Article

Nutritional and health benefits of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Furthermore, the seeds' protein content ranges from 12 to 23% and includes all essential amino acids (1). Quinoa contains fewer carbohydrates than most common cereals (wheat, corn, barley, rice, rye, and sorghum), considered a good alternative for diabetics (4), and starch is the most important carbohydrate (5). Quinoa is also an excellent source of dietary fiber that ranges between 7.0 and 9.7% (5). ...
... Quinoa is also an excellent source of dietary fiber that ranges between 7.0 and 9.7% (5). Moreover, quinoa can also be considered an oilseed due to the quality and volume of its lipid fraction, which can reach up to 9.5% (4). The mineral fraction in raw quinoa seeds ranges from 2.0 to 3.4% and is rich in macro-elements, such as P, K, Ca, and S, and microelements, such as Fe, Zn, Mo, B, and Mn (5,6). ...
... Five parameters were used for the washing process screening. These include the number of washing times (1)(2)(3)(4)(5), the volume of water (3,5,7,9,11 ml/g of seeds), treatment time as a time of processing under stirring (15,30,60, 120, 150 min), soaking time as a time of moistening to aid in seed coat removal without stirring (15,30,60, 120, 150 min), and water temperature (20,30,40,50, 60 • C). ...
Article
Full-text available
The pseudocereal grain, Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), has a great nutritional value due to its high contents of proteins, fiber, minerals, and vitamins. However, saponins naturally present outside the grains represent an obstacle to their consumption as human food. Before consumption, the grains are subjected to various treatments, which alter their nutritional value. In an attempt to eliminate the maximum of saponins using the wet process, while minimizing the washing conditions and preserving the nutritional quality, we explored the effects of several parameters, including volume of water, treatment time, soaking time, number of washing, and water temperature, followed by an optimization process using Box-Behnken Design, and finally, the impact of this process on the physicochemical and techno-functional properties of six quinoa genotypes seeds was evaluated. As a result, the variation of the treatment time, volume, and temperature of the water positively affected the saponins leaching. According to the quadratic model, the maximum percentages of eliminated saponins (96.53%−96.77%) were found at a temperature of 50 • C, treatment times from 60 to 69 min, and water volumes from 6.99 to 7.50 mL per gram of seeds. The optimized method did not affect the proteins and microelements content (Zn, Mn, B, Mo), while a slight decrease of macro-elements (K, P, Ca, S, Mg) was noted in the level of some genotypes. On the other hand, a significant improvement of the techno-functional properties such as water and oil holding capacity was noted, with a sharp drop-in emulsifying activity in all genotypes without affecting the standard values of pH (6.4-6.8) and moisture content (10%−11%) of the seeds. Hence, the optimized method showed to be a more potential method for saponins removal than the currently used dry method.
... Quinoa is considered a very important crop due to its high nutritional quality (14-20 g protein/100 g dry basis and bioavailable amino acid), is suitable for celiac patients, due to the lack of gluten, and furthermore the quinoa grain can be used almost completely [6,7]. The consumption of quinoa has beneficial effects on cardiovascular, metabolic, and gastrointestinal problems [8,9]. Quinoa flour is used to enrich gluten-free products, especially from the bakery, in addition to promoting metabolism due to its rich content of elements that are related to haematological functions and enzymatic co-factors [10,11]. ...
... Quinoa shows interesting technological properties and has become an excellent nonmeat ingredient to use as a filler, binder and fat replacer in meat products [9]. Quinoa flour has been used to improve burger quality and eliminate certain components, such as soy protein and breadcrumbs, which could provoke some types of allergy [12][13][14]. ...
... In a similar way, Bagdatli [14] obtained gluten-free beef meatballs, incorporating different quinoa flour levels (up to 7.5%), and showed that the final product presented good acceptability and an improvement in its nutritional value. In addition, quinoa has been used as a replacement for starch and fat in cooked products [9,13], confirming its technological potential. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the quality of meat patty samples containing different black quinoa fractions (seed, flour and wet-milling coproducts) was evaluated during freezing preservation. Composition, physicochemical parameters (aw, pH, colour and texture), cooking properties, lipid oxidation and sensory characteristic were studied in four batches (control and 8% concentration of quinoa seed, flour and wet-milling coproducts added) at 30, 60 and 90 days of freezing (−20 ± 1 °C). Different black quinoa fraction addition affected (p < 0.05) physiochemical properties, improved cooking properties and reduced lipid oxidations during freezing storage. Batches with flour and wet-milling coproducts added were the most stable for texture parameters and lipid oxidation during freezing. The results obtained showed that quinoa wet-milling co-products could be considered a valuable sustainable and organic food ingredient, maintaining nutritional and global qualities of the fresh meat product. In addition, freezing storage is an effective way to prolong the shelf life of patties with different black quinoa fractions, added without affecting quality.
... Quinoa with high nutritive contents might be suitable as livestock feed [9]. Quinoa seeds meal protect animals from oxidative stress by raising their antioxidant capacity and dropping lipid peroxidation in plasma and different tissues [10]. Quinoa attained high biological value due to the presence of lysine and sulphur containing amino acid and protein-rich quinoa contain excellent amino acid contents [11]. ...
... The pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) contains a high quantity health beneficial nutrients with protein contents (12-23%), vitamin (B, C, and E), minerals such as (Iron, Zinc, Phosphorus and Potassium), fat content (7-9%) and dietary fiber [10]. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of quinoa seeds as partial protein source on broiler health by studying its effects on liver and kidney functions measuring the level of AST, ALT, Creatine, and Urea after slaughtering the birds at day 42 to study the quinoa seeds effect as an alternative protein source of soybean meal for broiler feed. ...
Article
Full-text available
scale study on the effect of feeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) as meal on serum biochemistry of broiler. Abstract Quinoa is a pseudo-cereal with the variety of vitamins, minerals contents, important proteins, essential unsaturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with less glycemic index. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of quinoa seed meal on serum biochemistry of broiler birds. Seventy (one day old) chicks were raised and divided into groups (n=6) with ten birds (n=10) in each group. The total duration of the experiment was 42 days and all the birds were fed with commercially available feed from market (Starter)from day 1 to day 14. From day 15 to day 42 all the birds in group 1 were fed with the dietcontaining50g/kg quinoa seeds meal. Group 2 birds were fed with the dietcontaining100g/kg quinoa seed meal. Group 3 birds were fed with 200g/kg quinoa seeds meal as a protein source. From day 21 to day 42 all birds from group 4 were fed with 50g/kg quinoa seed meal. Group 5 chicks were fed with the dietcontaining100g/kg quinoa seeds meal and group 6 chicks were fed with diet contain quinoa seed meal (200g/kg) as a protein source. Control birds were fed with 100% commercially available feed. In results, significant effects of quinoa meal in the trial. 2 and trial3 improved kidney functions (ALT & AST) and liver functions (Urea &Creatinine). The quinoa phytochemicals indicate major role as protein meal in the poultry feed through a multiplicity of effects.
... Quinoa seeds contains appreciable amount of magnesium, zinc, iron, calcium and considered as sufficient for balanced diet. Quinoa contains a high level of protective phytochemicals such as saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids [13]. ...
... than that of control sample with tryptophan and methionine content of 0.43 and 0.54 g per 100g protein, respectively. Overall, the amino acid content was found to be higher in biscuits prepared from quinoa flour as compared to control.Quinoa seeds contains appreciable amount of protein and incredible balance amino acids [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Celiac disease is an autoimmune enteropathy induced by gluten-protein found in various cereal grains. The present study was undertaken to develop quinoa flour based gluten free biscuits for its supplementation in celiac children (7 to 9 years). Gluten free biscuits were nutritionally analysed and effect of supplementation was studied by assessing nutritional status of the subjects. Methods: The study was conducted to develop quinoa flour based gluten free biscuits for its supplementation in celiac children (7-9 years). Findings: The nutrition analysis of most acceptable gluten free biscuits with 40 percent quinoa flour had appreciable amount of protein (11.45 g), lysine (3.69 g), tryptophan (0.58 g), methionine (0.96 g), iron (1.77 mg), calcium (49.43 mg), magnesium (70.08 mg), zinc (1.77 mg) and fibre (2.45 g)per 100 g. A significant increase (p<0.01) in the intake of protein, iron and calcium was observed in children after supplementation. Conclusion: Supplementation resulted in significant decrease (p<0.01) in Anti-tTG IgA levels from 116.88 to 57.19 U/ml and significant increase in haemoglobin level from 11.59 g/dl to 12.1 g/dl. Besides, Z-Scores of normal BMI for age improved from 16.6 to 57.2%. Significance and Novelty: Quinoa based gluten free biscuits could be nutritionally superior and healthy alternative which could prove a boon to manage celiac disease among children in developing countries.
... and fat (2.0-9.5%). (Semra and Nevin, 2016) [14] . Quinoa is high in fiber. ...
... and fat (2.0-9.5%). (Semra and Nevin, 2016) [14] . Quinoa is high in fiber. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present research was carried out to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of quinoa seeds. Physical properties such as colour, shape, thousand kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity and angle of repose were determined. Chemical/proximate composition of the quinoa seeds was analyzed for the parameters such as moisture, fat, carbohydrate, protein, crude fibre, and ash. Obtained result found that the quinoa seeds having the good nutritional profile with carbohydrate (61.12±0.31%), protein (15.24±0.25%) and fat (6.1±0.58%). Quinoa seeds were also found to be good source of minerals such as potassium (731.6±0.70mg), magnesium (501.3±0.97mg), phosphorus (410.8±0.80mg) and calcium (86.7±.070mg). Quinoa seeds were to be utilized in development of different food products to enhance nutritional and health benefits.
... Quinoa is an annual herbaceous, dicotyledonous plant belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family with the genus with the genus Chenopodium and species quinoa. It is originated in the Andean region and able to adapt to different climatic conditions and soils [30]. This pseudocereal is a rich source of proteins with an exceptional balance of essential amino acids, fats, vitamins, minerals, and fibers which is well depicted in Tables 1-3. ...
... This pseudocereal is a rich source of proteins with an exceptional balance of essential amino acids, fats, vitamins, minerals, and fibers which is well depicted in Tables 1-3. It also contains health-beneficial phytochemicals like saponins, phytosterols, and phtoecdysteroids [30]. Above all, it contains top-level protein i.e., lysine and methionine when compared to conventional cereals like wheat, rice, maize, barley [31]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Nowadays, interest in research about pseudocereals has increased worldwide. Pseudocereals can be defined as seeds or fruits of non-grass species that can be consumed similarly to cereals. The most extensively used pseudocereals include quinoa, chia, buckwheat, amaranth, and so on. All of them, have good nutritional and bioactive compounds such as essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, minerals, and vitamins. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has also reported that there is a buddle of plants that are under-utilized that significantly contribute to improving nutrition and health as well as enhancing food basket and livelihoods of the individual; contributing to future food security and sustainability. Earlier studies also reported that pseudocereals protein-derived peptides have anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, hypocholesterolemic, and antioxidant properties. The presence of these interesting properties in pseudocereals enhances the interest to carry out extensive research regarding their health benefits and the way to incorporate them into the diet. In this chapter, we portray different types of pseudocereals with their nutritional benefits for living a healthy and active life.
... Despite these benefits, quinoa is not widely consumed. This may be due to its heavy import prices, lack of awareness among consumers and insufficient research [3,5]. ...
... In comparison to rice, wheat, corn, rye and sorghum, quinoa proves to be a better source of protein, lipids, and inorganic minerals with a lower glycemic load [5][6][7]. Wholegrain white quinoa flour comprises of about 14-20% dietary fiber of which soluble fibers range between 3.7% to 5.9% [8]. Arabinans and homogalacturonans are the main soluble fibers reported in quinoa [9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a gluten-free pseudo-cereal, has gained popularity over the last decade due to its high nutritional value. Quinoa is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, fibers, tocopherols (Vitamin E), unsaturated fatty acids and a wide range of polyphenols. The study used Gallus gallus intra-amniotic feeding, a clinically validated method, to assess the effects of quinoa soluble fiber (QSF) and quercetin 3-glucoside (Q3G) versus control. Quercetin is a pharmacologically active polyphenol found in quinoa. Six groups (no injection, 18 Ω H2O, 5% inulin, 1% Q3G, 5% QSF, 1% Q3G + 5% QSF) were assessed for their effect on the brush border membrane (BBM) functionality, intestinal morphology and cecal bacterial populations. Our results showed a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in BBM morphology, particularly goblet and Paneth cell numbers, in the group administered with quinoa and quercetin. However, there were no significant changes seen in the expression of the genes assessed both in the duodenum and liver between any of the treatment groups. Furthermore, fibrous quinoa increased the concentration of probiotic L. plantarum populations compared to the control (H2O). In conclusion, quercetin and quinoa fiber consumption has the potential to improve intestinal morphology and modulate the microbiome.
... Similar to acarbose, some plant-derived polyphenols showed strong inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and thus reduced the rate of digestion of complex starches, oligo-, tri-and disaccharides into absorbable glucose [25]. In recent years, quinoa has attracted growing attention due to its rich nutrients and many health benefits [30]. Compared with fruits and vegetables, cereal grains contain a much higher content of bound polyphenols (about 60%), which have always been neglected in terms of their activities and health benefits [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Inhibiting α-glucosidase activity is important in controlling postprandial hyperglycemia and, thus, helping to manage type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In the present study, free polyphenols (FPE) and bound polyphenols (BPE) were extracted from red quinoa and their inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and postprandial glucose, as well as related mechanisms, were investigated. HPLC-MS analysis showed that the components of FPE and BPE were different. FPE was mainly composed of hydroxybenzoic acid and its derivatives, while BPE was mainly composed of ferulic acid and its derivatives. BPE exhibited stronger DPPH and ABTS antioxidant activities, and had a lower IC50 (10.295 mg/mL) value in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity. The inhibition kinetic mode analysis revealed that FPE and BPE inhibited α-glucosidase in a non-competitive mode and an uncompetitive mode, respectively. Furthermore, compared to FPE, BPE delayed starch digestion more effectively. BPE at 50 mg/kg reduced postprandial glucose increases comparably to acarbose at 20 mg/kg in ICR mice. These results could provide perspectives on the potential of BPE from red quinoa, as a functional food, to inhibit α-glucosidase activity, delay postprandial glucose increases and manage T2DM.
... The content of micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, is also of great importance, as the seed is rich in pyridoxine (vitamin B6), folic acid, ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and vitamin E. Mineral content, such as calcium, iron, and magnesium, is considerably higher than in other commonly used grains, such as wheat and corn. 274 Quinoa also contains saponins, phytosterols, and phytoecdysteroids, which are biologically active compounds known as phytochemicals. These components are known to exhibit a wide range of health benefits, such as antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial, and cancer-suppressing effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
According to the new classification, periodontitis is defined as a chronic multifactorial inflammatory disease associated with dysbiotic biofilms and characterized by progressive destruction of the tooth‐supporting apparatus. This definition, based on the current scientific evidence, clearly indicates and emphasizes, beside the microbial component dental biofilm, the importance of the inflammatory reaction in the progressive destruction of periodontal tissues. The idea to modulate this inflammatory reaction in order to decrease or even cease the progressive destruction was, therefore, a logical consequence. Attempts to achieve this goal involve various kinds of anti‐inflammatory drugs or medications. However, there is also an increasing effort in using food supplements or so‐called natural food ingredients to modulate patients’ immune responses and maybe even improve the healing of periodontal tissues. The aim of this chapter of Periodontology 2000 is to review the evidence of various food supplements and ingredients regarding their possible effects on periodontal inflammation and wound healing. This review may help researchers and clinicians to evaluate the current evidence and to stimulate further research in this area.
... Quinoa grains are gluten free and highly nutritious, containing high-quality protein and all essential amino acids, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants (flavonoids and polyphenols) that contribute to the health-promoting effects of this food crop [3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Additionally, the seeds exhibit a high content of unsaturated fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids) and a close to optimal omega-6/omega-3 ratio, which support the oil quality of this crop [10]. On the other hand, the seeds accumulate saponins, commonly considered anti-nutritional factors due to their hemolytic, membranolytic, and fungitoxic activities [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a genetically diverse crop that has gained popularity in recent years due to its high nutritional content and ability to tolerate abiotic stresses such as salinity and drought. Varieties from the coastal lowland ecotype are of particular interest due to their insensitivity to photoperiod and their potential to be cultivated in higher latitudes. We performed a field experiment in the southern Atacama Desert in Chile to investigate the responses to reduced irrigation of nine previously selected coastal lowland self-pollinated (CLS) lines and the commercial cultivar Regalona. We found that several lines exhibited a yield and seed size superior to Regalona, also under reduced irrigation. Plant productivity data were analyzed together with morphological and physiological traits measured at the visible inflorescence stage to estimate the contribution of these traits to differences between the CLS lines and Regalona under full and reduced irrigation. We applied proximal sensing methods and found that thermal imaging provided a promising means to estimate variation in plant water use relating to yield, whereas hyperspectral imaging separated lines in a different way, potentially related to photosynthesis as well as water use.
... Furthermore, da Silva et al. )2017) reported that chia seed as rich source of dietary fibre. This, unique nutritional composition of chia seed, such as dietary fibre, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid and antioxidant properties making its consumption as a perfect choice to increase satiety index and reduce the risk of various diseases (Muñoz et al., 2013;Aktaş & Levent, 2018).The alterations in chemical constituents and antioxidant values of plants depend on several factors such as different genotype, growing condition, agronomic practices employed, season, maturity, post-harvest and storage conditions (Navruz & Sanlier, 2016 Data are expressed as mean ± SD, n = 3, *calculated by difference ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Chia and quinoa seeds considered as a powerful medicinal plants and an excellent dietary source of bioactive constituents i.e. flavonoids and phenolic compounds and plenty of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, I hypothesize that chia and quinoa seeds powder and extracts may have a role in lowering lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver-induced by high fat high fructose diet. Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into 6 dietary groups, containing 6 rats in each; normal control group, high fat high fructose diet (HFHFrD) control group, HFHFrD with CS powder 10 g/kg (BW), HFHFrD with QS powder10 g/kg (BW), HFHFrD with CS extract 50 mg/kg (BW), HFHFrD with QS extract 50 mg/kg (BW). After 8 weeks, it was revealed that the consumption of CS & QS extracts were found to normalize many indicators which were shifted to pathological values as a consequence of HFHFrD-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disorders: there was a significant increase in HDL-C and a significant decrease in total cholesterol, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C. In addition, level of lipids peroxidation (LP) was reduced as compared to HFHFrD normal group. Thus, these observations suggest that chia and quinoa seeds are potential agents on management of fat accumulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver rats.
... Several authors have reported that the mineral content of quinoa is adequate for a balanced diet [4]. Thus, the iron in quinoa shows good bioavailability [16], although antinutrients such as saponins and phytic acids can affect its bioavailability [33]. In addition, differences in mineral content have been observed in various studies on quinoa, which has been attributed to differences in plant genotypes, soil mineral composition or fertilizer application, uptake of minerals by individual plants, and organic soil amendments [9,13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa is an important crop for food security and food sovereignty in Ecuador. In this study, we evaluated the nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and antinutrient compounds of leaves and grains of the Ecuadorian quinoa variety Tunkahuan, and we identified significant differences between the nutrient content in the leaves and grains. The quinoa leaves presented a higher protein content than the grains, as well as inorganic nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. Both the grains and leaves had an appreciable phenolic content. In addition, the quinoa grains presented a higher content of the antinutrient saponin than the leaves, while the leaves contained more nitrates and oxalates than the grains. Thus, quinoa leaves and grains exhibit excellent potential for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
... [9] The results given in Table (2) indicated that total phenolics (2.63 mg GAE/g) was relatively low because of differences in extraction methodology as illustrated by Navruz and Sanlier (2016) in plant system, the antioxidant activity of chemical constituents depends mainly on genotype, growing conditions, seasons, maturity, post-harvest and storage. [43] ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition; mineral and vitamin contents; total phenolic and flavonoids contents; antioxidant activity of the quinoa seeds powder (QSP) and their effect on diabetic rats. The higher concentrations of minerals were K (3441.95 mg/Kg) and Mg (1147.32 mg/Kg) and quinoa seeds contained considerable amount of riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), folic acid (B9), cobalamin (B12), alpha tocopherol (E) and beta carotene equal to 0.60, 5.83, 6.80, 0.27, 2.010 and 0.127 mg/100g, respectively. The total phenolic and total flavonoids content of quinoa seeds powder were 2.63 mg GAE/g, and 0.53 mg CE/g, respectively. Antioxidant activity was measured as 2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity (DPPH) and 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) were 0.29 and 4.38 mg TE/g, respectively. Sensory properties of both quinoa pudding and quinoa soup showed insignificant differences. However, in biological experiment, the blood and the glucose levels after consumption of quinoa at different concentrations were reduced from 236.7 mg/dl to 98.7mg/dl at 40% quinoa and to 120.3 mg/dl at 30% quinoa with an average fasting of normal level of 64.3 mg/dl. Furthermore, the thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were reduced significantly after feeding rats on quinoa seeds powder at different concentrations. Histopathological determination of pancreas of diabetic rats revealed that interlobular inflammatory cells infiltration where pancreas of diabetic rats fed on 20, 30 and 40% quinoa powder revealed no histopathological changes.
... Amaranth, buckwheat and quinoa are considered as gluten-free crops that can be consumed by people with celiac disease. 2 Moreover, their health benefits are wide-ranging, including serum cholesterol reduction, antioxidant properties and anti-hypoglycemic agents, and so the consumption of these crops can be beneficial for people with diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. [5][6][7][8][9][10] Recently, there has been an increasing amount of interest in the identification and characterization of bioactive peptides from pseudocereal protein hydrolysates, and discoveries regarding these exceptional proteins have already been made, including antioxidant activities, as well as effects on enzymes, offensive microorganisms and normal human flora. 5,11 Amaranth, buckwheat and quinoa have high protein contents (up to 180 g kg −1 ) compared to cereals such as rice (70 g kg −1 ) and wheat (100 g kg −1 ). ...
Article
Pseudocereals (amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa) are emerging as popular gluten-free crops. This may be attributed to their wide-ranging health benefits, including antioxidant, hypoglycemic and serum-cholesterol reducing properties. Proteins of these crops have a high nutritional quality due to the presence of essential amino acids. Additionally, amaranth, buckwheat and quinoa proteins (AP, BP and QP, respectively) have physicochemical properties that are useful for the manufacture of different types of food. However, native pseudocereal proteins demonstrate low solubility in water, mainly due to their composition. The major components of these proteins are albumins (water-soluble) and globulins (salt-soluble), although some proportions of glutelin (alkali-soluble) and prolamins (alcohol-soluble) are also found. The most commonly used method for extracting pseudocereal proteins is the alkaline extraction method, which may contribute to the low solubility of pseudocereal protein. Fortunately, different methods for modifying physicochemical (or techno-functional) properties have been proposed to extend their industrial application. For example, high-intensity ultrasound (HIUS) proved useful for improving the solubility of API and QP. Heating can allow for the formation of soluble aggregates of QP. The combination of heating and HIUS can improve the digestibility, solubility, and foam properties of AP. Conjugation through the Maillard reaction can improve BPI and QP interfacial properties. Thus, the aim of this work was to provide a review of the solubility, extraction and modification of the techno-functional properties of AP, BP, and QP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The cultivation of quinoa plants has been gaining prominence over the last decades, due to its potential bene ts to human health, as it contains all the essential amino acids considered for human nutrition, as well as high levels of minerals and vitamins 1,2 . These traits can also be related to the prevention of many diseases 3,4 . However, it is possible to expand even more the bene ts of quinoa through bioforti cation with silicon (Si), given the bene cial properties that this element can promote in plants. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multiple aspects of the physiological and nutritional mechanisms involved with silicon (Si) absorption by quinoa plants remain poorly investigated, as well as the best way of supplying this element to crops. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating whether the application of Si increases its uptake by quinoa plants and consequently the use efficiency of N and P, as well as the levels of phenolic compounds in the shoots, crop productivity and the biofortification of grains. For this purpose, the concentration of 3 mmol L-1 of Si was tested, according to the following procedures: foliar application (F), root application in the nutrient solution (R), combined Si application via nutrient solution and foliar spraying (F+R), and no Si application (0). The provision of Si through the leaves and roots promoted the highest uptake of the element by the plant, which resulted in an increased use efficiency of N and P. Consequently, such a higher uptake favored the productivity of grains. The optimal adoption of the application of Si through leaves and roots promoted the highest Si concentration and ascorbic acid (AsA) content in quinoa grains. Combining root and leaf application of Si was the best way to supply this nutrient, as it increased the use efficiency of N and P, and favored both the productivity and biofortification of quinoa grains with Si and AsA.
... Quinoa grains are, in addition, especially rich in proteins with a well-balanced and higher content of essential amino acids than common cereals (Bhargava et al., 2006). Its grains are also characterized by high contents of isoflavones, which oppose vessel contraction and reduce arterial resistance in humans (Vega-Galvez et al. 2010), also, it is considered a good source of fiber, vitamins and minerals as well as health-benefiting phytochemicals (Varli and Sanlier 2016). Unfortunately, many anti-nutritional compounds have been identified in quinoa including saponins, phytic acid, tannins, and protease inhibitors that can adversely affect the performance and longevity of monogastric livestock when used as the primary source of dietary food (Improta and Kellems, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa is considered a good source of fiber, vitamins and minerals as well as health-benefiting phytochemicals. Molecular markers are essential tools to identify genetic diversity in different species and are useful for germplasm preservation and cultivar identification. The objectives of this study were to use different molecular markers to molecularly characterize seven quinoa genotypes using ISSR, SCoT and the DNA chloroplast markers of rbcL and rpoC1 to reveal genetic polymorphism and identify unique markers for each genotype. Fifteen of ISSR primers were used in this study, a total of 172 amplified bands were generated with an average of 11.7 bands /primer. A total number of amplified polymorphic bands of 90 with an average 6.0 bands /primer; the average level of polymorphism was 49.7%. The efficiency of ISSR markers in discriminating studied genotypes was estimated by obtaining the PIC values, where PIC values varied from 0.21 to 0.84 with an average of 0.69. Twelve SCoT primers were employed to investigate the genetic polymorphism among the seven quinoa genotyping. A total of 157 amplified bands were generated by the 12 primers with an average of 13.1 bands /primer, while a total number of amplified polymorphic bands 80 average 6.7 band /primer, while the PIC values varied from 0.50 to 0.84 with an average of 0.77. We successfully sequenced barcode genes of rbcL and rpoC1 for the seven quinoa genotypes. These sequences have been submitted to NCBI respiratory and have been assigned to gene bank accession numbers. The sequence alignment revealed that, rbcL retrieved from studied quinoa genotypes with high similarity to other rbcL genes obtained from Chenopodium species by other studies, with similarities ranged from 76% to 80%. In addition, the rbcL gene displayed genetic similarity of high consistency with low genetic evolution and mutation. On the other hand, the sequence alignment revealed that, rpoC1 retrieved from studied quinoa genotypes with high similarity to other rpoC1 genes obtained from other plant species by other studies; similarities ranged from 80% to 81%.
... Quinoa is pseudo-cereal rich in proteins, lipid, fiber, vitamins and minerals [24]. Quinoa grains are a good source of natural compounds with anti-oxidant activities and biological properties [25]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa is a climate-resilient food grain crop that has gained significant importance in the last few years due to its nutritional composition, phytochemical properties and associated health benefits. Quinoa grain is enriched in amino acids, fiber, minerals, phenolics, saponins, phytosterols and vitamins. Quinoa possesses different human-health promoting biological substances and nutraceutical molecules. This review synthesizes and summarizes recent findings regarding the nutrition and phytochemical properties of quinoa grains and discusses the associated biological mechanisms. Quinoa grains and grain-based supplements are useful in treating different biological disorders of the human body. Quinoa is being promoted as an exceptionally healthy food and a gluten-free super grain. Quinoa could be used as a biomedicine due to the presence of functional compounds that may help to prevent various chronic diseases. Future research needs to explore the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical aspects of quinoa that might help to control different chronic diseases and to promote human health.
... According to Jancurova et al. [8], the fat content in quinoa seeds can range from 2 to 10%. Navruz-Varli and Sanlier [9] classify quinoa as an alternative oilseed. Although the lipid content of amaranthus seed is typically 6-9%, some species such as A. spinosus and A. tenuifolius have been reported to contain as much as 19.3% [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amaranth and quinoa are classed as pseudocereals that do not belong to the grass family, meaning they are not technically a grain. Both of them are seeds with tremendous nutritional value; compared to other cereals, they contain much more fat. The aim of the study was to present the parameters characterizing thermal properties of amaranth and quinoa oils, such as: oxidation induction time, oxidation kinetic parameters, and melting profile. In isolated oils, the peroxide value, oxidative stability by the Rancimat test (in 120 °C) and the pressure differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) method (at 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C), fatty acids composition, and their distribution between the triacylglycerol positions were determined. The kinetic parameters of the oxidation process (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and reaction rate constants) were calculated using the Ozawa–Flynn–Wall method and the Arrhenius equation. To measure the melting profile, the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method was used. Both types of seeds are a good source of unsaturated fatty acids. Induction time of oxidation suggests that amaranth oil may have better resistance to oxidation than quinoa oil. The melting characteristics of the oils show the presence of low-melting triacylglycerol fractions, mainly containing unsaturated fatty acids, which means that a small amount of energy is required to melt the fats.
... This species, is part of the Chenopodiaceae family and has been cultivated for centuries in the Andean countries of Peru and Bolivia [5]. Quinoa reveals a lack of gluten and plays a big role in the human diet because it covers half of people's daily energy and protein needs [6]. Quinoa is a complete food, being a source of proteins with high biological value, carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, high-quality oil, vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin E), minerals (magnesium, potassium, zinc, and manganese), and bioactive compounds (dietary fiber, phytosterols, polyphenols and flavonoids) [7][8][9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of quinoa fractions (QF) on the chemical components of wheat flour (WF), dough rheological properties, and baking performance of wheat bread. The microstructure and molecular conformations of QF fractions were dependent to the particle size. The protein, lipids, and ash contents of composite flours increased with the increase of QF addition level, while particle size (PS) decreased these parameters as follows: Medium ˃ Small ˃ Large, the values being higher compared with the control (WF). QF addition raised dough tenacity from 86.33 to 117.00 mm H2O, except for the small fraction, and decreased the extensibility from 94.00 to 26.00 mm, while PS determined an irregular trend. The highest QF addition levels and PS led to the highest dough viscoelastic moduli (55,420 Pa for QL_20, 65245 Pa for QM_20 and 48305 Pa for QS_20, respectively). Gradual increase of QF determined dough hardness increase and adhesiveness decrease. Bread firmness, springiness, and gumminess rises were proportional to the addition level. The volume, elasticity, and porosity of bread decreased with QF addition. Flour and bread crust and crumb color parameters were also influenced by QF addition with different PS.
... g/kg/day is recommended at older ages and even higher for those with acute or chronic diseases, as protein intake generates benefits on muscle mass and strength, physical functioning and/or hip strengthening (Ortolá et al., 2020). For the food industry, the use of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), due to its nutritional potential is one of the preferred raw materials (Mota et al., 2016;Nowak et al., 2016;Wang and Zhu, 2016;Shi et al., 2019) as it contains 14-18% protein (d.b) which is concentrated in the middle part of the episperm (Navruz-Varli and Sanlier, 2016;López-Castejón et al., 2019;Roa Acosta et al., 2020b). Its high dietary fiber content (between 7 and 10%) as well as histidine (3.2% w/w) and lysine (6.1% w/w) makes it attractive for the development of functional foods (Kozioł, 1992;Abugoch et al., 2008;Nowak et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Protein functional properties are related to physical and chemical parameters that influence protein behavior in food systems during processing, storage and consumption. The structural and rheological properties of three quinoa hyperprotein flours (without defatting, WD, chemically defatted, CD, and mechanically defatted, MD) were evaluated. The values of the fluidity index (n) were significantly different ( p < 0.05), which was associated with changes in protein or starch structures due to solvent treatments or heating of the flour during pressing. In addition, a strong dependence of the consistency index (k) on the shear rate was observed. For dispersions with a concentration of 12% (w/v), CD and WD had a significantly lower setback value than MD. The viscosity peak was affected by the presence of lipid molecules. Greater changes were evident in the β-sheet (1,610 and 1,625 cm ⁻¹ ) and β-spin (1,685 and 1,695 cm ⁻¹ ) structures. The changes identified in these structures were associated with the defatting treatment. Consequently, the intensity ratio 2,920/1,633 cm ⁻¹ was more sensitive to changes in the fat content of the flours. It was shown that defatting conditions increase the protein adsorption kinetics and that the viscoelastic properties of the protein increase when the flour has a lower fat content. Hyperprotein quinoa flour could be used to improve the protein content of products such as snacks, pastas, ice cream, bakery products, meat extenders, among others, due to its foaming, gelling or emulsifying capacity. The objective of this work was to study the effect of two types of defatting of hyperprotein quinoa flour on its structural and rheological properties.
... Quinoa consumption may also be beneficial for lactose intolerance, diabetes, osteoporosis, anemia, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer cytotoxic and autoinflammatory diseases. Unprocessed and puffed quinoa is generally used for bakery products (bread, cookies, pancake, biscuit, tortilla, and crisps), pasta, snacks, salads, soups, edible films, and stews, whereas fermented quinoa is used for beer/alcoholic drinks in South America (Navruz-Varli & Sanlier, 2016;Suárez-Estrella et al., 2018). ...
Article
The present study was focused on impact of microwave heat treatment on the morphological, functional, thermal and antioxidant properties of quinoa. Microwave roasting significantly (p<0.05) varied the WAC (1.04 to 1.41 g/g), OAC (1.09 to 0.96 g/g), FC (6.66 to 4.62%), EC (57.06 to 43.18%) and pasting properties of quinoa. Roasted quinoa samples are rich in TPC (78.54 to 105.9 mg GAE/100 g) and AOA (68.95 to 81.84%). In contrast, higher reduction in gelatinization temperature and destruction of crystalline structure (amylopectin content: 85.23 to 80.78%) in starch molecule was observed in highly roasted samples. Microwave roasted samples showed significant reduction in ordered structure (β‐sheet and α‐helix) and converted into unordered and flexible structure.
... In the last 30 years, quinoa has garnered considerable attention worldwide due to its nutritional and health benefits, as well as its flavorful and high-quality seeds (Wu et al., 2016(Wu et al., , 2017Aluwi et al., 2017;Noratto et al., 2019). Quinoa possesses a well-balanced complement of amino acids and high mineral concentration of iron, calcium, and phosphorus (Wu, 2015;Navruz-Varli and Sanlier, 2016;Wu et al., 2016;Craine and Murphy, 2020). In 2013, quinoa was lauded by the FAO as a food with high nutritive value, impressive biodiversity, and a singular role to play in the achievement of food security worldwide (FAO, 2013;Bazile et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and millet species (including Eleusine coracana, Panicum miliaceum, and Setaria italica) are nutritionally valuable seed crops with versatile applications in food production and consumption. Both quinoa and millet have the potential to provide drought-tolerant, nutritious complementary crops to maize that is predominantly cultivated in Rwanda. This study evaluated quinoa and millet genotypes and assessed their agronomic performance in two agroecological zones of Rwanda. Twenty quinoa and fourteen millet cultivars were evaluated for grain yield, emergence, days to heading, flowering, and maturity, and plant height in 2016 and 2017 in Musanze, a highland region (2,254 m above sea level), and Kirehe, in the Eastern lowlands of Rwanda (1,478 m above sea level). Quinoa yield ranged from 189 to 1,855 kg/ha in Musanze and from 140 to 1,259 kg/ha in Kirehe. Millet yield ranged from 16 to 1,536 kg/ha in Musanze and from 21 to 159 kg/ha in Kirehe. Mean cultivar plant height was shorter in Kirehe (μ = 73 and 58 cm for quinoa and millets, respectively), than Musanze (μ = 93 and 76 cm for quinoa and millets, respectively). There was a genotype × environment interaction for maturity in quinoa and millet in both years. Across locations, “Titicaca” and “Earlybird” (Panicum miliaceum) were the earliest maturing quinoa and millet varieties, respectively, both with an average of 91 days to maturity. The results suggest that quinoa and millet have potential as regional crops for inclusion in the traditional dryland cropping rotations in Rwanda, thereby contributing to increased cropping system diversity and food security.
... 5 Quinoa is being utilized in items such as bread, chips, pancakes, and cookies, and it is gaining popularity around the world. 6 After rice, corn, and cassava, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is the fourth most important alternative source of carbohydrates. This crop is currently regarded as having a low economic worth, but it has enormous social significance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present investigation was carried out to prepare gluten free biscuits with high quality for celiac patients. The chemical analysis as minerals, amino acids of raw materials was estimated. Also, chemical composition for gluten free biscuits blends was determined and results showed that protein, ether extract and fibre contents were higher in all samples prepared using cassava flour, quinoa flour and sweet potato flour than those samples prepared using cassava flour. Volume, length, spread ratio and width of gluten free biscuit blends B2, B3, B4 and B5 decreased but thickness and bulk density increased compared to cassava flour biscuits B1. All sensory characteristics of free gluten biscuits samples B2, B3, B4 and B5 prepared using cassava flour, quinoa flour, and sweet potato flour were somewhat higher than biscuits prepared from cassava flour B1. Finally, blends B2 and B5 had higher scores in sensorial evaluation, chemical analysis, and physical attributes.
... The more conspicuous feature in quinoa fruit is the presence of different organic and inorganic compounds with high nutritional values. Quinoa has all the essential amino acids, more than 40 major, trace and ultra-trace minerals, free sugars, vitamins, antioxidants and essential fatty acids [19][20][21][22][23][24]. Probably the essential features in quinoa are its high biological value (82.8) compared to 59.0 for the wheat [25] and the energetic value of 1820 kJ/100 gr [20,26]. ...
Article
We studied the tolerance of one species of quinoa achenes from ecotype RQ252 to simulated extraplanetary conditions in a vacuum chamber (low to very low pressure 10–2 to 10-7 Torr, UV laser simulated plasma radiation, and cryogenic temperature). The selection of this ecotype of quinoa achenes was a condition to previous studies, where RQ252 shows evidence of high efficacy in grow adaptation in the South America Puna between 3800–4500 m asl subjected to low oxygen and increased UV radiation exposition. After extraplanetary experiment exposure, we evaluated quinoa tolerance to experimental conditions through germination and early growth responses under a controlled laboratory standard atmosphere. Rate and final germination subjected to high low-pressure treatments during 4 h, 8 h, and 16 h were not different to control. Laser plasma application accelerated the germination rates. Final germination always reaches values up to 90%. SEM-EDS analysis showed structural changes on the pericarp surface, especially in high low-pressure and high low pressure + plasma treatments. EDS revealed that the quinoa pericarp subjected to different treatments showed changes in mineral content. Potassium ions decreased under high low-pressure and high low pressure + laser plasma irradiation (between 32 and 42%) but increased in a prolonged vacuum (35%) and more when plasma was added (96%). Early growth was affected by the different treatments, being the radicle length the most affected parameter. Our results suggest that quinoa achene ecotype RQ252 viability has excellent tolerance to extraplanetary conditions.
... cardiovascular disorders and atherosclerosis by developing strong immune system (Navruz-Varli and Sanlier, 2016). Worldwide, quinoa has gained importance due to its superior nutritional profile and consumed as cereal grain (Bazile et al., 2016). ...
Article
Modern agriculture is primarily concerned with enhanced productivity of field crops linked with maximum resources use efficiency to feed the increasing population of the world. Exogenous application of biostimulants is considered a sustainable and ecofriendly approach to improve the growth and productivity of agronomic and horticultural field crops. The present study was carried out to explore the comparative growth enhancing potential of plant biostimulants (moringa leaf extract at 3% and sorghum water extract at 3%) and synthetic growth promoters (ascorbic acid at 500 μM and hydrogen peroxide at 100 μM) on growth, productivity and quality of quinoa crop (cultivar UAF-Q7) because it has gained significant popularity among agricultural scientists and farmers throughout the world due to its high nutritional profile. A field experiment was carried out at the Research Area of Directorate of Farms, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during quinoa cultivation season of 2016–2017 and repeated during next year (2017–2018). All the foliar treatments enhanced the physiological, biochemical, quality, growth and yield attributes of quinoa as compared to control group. However, maximum improvement was observed in chlorophyll a and b contents, photosynthesis and respiration rates, and water use efficiency by moringa leaf extract (MLE) application. MLE application was also found more responsive regarding the improvement in activities of peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, phenolics and glycine betaine as compared to other treatments. Mineral elements i.e. K, Ca and N in root as well as in shoot were found the highest in response to MLE application. Similarly, growth (plant fresh and dry biomass, plant length and grain yield) and grain quality parameters (protein, K and Ca) were also significantly enhanced. Application of MLE was found to be a viable approach to improve the growth and quality of produce as compared to synthetic compounds.
... Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an 8000-yearold crop native to the Andes region of South America (Zurita-Silva et al., 2014). Compared to other grains, it is the only whole food recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) for all populations (Navruz-Varli & Sanlier, 2016). Quinoa is rich in protein and has a well-balanced amino acid profile, containing all native amino acids, especially lysine and histidine, which are essential for infants (Nowak et al., 2016;You et al., 2022). ...
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa is a pseudo‐cereal that is rich in protein and an ideal source of antihypertensive peptides. In this study, quinoa flour was fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CICC 20241 via solid fermentation to produce antihypertensive peptides. The peptides were isolated and purified by ultrafiltration and gel chromatography, and then identified by liquid chromatography−tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 91 peptides were identified. In addition, five potential angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were synthesized with reference to in silico analysis. Among them, NIFRPFAPEL and AALEAPRILNL had the greatest inhibitory effect, with an IC50 of 49.02 and 79.72 µM, respectively. Inhibition dynamics and molecular docking indicated that NIFRPFAPEL formed eight hydrogen bonds with ACE residues Tyr523, Arg522, Glu384, Glu143, Glu123, Thr92, Tyr62, and Trp59. NIFRPFAPEL exerted a competitive inhibitory effect by interacting with residues Tyr523 and Glu384 of pocket S1. AALEAPRILNL exerted a noncompetitive inhibitory effect by forming eight hydrogen bonds with the inactive ACE site residues Ser516, Glu403, Ser355, Glu143, ARG124, and Asn70. These results confirmed that quinoa is a potential material for antihypertensive functional foods, while NIFRPFAPEL and AALEAPRILNL could be used for the development of antihypertensive functional foods or drugs. Antihypertensive peptides were prepared by solid‐state fermentation of quinoa by Lactobacillus paracasei CICC 20241. Angiotensin‐converting enzyme ( ACE) inhibitory peptides were isolated and identified as NIFRPFAPEL and AALEAPRILNL. NIFRPFAPEL was a competitive inhibitor of ACE and AALEAPRILNL was a noncompetitive one.
... It is said to assist high-risk patient groups, such as those with diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity, due to its high nutritional content, therapeutic properties, and gluten-free status. Minerals, fibers, vitamins, fatty acids, antioxidants, and phenolic, all of which have a substantial impact on human nutrition and well-being, are closely linked to the levels of minerals, fibers, vitamins, antioxidants, and phenolic in its seeds [156]. Quinoa consumption decreased blood glucose and insulin resistance in test subjects, implying that it had a substantial role in diabetic treatment [157]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic syndrome. Diabetes has become more common in recent years. Chemically generated drugs are used to lessen the effects of DM and its following repercussions due to unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, gastrointestinal issues, and heart failure. On the other hand, medicinal plants could be a good source of anti-diabetic medications. This article aims to determine any plant matrix’s positive potential. Food restriction, physical activity, and the use of antidiabetic plant-derived chemicals are all being promoted as effective ways to manage diabetes because they are less expensive and have fewer or no side effects. This review focuses on antidiabetic plants, along with their bioactive constituent, chemically characterization, and plantbased diets for diabetes management. There is minimal scientific data about the mechanism of action of the plant-based product has been found. The purpose of this article is to highlight anti-diabetic plants and plantderived bioactive compounds that have anti-diabetic properties. It also provides researchers with data that may be used to build future strategies, such as identifying promising bioactive molecules to make diabetes management easier.
Article
Full-text available
Multiple aspects of the physiological and nutritional mechanisms involved with silicon (Si) absorption by quinoa plants remain poorly investigated, as well as the best way of supplying this element to crops. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating whether the application of Si increases its uptake by quinoa plants and consequently the use efficiency of N and P, as well as the levels of phenolic compounds in the leaves, crop productivity and the biofortification of grains. For this purpose, the concentration of 3 mmol L⁻¹ of Si was tested, according to the following procedures: foliar application (F), root application in the nutrient solution (R), combined Si application via nutrient solution and foliar spraying (F + R), and no Si application (0). The provision of Si through the leaves and roots promoted the highest uptake of the element by the plant, which resulted in an increased use efficiency of N and P. Consequently, such a higher uptake favored the productivity of grains. The optimal adoption of the application of Si through leaves and roots promoted the highest Si concentration and ascorbic acid content in quinoa grains.
Article
This study was aimed to develop a new cereal-based product using quinoa flour, xanthan gum, and laccase and also to evaluate their effects on the quality characteristics of gluten-free bread (GFB). Experimental design method was applied for optimization of gluten-free formulation. The effects of three variables of quinoa flour (0-50%), laccase activity (0-2 U/g flour), and xanthan gum (0-0.5%) on the contents of total aflatoxin (TAF) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), color indices (L*, a*, and b*), and texture properties (hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness) of GFB were evaluated. The results showed that quinoa flour and laccase enzyme significantly reduced TAF and AFB1 (p< 0.05). The lowest AFB1 level (3.67±0.96 ng/g) in the GFB formulation containing quinoa flour (40%), laccase enzyme (2.0 U/g), and xanthan gum (0.46%) was very close to the predicted amount (3.66±0.96 ng/g). Quinoa flour significantly reduced the L* and a* values and increased b* value and improved the texture parameters. Laccase enzyme also improved color indices and texture properties. Therefore, the use of laccase enzyme and quinoa flour is recommended based on the desired effect on the quality characteristics of GFB.
Article
Background: Quinoa is a good gluten-free resource for food processing especially bread making which can improve and prevent the development of complications associated with celiac disease (CD). However, lack of gluten affected quinoa bread quality. Previous researches showed soy protein isolate (SPI) could improve gluten-free bread quality to some extent. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of SPI on the physical properties of quinoa dough and gluten-free bread quality characteristics. Results: Results showed that, with appropriate soy protein isolate (SPI) substitution, the farinograph properties of quinoa flour significantly improved (P<0.05). And the sample with 8% SPI substitution showed the better development time (DT, 3.30±0.20 min), stability time (ST, 8.80±0.10 min), softening degree (SD, 8.80±0.10 FU) which were close to those of wheat flour, although more water absorption (WA, 76.40±2.10%) was needed than wheat flour (66.30±3.10%). And the extensograph properties of quinoa flour also significantly improved after 8% SPI substitution (P<0.05). Furthermore, SPI substitution increased G' moduli of quinoa dough and decreased tanδ to some extent, providing better rheological properties nearly close to the wheat dough. SPI substitution also improved the quality and texture of quinoa bread and reduced the gap with wheat bread. When SPI substitution was 8%, the specific volume, hardness and springiness of quinoa bread were 2.29±0.05 ml/g, 1496.47±85.21 g and 0.71±0.03%, respectively. Conclusions: These results suggested that SPI substitution will be an effective way to develop higher-quality gluten-free bread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is one of the main grains of a domesticated species native to the high Andean plains and valleys. Because its harvests do not always have a homogeneous color, some companies have been using sorting machines for quinoa that are adapted from other cereals, whose operation does not guarantee the desired efficiency. The purpose of the study was to design and build a prototype machine that classifies quinoa grains according to the desired color. The main parts of the machine include the design of the mechanical structure comprising three zones: feeding, transport and processing and storage. The parts were built with steel materials and some parts with PLA filament manufactured with 3D printer; electronic control system, using a microcontroller for adapting the IR sensor signal and controlling the electro actuators for the selection of homogeneous quinoa according to the allowed color parameters; and mechanical operation control, using two motors, one for the dosing of quinoa grains and the other for the movement of the conveyor belt. To achieve the best performance, adjustments were made regarding the speed and quantity of quinoa, establishing 24 rows with an elevation of 22 degrees with respect to the horizontal axis, having achieved the goal of 5 kg per hour and obtained the homogeneity of quinoa grains with high efficiency and better quality for marketing.
Article
An instant low glycemic rice (LGR) was prepared from the broken rice, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, and quinoa using extrusion technology. For obtaining instant LGR, the effect of extruder process parameters such as screw speed, SS (30–50 rpm), and die head temperature, DHT (110–140°C) and feed moisture content, FM (26–34%wb) were evaluated on physicochemical properties viz. water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and total color change (∆E), and cooking characteristics viz. cooking time (CT), cooking loss (CL), and water absorption ratio (WAR). The LGR was successfully instantized with 3.65 ± 0.21 min CT, 12.05 ± 0.12% CL, 2.79 ± 0.10 WAR, 2.96 ± 0.08 g/g WAI, 4.16 ± 0.10% WSI and 18.20 ± 0.05 ∆E at the optimum condition of 34% (wb) FM, 30 rpm SS, and 110°C DHT. The LGR was significantly different (p < .05) in the physical characteristics, textural properties and crystallinity compared to the raw rice with similar FTIR spectra. Diabetes affects a large segment of the global population uprising the blood glucose level due to the consumption of high glycemic index (GI) foods. Though rice is a staple food, its high GI value makes it unsuitable for the diabetic population. Therefore, an alternative to it, an instant low GI rice (LGR) with GI ≤ 55 using broken rice, foxtail millet, barnyard millet and quinoa was developed using extrusion technology. This would help to reduce the blood sugar level in diabetic individuals and provide an opportunity for the industry to commercialize such a novel product.
Chapter
As global population increases, food crops, which at a particular time appeared to be neglected or lesser known, begins to gain recognition. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) (quinoa) belongs to the family Amaranthaceae; it is regarded as a pseudocereal that is a natural to the Andean regions and is adaptable to diverse soil types and climatic conditions. Its high nutritional composition has stirred up enormous attention from the scientific community. Quinoa is very rich in dietary fiber, proteins, vitamins, unsaturated fats, and minerals, having an astonishing equilibrium of very essential amino acids, similarly branded as being a gluten-free grain, which permits its usage in the nutrition of celiac patients. Saponins, protease, and phytic acid inhibitors are among the utmost antinutrients found in quinoa seeds. Saponins happen to be the most dominant and are present in the exterior coating of the seeds, where they are responsible for the seed’s characteristic bitter taste. However, several researchers have tried to develop methods of saponin removal in seeds without altering the nutrient composition of the seeds significantly; this includes washing the seeds in cold water. Research shows that consumption of quinoa gave positive results against the antibodies of wheat proteins, thus suggesting that people with wheat protein allergies could consume quinoa. As a product of significance with regard to its mineral composition and phytochemicals, it is pertinent that more research should be carried out to come up with appropriate methods of propagation, distribution, and preparation to help solve the issue of malnutrition worldwide, especially in Africa and Asia where the production of food is constantly being threatened by environmental stress and global climate change.
Article
Rye (Secale cereale) is a rich source of macromolecules, especially starch, fiber, and proteins which encourages the researchers and industries to use it for various purposes including bakery products, beverages and edible films formulation. However, despite many nutritional and health benefiting properties, rye has not been explored up to its full potential. Interest of consumers in formulating foods with high fiber and phenolic compounds has generated our interest in compiling the detailed information on rye. The present review on rye grains summarizes the existing scientific data on rye macronutrients (starch, arabinoxylan, β-glucan, fructan and proteins) and their corresponding industrial importance. Detailed description in this review unfolds the potential of rye grains for human nutrition. This review provides comprehensive knowledge and fills the remaining gap between the previous and latest scientific findings. Comprehensive information on rye nutrients along with health benefits will help to open a new era for scientific world and industrial sectors.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is attracting worldwide attention due to its nutritional and biological properties. Nowadays, this pseudocereal is cultivated worldwide in different environmental conditions. This work evaluates the nutritional profile, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of five quinoa cultivars (Negra, Chullpi, Salcedo, Pasankalla and Kancolla) from Spain and from the Andean region, looking for the key factor of quinoa composition. Nutritional profile was similar for the same cultivar among the locations but, protein and iron contents were higher (p< 0.05) in Spanish seeds compared to the Andean ones. PCA and Pearson correlation coefficient reveal that the darkest quinoa cultivars, Negra and Pasankalla, had the best bioactive profile because the major dietary fiber, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity that were found higher (p< 0.05), regardless of origin zone. Concluding, the genetic variability seems to have a higher influence than the geographic factors on the nutritional and antioxidant composition of quinoa.
Preprint
Full-text available
Restrictions on access to important components of poultry rations such as corn and soybean meal are among the biggest issues in the poultry feed industry. Quinoa with a very high nutritional value can be a good alternative. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of processed quinoa seeds on performance, small intestinal morphology, and blood parameters of Ross broiler chickens. The present experiment was performed with 5 treatments, 4 replications, and 15 chickens per pen in a completely randomized design. Hydrothermal, extrusion, and expansion methods were used to process quinoa seeds. Apart from the control treatment, 15% of quinoa seeds were included in the other treatments. The studied traits were recorded. The general linear model procedure in SAS software was used to compare the means of treatments. The effect of processing methods on body weight, feed conversion ratio, total protein, uric acid, and blood cholesterol, villi height, crypt villi depth, and length to depth ratio of cryogenic villi of jejunum were significant (P<0.01). Quinoa processing improved its nutritional properties. In general, extrusion and expansion processing methods were more effective than the hydrothermal method in improving the quality of quinoa.
Chapter
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) has been identified as a unique plant with several benefits that could solve several challenges facing mankind. The application of some recent advances in biotechnological techniques could help toward enhancing the production of important metabolites and nutritional attributes and improve the quality of several products that could be derived from quinoa. It is a source of excellent antioxidant activity along with high values of amino acids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, minerals, phenolic compounds, and saponins. Some of these metabolites possess biotechnological relevance in the production of pharmaceutical, insecticidal, biopesticidal, and nematocidal products. This chapter provides detailed information on the utilization of in vitro tissue culturing for effective production of essential metabolites, while the application of somatic embryogenesis methodology has been identified as significant instrument for effective production of virus-free plants. Furthermore, detailed information on the application of metabolomics together with hyphenated analytical and spectroscopic methodology which included gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry is provided. Relevance of synthetic biology, informatics, computational biology, and bioinformatics together with nanotechnology on how they could improve some bioactive constituents derived from quinoa plants was also highlighted.
Chapter
The Northwestern Himalayan region is a rich storehouse of nutraceuticals enriched potential crops which have been underutilized and neglected by mankind for a long. The pseudocereals “ABC”, namely amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.), and chenopodium (Chenopodium quinoa) are excellent examples of such nutraceutical superfoods which are generally cultivated marginally in limited areas but can perform a significant role in nutritional security. The phytochemical constituents and unique nutritional profile of these pseudocereals have made them popular worldwide nowadays. They also form suitable alternatives as gluten-free products for celiac patients. The high dietary fiber, well-balanced amino acid content, and health beneficial metabolites make them a popular choice for functional food and biofortification. This chapter presents comprehensive information about the bioactive compounds available in these crops which may possess outstanding biological activities and have nutraceutical potential. The role of these pseudocereals as potential nutritional food sources for the masses is also discussed besides highlighting the on-going national and international biotechnological interventions for the genetic improvement of these crops.
Chapter
The worldwide interest in cultivating quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) is mainly due to the plant’s hardiness and its strong nutritional potential. It is one of the main foods of the Andean people before the Incas. The expansion of the crop that was until now considered relatively minor because it was geographically limited to a few Andean countries has raised several issues. The effort to promote the crop is part of a broader FAO (FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (UN) strategy to promote traditional or forgotten crops as a means to combat hunger and promote healthy eating. With experiments and field trials being conducted on every continent, it is well on its way of becoming a major crop for world agriculture and food. In February 2013, FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva said, during the official launch of the International Year of Quinoa at New York UN Headquarters, that this can play an important role in eradicating hunger, malnutrition, and poverty. Many countries not only in South America are increasing production. This chapter addresses the key question of how it serves for increasing access to nutritious food. The issue is not only because of its nutritional value but also because smallholder farmers always currently produce the most part of quinoa internationally consumed. As the world faces the challenge of increasing the production of quality food to feed a growing population under climate changes, it offers a valuable alternative food source if we preserve practices that shape its characteristics. Thinking globally about the sustainable use, biodiversity could facilitate a paradigm shift in agricultural models, taking more account of nutrition as an approach to a broad agricultural development. Linking food nutrition and security to the use of water and energy in agriculture, to aspects of health for farmers and consumers, and to the protection of biodiversity in agroecosystems for adapting farming systems to climate change, that is probably the key for tomorrow’s agriculture where quinoa appears as a model crop.
Chapter
The aim of this chapter is to describe the potential effects of climate changes in Southeast European (SEE) countries, and the implications on agricultural production. Adaptation measures to mitigate these effects could be to introduce new crops tolerant to various stress factors, such as drought, saline soils, and varying temperatures. Quinoa is a plant that has great potential for growing in such unfavorable conditions. In the presented review, we explain the origin, importance, and application of quinoa in agriculture with special emphasis on its nutritional and health significance as well as the mechanisms of resistance to stress factors. The opportunities for quinoa breeding in SEE are presented on the basis of data from Greece, Romania, Serbia, North Macedonia, and Turkey, varying depending on local agroclimatic conditions. The nutritional composition of the quinoa seeds is of very high value also when grown under rain-fed conditions in Serbia. There were good results from adding quinoa to wheat bread. Conclusions are that although the quinoa market in SEE is not as large as in other European countries, it is growing very intensively, and the food industry is developing new quinoa products. Thus, the prospects for future quinoa production in SEE countries are promising.
Chapter
Quinoa is a pseudocereal that has gained more attention in the last decades, due to its outstanding nutritional value. Quinoa has a very good protein quality and content, with a complete amino acid profile; it is also rich in minerals and bioactive compounds. However, quinoa, like other cereals and legumes, has phytate which inhibits the absorption of essential minerals. High content of phytate is usually associated with vegetarian diets and diets of rural areas of developing countries. Such diets may lead to mineral deficiencies. Fermentation of quinoa has been shown to be a very effective method for reducing the phytate content and therefore increasing the bioavailability of essential divalent minerals such as iron, calcium and zinc. Fermentation has also been investigated for its effect on improving the antioxidant capacity and content of phenolic compounds, which are considered health-promoting molecules. In addition, this chapter also presents information on the organoleptic changes that occur during quinoa fermentation, which in some cases were shown to be negative. Successful research has been done on the use of dry toasting, either before or after fermentation, to improve the sensory properties of the fermented quinoa. Fermented quinoa, besides having the attributes of being nutritionally adequate, safe and healthy, should also have good sensory properties, which are indispensable for its broad acceptability.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Pear pomace powder (PPP), xanthan gum (XG), and their combined effect on batter rheology, pasting properties, and the quality parameters of quinoa-based gluten-free cupcakes (GFC) were investigated. The water-retention capacities of flour blends, the batters’ rheological properties, and the flour blends’ pasting properties were analyzed and the quality characteristics of the GFCs were determined. The addition of XG to the formulation led to an increase in peak viscosity, final viscosity, and breakdown viscosity while PPP content caused a decrease. Opposite effects that XG and PPP have on pasting properties help to form a more stable structure. PPP and XG demonstrated escalating impacts on the flour blends’ water-retention capacities, density, and batter viscosity. All batters displayed pseudoplastic behavior, whereas Power-law model was found to be the most suitable model describing the batter's rheological characteristics. Increasing PPP and/or XG amounts led to larger elastic and viscous modulus. The PPP addition decreased the cake volumes and increased the crumb hardness. However, the XG addition to the blends caused the sample volume to increase and the hardness to decrease. The porosity of the samples decreased as the amount of PPP increased in the formulation. However, in the presence of XG, PPP demonstrated increased porosity.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nutritional food quality plays a crucial role in maintaining human health. However, food and drinking water, along with occupational exposure, are the main routes of exposure to toxic elements for humans. The main aim of this study was to determine the content of As, Cd, Pb and Hg in naturally gluten-free grains and products made from buckwheat, millet, maize, quinoa and oat. The safety of consumption of the products tested was also assessed. Methods: The contents of As, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). To measure Hg, an atomic absorption spectrometry method (AAS) with the amalgamation technique was applied. To assess the level of consumption of the tested products, an online survey was conducted. To estimate health risk, three indicators were used: the target hazard quotient (THQ), cancer risk (CR) and hazard index (HI). The research material obtained 242 different samples without replications. Results: The highest average content of As, Cd, Pb and Hg were observed for the following groups of products: oat (10.19 µg/kg), buckwheat (48.35 µg/kg), millet (74.52 µg/kg) and buckwheat (1.37 µg/kg), respectively. For six samples, exceedance of established limits was found-three in the case of Cd and three of Pb. Due to the lack of established limits, As and Hg content of the tested products was not compared. Generally, no increased health risks were identified. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, the consumption of gluten-free cereals and pseudocereals available on the Polish market seems to be safe. However, there is a great need to establish maximum levels of the toxic elements, especially As and Hg in cereal products in European legislation.
Article
This article has been withdrawn: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor and publisher. The publisher regrets that an error occurred which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a stress-bearing crop, able to grow in drought, salt-affected and low soil fertility areas and gaining importance for its nutritional quality. It is an excellent option for crop diversification and environmental protection. Quinoa grains contain saponin, a bitter compound that acts as a natural pesticide and insecticide for the grain. During consumption of quinoa, saponin can be easily removed by washing or soaking. It is mainly valued for its balanced protein content and lysine a limiting amino acid in most of cereals. It has been used as a functional ingredient in various food formulations to enhance the nutritional value of the product. Its gluten-free nature makes it an excellent choice for persons suffering from celiac disease. This article sheds a light on the production, nutritional and processing aspects of quinoa for promoting this as a future crop for food security.
Article
Full-text available
Until recently, many so-called neglected and underutilized species (NUS) were not present in global markets despite playing a pivotal role in the local livelihoods in their places of origin. Today, some NUS receive substantial global interest and face growing global demands. Sudden increases in consumer demand trigger prices to rise; land-use change at the farm and national levels results in a rapid production increase. This phenomenon is known as “boom” and is usually followed by a “bust”, a rapid decrease in prices, and subsequently, production. This review elaborates on the boom-and-bust phases of two NUS: quinoa from the Andes and teff from Ethiopia. We explored the potential upcoming boom of minor millets in India. Our study proposes a generic framework for exploring cross-scale interactions and rethinking sustainability pathways for future NUS booms.
Article
Acrylamide (AA) is a well-known toxic compound formed in various foods during the high thermal process. Cookies, one of the most consumed bakery goods worldwide, represent a category of food at risk of AA in the human diet. Therefore, some strategies for its control in cookies should be employed. The present review summarizes and discusses the mitigation strategies for AA reduction, reported in scientific literature, that could be carried out during the cookie’s formulation and some of their effects on the final product quality. The evaluation of AA formation related to various ingredients could help the food industries and researchers to develop a more effective method to reduce this toxic compound in cookies, as well as in other bakery products.
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a nutrient-rich grain native to South America and eaten worldwide as a healthy food, sometimes even referred to as a ”superfood”. Like quinoa grains, quinoa greens (green leaves, sprouts, and microgreens) are also rich in nutrients and have health promoting properties such as being antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiobesity, and cardio-beneficial. Quinoa greens are gluten-free and provide an excellent source of protein, amino acids, essential minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids. Quinoa greens represent a promising value-added vegetable that could resolve malnutrition problems and contribute to food and nutritional security. The greens can be grown year-round (in the field, high tunnel, and greenhouse) and have short growth durations. In addition, quinoa is salt-, drought-, and cold-tolerant and requires little fertilizer and water to grow. Nevertheless, consumption of quinoa greens as leafy vegetables is uncommon. To date, only a few researchers have investigated the nutritional properties, phytochemical composition, and human health benefits of quinoa greens. We undertook a comprehensive review of the literature on quinoa greens to explore their nutritional and functional significance to human health and to bring awareness to their use in human diets.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of processing on the yiel of oil extraction from quinoa grain, lupine, amaranth and sangorache and profile of fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols from oils. Lupine presented a higher yield (19%) in oil extraction, in relation to sangorache (3,7%), quinoa (3,5 %) and amaranth (3%). The fatty acid profile revealed a low content of saturated and a higher content of unsaturated, especially linoleic acid (C18: 2), with an average of 54 % in quinoa oil and 46 % for sangorache. Oleic acid (C18: 1) predominated in lupine oil (48 %), with a lower content in amaranth oil (31%), sangorache oil (26%) and quinoa oil (24 %). Tocopherols of the form "ɣ" and "α" excelled in amaranth oil, INIAP-Alegría variety in raw state with 1138,95 ppm and lupine oil, INIAP-451 variety with 946,50 ppm, while phytosterols presented in greater proportion in the quinoa oils, lNlAP-Tunkahuan and lNlAP-Pata de Venado varieties with 199,0 mg/100 g oil. The main sterols were campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, and D-5 avenasterol, which appeared in all the oils analyzed. These results suggest that Andean grains are sources of oils to meet specific health needs.
Article
Full-text available
We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition, the functional and antinutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soil and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of the scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. Despite all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used due to the high cost of the imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits by most consumers. More studies are needed to increase knowledge about this "pseudocereal", to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its antinutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.
Article
Full-text available
The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract A prospective and double-blind study was conducted on 35 women with weight excess who consumed 25 grams of quinoa flakes (QF) or corn flakes (CF) daily during a period of four consecutive weeks. At the beginning (T1) and at the end (T2) of the intervention, total calorie intake was evaluated, anthropometric assessment was performed, blood was collected for the determination of glucose, total cholesterol and fractions, oxidative stress markers, vitamin E and enterolignans. Significant reductions were detected in serum triglyceride (CF group = 133.9 ± 89.4 to 113.7 ± 57 mg/dl and QF group = 112.3 ± 35 to 107.9 ± 33.1 mg/dl), TBARS (CF group = 3.2 ± 0.8 to 2.9 ± 0.5 µmol/l and QF group = 3.06 ± 0.6 to 2.89 ± 0.5 µmol/l) and vitamin E concentrations (CF group = 19.5 ± 5 to 17.9 ± 4 µM and QF group = 17.9 ± 4 to 16.9 ± 3 µM) and an increase in urinary excretion of enterolignans (CF group = 2.05 ± 1.3 to 2.24 ± 1.4 nm/ml and QF group = 2.9 ± 1.6 to 3.2 ± 2.7 nm/l), in both study groups. The reduction of total cholesterol (191 ± 35 to 181 ± 28 mg/dl) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c) (129 ± 35 to 121 ± 26 mg/dl), and the increase in GSH (1.78 ± 0.4 to 1.91 ± 0.4 µmol/l) occurred only in the QF group, showing a possible beneficial effect of QF intake.
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathological processes of ischemic brain damage. Many antioxidants have been shown to protect against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. 20-Hydroxyecdysone (20E), an ecdysteroid hormone, exhibits antioxidative effects. For the work described in this paper, we used an in vitro oxidative damage model and an in vivo ischemic model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to investigate the neuroprotective effects of 20E and the mechanisms related to these effects. Treatment of cells with H(2)O(2) led to neuronal injury, intracellular ROS/RNS generation, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cellular antioxidant potential descent, an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and an elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)], all of which were markedly attenuated by 20E. Inhibition of the activation of the ASK1-MKK4/7-JNK stress signaling pathway and cleaved caspase-3 induced by oxidative stress were involved in the neuroprotection afforded by 20E. In addition, 20E reduced the expression of iNOS protein by inhibition of NF-κB activation. The neuroprotective effect of 20E was also confirmed in vivo. 20E significantly decreased infarct volume and the neurological deficit score, restored antioxidant potential and inhibited the increase in MDA and TUNEL-positive and cleaved caspase-3-positive cells in the cerebral cortex in MCAO rats. Together, these results support that 20E protects against cerebral ischemia injury by inhibiting ROS/RNS production and modulating oxidative stress-induced signal transduction pathways.
Article
Full-text available
The prevalence of celiac disease (CD), an autoimmune enteropathy, characterized by chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, atrophy of intestinal villi and several clinical manifestations has increased in recent years. Subjects affected by CD cannot tolerate gluten protein, a mixture of storage proteins contained in several cereals (wheat, rye, barley and derivatives). Gluten free-diet remains the cornerstone treatment for celiac patients. Therefore the absence of gluten in natural and processed foods represents a key aspect of food safety of the gluten-free diet. A promising area is the use of minor or pseudo-cereals such as amaranth, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff. The paper is focused on the new definition of gluten-free products in food label, the nutritional properties of the gluten-free cereals and their use to prevent nutritional deficiencies of celiac subjects.
Article
Full-text available
Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. The current treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins, that has been recommended as part of a gluten-free diet; however, few experimental data support this recommendation. We aimed to determine the amount of celiac-toxic prolamin epitopes in quinoa cultivars from different regions of the Andes and the ability of these epitopes to activate immune responses in patients with celiac disease. The concentration of celiac-toxic epitopes was measured by using murine monoclonal antibodies against gliadin and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Immune response was assessed by proliferation assays of celiac small intestinal T cells/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and production of IFN-γ/IL-15 after organ culture of celiac duodenal biopsy samples. Fifteen quinoa cultivars were tested: 4 cultivars had quantifiable concentrations of celiac-toxic epitopes, but they were below the maximum permitted for a gluten-free food. Cultivars Ayacuchana and Pasankalla stimulated T cell lines at levels similar to those for gliadin and caused secretion of cytokines from cultured biopsy samples at levels comparable with those for gliadin. Most quinoa cultivars do not possess quantifiable amounts of celiac-toxic epitopes. However, 2 cultivars had celiac-toxic epitopes that could activate the adaptive and innate immune responses in some patients with celiac disease. These findings require further investigation in the form of in vivo studies, because quinoa is an important source of nutrients for patients with celiac disease.
Article
Full-text available
Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Medical College, The Jagiellonian University, Medyczna 9, 30-688, Kraków, Poland. # The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2998641/ Abstract The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, p<0.01] and activity of alkaline phosphatase [20%, p<0.05], and increased triglycerides level [86%, p<0.01]. The analysis of blood of rats fed quinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, p<0.05], LDL [57%, p<0.008] and triglycerides [11%, p<0.05] when compared to the control group. Quinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, p<0.01] and plasma total protein level [16%, p<0.001]. Fructose significantly decreased HDL [15%, p<0.05] level in control group but when the quinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level. PMID: 21104320 [PubMed - in process]PMCID: PMC2998641Free PMC Article
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE To investigate the underlying mechanisms of ecdysterone (Ecdy) antidiabetic action in the diet-induced obesity animal model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with or without Ecdy at a low (Ecdy L) or high (Ecdy H) dose (25 or 50 mg/kg body wt) for 12 weeks. The effects of Ecdy on food intake, energy expenditure, glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, muscle lipid profile, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) complexes were evaluated. RESULTS At the end of the study, there were no differences in body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure between HFD groups with or without a diet supplemented with Ecdy L, except body weight was significantly lower in the Ecdy H group than in the HFD group (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, and values of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in the Ecdy H group were significantly lower than in the HFD group (P < 0.01). Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 and Akt1 in muscle was significantly increased in the Ecdy H group (P < 0.001) relative to the HFD group (P < 0.01). Moreover, muscle fatty acylcarnitine profile showed the HFD significantly increased muscle lipid contents compared with a low-fat diet (P < 0.01) but reduced OxPhos complex abundance. Ecdy reversed the effects of HFD-induced lipid accumulation by significantly increasing the abundance of mitochondrial OxPhos complex protein in muscle. CONCLUSIONS We observed that Ecdy improved glucose metabolism and enhanced muscle insulin signaling by altering the acylcarnitine profile and increasing mitochondrial OxPhos complexes in HFD-fed mice. Our study suggests that these effects of Ecdy are dose-dependent.
Article
Full-text available
Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition.
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress plays an important role as a mediator of damage produced by fructose metabolism. This work was designed to investigate the effect of diet supplemented with quinoa seeds on oxidative stress in plasma, heart, kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testis and pancreas of fructose administered rats. Fructose administration (310 g/kg fodder for 5 weeks) caused oxidative stress that was manifested by the increase in plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.05), and by the non-significant changes in the enzymatic antioxidant potential in plasma and most of tissues. Co-administration of quinoa seeds (310 g/kg fodder) maintained normal activities of some enzymes. It also influenced the oxidative stress as was evidenced by decreasing MDA in plasma, and decreasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (erythrocyte superoxide dismutase - eSOD, catalase -CAT, plasma glutathione peroxidase - pGPX). These findings demonstrate that quinoa seeds can act as a moderate protective agent against potential of fructose-induced changes in rats by reducing lipid peroxidation and by enhancing the antioxidant capacity of blood (plasma) and heart, kidney, testis, lung and pancreas.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Methoxyisoflavone (M), 20-hydroxyecdysone (E), and sulfo-polysaccharide (CSP3) have been marketed to athletes as dietary supplements that can increase strength and muscle mass during resistance-training. However, little is known about their potential ergogenic value. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these supplements affect training adaptations and/or markers of muscle anabolism/catabolism in resistance-trained athletes. Methods Forty-five resistance-trained males (20.5 ± 3 yrs; 179 ± 7 cm, 84 ± 16 kg, 17.3 ± 9% body fat) were matched according to FFM and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner supplements containing either a placebo (P); 800 mg/day of M; 200 mg of E; or, 1,000 mg/day of CSP3 for 8-weeks during training. At 0, 4, and 8-weeks, subjects donated fasting blood samples and completed comprehensive muscular strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and body composition analysis. Data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA. Results No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in training adaptations among groups in the variables FFM, percent body fat, bench press 1 RM, leg press 1 RM or sprint peak power. Anabolic/catabolic analysis revealed no significant differences among groups in active testosterone (AT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol, the AT to cortisol ratio, urea nitrogen, creatinine, the blood urea nitrogen to creatinine ratio. In addition, no significant differences were seen from pre to post supplementation and/or training in AT, FT, or cortisol. Conclusion Results indicate that M, E, and CSP3 supplementation do not affect body composition or training adaptations nor do they influence the anabolic/catabolic hormone status or general markers of catabolism in resistance-trained males.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition
Article
BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content).RESULTSPE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg/g to 570 ± 124 µg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg/g to 804 ±#x2009;91 µg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation).CONCLUSIONFG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food.
Article
Objective: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a seed crop rich in bioactive compounds including phytoecdysones (especially 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20HE), polyphenols, proteins and essential fatty acids. We previously reported a method to leach and concentrate quinoa bioactives into a complex phytochemical mixture termed quinoa leachate (QL). Here, we aimed to determine the effect of QL and its chemically distinct fractions on five biochemical endpoints relevant to skin care applications: (i) cell viability, (ii) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mRNA expression, (iii) MMP enzymatic activity, (iv) tyrosinase enzymatic activity and (v) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Methods: Quinoa leachate was fractionated and chemically characterized using column chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cell viability was determined using a MTT assay in four mammalian cell lines. MMP-1 mRNA expression was assessed in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) via qRT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of MMP-9 and tyrosinase was measured using fluorometric and colorimetric in vitro assays, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS production was determined in human dermal fibroblasts by fluorescence intensity of an oxidant-sensitive probe. Results: Quinoa leachate was separated into three fractions: (i) carbohydrate-rich fraction (QL-C; 71.3% w/w of QL); (ii) phytoecdysone, polyphenol and protein-rich fraction (QL-P, 13.3% w/w of QL); (iii) oil-rich fraction (QL-O, 10.8% w/w of QL). QL did not reduce cell viability in any of the four cell lines tested. QL, QL-P and QL-O each significantly inhibited MMP-1 mRNA expression in HDF at a concentration of 5 μg mL(-1) . QL and QL-P also significantly inhibited MMP-9 enzymatic activity, whereas QL-P demonstrated significant tyrosinase enzymatic inhibition. Furthermore, QL, QL-P, QL-O and 20HE significantly inhibited intracellular ROS production. Conclusion: This study is the first to demonstrate the MMP, tyrosinase and ROS inhibiting properties of multiple different phytochemical components derived from quinoa seeds. Our work indicates that quinoa phytochemicals may play a role in the treatment and prevention of skin ageing through a multiplicity of effects.
Article
Unlabelled: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Practical application: Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines.
Article
In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E-for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilisation as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduce dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.
Article
Objectives: Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley. Treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes that has been recommended as part of a GFD. However, in-vitro data suggested that quinoa prolamins can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in celiac patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the in-vivo effects of eating quinoa in adult celiac patients. Methods: Nineteen treated celiac patients consumed 50 g of quinoa every day for 6 weeks as part of their usual GFD. We evaluated diet, serology, and gastrointestinal parameters. Furthermore, we carried out detail histological assessment of 10 patients before and after eating quinoa. Results: Gastrointestinal parameters were normal. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth improved from slightly below normal values (2.8:1) to normal levels (3:1), surface-enterocyte cell height improved from 28.76 to 29.77 μm and the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes per 100 enterocytes decreased from 30.3 to 29.7. Median values for all the blood tests remained within normal ranges, although total cholesterol (n=19) decreased from 4.6 to 4.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein decreased from 2.46 to 2.45 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein decreased from 1.8 to 1.68 mmol/l and triglycerides decreased from 0.80 to 0.79 mmol/l. Conclusions: Addition of quinoa to the GFD of celiac patients was well tolerated and did not exacerbate the condition. There was a positive trend toward improved histological and serological parameters, particularly a mild hypocholesterolemic effect. Overall, this is the first clinical data suggesting that daily 50 g of quinoa for 6 weeks can be safely tolerated by celiac patients. However, further studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of quinoa consumption.
Article
Patients suffering from coeliac disease have to avoid traditional cereals-based products and depend on the availability of gluten-free alternatives. The gluten-free bread matrix and its foam stability are strongly affected by the choice of ingredients. In this study, the impact of quinoa white flour on bread quality parameters, in particular volume, has been investigated. The pseudocereal proved to be a suitable substrate for dough aeration using yeast, since considerably more glucose and a higher activity of α-glucosidase were found in comparison to rice and corn flour. Consequently, quinoa white flour was used to replace 40 to 100 % of the rice and corn flour in a gluten-free control recipe. As a result, quinoa white flour enhanced the specific volume by 33 %, which was related to the absence of bran components and the increased α-glucosidase activity. The significance of the latter was proven by separately adding sucrose and fungal amyloglucosidase to the control recipe. Moreover, the crumb featured homogeneous and finely distributed gas bubbles and the taste was not compromised. Thus, it was possible to improve the quality of gluten-free bread by using quinoa white flour, which might be a relief for coeliac patients.
Article
The contents of bioactive compounds of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are poorly known. We analyzed two isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) by HPLC in three local ecotypes of quinoa seeds from three different geographical and genetic regions in Chile: (a) Extreme North, with prevailing conditions of high temperature and dryness (local ecotype R49); (b) Center, with milder climate (local ecotype UdeC9); and (c) South, with cold, humid environment (local ecotype BO78). Genetic-driven differences among cultivars were tested by homogenizing the culture conditions of the three seed sources. In addition, seven commercial samples of quinoa purchased at local food markets were analyzed and compared to our experimental harvested seeds. In all samples daidzein content was higher than genistein (P < 0.05). The northern ecotype R49 exhibited higher content of isoflavones compared with the other two (UdeC9 and BO78), all grown under the same experimental conditions. Daidzein ranged from 1.15 (R49) to 0.70 (BO78) mg/100 g, while genistein varied from 0.25 (R49) to 0.05 (UdeC9) mg/100 g. Ecotype R49 had 1.6 and 1.7 fold higher daidzein contents than UdeC9 and BO78, respectively (P < 0.05). In the commercial samples, the daidzein/genistein ratio ranged from 25.2 to 3.9, daidzein ranged from 2.05 to 0.78 mg/100 g, and genistein ranged from 0.41 to 0.04 mg/100 g. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the contents of daidzein and genistein in quinoa seeds. The study demonstrates that, besides its well-recognized nutritional value, quinoa possesses an excellent potential as a source of these health-promoting bioactive compounds.
Article
Summary Polyphenols, phenolic acids, fibres and antioxidant capacity were determined in water, acetone and methanol extracts of buckwheat, rice, soybean, quinoa and 3 amaranth cultivars. Their antioxidant activities were comparatively assessed by total radical-trapping antioxidative potential (TRAP), ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and nitric oxide (NO•) assays, which comprised of contributions from polyphenols and phenolic acids (especially from the most abundant ferulic acid). The correlation coefficients between polyphenols and antioxidant activities of cereal and pseudocereal methanol extracts with FRAP, NO•, CUPRAC and TRAP were 0.99, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.77, respectively. The weakest correlation was with dietary fibres, an average one exhibited with tannins and marked correlation was shown with the phenolics. All the applied methods have shown that pseudocereals have higher antioxidant activity than some cereals (rice and buckwheat) and can be successfully replaced by cereals in case of allergy.
Article
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoaWilld.) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicauleAellen) are native food plants of high nutritional value grown in the Andean region and used as food by the Incas and previous cultures. Quinoa and kañiwa served as a substitute for scarce animal proteins and are still one of the principal protein sources of the region. The importance of these proteins is based on their quality, with a balanced composition of essential amino acids similar to the composition of casein, the protein of milk. According to studies at the Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (UNALM), quinoa and kañiwa have a very high chemical score, and one cultivar of quinoa, Amarilla de Marangani, does not have any limiting amino acid.It is also important to recognize and utilize the relatively high quantity of oil in quinoa and kañiwa. These grains can be a potential raw material for oil extraction. The highest percentage of fatty acids present in these oils is Omega 6 (linoleic acid), being 50.2% for quinoa and 42.6% for kañiwa. The fatty acid composition is similar to corn germ oil. The concentrations of γ- and α-tocoferol were for quinoa 797.2 and 721.4 ppm, and for kañiwa 788.4 and 726 ppm, respectively.Quinoa and kañiwa can been utilized in weaning food mixtures. Two dietary mixtures have been formulated: quinoa-kañiwa-beans and quinoa-kiwicha-beans, with high nutritional value. The mixtures had PER values close to that of casein: 2.36 and 2.59, respectively (casein 2.5). Also, elderly people and those with a need to lose weight can benefit from consumption of quinoa and kañiwa. The high content of dietary fiber has many positive health effects, for example, it can reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood and improve digestion. For this reason, consumers in developed countries may also have an interest in including quinoa into their diet.
Article
Besides their well-known effect in the molting control in insects, ecdysteroids are steroid hormones that display potential pharmacologic and metabolic properties in mammals. The most common ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is found in many plants such as quinoa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of quinoa extract (Q) enriched in 20E supplementation to prevent the onset of diet-induced obesity and to regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes in mice. Mice were fed a standard low-fat (LF) or a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by 20E-enriched Q or pure 20E for 3 weeks. Supplementation with Q reduced adipose tissue development in HF mice without modification of their body weight gain. This adipose tissue-specific effect was mainly associated with a reduced adipocyte size and a decrease in the expression of several genes involved in lipid storage, including lipoprotein lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Furthermore, Q-treated mice exhibited marked attenuation of mRNA levels of several inflammation markers (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, CD68) and insulin resistance (osteopontin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) as compared to HF mice. Q supplementation also reversed the effects of HF-induced downregulation of the uncoupling protein(s) (UCP(s)) mRNA levels in muscle. Similar results were obtained in mice fed a HF diet supplemented with similar amounts of pure 20E, suggesting that the latter accounted for most of the Q effects. Our study indicates that Q has an antiobesity activity in vivo and could be used as a nutritional supplement for the prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders.
Article
The healthy lifestyle and appropriate nutrition are stressed nowadays. New foodstuffs are still investigated with the aim to improve the diet and conduce to a better health state of the population. Pseudocereals (amaranth, buckwheat, and quinoa) are convenient for this purpose. Their high nutritious and dietary quality meets the demands of the food industry and consumers. Our collective dealt with quinoa, a commodity of Andean, because quinoa is a good source of essential amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Quinoa contains relatively high quantities of vitamins (thiamin, vitamin C) and minerals.