exposure on social media sites makes consumer vulnerable to digital advertising, promoting them to make a purchase. However, concentrated marketing necessitates devising innovative strategies for intriguing customers. This study assesses the impact of design elements of social media advertising on consumer purchasing decision. Method: Descriptive analytical research design was used, with convenience sample of 303 online shopping users. Data was collected through an online questionnaire-based survey which was analyzed statistically. Results: It showed that advertising image majorly affects the purchasing decision (41.6%), followed by typography (8%), design (4.8%) and lastly color (2.6%). However, the impact of image on the purchasing behavior of male differs. Conclusion: Effective and innovative strategies must be used for designing a social media advertisement.
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As collaborative research between engineering and fashion, the purpose of this study was to investigate if saliency models can be applied for predicting consumers’ visual attention to fashion images such as fashion advertisements. A human subject study was conducted to record human visual fixations on 10 colour fashion advertisement images, which were randomly selected from fashion magazines. The participants include 67 college students (26 males and 41 females). All mouse-tracking locations on images were recorded and saved using Psychtoolbox-3 with MATLAB. The locations represent the human fixation points on the images and are used to generate fixation maps. This collaborative research is an innovative and pioneering approach to predict consumers’ visual attention toward fashion images using saliency models. From the results of this study, the engineering area’s saliency models were proven as effective measurements in predicting fashion consumers’ visual attention when looking at fashion images such as advertisements.
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Widely used computer-aided translation (CAT) tools divide documents into segments, such as sentences, and arrange them side-by-side in a spreadsheet-like view. We present the first controlled evaluation of these design choices on translator performance, measuring speed and accuracy in three experimental text-processing tasks. We find significant evidence that sentence-by-sentence presentation enables faster text reproduction and within-sentence error identification compared to unsegmented text, and that a top-and-bottom arrangement of source and target sentences enables faster text reproduction compared to a side-by-side arrangement. For revision, on the other hand, we find that presenting unsegmented text results in the highest accuracy and time efficiency. Our findings have direct implications for best practices in designing CAT tools.
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An online survey ( N = 810) examined the impact of design best practices on the perceived usability of End-User License Agreements (EULAs). Redesigning a EULA according to best-practices (without changing the EULA’s terms and conditions) led to higher perceived usability while responses to attitudinal (perceived reasonableness of conditions) and behavioral (anticipated agreement and use) items were unaffected. Readers (who reported reading EULAs frequently) (a) provided more positive evaluations of EULAs and (b) were more likely to anticipate agreeing to EULA terms than non-readers . These results suggest that best practices in document design can improve the usability of End-User License Agreements.
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Around 10% of the people have dyslexia, a neurological disability that impairs a person's ability to read and write. There is evidence that the presentation of the text has a significant effect on a text's accessibility for people with dyslexia. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no experiments that objectively measure the impact of the font type on reading performance. In this paper, we present the first experiment that uses eye-tracking to measure the effect of font type on reading speed. Using a within-subject design, 48 subjects with dyslexia read 12 texts with 12 different fonts. Sans serif, monospaced and roman font styles significantly improved the reading performance over serif, proportional and italic fonts. On the basis of our results, we present a set of more accessible fonts for people with dyslexia.
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The majority of research into web accessibility has focused on identifying and eliminating the problems that people with disabilities encounter when interacting with the Web. In this paper we argue that we need to move away from studying user problems to studying how people with disabilities apply interaction strategies while browsing the Web. In this paper we present a study of 19 print disabled users, including blind, partially sighted and dyslexic people, interacting with a variety of interactive Web 2.0 web applications. The participants undertook tasks using concurrent and retrospective protocols to elicit information about how they interact with web content. The result of this study was a collection of 586 strategic action sequences that were classified into seven different types of strategy. Differences in the application of strategies between the user groups are presented, as well as the most frequent strategies used by each user group. We close the paper by discussing some implications for the design of websites and assistive technologies as well as the future directions for empirical research in accessibility.
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This study examined the effects of line length on reading speed, comprehension, and user satisfaction of online news articles. Twenty college-age students read news articles displayed in 35, 55, 75, or 95 characters per line (cpl) from a computer monitor. Results showed that passages formatted with 95 cpl resulted in faster reading speed. No effects of line length were found for comprehension or satisfaction, however, users indicated a strong preference for either the short or long line lengths.
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This study examined passages containing two serif and sans serif fonts at 12 and 14-point sizes for differences in legibility, reading time, and general preference when read by an older population. A significant main effect of size was found for font legibility in that 14-point fonts were more legible to read than 12-point fonts. A marginal interaction was also found for reading time in that participants read 12-point serif fonts significantly slower than 14-point serif or sans serif fonts. Moreover, participants significantly preferred the 14-point to the 12-point font size. Font recommendations are discussed.
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Capturing and analyzing the detailed eye movements of a user while reading a web page can reveal much about the ways in which web reading occurs. The WebGazeAnalyzer system described here is a remote-camera system, requiring no invasive head-mounted apparatus, giving test subjects a normal web use experience when performing web-based tasks. While many such systems have been used in the past to collect eye gaze data, WebGazeAnalyzer brings together several techniques for efficiently collecting, analyzing and re-analyzing eye gaze data. We briefly describe techniques for overcoming the inherent inaccuracies of such apparatus, illustrating how we capture and analyze eye gaze data for commercial web design problems. Techniques developed here include methods to group fixations along lines of text, and reading analysis to measure reading speed, regressions, and coverage of web page text.
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This study examined the readabiity.and subjective preferences of a set of fonts designed for screen display. Two new binary bitmap fonts performed well, suggesting that designers should consider incorporating similar attributes into default fonts for on- line type. This study examines reading for comprehension and users' pref- erences of fonts designed sp&icaUy for computer screens. Since the introduction of the personal computer and the more recent increase in the use of on-line sources of information (on- line help, database searching, and especially hypertext resources on the World Wide Web), the option of reading from paper rather than from computer screens has been drastically reduced and in some cases eliminated. A substantial literature on the legibility, readability, and users' preferences for fonts exists (see (2) for a relatively recent com- prehensive review). Recent work has studied users' performance on high resolution bit-mapped displays for a range of reading u&s such as proof-reading (3,4,5J, reading for comprehension and skimming IS). These studies indicate that there is no differ- ence., at least under some circumstances, between paper and high quality screen displays. Nevertheless, reading from screens remains anecdotally problematic. In part, this situation may be due to differences between the conditions of the experiments and conditions of typical on-line presentation (e.g., (4,5) studied anti-aliased text whereas actual practice for many long passages of on-line information is binary bitmap text; (S) studied text set in boldface whereas actual practice is regular face - strokes may appear thinner on a screen than on paper-with boldface reserved for cuemg of highlights). The current study was designed to look at users' performance with text as it is typically presented on-line - using fonts that were not designed speciically for screen display - with text that is likely to be presented on computer screens in the near future - using fonts designed spec-tically for screen display. The goal of the study was not to determine whether the newly designed screen fonts are better than those appearing on paper,
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We report on an explorator y study analyzing preferred reading regions on a monitor using eye tracking. We show that users have indi vidually preferred reading regions, varying in location on the screen and in size. Furthermore, we explore how scrolling interactions and mouse movements are correlated with position and size of the individually pref erred reading regions.
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Post-task ratings of difficulty in a usability test have the potential to provide diagnostic information and be an additional measure of user satisfaction. But the ratings need to be reliable as well as easy to use for both respondents and researchers. Three one-question rating types were compared in a study with 26 participants who attempted the same five tasks with two software applications. The types were a Likert scale, a Usability Magnitude Estimation (UME) judgment, and a Subjective Mental Effort Question (SMEQ). All three types could distinguish between the applications with 26 participants, but the Likert and SMEQ types were more sensitive with small sample sizes. Both the Likert and SMEQ types were easy to learn and quick to execute. The online version of the SMEQ question was highly correlated with other measures and had equal sensitivity to the Likert question type. Author Keywords
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In order to maximize online reading performance and comprehension, how should a designer choose typographical variables such as font size and font type? This paper presents an eye tracking study of how font size and font type affect online reading. In a between-subjects design, we collected data from 82 subjects reading stories formatted in a variety of point sizes, san serif, and serif fonts. Reading statistics such as reading speed were computed, and post-tests of comprehension were recorded. For smaller font sizes, fixation durations are significantly longer, resulting in slower reading - but not significantly slower. While there were no significant differences in serif vs. san serif fonts, serif reading was slightly faster. Significant eye tracking differences were found for demographic variables such as age group and whether English is the subject's first language.
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Though there have been many studies of computer based text reading, only a few have considered the small screens of handheld computers. This paper presents an investigation into the effect of varying font size between 2 and 16 point on reading text on a handheld computer. By using both older and younger participants the possible effects of age were examined. Reading speed and accuracy were measured and subjective views of participants recorded. Objective results showed that there was little difference in reading performance above 6 point, but subjective comments from participants showed a preference for sizes in the middle range. We therefore suggest, for reading tasks, that designers of interfaces for mobile computers provide fonts in the range of 8-12 point to maximize readability for the widest range of users.
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We present an eye tracking study to measure if and how including pictures – relevant or irrelevant to the text – affects online reading. In a between-subjects design, 82 subjects read a story on a computer screen. The text was accompanied by either: (a) pictures related to the text, (b) pictures unrelated to the text (advertisements), or (c) no pictures. Reading statistics such as reading speed and regressions were computed, as well as measures of picture gazes. When pictures related to the text were replaced with advertisements, we observed a number of significant differences, including speed, regressions, and re-reading.
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Font type and size characteristics play an important role in understanding the complexities of visual information in human-computer interface. India has emerged as the fastest growing personal computer (PC) user in the Asia pacific region. Studies and guidelines on the use of font type and size on screen for computer users are limited in the literature. Present work evaluates the influence of font type and size on reading on a computer screen in a group of young adults. Forty subjects volunteered for the study. Two types of fonts were used. Serif fonts included Times New Roman (TNR), Georgia and Courier New. Sans serif fonts included Arial, Verdana and Tahoma. These fonts were presented in 10, 12 and 14 point sizes. Subjects read eighteen passages (same length and reading level). Reading time, ranking and mental workload were measured. Readability was better for Serif compared to Sans serif. Reading time was minimum for Courier New 14 point. Sans serif fonts were preferred more than Serif fonts. Subjects’ ranking was highest and mental workload was least for Verdana 14 point. The present study recommends using 14 point sized fonts for reading on computer screen. Courier New is recommended based on reading time while for making onscreen presentation more attractive, Verdana is recommended based on subjects’ ranking and mental workload scoring.
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This article details a study which predicted that across a wide range of print sizes dyslexic reading would follow the same curve shape as skilled reading, with constant reading rates across large print sizes and a sharp decline in reading rates below a critical print size. It also predicted that dyslexic readers would require larger critical print sizes to attain their maximum reading speeds, following the letter position coding deficit hypothesis. Reading speed was measured across twelve print sizes ranging from Snellen equivalents of 20/12 to 20/200 letter sizes for a group of dyslexic readers in Grades 2 to 4 (aged 7 to 10 years), and for non-dyslexic readers in Grades 1 to 3 (aged 6 to 8 years). The groups were equated for word reading ability. Results confirmed that reading rate-by-print size curves followed the same two-limbed shape for dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers. Dyslexic reading curves showed higher critical print sizes and shallower reading rate-by-print size slopes below the critical print size, consistent with the hypothesis of a letter-position coding deficit. Non-dyslexic reading curves also showed a decrease of critical print size with age. A developmental lag model of dyslexic reading does not account for the results, since the regression of critical print size on maximum reading rate differed between groups.
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This paper presents a user study which compares reading performance versus user preference in customization of the text. We study the following parameters: grey scales for the font and the background, colors combinations, font size, column width and spacing of characters, lines and paragraphs. We used eye tracking to measure the reading performance of 92 participants, and questionnaires to collect their preferences. The study shows correlations on larger contrast and sizes, but there is no concluding evidence for the other parameters. Based on our results, we propose a set of text customization guidelines for reading text on screen combining the results of both kind of data.
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In 2012, Wikipedia was the sixth-most visited website on the Internet. Being one of the main repositories of knowledge, students from all over the world consult it. But, around 10% of these students have dyslexia, which impairs their access to text-based websites. How could Wikipedia be presented to be more readable for this target group? In an experiment with 28 participants with dyslexia, we compare reading speed, comprehension, and subjective readability for the font sizes 10, 12, 14, 18, 22, and 26 points, and line spacings 0.8, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8. The results show that font size has a significant effect on the readability and the understandability of the text, while line spacing does not. On the basis of our results, we recommend using 18-point font size when designing web text for readers with dyslexia. Our results significantly differ from previous recommendations, presumably, because this is the first work to cover a wide range of values and to study them in the context of an actual website.
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Web usability measures the ease of use of a website. This study attempts to find the effect of three factors - font size, italics, and colour count - on web usability. The study was performed using a set of tasks and developing a survey questionnaire. We performed the study using a set of human subjects, selected from the undergraduate students taking courses in psychology. The data computed from the tasks and survey questionnaire were statistically analysed to find if there was any effect of font size, italics, and colour count on the three web usability dimensions. We found that for the student population considered, there was no significant effect of font size on usability. However, the manipulation of italics and colour count did influence some aspects of usability. The subjects performed better for pages with no italics and high italics compared to moderate italics. The subjects rated the pages that contained only one colour higher than the web pages with four or six colours. This research will help web developers better understand the effect of font size, italics, and colour count on web usability in general, and for young adults, in particular.
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A special arrangement of the Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading Test was employed and shown to yield equivalent scores on Forms A and B. Thus varying amounts of leading could be inserted in Form B, and scores on B compared with performance on Form A, set solid. 400 college students were used, none of whom had previously taken the tests. It was found that: 1-point leading does not facilitate speed of reading as compared with text set solid; 2-point leading facilitates speed of reading by 7.5%; 4-point leading facilitates speed of reading by 5%. 10-point type and 19-pica line width were employed as printing specifications, and it may be that the advantage of two-point leading may hold only for this size of type and width of line. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading Tests printed in alternate forms (Form A with black type on white and Form B with white type on black) were used with 280 students to test the effect on speed of reading. Significant differences were found to give a 10.5% advantage in speed of reading in favor of black type on white. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The writers continue previous work, using the Chapman-Cook Speed of Reading tests. Speed of reading records obtained from 320 college students for texts set up in 6-, 8-, 10-, 12-, and 14-point type with line length constant at 80 mm. show that 10-point type yields the fastest reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Royal National Institute of the Blind (RNIB) has produced a Clear Print booklet, which contains recommendations for the production of Clear Print for the blind and partially sighted. The British Dyslexia Association (BDA) has produced a Dyslexia Style Guide, which covers similar issues. Both focus on producing text, which is clear and therefore more easily read, and there is significant overlap between the two. By comparing the two, a set of specifications for the production of text has been generated. Using the specifications should produce clear text for both dyslexic and visually impaired readers. It should improve readability for all. The text specifications plus additional recommendations from the BDA are considered with respect to an existing set of web site design guidelines for dyslexic readers to produce an enhanced set of guidelines compatible with both. These guidelines are recommended to be followed as standard, both for their benefits to visually impaired and dyslexic readers, promoting accessibility for these groups, and for their potential to improve accessibility for all.
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Times New Roman and Arial typefaces in 10- and 12-point, dot-matrix and anti-aliased format conditions were compared for readability (accuracy, reading speed, and accuracy/reading speed), as well as perceptions of typeface legibility, sharpness, ease of reading, and general preference. In assessing readability, the 10-point anti-aliased Arial typeface was read slower than the other type conditions. Examining perceptions of typeface legibility, sharpness, and ease of reading detected significant effects for typeface, size, and format. Overall, the 12-point dot-matrix Arial typeface was preferred to the other typefaces. Recommendations for appropriate typeface combinations for computer-displayed text are discussed.
Article
With such a large volume of material accessible from the World Wide Web, there is an urgent need to increase our knowledge of factors in#uencing reading from screen. We investigate the e!ects of two reading speeds (normal and fast) and di!erent line lengths on comprehension, reading rate and scrolling patterns. Scrolling patterns are de"ned as the way in which readers proceed through the text, pausing and scrolling. Comprehension and reading rate are also examined in relation to scrolling patterns to attempt to identify some characteristics of e!ective readers. We found a reduction in overall comprehension when reading fast, but the type of information recalled was not dependent on speed. A medium line length (55 characters per line) appears to support e!ective reading at normal and fast speeds. This produced the highest level of comprehension and was also read faster than short lines. Scrolling patterns associated with better comprehension (more time in pauses and more individual scrolling movements) contrast with scrolling patterns used by faster readers (less time in pauses between scrolling). Consequently, e!ective readers can only be de"ned in relation to the aims of the reading task, which may favour either speed or accuracy. ( 2001 Academic Press
Article
This paper provides a tutorial introduction to numerical cognition, with a review of essential findings and current points of debate. A tacit hypothesis in cognitive arithmetic is that numerical abilities derive from human linguistic competence. One aim of this special issue is to confront this hypothesis with current knowledge of number representations in animals, infants, normal and gifted adults, and brain-lesioned patients. First, the historical evolution of number notations is presented, together with the mental processes for calculating and transcoding from one notation to another. While these domains are well described by formal symbol-processing models, this paper argues that such is not the case for two other domains of numerical competence: quantification and approximation. The evidence for counting, subitizing and numerosity estimation in infants, children, adults and animals is critically examined. Data are also presented which suggest a specialization for processing approximate numerical quantities in animals and humans. A synthesis of these findings is proposed in the form of a triple-code model, which assumes that numbers are mentally manipulated in an arabic, verbal or analogical magnitude code depending on the requested mental operation. Only the analogical magnitude representation seems available to animals and preverbal infants.
Article
Two experiments investigated whether lexical complexity increases a word’s processing time. Subjects read sentences, each containing a target word, while their eye movements were monitored. In experiment 1, mean fixation time on infrequent words was longer than on their more frequent controls, as was the first fixation after the Infrequent Target. Fixation Times on Causative, factive, and negative verbs and ambiguous nouns were no longer than on their controls. Further analyses on the ambiguous nouns, however, suggested that the likelihood of their various meanings affected fixation time. This factor was investigated in experiment 2. subjects spent a longer time fixating ambiguous words with two equally likely meanings than fixating ambiguous words with one highly likely meaning. The results suggest that verb complexity does not affect lexical access time, and that word frequency And the presence of two highly likely meanings may affect lexical access and/or postaccess integration.
Article
Presents a model of reading comprehension that accounts for the allocation of eye fixations of 14 college students reading scientific passages. The model deals with processing at the level of words, clauses, and text units. Readers made longer pauses at points where processing loads were greater. Greater loads occurred while readers were accessing infrequent words, integrating information from important clauses, and making inferences at the ends of sentences. The model accounts for the gaze duration on each word of text as a function of the involvement of the various levels of processing. The model is embedded in a theoretical framework capable of accommodating the flexibility of reading. (70 ref)
Article
The investigation of visual word recognition has been a major accomplishment of cognitive science. Two on-line methodologies, eye movements and event-related potentials, stand out in the search for the holy grail - an absolute time measure of when, how and why we recognize visual words while reading. Although each technique has its own experimental limitations, we suggest, by means of review and comparison, that these two methodologies can be used in complementary ways to produce a better picture of the mental action we call reading.
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